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Pacaviati-shasrik & Hdaya Prajpramit

Pacaviati-Shasrik Passages
Corresponding to the Hdaya
Prajpramit
M B Orsborn (Shi Huifeng)
2007-11-04

Introduction
This file is a compilation of the main Hdaya stra versions in Sanskrit and Chinese,
along with the equivalent passages from the Pacaviati-shasrik. It is somewhat
inspired by Nattiers article, though the author would like to pursue this issue further
before concluding on whether the Hdaya is in fact apocryphal or not. Hence this
compilation.
Nattier, J (1992): The Heart Stra: A Chinese Apocryphal Text?, pp. 153-223, in The
Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies, Vol. 15, No. 1, IABS.
Nattier (1992) concludes that this is in fact not a Kumrajva translation, and that the
Hdaya in general is a Chinese creation, the gist of the assumptions for her argument
being, that in order to explain the traditional understanding of the Heart Stra
(Nattier 1992: 167):
we would have to concoct a hypothesis that goes something like this:
Sometime after the completion of Kumrajvas translation of the Large Stra
into Chinese, the Heart Stra was translated into Chinese by Xuanzang. At this
point a Chinese editor noticed a certain similarity between the core of the Heart
Stra and a passage in the Large Stra. In order to make the two texts match, he
altered one of the two (either the Chinese Large Stra of Kumrajva or the Heart
Stra attributed to Xuanzang) to bring it into conformity with the other. No
similar emendation was made, however, in the text of the earlier translations of the
Large Stra.
Such a hypothesis is, however, intolerably convoluted
Although her philological study is quite thorough, I feel she has perhaps made a
mistake in her selection of materials which she parallels between the Kumrajvas

Pacaviati-shasrik & Hdaya Prajpramit

Large Sutra T223 and Xuanzangs Heart Stra T251


, where it appears that she has taken the Japanese Taish version to make her
crucial comparison (Nattier 1992: 159, 164ff).

The portion of T223 in question, states:

13 [1][2]
(CBETA, T08, no. 223, p. 223, a13)
[1]

[2]

The passage , as we can see from the notes [1] and [2], differs
from the earlier versions of the canon, and would give us ,
which in fact matches Kumrajvas own Heart Stra, and differs from Xuanzangs.
This is quite the opposite to Nattiers statement, and subsequent line of argument. In
other words, as a simple glance at the Taish T223 will show us, this hypothesis which
Nattier rejects to expound her own theory, is in fact the case the Chinese Large Stra
of Kumrajva was altered against the , , and canons. The
canon is very old, and no stemma of the canons is even mentioned. Not only
did was the convoluted hypothesis the case, it seems that such editing was not
made by a Chinese editor, but by the Japanese editors of the Taish canon.
Furthermore, because she sees a parallel which is not necessarily there, her back
translations into Sanskrit, subsequent conclusions, and also comments vis--vis the
Dazhidu Lun (Nattier 1992: 186ff), are also put into doubt. Detailed
analysis would be needed to determine whether or not the rest of her argument and
conclusions, and thus conclusion that the Heart Stra is a Chinese apocryphal work,
are still valid.

Pacaviati-shasrik & Hdaya Prajpramit

Sanskrit- Kumrajva- Xuanzang Editions


Taken from: Conze, E: Thirty Years of Buddhist Studies, (Munshiram Manoharlal, first
published 1967, 2000 edition, ISBN 81-215-0960-2), pp. 148~154.
Reprint of:

Conze, E: The Prajpramit-hdaya Stra published in Journal of the


Royal Asiatic Society, (1948, pp. 33-51).

CBETA:

(T08, no. 250)


1
(T08, no. 251)

Subdivision I
O namo Bhagavatyai rya-prajpramityai!

(Eva may rutam ekasmin samaye.


Bhagavn Rjaghe viharati sma
Gdhraka-parvate,
mahat
bhiku-saghena
srda
mahat
ca
tena
khalu
puna b)
samayena
Bhagavn c)
bodhisattva-saghena. a)
gambhra-avabhsa nma dharmaparyya bhitvc) samdhi sampanna.
tena d) ca e) samayenad) rya-avalokitevaro bodhisattva mahsattvo gambhry
prajpramity f) cary carama g) eva vyavalokayati sma: h) paca-skandhs
t ca svabhva-nyn vyavalokayatih).
atha i)-yumc Chriputro
buddha-anubhvena rya-avalokitevarak) bodhisattva mahsattvaml) etad
avocat: m) ya kacit klaputro v kuladuhit vm) asy n) gambhry

So Nbceim Ce Ti. Cd: r-rya-. Nh: rya-r-. Na omits Bhagavatyai. Nd: bhagavate
rya-r-. Ja: O nama sarva-jya.
a) Cae: gaena.
b) so Nabcedim Cad.
c) c) so Nab Cade.
Nc: gambhry prajpramitym avabhsa nma dharmaparyya. Ne:
gambhry pravara-bhan-nma @ @.
Jb: gambhrvasabodha nma.
Nm:
gambhrvabhan nma. Ni: gambhrabhva nma samdhi sampanna. Ti. om:
bhsitv.
d)-d) tasmin samaye Ndeim.
e) so Jb Ce.
Nabc: khalu puna. Cd : puna.
f) Cade: gambhrvabhsa nma dharmaparyya.
Ce om. gambh- to evam, i.e. vyavalokayati
follows on dharmaparyyam.
g) Nabcdeim om.
h) h) so Jb.
om. Nm Cade. Nabi: paca-skandhn svabhva-nyn vyavalokayati sma. Nc:
paca-skandh svabhva-sny vyvalokitavy.
i) Cade: atha khalv.
k) Avalok-. Ce.
l) om. Jb; Na?
m) - m) Nce?: ye kecit kulaputr v kuladuhit v.
n) so Nabc Cade.
1

Pacaviati-shasrik & Hdaya Prajpramit

prajpramity caryo) cartukmas tena p) katha ikitavyam? q) r)evam ukta


rya-avalokitevarok) bodhisattva mahsattvo yumanta Sriputram etad avocatr):
ya kacic Chriputra s) kulaputro v kuladuhit v asy t) gambhry
prajpramity cary u)w) cartukmas tenaivaw) vyavalokitavyam v).)
The short text condenses this into:

Subdivision II
3
4
rya-avalokitevaro
bodhisattvo
gambhr
praj-pramitcary
5
caramo 6vyavalokayati sma : 7paca-skandhs 8t ca svabhva-nyn payati
sma.
2

Subdivision III
iha riputra 10rpa nyat nyataiva rpa 11rpn na pthak nyat
12nyaty na pthag rpa 13yad rpa s nyat 14y nyat tad rpa.
15evam
9

-ty cartu- Cad.


so Nabc Cade. Nde: cartukmena.
q) Ndei: vyavalokitavyam.
r) r) : Ndei: Avalokitevara ha:
s) Ne om.
Ni om: kacic Chriputa.
t) So Nbc Cade.
om. Ni.
u) om. Ne Cade.
w) - w) Ni:
cartukmena.
Nm : iha-ryvalokitevara kulaputrena v ... gambhry
prajpramity cartikmena tenaiva vyavalokitavyamv). Ni : iha ... cartukmena katha vy-,
see q).
v) Dade: ikitavya yaduta.
Nd repeats after vyavalokitavyam: evam ukta, to: vyavalokitavyam.
2 atha-rya- Cg.
6 Cb: vyavalokayate.
7-8 om.
N e.
Nbc: paca-skandhn svabhva-nyn vyavalokitavyam.
Nk (begins):
di
vyavalokitavyam. 7 9: om. N .
8 Jb Ti: samanupayati.
Cg: sma iti.
Cae: svabhva-ny.
katha paca-skandh
svabhva-ny?
9 iha om. Nk ChT.
om. Nbcek Cae Jb Ti.
10 om. ChT1,2,5,6,7.
rpa snya Nbcekim Cb. rpam eva Ce.
11-12 na rpa pthak nyaty npi nyat pthag rpt Cae.
na rpt pthak Nk.
13-14 om. Nbcdekim Ce Ti.
15-16 om. Nb.
15) evam Nim Ce.
o)

p)

Pacaviati-shasrik & Hdaya Prajpramit

eva 16vedan-saj-saskra-vijnam.

Subdivision IV
riputra 18sarva-dharm
avimal 21ann aparipr.
17

nyatlaka

anutpann

19

aniruddh

20

amal

Subdivision V
tasmc Chriputra 23nyaty 24na rpa na vedan na saj na saskr na
25na
26na
vijnam,
caku-rota-ghra-jihv-kya-mansi
27na
28yvan
rpa-abda-gandha-rasaspraavya-dharm
cakur-dhtur
22

Ncikm: vijnni nyni. Ti: rnam-par es-rnams sto-pao. Nde: vijnni nyat.
Ce:vijnni. Jb: vijna ca snyat.
11-16 Instead, Nb has: na rpt pthak nyat na snyaty pthag rpa.
vedan ny nyataiva
vedan. na vedany pthak etc., in extenso for all the five skandhas. After 16: ChT 1, 2, 5, 6 add
. ChT 1 further adds the equivalent of P 39: riputra y rpasya nyat na s rpayati,
y vedany nyat na s vedayati; etc.
17 for iha Nabcdikm Cae Jb have: eva.
om. Cht. Nab: eva bhadanta. Ti: -rii-bu de-lta bas-na (j=
riputra tasmt tarhi).
18 Nabk: svbhva-ny alaka.
Nde: ny svalaka. Cade: svabhva-nyatlaka.
Ti: sto-p id de, mtshan-id med-pa (=nyat-alaka).
19 Cade add: ajt.
after aniruddh Ne adds: acyut acal. Nim: acal avimal acyut.
21 Ja: non?
c
- C : non. Jb:anon. Ne adds: anyony. Nb: anyat. Nm: anyon. Ja: na
parinr? Bab?dikm Cade Jb: asapur ; Ti : ga-ba med-pao. Ne Ccg: na sapr. After
21. ChT 1 adds, as P40: (y nyat) ntt nngat na pratyutpann, etc.
22 Nabdeikm Cade Ti: tasmt tarhi.
Nc: eva bhadanta. Ccg: om. riputra.
23 Nc: unyym.
25-26 Nabceikm Cae Jb: na cakur na rotra, etc. To: na dharma.
27-29 Ca gives a list of all the dhtus.
Nab: na caksurdhtu na rpadhtu na cakurvijnadhtu; na
rotavijnadhtu, etc. all to: na manovijnadhtu. Ce, Ti: na cakurdhtu na manodhtu na
manovijnadhtu yvan.
28 eva yvan na.
16

Pacaviati-shasrik & Hdaya Prajpramit

na 29manovijna-dhtu 30na-avidy 31na-avidy-kayo 32yvan na 33jarmaraa na


jarmaraakayo 34na dukha- samudaya-nirodha-mrg 35na jna 36na prptir
na-aprpti.

Subdivision VI
tasmc Chriputra 38aprptitvd bodhisattvo 39prajpramitm ritya
41cittvaraa-nstitvd
acittvaraa.
43viparysa-atikrnto.
44nih-nirva.
37

viharaty
42atrasto

40

Nim: dharmadhtu yvan na.


na vidy, add in Ja Cc. Nabbceikm Ceg ChT1,2,5,6 Ti: om. na vidy. Nabeikm om. na-avidy.
31 na vidykayo add in Ja.
Nabcek Caceg Jb ChT1,2,5,6 Ti: om. Na vidykayo. Cae Jb give for
nvidykayo: na kayo, Cc na-akayo.
33 Ncikm om. na jarmaraa.
30-33 Nab: na-avidykayo na saskrakayo, etc. all to: na jar-maraakayo.
34 Nbceikm Ce: na duka() na samudaya, etc. After 34: Nabck? add: na-amrga.
Nabck? Cad add: na
rpa.
35 Nk adds: na-ajna.
36 So Nbek Cade Jb ChT 8, Ti.
Ja: na prptitva. Ncdim ChT1,2,5,6: na prpti. ChT 9: na prptitva ca
b
na-aprpti. C na prptir na-abhisamaya.
37 tasmt tarhi riputra: Nabcdeikm Cade Ti.
riputra also in ChT8,9. Ja Cc ChT1,2,5,6 omit 37.
38 Nab?c?d?eim Cg Ti: aprptitvt.
b
J : aprptitvena. Cb: aprptitva. Ja om. aprptitvt. Cd:
e
aprptit-prptiryvavat. C : na prptirna-aprptir yvat; this is Feers correction for what I read as:
aprptitprptir-yvat. bodhisattvasya Ja. Cb Jb: bodhisattvnm. Nbcea?: bodhisattv
mahsattv. Nk: bodhisattvo mahsattva. Nm: bodhisattva. Cc: bodhisattva. Cg Ni:
bodhisattv. Ti: bya-chub sems-dpa rnams. Ce om. bodhisattvo.
39-47 Cg: niritya.
40 Ja: viharati cittavaraa.
cittvaraa. Kokios first copy: vaharaty citvavaraa, which he corrects to
viharani citnavaraa. Jb: viharati cittavaraa. cittav- . Cc: viharya cita / avara cita / a
(vara-n) stitva. Cg: viharatya ciyvaraa. Nb: viharanti. Suzuki: viharato. Cae:
vihara.
Nm: viharati / nacittravana-mtratvd anuttary samyaksambodhau
parystikrnttnih. Ni: -y ... ? Msntikrnmo ... acittvaraa om. Nabcde Cae
Ti.
41 Cade: cittlambana.
Nabcd?ek: cittrabaa-mtratvt. Ti: sems-la sgrib-pa med ci.
42 Nabcek?: anuttrast.
44 Ja: tiha?
Nabcdikm Cae: nih. Ne om. nih. Cae: nirva prpnoti. Nabcdeim Ti: nirva
prpt. Nk: nirva? prpta.
29
30

Pacaviati-shasrik & Hdaya Prajpramit

Subdivision VII
tryadhva-vyavasthit 46sarva-buddh
samyaksambodhim 49abhisambuddh.
45

47

praj-pramitm ritya-

anuttar

48

Subdivision VIII
tasmj
jtavya
51prajpramit 52mah-mantro 53mah-vidy-mantro 54nuttara-mantro 55samasamamantra 56sarva-dukha-praamana 57satyam amithyatvt. 58prajpramitym
ukto mantra. 59tadyath 60o gate gate pragate prasagate bodhi svh.
50


1
mantra[4]
[5] [6][] [][] [7]

Cae: tryadhva-vyavasthitair api samyaksambuddhair bodhi prpt.


Nabcekm: ...
sarva-buddhair api ... samyaksambuddh.
50 Nac: tasmt tarhi Sriputra, etc. Ne : tasmt tarhi kulputra, etc.
Vae: etasmj, etc. Ndim Ti: tasmt
tarhi jtavyam.
52 om.
ChT1. ChT2,5,6,7 . Ncdei Ce Ti om. Mah.
53 Na: sah?
Cae: vidy-mantro (a). Ne: mah-mantra. After
54 Na adds: asam-mantra.
om. Nm.
52 yukto-mantra Nm.
54 Cg om.
55 Ne: asam-mantra.
om. Ni.
56 Na?cdeikm Cage Jb Ti: sarva-duka-praamano mantra.
57 Cae: samyaktva na mithyatva.
Nc: samyaktva amithytv.
58 -tyukto Ni Cae.
e
N : -tyyukto. Nc: -tpujyukta? om Nm.
mantra [4] Gate gate pragate prasagate bodhi Svh.[5][6]
[5-1][6-1]
[5-2][7]

45-49

Pacaviati-shasrik & Hdaya Prajpramit

(Subdivision IX)
(Eva riputra a) gambhry prajpramity caryy ikitavya
bodhisattvenaa)b).
Atha khalu Bhagavn c) tasmt d) samdher vyutthyarya-avalokitevarya da) bodhisattvya mahsattvya e) sdhukram adt. sdhu
sdhu kulaputra, evam etat kulaputra f) evam etadg) gambhry prajpramity
cary cartavyag) yath tvay nirdiam h) anumodhyate sarva-i) Tathgatair
arhadbhi k).
idam avocad Bhagavn. ttaman l)r)-yumc Chriputra m) rya-avalokitevaro
bodhisattvo n) mahsattvasr) te ca bhikavas te ca bodhisattv mahsattvn) s na) ca
sarvvat parat sa-deva-mnua-asura- garua o)-gandharva ca loko Bhagavato
bhitam abhianandann iti.)
ity rya- p)q) prajpramit-hdayaq) samptam.

61

Cae Ti: bodhisattvena mahsattvena prajpramity ikitavya. Nei om. caryym.


Ncei add: Mahsattvena.
c) Cae add: (t)asy velym.
d) Ndei om. tasmt.
Ce: tasys.
da) Avalok- Ce.
e) Jb: -asya -asya -asya.
N?: -ena.
f) om. Nceim.
g)-g) so Jb.
Cae: evam evai prajpramit. om. Nim. Nim omits also: cary cartavya yath
tvay.
h) Nddm add: tad.
i) Jb om.
k) Nc adds: samyaksambuddhai.
Ndeim have iti for arhadbhi. Ti om. arhadbhi.
l) Jb: nandaman.
r)-r) Nc om.
m) Cae om. yumc chriputra.
n)-n) Jb om.
na) sa Ce.
o) Nm Jb Ce Ti om.
p) so Na.
q)-q) Nc: prajpramit-hdaya-dhra pacaviatik nma dhra.
Nd: r-prajpramit-hdaya.
Ne: paca-viatik-prajpramit-hdaya-nma-dhra.
Nf: paca-viatik prajpramit-hdaya.
Nh: r-pacavisatik prajpramit-hdaya.
Ni: pacaviati-prajpramit.
Nm: pacaviatik prajpramit nma dhra.
Cae: pacaviatik Bhagavat prajpramit-hdayam.
Ti: Bhagavat prajpramit-hdaya.
a)-a)
b)

Pacaviati-shasrik & Hdaya Prajpramit

Sources:1
Nepalese Manuscripts = N.
Na:
Nb:
Nc:
Nd:
Ne:
Nf:
Ng:
Nh:
Ni:
Nk:
Nl:
Nm:

LT. India Office no. 7712 (1). Eighteenth century?


LT. Cambridge Add 1485. f. 16-18. A.D. 1677.
LT. MS Bodl. 1449 (59) fol. 74v-75v. A.D. 1819.
LT. RAS, no. 79 V. f. 15-16b. c. 1820.
LT. Cambridge Add. 1553. f. 4-7b. Eighteenth century.
Calcutta As. Soc. Bengal B 5 (35).
Calcutta ASB B 65 (10).
fragment, only first 6 lines: Cambridge Add 1164 2 II.
LT. Socit Asiatique no. 14, fol. 18b, -19b. No. 21.
LT. Cambridge Add 1680 ix. Begins at no. 8. ca 1200.
Cambr. Add. 1164.2.
Bibliothque Nationale 62, no. 139. ca 1800.

Chinese = C.
Ca: From a Chinese blockprint, in MM pp. 30-32. Seventeenth century.
Cb: T 256, transcribed into Chinese characters. Stein Collection no. S 2464.
600? Ed. T. Matsumoto, Die Prajpramit Literatur, 1932, pp. 44-50.
Cc :

ST. ca

ST. From stone in Mongolia. Before 1,000. ed. Journal of Urusvati, 1932, pp.
73-8.
Cd: LT. Bell in Peking, now Dairen. Incomplete. Ibid. p. 78.
Ce: Feers polyglot edition. Seventeenth century?
Cf: Stein Collection Ch 00330. ca 850.
Cg: Bibliothque Nationale 62 no. 139. Pelliot Sogdien. ca 950 ? In : E. Benveniste,
Textes Sogdiens, 1949, pp. 142-3.

Japanese = J
Ja: MS in Horyji Temple. ST. A.D. 609.
Jb: MS brought in ninth century by Yeun, disciple of Kukai.

Chinese Translation = ChT.


ST:

ChT1:

Kumrajva ca 400.

ChT2:

Yan-tsang, 649.

For further details see JRAS 1948, pp. 48-50 and PPL 71-73.

In MM pp. 51-4.

Pacaviati-shasrik & Hdaya Prajpramit

LT: ChT5: Dharmacandra, 741. ChT6: Praj 790.


861. ChT8: Fa-cheng, 856. ChT9: Dnapla c. 1000.
: Kumrajva ca 400, T08, n0250
: Xuanzang 649, T08, n0251

Tibetan = Ti.
LT:

Kanjur. Ca 750.

10

ChT7:

Prajcakra

Pacaviati-shasrik & Hdaya Prajpramit

Pacaviati-shasrik Prajpramit Stra


Chinese Sources
Mokala
Dharmaraka

3

Kumrajva

Xuanzang

Xuanzang

2 3

[1] 1
[ ]
[2] 2 []

[1] 4

[3] 3

[] 5

[2] 6

1
2
3
4
5
6

[1]

[2]

[3]

[1]

[1-1]

[2]

11

Pacaviati-shasrik & Hdaya Prajpramit

[] 7

[21] 8
[ ] 9

7
8
9

[8-1]
[21]

[13-1]

12

Pacaviati-shasrik & Hdaya Prajpramit

[4] 10

(CBETA, T08,
no. 221,
p. 6, a6-13)

(CBETA, T07,
no. 220,
p. 435, b27-c12)

(CBETA, T08,
no. 222,
p. 153, c8-22)

(CBETA, T08,
no. 223,
p. 223, a13-24)

(CBETA, T07,
no. 220,
p. 14, a11-26)

See also, the larger atashasrik-prajpramit, Xuanzang translation:


001-200 43

(CBETA, T05, no. 220, p. 22, b2-20)

Nattiers Sanskrit Sources


From Nattiers article (pp 221ff; cf 161ff).

See also ibid n10:

[p. 202] 10. The name Large Stra is derived from the title of the most popular
Chinese version of the text (discussed immediately below), and has been adopted
here for convenience to refer to version of the stra in all languages. The
Sanskrit title is Pacaviati-shasrik- Prajpramit- Stra (The 25,000-Line
Perfection of Wisdom Stra). A Sanskrit text of the so-called rearranged
version of the text (Conzes type 2a), which was edited in around the 9th century

10

[4]

13

Pacaviati-shasrik & Hdaya Prajpramit

to conform with the format of the Abhisamaylakra of Maitreyantha, has been


published by N. Dutt on the basis of very late (c. 19th c.) Nepalese manuscripts;
see his The Pacaviati- shasrik- prajpramit, Edited with Critical Notes
and an Introduction, Calcutta Oriental Press Series No. 28 (London: Luzac & Co.,
1934). For the passage corresponding to the core of the Heart Stra see p. 46, line
2 through p. 47, line 3. A portion of an older (unrearranged, Conzes type 2)
Sanskrit version has survived in manuscripts found at Gilgit, dating to around
the 6th century ce; these have been published in facsimile by Raghu Vira and
Lokesh Chandra, Gilgit Buddhist Manuscripts, Parts 3-5, atapiaka Series, Vol.
103 (New Delhi: International Academy of Indian Culture, 1966). For the
passage corresponding to the core of the Heart Stra see folio 21v, lines 2-11.
Though the Prajpramit stras are regularly indentified in Sanskrit (and in
the corresponding Tibetan translations) by the number of lines they are said to
contain, in Chinese this convention is not followed.

Gilgit Manuscript
(c. 6th century)

Nepalese Manuscript
(c. 19th century)

...

...

na hi radvatputra 16

riputra

-anyad rpam any unyat 18 nnya


unyatnyad rpa

nnyadrpam any nyat nny


nyat anyadrpam

[r]pam eva unyat unyat(ai)va rpa

rpam eva nyat nyataiva rpam

eva n(ny) vedanny unyat

nny vedan any nyat nny


nyat any vedan vedanaiva
nyat nyataiva vedan

nnya saj nny unyat

nny saj any nyat nny


nyat any saj

nnye saskr anye unyat

nnye saskr any nyat nny


nyat anye saskr

nnya vijnam any unyat . nnya


unyatnyad vijna

nnyad vijnam any nyat nny


nyat anyad vijnam

The Gilgit manuscript of the Sanskrit Large Stra regularly reads radvatputra, while the later
Nepalese manuscripts (and the Tibetan translation) read riputra. For a discussion of this and
other variants of this name, see Andre Migot, Un grand disciple du Buddha riputra, Bulletin de
lEcole Francaise dExtrme-Orient, 56 (1954), 405-554 (p. 411).
18 The Gilgit manuscript regularly reads unyat where one would expect nyat.
16

14

Pacaviati-shasrik & Hdaya Prajpramit

vijnam eva unyat unyataiva


vijna

vijnameva nyat nyataiva


vijnam
iti samudayasatyvavda

ya radvatputra unyat

nyat riputra

na s utpadyate

notpadyate

na nirudhyate

na nirudhyate

na sakliyate

na sakliyate

na vyavadyate

na vyavadyate

na hyate

na hyate

na vardhate
ntt nngat na pratyutpann

na vardhate
20

ntt nngat na pratyutpann

y notpadyate na nirudhyate na
sakliyate na vyavadyate na hyate
na vardhate na hyate na vardhate
ntt nngat na pratyutpann

y ca d

na tatra rpa na vedan na sajn na


saskrn na vijna

na tatra rpam na vedan na saj na


saskra na vijnam
na pthivdhtur nbdhtur na
tejodhtur na vyudhtur
nkadhtur na vijnadhtur

na cakur na rotra na ghra na


jihv na kye na mana
na rpa na abdo na gandho na rasa na
sparo na dharm
(na) tatra skandh na dhtavo nyatanni
na tatra cakudhtu na rpadhtur na
cakurvijnadhtu

na cakurdhtur na rpadhtur na
cakurvijnadhtu

na (ro)tradhtu na abdadhtur na
rotravijnadhtu

na rotradhtur na abdadhtur na
rotavijnadhtu

na ghradhtur na gandhadhtur na
ghravijnadhtu

na ghradhtur na gandhadhtur na
ghravijnadhtu

na jihvadhtur na rasadhtur na
jivavijnadhtu

na jihvadhtur na rasadhtur na
jihvavijnadhtu

na kyadhtur na spraavyadhtur na

na kyadhtur na spraavyadhtur na

20

This line (not past, not future, [and] not present) is found in both the Gilgit manuscript and Dutts
late Nepalese copies of the Large Stra, as well as in the Chinese translations of the text. It is absent,
however, from all versions of the Heart Stra (in all languages) except the Chinese version of
Kumrajva, a text whose attribution is extremely problematic. For further discussion see below, pp.
184-189, and notes 71-73.

15

Pacaviati-shasrik & Hdaya Prajpramit

kyavijna[dh]tur [sic]

kyavijnadhtu

na manodhtur na dharmadhtur na
manovijna[dh]tur [sic]

na manodhtur na dharmadhtur na
manovijnadhtu

na tatrvidy nvidynirodha

nvidyotpdo nvidynirodha

na saskrn na saskranirodha

na saskrotpdo na saskranirodha

na vijna na vijnanirodha

na vijnotpdo na vijnanirodha

na nmarpa na nmarpanirodha

na nmarpotpdo na nmarpanirodha

na satvyatanam na
satvyatananirodha

na ayatanotpdo na
ayatananirodha

na sparo (na) sparananirodha

na sparotpdo na sparanirodha

na vedan na vedannirodha

na vedanotpdo vedannirodha

na t na tnirodha

na totpdo na tnirodha

nopdna nopdnanirodha

notpdnotpdo nopdnanirodha

na bhavo na bhavanirodha

na bhavotpdo na bhavanirodha

na jti(r n)a jtinirodha

na jtyutpdo na jtinirodha

na jarmaraa na jarmaraanirodha

na jarmaraaokaparidevadukhadaurmanasyopysa-nirodha

23

na dukha na samudayo na nirodha na na dukha na samudayo na nirodho na


mrga
mrgo
na prpti nbhisamaya 24

23

24

na prptir na abhisamayo

Where the Gilgit text reads na satvyatana na satvyatananirodha (no being-yatanas and no
extinction-yatanas) Dutts edition has na ayatan na ayatana-nirodha (no six yatanais and no
extinction yatanas), which is the more expected reading.
While the Sanskrit Large Stra negates attainment (prpti) and realization (abhisamaya), most
Sanskrit manuscript copies of the Heart Stra place the term prpti second rather than first and
negate knowledge (jna) rather than realization. In this respect, the Sanskrit Heart Stra matches
both the Chinese Heart Stra attributed to Hsuan-tsang and the Chinese Large Stra translation of
Kumrajva, where the corresponding terms are chih () and te ().

16

Pacaviati-shasrik & Hdaya Prajpramit

Pacaviati-shasrik Prajpramit Stra


Based on the edition by Stefano Zacchetti: In Praise of the Light: A Critical Synoptic
Edition with an Annotated Translation of Chapters 1-3 of Dharmaraka's Guang zan jing,
Being the Earliest Chinese Translation of the Larger Prajpramit, Tokyo 2005.
(Bibliotheca Philologica et Philosophica Buddhica, 8).
Input by Klaus Wille (Gttingen, Germany)
Facsimiles of the MS in GBM 175-675, fols. 1-27v1 = LPG
BOLD for pagination
ITALICS for restored passages
punar apara radvatputra bodhisatvo mahsatva prajpramity caran
praktiunyaty yukto yukta iti vaktavya
eva khalu radvatputra bodhisatvo mahsatva prajpramity caran yukta
iti vaktavya // sa bhir daabhi unyatbhi prajpramity caran na tvad
yukta iti v ayukta iti v vaktavya tat kasya heto tath hi sa na rpa yuktam iti
v ayuktam iti v samanupayati | na vedan na sajn na saskrn na
vijna yuktam iti v ayuktam iti v samanupayati |
na rpam utpdadharmi v nirodhadharmi v samanupayati | na vedan na
sajn na saskrn na vijnam utpdadharmi v nirodhadharmi v
samanupayati | na rpa sakleadharmi v vyavadnadharmi v samanupayati
| na vedan na saj na saskrn na vijna sakleadharmi v
vyavadnadharmi v samanupayati | na rpa vedanay srdha samavasaratti
samanupayati | na vedan sajay na saj saskrair na saskr vijnena
srdha samavasarantti samanupayati | na vijna saskrai srdha
samavasaratti samanupayati | tat kasya heto tath hi na sa kacid dharma
kenacid dharmea srdha samavasarati na visarati | //
na yujyate na viyujyate praktiunyatm updya | y radvatputra rpaunyat
na s rpa y vedanunyat na s vedan | y sajunyat na s saj | y
saskraunyat na te saskr | y vijnaunyat na s vijna | tath hi
radvatputra y rpaunyat na s rpayati | y vedanunyat na s (LPG 21v)
vedayati | y sajunyat na s sajnti | y saskraunyat na
sbhisaskaroti | y vijnaunyat na s vijnti | tat kasya heto na hi
radvatputrnyad rpam any unyat nny unyatnyad rpam* rpam eva
unyat unyataiva rpam* eva nny vedanny unyat | nny saj nny
unyat | nnye saskr any unyat | nnyad vijnam any unyat | nny
unyatnyad vijna | vijnam eva unyat unyataiva vijna |
17

Pacaviati-shasrik & Hdaya Prajpramit

y radvatputra unyat na s utpadyate na nirudhyate | na sakliyate na


vyavadyate | na hyate na vardhate | ntt nngat na pratyutpann y
notpadyate na nirudhyate | na sakliyate na vyavadyate | na hyate na vardhate |
ntt nngat na pratyutpann : na tatra rpa na vedan na saj na saskr
na vijna na cakur na rotra na ghra na jihv kyo na mana na rpa na
abdo na gandho na raso na sparo na dharm na tatra skandh na dhtavo
nyatanni na tatra cakurdhtur na rpadhtur na cakurvijnadhtur na
rotradhtur na abdadhtur na rotravijnadhtu na ghradhtur na
gandhadhtur na ghravijnadhtur na jihvdhtur na rasadhtur na
jihvvijnadhtu na kyadhtur na spraavyadhtur na kyavijnadhtur na
manodhtur na dharmadhtur na manovijnadhtur na tatrvidy nvidynirodha
na saskr nna saskranirodha na vijna na vijnanirodha na nmarpa
na nmarpanirodha na ayatana na ayatananirodha na sparo na
sparanirodha na vedan na vedannirodha na t na tnirodha nopdna
nopdnanirodha na bhavo na bhavanirodha na jtir na jtinirodha na
jarmaraa na jarmaraanirodha
na dukha na samudayo na nirodho na mrga na prptir nbhisamaya na
srotapanno na srotapattiphala na sakdgm (LPG 22r) na sakdgmiphala
nngm nngmiphala nrhan nrhatvam* na pratyekabodhir na
pratyekabuddha na tatra mrgkrajat na bodhisatva na tatra bodhir na
buddha
eva khalu radvatputra bodhisatvo mahsatva prajpramity caran yukta
iti vaktavya sa eva prajpramity caran na dnapramity yukta iti v
ayukta iti v samanupayati | na lapramity na kntipramity na
vryapramity na dhynapramity na prajpramity yukta iti v
ayukta iti v samanupayati |
na rpa yuktam iti v ayuktam iti v samanupayati | na vedan na sajn na
saskrn na vijna yuktam iti v ayuktam iti v samanupayati | na cakur
yuktam iti v ayuktam iti v samanupayati | na rotra na ghra na jihv na
kya na mano yuktam iti v ayuktam iti v samanupayati | na rpa yuktam iti
v ayuktam iti v samanupayati | na abda na gandha na rasa na spara na
dharmn na cakurdhtu yuktam iti v ayuktam iti v samanupayati | na
rpadhtu na cakurvijnadhtu yvan na manodhtu na dharmadhtu na
manovijnadhtu yukta iti v ayukta iti v samanupayati | na smtyupasthneu
yukta iti v ayukta iti v samanupayati | na samyakpraheu na riddhipdeu
nendriyeu na baleu na bodhyageu na mrge yukta iti v ayukta iti v
samanupayati | yvan na daasu tathgatabaleu na caturu vairadyeu na

18

Pacaviati-shasrik & Hdaya Prajpramit

catasu pratisavitsu ndaasv veikeu buddhadharmeu yukta iti v ayukta


iti v samanupayati | yvan na sarvajaty na sarvkrajaty yukta iti v
ayukta iti v samanupayati | anenpi radvatputra paryyea bodhisatvo
mahsatva
prajpramity
yukto
sarvadharmyogviyogatm (LPG 22v) updya |

19

yukta

iti

vaktavya

Pacaviati-shasrik & Hdaya Prajpramit

Conzes Large Stra on Perfection Wisdom


Conze, E (1975): The Large Stra on Perfect Wisdom, University of California Press:
Berkeley. Pp. 60-62.

I 2,2. Instructions about the truths. 10


I 2,2a.

Instructions about the truth of ill. 11

riputra: How is a Bodhisattva, a great being, who is joining (exerting) himself, to


be called joined to perfect wisdom?
The Lord: (AI) Here, riputra, a Bodhisattva, a great being, who is joined to the
emptiness of form is to be called joined. And so if he is joined the emptiness of
feeling, etc.; (P44) of the eye to mind, of sight-objects to mind-objects, of eye-element,
sight-object-element; eye-consciousness-element, etc. to: mind-consciousness-element;
of suffering, origination, stopping, path; and of ignorance, etc. to: decay and death.
(II) Joined to the emptiness of all dharmas 12 is he to be called joined. Of whichever
conditioned and unconditioned dharmas he may have formed a notion, joined to the
emptiness of all those dharmas is he to be called joined. Moreover, riputra, a
Bodhisattva, a great being, who courses in perfect wisdom, should be called joined
if he is joined to the emptiness of the essential original nature. 13 It is thus, riputra,
that the Bodhisattva, the great being who courses in perfect wisdom is, when joined to
these seven 14 emptinesses, to be called joined. It is thus, riputra, that he who
courses in perfect wisdom by means of these seven emptinesses should, because of
that, not even be called joined or un-joined. (III) And why? Because there he
does not review form, etc., as joined, or as un-joined.

In AA I2,2 a-c the translation follows S I 136-141, which is fuller than the corresponding text of P.
The reader will do well to consult Prasannapad XII on dukha, if possible in Schayers translation. It
is also useful to compare the exact wording of the four holy Truths, e.g. in my Buddhism, 1951, p.43.
12 no. 13 at P 197.
13 no. 12 at P 197.
14 seven in S and S-Tib; ten in Gilgit P; all in P.
The seven emptinesses are probably: 1, form, etc.;
2, eye, etc.; 3, sight-objects, etc.; 4, sight consciousness, etc.; 5, suffering, etc.; 6, ignorance, etc.; 7, all
dharmas.
10
11

20

Pacaviati-shasrik & Hdaya Prajpramit

I 2,2b Instructions about the truth of origination. 15


(B1) He does not (P45) review form, etc., as either subject to production, or as subject
to stopping. (II) He does not review form, etc., as either subject to defilement, or as
subject to purification. (III) He does not review form as connecting with feeling;
feeling as connecting with; feeling as connecting with perception; perception as
connecting with feeling; perception as connecting with impulses; impulses as
connecting with perception; impulses as connecting with consciousness;
consciousness as connecting with impulses. And why? Because no dharma
connects with any other dharma, nor does it disconnect; it is not joined nor
disjoined on account of the emptiness of their essential original nature.16 (IV) That
which is emptiness, that is not form, etc. (V) Because the emptiness of form does not
molest, 17 the emptiness of feeling does not feel, the emptiness of perception does not
perceive, the emptiness of impulses does not put together, the emptiness of
consciousness is not aware. (P46) (VI) And why? Form is not one thing, and
emptiness another; emptiness is not one thing, and form another. The very form is
emptiness, the very emptiness is form. And so for feeling, etc.
I 2,2c.

Instructions about the truth of stopping.

(C1) And that emptiness, that is neither produced nor stopped, it is neither defiled
nor purified, does not decrease or increase; and that which is neither produced nor
stopped, neither defiled nor purified, neither decreased nor increased, that is not past,
future, or present. (II) There is no form in it, no feeling, etc.; no eye, etc. to : no mind;
no form, etc. to: no mind-objects; no eye-element, etc. to : no mind-consciousnesselement; no ignorance, no stopping ignorance, etc. to : (P47) no decay and death, no
stopping of decay and death; no suffering and no comprehension of suffering; no
origination and no forsaking of origination; no stopping and no realization of
stopping; no path and no development of the path; no attainment, and no reunion; no

Here one should compare Prasannapad XIV on the impossibility of a cooperation (samsarga) between
distinct entities, on the ground that they have no independent existence. Also Dharmasagti in Si
263 sq.: No dharma is ever produced or stopped. In actual fact the eye does not make contact with
form, the ear with sounds, etc. Because there can be no union between them, and the eye cannot
intimately unite with form, etc., and therefore cannot come into contact (or: collide) with it. There
can be no contact (raa, also: collision, strife, contamination!) with a dharma which is single, and has
no second. All dharmas, in fact, are single, they do not cognize or discern one another, they cannot
construed or deconstructed, do not combine or dissolve, cannot grow or diminish.
16 S-Tib. Seems to understand this sentence quite differently.
17 This is a play on words: rpam (form) rpayati (molests).
On the face of it that seems to mean that
form has no figure (cf. P Dc s.v.), but S-Tib. has thogs-par byed-pa, strike, run against, impede. In
A.K. I 24,45 rpam is derived from rpayate, breaks up (rmpere), changes in form , is brittle,
and that is the meaning of rpaa (jig-pa) at P 197.
15

21

Pacaviati-shasrik & Hdaya Prajpramit

Stream-winner, and no fruit of a Stream-winner; etc. to : no Bodhisattva, and no


knowledge of the modes of the path; no Buddha, and no enlightenment. (III) It is in
this sense, riputra, that a Bodhisattva, a great being who courses in perfect wisdom,
is to be called joined.
I 2,2d.

Instructions about the truth of the path. 18

(D1) One who courses in perfect wisdom does not review himself as joined to the
perfection of giving, nor as not joined to it. And so with the other perfections,
with form (P48), etc., to: the cognition of the All-knowing. Also by this method
should it be known that a Bodhisattva, a great being, who has been thus joined to
perfect wisdom, is to be called joined. (II) Moreover, a Bodhisattva, a great being
who courses in perfect wisdom, does not join emptiness with emptiness, nor is
emptiness a matter for joined; he does not join the signless with the signless, nor is the
signless a matter for joining; he does not join the wishless with the wishless, nor is the
wishless a matter for joining. And why? Because emptiness is not a matter for
joining, or disjoining. When he thus joins himself a Bodhisattva, a great being, is to
be called joined, joined to perfect wisdom. (III) Moreover, a Bodhisattva, a great
being who courses in perfect wisdom, plunges into the own-mark emptiness of
dharmas. But when he does so, he does not join with form, etc., nor disjoins (himself)
from it. He does not join with form, etc. at the beginning, or at the end, or in the
present. He truly does not review the beginning, end, or present. When he thus
joins himself, a Bodhisattva, a great being, is to be called joined, joined to perfect
wisdom. (P49) (IV) Moreover, a Bodhisattva, a great being who courses in perfect
wisdom, does not join the beginning with the end, nor the end with the beginning,
nor the present with the beginning or end, nor the end with the beginning or present,
nor the beginning with the end or the present. And that is on account of the
emptiness of the (three) periods of time. When he thus joins himself, a Bodhisattva,
a great being, is to be called joined, joined to perfect wisdom.

18

Obermiller well sums up I2, 2d after H: A Bodhisattva cannot be really endowed with the six
perfections, nor can he be devoid of them. The emptiness of internal constituents, to the emptiness
of his external environment, which constitutes the sphere of his actions; at the same time such a
relation cannot be entirely absent, because otherwise there could be no skill in means and no
spiritual progress. - It is noteworthy that the eight steps of the holy Path, i.e. right views, etc.,
are nowhere even alluded to.

22