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planar frame- wall systems

G. Oliveto

Instltuto dt Sctenza delle Costruziom, Universtt~ di Catama Vtale A_ Dorta 6, 95125

Catania. Italy

A. Santini

IstltUtO dt Ingegneria Cwde ed Energetica, Universttd di Regglo Calabria, Via Vittorto

Veneto 69, 89100 Reggto Calabria, Italy

f r a m e - wall structures. The methods are based on some simplifying

assumptions widely used in the literature. One method has been

derived for frequency-domain analyses and may be most useful when

dynamic loads are specified as random processes. One particular

feature of the method is that all modal components of the physical

model are included in the analyses. A second aspect of interest is that

hysteretic as well as viscous damping may be easily included. The

second model is better suited for time-domain analyses. Novel

aspects of the t w o methods are the inclusion of shear deformation

effects in the structural elements, rotational inertia in the girders and

a rotational component for the base motion. Some results obtained by

the present methods are also compared with those available in

the literature. Finally some parametric studies are conducted in order

to assess the behaviour of uniform f r a m e - w a l l systems.

Keywords: f r a m e - w a l l structures,

quency domain, time domain

Frame-wall and frame-coupled wall structural

systems are widely used in high rise buildings to resist

horizontal forces arising from wind and earthquake

loading. In particular, frame-coupled wall systems have

been recognized L2 to inherently possess response

characteristics that accord with optimum seismic design

criteria 3. These seismic design criteria require that the

structural system behaves linearly not only under frequent minor earthquake ground shaking, but also during

occasional moderate seismic events. Of course, it may

undergo inelastic deformations during a rare but probable major earthquake shaking. All this calls for both

linear and nonlinear dynamic analyses to be performed

on the structural system.

General purpose, finite-element, three-dimensional,

linear analysis computer programs 4 have been available

for some time. Two-dimensional, nonlinear analysis

programs have also been available 5-7. However, the

use of such programs is possible and justified only after

the prehminary design stage has been completed and

sizes and detailing of the structural elements have

become available, m the preliminary design stage ~t

would be desirable to obtain an estimate of the maximum

dynamic response even if the actual sizes of the structural elements are not yet known and only the relative

stiffnesses of the major structural components may be

anticipated. These analyses should also be quick and in0141-O296/92/01015-12

1992 Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd

involving the concept of an equivalent continuum beam

have been presented in the literature 8-15. Some of them

deal only with planar systems 8-1~, while others consider three-dimensional systems 12-~5.

Although the continuum approach analyses provide

invaluable information on the behaviour of frame-wall

structures and other combined systems, and allow for a

quick and reliable estimate of the static and dynamic

response of such systems, they cannot fully represent the

actual behaviour of a combined frame-wall system as

was pointed out by Coull and Khachatoorian 9.

Oliveto and Santini ~s, by using the same basic approximations of the equivalent continuum approach s,

have treated the problem discretely by means of the

transfer matrix method This allows for a simple formulatmn of the frequency response functions accounting

for all modes of vibration present in the mathematical

model. Both deterministic and random earthquake excitations may be handled via frequency-domain analyses

leading to estimates of the maximum linear structural

response much in need in the early design stages. The

fact that the analysis can be formulated, at least for

uniform braidings, in dimensionless form, the widespread usage of personal computers with enhanced computational and graphics capabilities, the minimal amount

of data required for input operations combined with

Eng. S t r u c t . 1 9 9 2 , Vol. 14, No 1

15

response characteristics of great appeal in the design

office, make this discrete method a reasonable alternative to the equivalent continuum approach

The paper also includes a section providing the stiffness and mass matrices of the structural system These

allow for the calculation of the natural frequencies and

mode shapes which may be used in an alternative modal

analysis either m the frequency or in the nine domain.

The natural frequencies may also be used to tune the

damping parameters of the model

The main features of the physical model representing the

structural system have already been described in the

literature s'~5 The model is that of a frame and a wall

connected at floor levels by rigid links. Contrary to the

continuum approach all masses are here lumped at floor

levels The frame and wall elements are therefore

massless, although their masses may be included

amongst the lumped floor masses.

Viscous dampers are included at floor levels and

hysteretlc damping may easily be accommodated by

using complex moduh for the frame and wall

materials ~ The novel features of the present model include the rotational mertm and damping at floor levels,

and a rotational" component of the base motion. The

shear deformation in wall members may also be easily

accounted for

-1

M,/h

.fiR!/h ~

~rRr/h 2

00~

-l

oo

1/6 - 1 / 2 1

1/2

-I

St

Mdh

i

1 ''

01|

ytRrth

cbtRf/h 2

(])

where the barred variables refer to the top of the column

and the unbarred ones refer to the bottom. Furthermore,

S[ denotes the shear force, My the bending moment, y/

the displacement and ~I the rotation. In the following it

is convenient to refer to a rigidity parameter R, which

accounts for the rigidity of both the frame and the wall,

l e., R, = R y + R , . where R~ = EI~ is the bending

rigidity of the wall By introducing the rigidity rano

p = R f f R I and by referring the state variables to R,

rather than RI, equation (1) becomes:

h

yyR,/h 3

li-1 o ooll sr 1

=

~fR,/h 2

-1

0 o

-3a

1 1

yfgt/h 3

3a

-6a

OfR,/h 2

M? h

(2)

analyses

In what follows a mathematical model will be provided

which allows for the evaluation of the relevant frequency

response funcnons of f r a m e - w a l l structural systems

due to both translational and rotational base motions.

These functions will be defined m terms of a few dimensionless parameters which will allow the relative importance of the relevant physical assumptions inherent in

the model to be assessed.

The field matrtx f o r a frame segment

It has been suggested in the literature 8 ~,~6-J9 that the

frame may be replaced by a single member of rigidity

where a = (1 + p)/6.

The field matruc f o r a wall segment

The field matrix for a wall segment is defined in a

similar way as that for a frame segment The relationship between the state variables at the two ends of a wall

segment may be written as follows

i,ll 0001i,l

fiL/h

y,R,/h ~

~,.R,/h 2

-1

o o

Mw/h

bd

3b

-3b

1 1

y~R,/h 3

-6b

0 1

OwRflh 2

(3)

j=l

k ' = ~ 12Elbj/bj

where b = a/p and d = 1 - 6r accounts for shear deformations through the ratio

r = (E/kG)(I/Ah 2) = (E/kG)(1/)~ 2)

j=l

prowdmg the flexural rigidity of the equivalent member

extends to the number of columns of the frame in question, while the summation defining the stiffness of the

rotatmnal spring extends to the number of bays. By settlng R f = E l y , the relationship between the state

variables at the top and at the bottom of a frame segment

16

Eng. Struct

1992, Vol

14, No 1

X is the slenderness ratio of the wall segment.

The field matrix f o r a f r a m e - wall segment

The field matrices in equations (2) and (3) may be combined together to form the field matrix for a f r a m e - w a l l

segment. This is achieved by enforcing the two

is the total horizontal displacement at the jth floor and

is composed of:

s=s~+ Sw

vg

Ogzj

Y=Yf=Yw

the following relationships are found:

-1

i~If/h

Mw/h

-3A

',0

- 3 B ',0

-T

-T

D

.

',0

.

0 -"

~Rt/h 3

-3E

-3L', 1

~fR,/h 2

3E

- 9 L ', 0

3A

3L

-9L

3B

-D

'.0

and damping properties have been associated to the

frame only. It should be noticed that the rotational

spring stiffness kf has already been defined, while

accounts for the rotational inertia associated with the

flexibility of the frame girder and may be calculated

through the same basic assumptions which have led to

the formulation of k/, i.e., mtd-span contraflexure

points,

Mf/h

Mw/h

the horizontal displacement due to the input

ground rotation 0g,

Ys

the additional ground &splacement due to soil

flexibility;

~bszj the horizontal displacement due to the additional ground rotatmn caused by soil flexibihty;

yj

the horizontal displacement to the base, Le,

yj = 0 f o r j = 0 .

(4)

= ~.t r&b~/210

ygt]h 3

l=l

4~iR,/h2

with rh, the distributed mass over the span of length b,.

Besides the dynamic equilibrium equations (5) some

compatibility relations are also necessary to derive the

point matrix. These are as follows

dp~R,/h 2

where

y, = y,_,,

T = 1/(a + bd);

~,_,

-w

(~7=

(6)

above the jth floor, while the suffice j-1 denotes that

below

By assuming a harmomc motion of frequency w, after

some algebra, the relationships which define the point

matrix may be written as follows:

A = aT;

B = bT;

C = 2a - B;

D = B(3 - d) - A;

L = bA;

E = Ld;

P = Bd;

-d~-

i I3 i 0 i 0 1

(7)

O = 3A(a - 2bd);

The point matrix at floor level

where

a frame-wall segment to the state variables at the

bottom of the next segment across the floor structure.

These relationships are established through the dynamic

equilibrium equations as they apply to the floor structure

separating two consecutive frame-wall segments.

These equations, which are best derived by means of

Hamilton's principle, may be written as follows:

f7 = [s,, q/h, ~ / h ] ,

aT= [y,R,/h 3, edR,/h 2, ~;/h21,

d r = [ysR,/h 3, OsR,/h2] ;

frg = [rn, gg, mthO'g] ;

S, + S,_, +cjy,+m~'gj = 0

Mf.+.~f

+ k ;r , f +

- '~

f + /- ~

"f ,

c1~

~ + A/,'_, =0

(5)

psd=

0

0

F

0

0

0

; pf =

0

0

where

pf=v~ = vg + Ogzj + ys + O~zj + yj

0

0

17

F = (mo~" - tcw)h3/R,;

E

3E

3L

Tdt :

G = m~o2h3/R, ;

H = re~mr,

f = ([w 2 - t~o~ - U)h/R,,

-3E

Q

-9L

-3L 1

-9L ,

R

1 P

A 1

Tad= | 0 - C 3A ,

L 0 3B - D

'V

m, = ]~_ mj = Nm.

/=1

properties are assumed to be uniform with height, i.e.,

mj=m

=

j=l

.....

I

T/,=

(j + 1)G-]

0j

"

cl=c

k =kr

I -H

0

0

,,

The more general case may easily be dealt with by entermg the interstorey height and the stiffness, damping and

mass coefficients in the relevant point and field

matrices.

-(./+ I)H 1

0

;

0

The state vector at any floor m the structure may be expressed in terms of the state vector at the base as

follows:

Having defined the field matrix for a f r a m e - w a l l

interstorey segment and the point matrix across a floor

through the relationships:

T/=PjF,

TIS0 = TNS0

the constant transfer matrix T in the special case of

periodic frame-wall structures, i.e.,

. - =TI=T

where do = 0 because the vector dj denotes the relative

motion to the base of the structure. Furthermore the vector fg denotes the input motion while d, = 0 for a rigid

foundation soil. Therefore the state vector at the base is

fully known if the force vector f0 is known. By applylng the boundary condiuons at the top of the structure m

the form.

t

. . . .

-f[-

I. . . .

-O--!-O--! O ', I2 )

where

I

(1 + FE)

-3FE

-3FL 1

( - e + 3FE) ( - C + FQ) (3B - 9F'L) ,

-A

T/,/ =

(9)

may be written as'

TN=TN l =

or

T# =

T zSo

SN = TNTN-j

easily be defined as follows

18

s, = 3":Tj_j

3A

0 (T - f C ) ( - T

0

T

-D

3FA) ;

f0 = -T/fNT~f~

(10)

Therefore the state vector at the base for a rigid foundation may be written as follows"

sot

- N Tfgfg)

N

T. 0 r, O r, f r]

= [ -(T/:

where

The f r e q u e n c y response f u n c n o n s

Once the state vector at the base of the structure has been

evaluated and the ground motion has been prescribed in

the form

% = otE1j/hs ;

g =

o,

eel,/h

any frequency response function may easily be computed. In fact any response parameter must be contained

in the state vector at some station and this may be computed through equation (9). If the response to a translational excitation is required, then 9gO = 1 and 0~ = 0

are set in fgo; on the other hand VgO= 0 and 0gO = 1 if

the response to a rotational excitation is required. Once

the frequency response functions have been evaluated,

the structural response to a general seismic excitation

may be computed as is shown in the literature .5

A mathematmal model for time-domain analyses which

is fully equivalent to that developed for frequencydomain analyses may easily be derived by means of

Hamilton's principle. Three equations of motion for

each intermediate floor may be found as given by equation (5). For a rigid foundation these may be written as

follows:

3=c~-2,

0=c~+3;

6 = 20,

be found in the literature 2. Equations (13), when written for the first floor ( / = 1), become:

(6 T + 6f)y, + (Of - 0 [ ) ~ + (0~' - 0 ~ ' ) ~

f f + 0 ~ v ~ -'l- C l y I "1"- mly 1

- - 6Ty2 + 021112

= -- ml~)g -- m~Z]Og

(0~ - O~)y~ + (eel + otf + k[)ck[ - O~y2

f f

+ &,~

+ e, 4,~ + i, $[ = o

2 '4"w

,el -- O~y 2 + (J~dp~ = 0

M~f , + ~'1~; + kr~Of + drcbr + I;#O,"'~

- -- 0

M~+, + ~ = 0

(j=

] .....

N-

(11)

1)

__t3TyN_I - O w

w w

+t~TNYN _ O Nw( D Nr

N O Nf - I -- ON4~N-I

+ cNys + msyN = --msvg -- muzN(]g

r f

+ e~

= o

M- wN = 0

(12)

(11) and (12) are especially significant because they

effectively show the balance of forces applied at each

floor. However, when a dynamic analysis must be performed it is convenient to replace bending moments and

shear forces by their expressions in terms of joint

displacements. For an intermediate floor the equations

of motion corresponding to equations (11) become:

f - - ej,~~j_l

w "4- (1~?

Ojf ~/)j_l

"1!-

(~jTI)Yj

= - mj~g - mjz~O'~

where.

d r = [dr, d r , . . . ,

dNr]

rf=

[1, O, O]

[z,

zL

, rNT]

z, = [z,, 0, 01

f r + (Os+,

r -O~)y~ + (off+ %+t

Ofy,_, + 13jcbj_,

r

f

"f

c,- ek,

~bf

_0

- O,+,yj+l

w __

M d + C d + K d =M~(rgg + z~)g)

r T= [r~, r~,

f

f + (0;+, _ o~e~ 7 - tSj+lyj+

~

- o,)~,

l

+ 0~+,~+, + OjW+,O,~+,+ c,y, + m;yj

r

f

kj)~b;

arrange the equations of motion in matrix from as

follows:

d/= [y,,

--

Jr- ( o f + 1

.~_

O~vYN I "Jr"3 N ~ N - I

(15)

_&fyj_~

+/~4;~ = 0

+/3j~+10,+, = 0

(13)

translational part M~ and a rotational part M 2 The damping matnx C = C~ + C2 is also diagonal and composed

of a translational and a rotational part. The stiffness

matrix K is banded and its half band-width is equal to 3.

r and z are pseudostatic displacement vectors

19

A s i m p l i f i e d m o d e l for hnear d y n a m i c a n a l y s e s . G. O l i v e t o a n d A. S a n t t m

displacements.

The coefficients of the mass, dampmg and stiffness

matrices may eastly be referred from equatmns (13),

(14), and (15)

The shear deformation p a r a m e t e r r

The shear deformation parameter r apphes to an individual wall or frame member In practical applications

one has to deal with one or more frames composed of

several columns and with several independent walls or

coupled walls. Therefore the problem arises of how to

define the shear deformation parameter of the replacement column from the values pertaining to the individual

components. Any shearing-flexural deformation may

be decomposed in a pure flexural deformatmn and in a

shear-type deformation 2~. The former is independent of

r while the latter depends on r. The value of r for the

replacement column may therefore be defined in such a

way that the work performed in a shear-type deformaUon is the same as the sum of the works performed in

the individual components. Because the work performed

m a shear-type deformation is proportional to the stiffness parameter 0 = a +/3, if follows that-

r = [/(mh '-)

= c/(2mwD

= cI(2[w, )

flCtltous viscous damping ratm (translational),

fictitious viscous damping ratio (rotational),

through the relationw~ = R,/(m,h 3)

parameter in the form:

3' = (tzf + P#w)/( 1 + P)

the definition of the pomt and transfer matrices may be

written as:

F = (1 - i7)(p 2 - i 2 ~ p ) / [ ( 1

+ 3,2)N]

G = (1 - t3,)p2/[(1 + 3,Z)N]

r

E Ei,o,=o Eel,

~=1

Numerical applications

t=l

or

o =

E/,O,

I=l

EL

=

On the other hand the work performed in a purely flexural deformation is proportional to the stiffness

parameter.

c - f l = 2

By combmlng the above equation with the other

et + fl =O

parameter 6 is also in a simple relationship with 0,

namely:

6 = 20

The analysis of periodic systems requires the introduction of only a few dimensionless parameters which are

listed below

p = R.,IRf

[.t.

#/

N

= krh/Rf

20

mathematical models have been presented for the same

physical problem. The range of applications for the

frequency-domain model has already been shown in a

previous work ~5. In the present paper some parametric

studies will be presented aiming at showing the relative

role played by the individual parameters which govern

the problem.

The time-domain model will only be used for the

calculation of frequencies and modes of vibration which

wll] be compared against existing results in the

literature. The aim of this comparison is twofold. On

one side the results produced by the present model will

be compared with those of the continuum beam

approach relying on the same basic assumptions. This

should allow for an assessment of the continuum

approach. On the other hand, the results of the present

model will be compared against those of more refined

models, thus allowing for an evaluation of the former

rigidity ratio,

hysteretic damping parameter for the

wall;

hysteretlc damping parameter for the

frame;

number of storeys

girder's rigidity ratio,

literature 8'~ was originally presented by Heidebrecht

and Stafford Smith B. For the plan of the structure and

the mechanical and geometric characteristics of the

structural elements, reference is made to the original

paper. The above authors provided the first period of

vibration of the structure along two directions of

orthogonal symmetry The periods were computed

under two different assumptions for the evaluation of the

stiffness of the rotational springs. Subsequently Basu et

al. ~o extended the analysis to include shear deformation

effects in the walls. In Table 1 the results provided by

the quoted authors for vibrations in the X direction are

compared with those obtained by the present method in

Table 1

Second hypothes=s

F=rst hypothesm

Presented method

Present method

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

2 4034

0 7509

0 4039

0 2522

0.1714

2

0

0

0

0

4028

7506

4028

2518

1709

From

ref 10

From

ref 8

2 34

214

N

1 6828

0.5438

0 3084

0.2046

0 1463

1 6824

0 5436

0.3082

0 2043

0 1460

From

ref 10

From

ref 8

1.68

1 45

Shear deformations m the walls I = included, N = neglected

Table 2

Second hypothes=s

First hypothesm

Presented method

Present method

T1

T~

T3

T4

T5

1 9013

0.4906

0.2093

0 1147

0.0732

1

0

0

0

0

8969

4863

2045

1096

0632

From

ref 10

From

ref 8

181

1.88

1 4275

0.4072

0 1906

0.1086

0 0704

1.4236

0 4041

0 1867

0 1041

0 0656

From

ref 10

From

ref 8

1 33

1 35

Shear deformations =n the walls I = included, N = neglected

included or neglected. Similar results are reported in

Table 2 for vibrations in the Y direction. In these tables

the results for the periods up to the fifth, obtained by the

present method, are also included in order to show the

effects of shear deformations on higher modes. From the

analysis of these results it follows that the effects of

shear deformations may be important for vibrations in

the Y direction where the walls are more effective. The

maximum period elongation occurs m the fifth mode

when it reaches almost 14%. However, in the first and

second modes the period elongation is negligible, never

reaching 1%, while in the third mode it Is slightly above

2% and in the fourth less than 5%. The results of the

continuum approach always under-estimate the fundamental period.

The results of Basu et al. ~o are an improvement with

respect to those by Heidebrecht and Stafford Smith s for

vibrations in the X direction. However, for vibrations in

the Y direction the results by Basu et al.~ are

suspicious. They are not only smaller than the results of

the present method, but also smaller than those by

Heidebrecht and Stafford Smith s

It may be concluded that the effects of shear deformations may become important in the frame-wall structures for motions along the directions where the walls

most contribute to the stiffness of the structural system

and that these effects become larger for higher modes.

Furthermore, it appears that the continuum approach

determines a stiffer system than the original discrete

one.

frame-coupled wall structures obtained from general

purpose finite element programs are available in the

literature ~,2.

For the structural plan and for the mechanical and

geometrical properties of the structural elements,

reference is made to the original publications of Aktan

and Bertero z2'23. The same publications also contain a

detaded discussion of the model used in the analyses.

The first three planar periods of vibration are reported

for the two cases when the structural stiffness is provlded only by the coupled walls and when it is provided

by the frame-coupled wall system. In the present

analysis the coupled walls are treated as a frame. The

girder connecting the two walls ~s composed of two rigid

lateral parts and a central flexible one In principle more

than two walls may be coupled together and in such

cases the stiffness of the rotational spring replacing the

connecting girder may be defined as follows:

b

k r = ~,~ 6,(EI,/b,)(b,/a,) 3

t=l

ith bay of the girder and tS, is a stiffness function which

accounts for the shear deformations in the girder.

Wails are often coupled by short stubby girders for

which the effects of shear deformations must be

21

allowed. For slender girders

6, = 12,

otherwise

from a structural viewpoint. Of the structural parameters

revolved, the wall-frame rigidity ratio p and the

girder's rigidity parameter/5 appear mostly to affect the

fundamental period, while the influence of the girder's

rotational inertia parameter t-seems negligible_ The

results may therefore be represented in the form of

graphs of the fundamental frequency against the rigidity

ratio p for various values of the girder's rigidity

parameter/5.

6, = 12/(1 + 126)

length a,.

As for individual walls, ~t may also be important to

account for shear deformanon effects in the coupled wall

elements Therefore it will also be necessary to include

shear deformation effects for frame members as the

coupled walls are treated as a frame

In the following, two analyses are presented. In one,

the stiffness coefficients are directly evaluated from the

concrete gross sections and from the mechanical properties of concrete specified by Aktan and Bertero z2'23, m

the other the effective stiffnesses, as provided by the

same authors, are used for the structural elements. The

computed periods are reported in Table 3 and compared

with those by previous authors.

From the analysis of the results it may be gathered that

cross-sectional data provide shorter periods than effective ones. The effect of including shear deformation is,

as expected, a lengthening of the natural periods of

vibraUon.

The fundamental period of vibration calculated by the

present method is surprisingly close to that calculated by

more refined models when shear deformation is included. This is so in both cases, when the stiffness is

contributed only by the coupled walls and when it is contributed by both the coupled-walls and the frames. The

second and third periods are larger than those calculated

by Aktan and Bertero when shear deformation is included and shghtly shorter when xt is neglected Because

the model used by Aktan and Bertero includes shear

deformation, the discrepancy may be due to the assumptxon of mid-span contraflexure points adopted in the present model, which may be much less accurate for higher

modes than for the first one.

In one Investigation the varmtion of the fundamental frequency with p and ~ has been sought for a constant total

rigidity R , = R I + R w In other words, for p = 0 ,

R, = 0 and Rf = R,; by increasing P, Rw is increased as

the expense of RI so that Rf + Rw = R, = constant. The

numerical calculations carned out for a number of

storeys N = 4 and N = 12 are reported in Figures la and

lb Both figures show a decrease of the fundamental frequency with Increasing p, signifying that it is not possible to stiffen the system by increasing the stiffness of

the walls at the expense of that of the frames. The rate

of frequency change is largest for p = 0 and decreases

with Increasing p so that for large values of this

parameter any further increase does not determine a

significant decrease in frequency The increase of the

girder's rigidity parameter/5 results, as expected, in an

Increase of the frequency for all fimte values of the

wall-frame rigidity ratio p.

Another investiganon has been carried out for a constant

frame rigidity Rj, and increasing walt and total rigidities

Rw and R,. In this way the stiffening effect of the walls

on given frames may be studied. Once again two cases

have been considered, corresponding to a storey number

of 4 and 12. The results are reported in Figures 2a and

2b. As expected, the frequency increases with increasing

values of p and ~. The rate of increase is larger for small

values of p and tends to a fnite limit for large values of

p. As with the previous case, the girder's rigidity affects

the frequency considerably and the often adopted

hypothesis of shear-type frames (# = 00) may lead to

crude overestimates of frequencies.

Parametric studies

Some parametric studies have been carried out aiming at

ascertaining the general behaviour of the structural

system when the geometrical and mechanical characteristics are uniform along the height. The variation of

the fundamental period of vibration with the governing

Table 3

gross-sections

CW

T1

T2

T3

F-CW

CW

F-CW

F-CW

0 81

0 24

0.11

0 88

0 25

0 12

0 77

0 23

0.11

0.83

0.24

0 12

1.09

0 32

0 15

1.21

0.36

0 17

0.87

0.26

0 13

0.98

0 30

0 16

1 20

0 32

0.15

0 99

0.28

0.13

Shear deformations m the walls I = included, N = neglected

22

Results from

ref 23

from ref 23

24

100

20

3

all

=

15

h = 0 01

1.0

~= l o

1

05

I

10

20

40

30

50

Rigidity ratio, p

20

40

60

80

100

Rig,dity ratio, p

1.5

10

ii

O.

p : 100

II

~= 10

0.5

~= 1

~=ool

10

20

30

I

40

50

Rigidity ratio, p

,,

'

IL

4

~

o==

03

03

:

'"

0

I1'

r__'l

I

6

s/w,

10

1oo

' r

6 -,--'

,I

~

o-=

03

L-L_

I

.~1

I

2

.....

iJ

rJ

:1

"r "~

] .....

80

li

6

4

60

Rigidity ratio, p

~

I I

I]

40

modal damping ratio ~s 5 % in the first and the second

mode. The response characteristics which have been invesugated are the total shear force along the height of the

structure together with the shear force in the wails and

also m the frames. The floor displacement has also been

investigated along the height of the structure. For the

been evaluated for several response characteristics and

its variations with the basic governing parameters have

been studied. The amplitude of the ground acceleration

used in the calculations is 1 g. The characteristics of the

,i

N=12

:1

wall - f r a m e rigidity ratoo p and with the girder's rigidity parameter

(at constant frame rigidity Rt)- Storey number: (a) N = 4, (b)

wall - f r a m e rigidity ratio p and with the girder's rigidity parameter

h (at constant total rigidity Rt) Storey number: (a) N = 4; (b)

N=12

20

s/w,

I

10

10

s/w,

Figure 3 Variatmon of shear forces (peak of the shear frequency response function to horizontal acceleration) with the wall-frame rigidity

ratio p. (a) p = 5; (b) p = 2U; (c) p = 100. - - ,

Total shear force,

Amplitude of ground,acceleration = 1 g; /~ = 10; t- = 0.01

Eng. Struct.

1992,

Vol.

14, No 1

23

slmdar behavlour is shown by the cases N = 4 and

N = .12 which are not reported. The ratio of the shear

force to the total weight IV, of the structure is used to

represent the shear forces, whde the floor displacements

have been dlwded by the reference displacement

a storey where wall and frame share almost equally the

total shear

The variation with p of the floor displacements is

reported in Figures 4a, 4b and 4c It may be noticed

how, with increasing O, the deflected shape gradually

changes from a frame-type one to a beam-like one It

should also be noticed that with increasing o the peak

displacements at all floors increase considerably For mstance the top displacement increases by 40 times on

passing from p = 0 to p = 100. This confirms that it is

not possible to stiffen the system by increasing the wall

at the expense of the frame.

W~h3/e~.

Vartation with p

The variation of the peak response with p is reported m

and in Ftgures 4a, 4b and 4c for the floor displacements.

The girder's rigidity parameter has been kept to a constant value t~ = 10, while the rotational inertia parameter

has been set equal to t--- 0.01. From Figures 3a, 3b and

3c it may be noticed that the total base shear decreases

as p increases. This result is due to the fact that the total

rigidity R, is kept constant and that R, increases at the

expense of Rf, and is consistent with the previous result

of elongation of the natural fundamental period. The

way in which the frame and the wall share the total shear

changes dramatically with p. For low values of p the

total shear is mostly carried by the frame With increasing p the wall carries increasing fractions of the total

shear, which are larger at the lower storeys. At the top

storeys the frame usually carries more shear than the

Vartatton with

The overall stiffness of the frame is greatly affected by

the bending rigidity of its girders. For low values of

the frame shows a beam-like behavlour As ~ increases, the behaviour of the frame gradually changes

from that of a beam to that of a shear-type frame

(t5 = oo). In the numerical investigations the w a l l frame rigidity ratio has been set equal to p = 20 and the

girders' rotational inertia parameter has been set equal

to t = 0 0 1 .

The varmUon of the shear force with t~ is reported

in Figures 5a, 5b and 5c. As expected, for low values

6

>

(1}

>

(1)

.o

2

o

O9

o~

4

03

O9

[

8

I

16

]

24

I

32

40

80

160

240

320

400

I

80

yRJWt ha

yRt/Wt tP

I

160

J

240

w a l l - f r a m e ngld=ty ratio p (a) p = 5, (b) p = 20, (c) p = 100 A m p l i t u d e of ground acceleratmn = 1 g, /~ = 10, t- = 0 01

8

i

>

0,)

w i t h the

--

8

I

>

(])

400

yRt/Wt ha

I

320

o

CO

I

I

0

2

i

I

2

I

4

I

6

I

8

10

s/w,

s/w,

I

8

10

I

2

I

4

'1

-I

)

8

10

s/w,

Figure 5 Vanat=on of shear forces (peak of the shear f r e q u e n c y response function to horizontal acceleration) w i t h the girder's rigidity

p a r a m e t e r ~, (a) b = 1, (b) ~ = 10, (c)/5 = 100_ - - ,

Total shear force;

frame A m p l i t u d e of ground acceleratmn = 1 g, p = 20, { = 0 01

24

Eng.

Struct.

1992,

Vol

14,

No

8

6

(D

>,

o

03

>

09

09

I

80

I

160

240

320

400

40

80

120

160

40

YRt/W, t'P

yR t/W t I'P

200

80

120

160

200

yR t / W t ha

Ftgure 6 Vanat=on of storey dmplacements (peak of the d=splacement frequency response funct=on to horizontal acceleration) w=th the

girder's ng=d=ty parameter/~ (a) ~ = 1, (b) ~ = 10; (c) ~ = 100 Amphtude of ground accelerat=on = 1 g; p = 20, { = 0 01

much smaller than that of the wall and the total shear is

carried mostly by the wall. With increasing ~ the overall

stiffness of the frame increases and especially at high

and intermediate storeys, the fraction of shear taken by

the frame gradually increases and overtakes that taken

by the wall. For high values of iS, the overall stiffness

of the frame considerably exceeds that of the wall and,

apart from the top and lower storeys, most of the shear

is carried by the frame.

The variation with ~ of the floor displacements is

reported in Figures 6a, 6b and 6c. For low values of t5

the deflected shape ~s beam-hke while it changes

gradually to a shear-type frame shape as ~ increases. All

floor displacements decrease considerably as ~ increases.

For instance, the top displacement for ~ = 0.001 is more

than 10 times larger than that for ~ = 100.

F r o m the p r e v i o u s p a r a m e t r i c a n a l y s e s it f o l l o w s that the

s t r u c t u r a l b e h a v i o u r is c o n s i d e r a b l y a f f e c t e d b y t h e

wall-frame

r i g i d i t y ratio p a n d the g i r d e r s ' r i g i d i t y

p a r a m e t e r / 5 . T h e e f f e c t o f the g i r d e r s ' r o t a t i o n a l i n e r t i a

has n o t b e e n d i s c u s s e d but a p p e a r s to b e n e g l i g i b l e .

Two main conclusions may be drawn.

(1)

(2)

system and changes the overall structural

behaviour.

It is not possible to stiffen a wall-frame structural

system by increasing the wall at the expense of the

f r a m e . I f this is d o n e , the r e s u l t i n g s y s t e m is c o n s i d e r a b l y m o r e f l e x i b l e than the o r i g i n a l o n e as is

s h o w n by the e l o n g a t i o n o f the f u n d a m e n t a l p e r i o d

o f v i b r a t i o n a n d b y c o m p a r i s o n o f the p e a k

r e s p o n s e s to h a r m o n i c e x c i t a t i o n s .

T h e s e c o n d c o n c l u s i o n d o e s n o t a p p l y to c o u p l e d w a l l s

w h i c h c o m b i n e the m o s t a p p e a l i n g f e a t u r e s o f both

f r a m e s and w a l l s a n d a r e treated in the p r e s e n t m o d e l as

frames.

Acknowledgements

This work has been financially supported by grants from

the Italian Ministry of Education.

References

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2 Aktan, A E and Bertero, V V 'Conceptual seismic design of

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2778 - 2797

3 'Recommended Lateral Force Reqmrements and Commentary',

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4 Wilson, E L , Dovey, H H and Hablbullah, A "Three-dimensional

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7 Powell, G H 'Computer programs for analyses of seismic response

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8 Heldebrecht, A C and Stafford Smith, B "Approximate analysis of

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9 Coull, A and Khachatoonan, H 'Analysis of laterally loaded wallframe structures', J Struct Engng 1984, 110 (6), 1396-1400

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12 Stamato, M C and Mancim, E "Three-dimensional interaction of

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Lee 'Free vibration of asymmetric shear wall-frame buildings',

Earthquake Engng Struct Dyn 1984, 12, 629-650

Eng. Struct.

1992,

Vol.

14, No 1

25

14 Chlarugl, A and Diotallevl, P P "Altl edlficl Slsteml spazlah dl lrrlgldlmentl, osservazlom sul comportamento torslonale', Gtornale

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237 - 2 4 7

16 La Tegola, A 'Stablht~ dell'eqmhbrm e dmamma de1 telal elastJcl

multlpmm', Costruztom Metalhche 1963, No 1,2

17 Ohveto, G 'Calcolo degh sforzl crmcl m alcum tlpl dl telat prom a

nod1 spostabdf, Te~mca e Rwostruzmne, Catama, 1977, No 3,

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18 Home, M R and Merchant, W "The 5taOtltl3'of Frames', Pergamon

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frames', Structural Engineer Pt IV 1958, 36, 187

26

20

with Timoshenko members" Engineering Analysts 1984, 1 (2),

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seismic responses of R/C frame-coupled wall structures', Report No

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