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DESIGN AND TEST NEXT-GENERATION-NETWORK USING OPNET 1

Md. Ahsan Ullah

DESIGN AND TEST NEXT-GENERATION-NETWORK USING OPNET

RESEARCH SKILLS
CN3041
MD AHSAN ULLAH

BSc Computer Networks


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Md. Ahsan Ullah

1. Disclaimer
This report is submitted as part requirement for the Module Research Skills at
School of Computing & Technology, University of East London. It is the product
Of my own labour except where refereed in the text. The report may be freely
Copied and distributed provided the source.

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2. Acknowledgement
I would like to thank the technical reviewers of this Project, Joseph Barrimah,
Vishal Kanabar, Manolis Christodoulakis for their comprehensive, detailed review
And beneficial input. They also have guided, Advised and supported me
Throughout the duration of this project.

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3. Abstract
The modern business demands are changing rapidly and require a highly
Adaptable and flexible IT infrastructure. Existing telecommunications systems
Are improving to support these growing new services. These services behaves
Differently than expected, this is called service interaction. This interaction
Problem is the barrier to the new services into telecommunications networks
(Dirk & Paul, 1998, pp. 779-796). And the growth of wireless networking
Devices has been explosive over the last decade.

The existing communication infrastructure was designed for wired


Communication not for wireless. It is not suitable for all types of Protocol and
The bandwidth demand (Green, 2002, pp. 1-14). So designing Next-GenerationNetwork is Very much essential for future Communication (Vo-IP, WIMAX, 3G,
4G, Cable TV, IP TV, etc) environment.

The biggest challenge for this project was to design simulation based N-G-N. The
Network will be able to provide more bandwidth, security, easy to maintain
And will support wide range of wireless connection, multiple Protocols, etc to
Meet today and future demand. This network design can be implemented in any
Country to meet next generation demand .

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Contents Table

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Disclaimer
------Acknowledgement
------Abstract
------Aims
------Objectives
------Introduction to Problem Area
--6.1. This project is for what purpose?
--7. Overview of the project
--8. Analysis of Existing Network Infrastructure
--8.1. Access Network
--8.1.1. PSTN
--8.1.1.1. Evaluation
--8.1.2. Leased Line
--8.1.2.1. ISDN
--8.1.2.1.1.
ISDNBRI
8.1.2.1.2.
ISDNPRI
8.1.2.1.3.
Evaluation
8.1.3. DSL and Its Versions
8.1.3.1. ADSL
8.1.3.2. Improvements of ADSL
8.1.3.3 Evaluation
8.1.4. Wireless Broadband
8.1.4.1. WPAN
8.1.4.1.1.
Evaluation
8.1.4.2. WLAN
8.1.4.2.1.
Evaluation
8.1.4.3. WMAN
8.1.4.3.1.
Evaluation
8.1.4.4. WWAN
8.1.4.4.1.
Communication satellite
8.1.4.4.2.
Evaluation
8.1.5. Mobile (GSM, GPRS, 3G, 4G)
8.1.5.1. 3G
8.1.5.1.1.
Evaluation
8.2. Metro and Core Network
8.2.1. Frame-Relay
8.2.1.1 Evaluation
8.2.2. ATM
8.2.2.1. Evaluation
9. Summary of Existing Network Infrastructure
10. The Gant Chart for N-G-N project 2007--2008
11. OPNET IT Guru
11.1. What is OPNET IT GURU?
11.2. Why OPNET IT Guru?
11.3. Advantages of OPNET IT Guru
12. References

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DESIGN AND TEST NEXT-GENERATION-NETWORK USING OPNET 6


Md. Ahsan Ullah

Aims
The aim of this project is to design and implement a simulation based next
Generation network for a country Named Design, Develop and Test N -G-N
Using OPNET. The simulation of network will be tested to ensure it meets the
Network performance requirements and compatibility issues. The approach to
This problem was to use OPNET- a discrete network designing and simulation
Program to build and test N-G-N.

5. Objectives
To research into different area of existing enterprise networks
To critically evaluate the chosen area network
To demonstrate the issues that effects the performance of VO-IP, IP TV,
WI-Max, IMS network
To research on OPNET (a network simulation Software) to achieve
Understanding and its advantage
To produce a simulation for the network , I will use OPNET
To prove the simulator of such network , I will implement N-G-N prototype
To Test the prototype in order to make sure the network performance
To complete the project on time, I will follow the time-scale of Gant chart
to support all kind of network , the prototype will be a n IP based network

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6. Introduction to Problem Area


By 2003 countries economy and national security became fully dependent upon
Information technology and its infrastructure. A network of n etworks directly
Supports the operation of all sectors of any countries economy . Designing an IP
Based secure, scalable enterprise Network and strong security protocols into
The information systems architecture can reduce its overall operational costs by
Enabling cost-saving processes (The White House USA, 2003). To solve the
Current crisis telecom industry needs a high capacity links for the Large
Internet traffic demand (Bianco & Neri, 2003).

Another problem of current network is that it does no t support latest Technology


Like IMS (IP based multimedia system), voice over IP, IP TV, Etc. All these
Services have different types of data traffic that converge the existing network.
To resolve these entire problems we need to have an IP based network. Because
IP network supports all kinds technology and its easy to maintain and use

(Sinnreich & Johnston 2006). The idea of convergence in telecom can be killed
By the Internet bubble. So there is no reason to have separate networks.

(Sinnreich & Johnston, 2006, pp. 1-9, 39-52).

6.1. This Project is for What Purpose?


The purpose of this project is to develop a simulation based next Generation
Network that will be able to provide efficient, reliable & secure service whatever
The new technology demands. N-G-N will be designed for both wired and
Wireless communication. The network will be divided in three levels are

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The core network will be designed to support IP-MPLS (internet protocolmulti protocol label switching)
The transport network will be designed to support ATM/FRAME -RELAY
The access network will be designed to support DSL, ADSL (2, 2+), VDSL ,
WIMAX, VOIP, UMTS, 4G , GSM, GPRS, Satellite communication, DVB,
DAB, IP TV, cable network, etc.

7. Overview of the Project


Modern enterprise network design focuses on achieving high availability,
Security and scalability. It also follows a certain design methodology to achieve
These objectives. So the any new technology in future should not interfere with
Existing network principles and mechanisms. To deliver the proper connectivity
Level, a virtualized network must follow the same design principles that can
Provide the required resiliency, security & scalability in local, metropolitan, and
Wide-area networks (Moreno, Reddy 2006).

Basically in this project I am trying to analyse the drawbacks, Compatibility and


Possibility of existing access, transport and core network. After the research I
Will try to design and test a simulation based network that will be able to meet
Todays and next generation business demand .

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8. Analysis of Existing Network Infrastructure


Before designing my simulation based N -G-N, I wanted to survey existing
Network infrastructures that that will help me to design and implement n -g-n
To support new technologies. So I have done analysis on the following:
Technologies those uses current network (core, transport, access)
Infrastructures
How different types network traffic flows on the network
Research on OPNET and its advantages
The diagram below shows what an enterprise does look like.

Fig 1: Todays telecom networks (Stephen, 2005, P. 2)

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Here I am trying to find out how technologies work in access network to core
Network one after another.

8.1. ACCESS NETWORK:


From the diagram above we ca n see how different types of communication take
Places in access networks. I have categories the access network to the
Followings networks are
PSTN
Leased Line (ISDN BRI/PRI)
XDSL
Wireless Broadband (WIMAX)
Mobile (GSM, GPRS, 3G, 4G)

8.1.1. Public Switched Telephone Network ( PSTN):


In 1876 Alexander Graham Bell developed the first telephone voice system .
Nowadays PSTN uses SS7 (signal system 7) for the call because it includes many
Of the managed service information for each call. In 1975 AT&T developed SS7
And implemented in 1980 as a worldwide PSTN standard by ITU (International
Telecommunication Union). PSTN cables made up of twisted copper wire and it
Is connected from end user house to Local loop. Local loops are connected to
A central office by local exchange Carrier. When people make call a Direct
Pipeline for voice data is established between the two telephones (Michael,
Wagner & James, 2002) .

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Fig: Architecture of the Public Switched Telephone Network (Green, 2002, P.6)

The main features of circuit switched -architectures is that it uses PCM (A H


Reeves, 1938) method to Sample Analogue voice signal into a digital signal in
Both sides and TDM to distribute signals by a single telephone line . (Forouzan,
2003, pp. 278-290). The diagram below shows how a PSTN call works.

Fig: PSTN call flow (Jonathan, Brian, James; 2001, p. 15)

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8.1.1.1. Evaluation:
During the call, connection needs to establish in every switch as well as in every
Central control unit. Connection is also needed in all networks in the path
Between the parties. These connections require expensive Processing and
Memory in all network components where connection is kept. If the network fails
It requires standby equipment and entire standby network paths.

8.1.2. Leased line (ISDN BRI/PRI):


Leased line uses ISDN to build connection between public network subscribers
And private network subscriber to make communication possible.

8.1.2.1. Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN):


It allows digital signal to be transmit ted over existing telephone line. It Provides
End-to-end digital Connectivity to support a wide range of services (Alexis S.,
2007, pp. 1-26).

Fig: ISDN network infrastructure (Alexis S., 2007, p. 4) .


There are two Types of ISDN are:
ISDN BRI
ISDN PRI
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8.1.2.1.1. ISDN BRI (Basic Rate Interface):


It has 2 Bearer Channels of 64 Kbps and one D (Delta) Channel of 16 Kbps for
Signaling and control information. It also use 48 Kbps for framing and
Synchronization (2B + 1D). it can carry altogether 128+16+48=192 Kbps

(Alexis S., 2007, pp. 1-26).

Fig: details of ISDN BRI (Alexis S., 2007, p. 21)

8.1.2.1.2. ISDN PRI (Primary Rate Interface):


In North America PRI provide s 23B + 1D (T1) channel and the D channel is 64Kbps. T1 can carry 1.544 mbps. In Europe PRI Provides 30B + 1D (E1) channel
And the D channel is 64 -kbps. So E1 can carry 2.048 Mbps. It also use packet
Switching. It was design for broadband network (Alexis S., 2007, pp. 1 -26).

Fig: details ISDN PRI (Alexis S., 2007, p. 21)

8.1.2.1.3. Evaluation:
BRI is more expensive and slower than DSL and cable . ISDN with its current
Form is no longer a first-choice technology. ISDN switches are connected over
PSTN so it is difficult to design and confirm a robust security model to protect
The network. The main disadvantage of this method is the extra administrative
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Overhead required to support the remote user . Connectivity is affected by
Speed, cost, distance, and availability (Alexis S., 2007, pp. 1 -26).

8.1.3. Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) and its Versions:


Few years ago telephone industry used to provide 56 kbps that time cable TV
Industry was offering 10 mbps speed on shared cables . So telephone Company
Started to offer digital service over the local loop. It was designed to provide
Flexible, efficient, high-speed service across the existing telephony infrastructure
(Tanenbaum 2003, pp. 130-136). The diagram below explain how it works .

Fig: frequency spectrum of the twisted pair cable includes DSL through
ADSL2+ (Frenzel & Louis E, 2007, p. 49)

8.1.3.1. Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL):


From the local telephone exchange an ADSL circuits connects to ADSL modem
In customers premise by PSTN cable. ADSL creates 3 Information Channel: a
High speed downstream channel, a medium speed duplex channel and a plain
Old telephone service (POT) channel. Filter splits the POTS channel from
Modems and guarantees uninterrupted POTS (Shepard, 2005, PP. 293 -299).

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Fig: layout of typical ADSL (Tanenbaum, 2003, p. 133)

8.1.3.2. Improvements of ADSL are shown below:

Fig: common version of A DSL (Frenzel & Louis E, 2007, p.50)

8.1.3.3. Evaluation:
ADSL technology is designed for residential users and it is not suitable for
(Franklin, 2007) business. If the connection's length increases the signal quality
Decreases and The connection speed goes down. The maximum distance from
Local-loop for ADSL service is 5,460 Meters.

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8.1.4. WIRELESS BROADBAND:


In this section I will try to explain how wireless broadband works and it problems

Fig: the wireless universe (Josh & Mark, 2007, p.7)

8.1.4.1. Wireless Personal Area Network ( WPAN):


It is a wireless data network works between devices close to each other. It
Works well in short ranges (10m). Examples of WPAN technologies are
Bluetooth, UWB (ultra-wide band), Zigbee. The diagram below shows OSI and
Bluetooth protocol together .

Fig: OSI and Bluetooth protocols (IEEE Std 802.15.1, 2005, p. 523)

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Bluetooth networking standard works at two levels:
Both devices need to agree at the physical level
Both devices need to agree at the protocol level - here devices have to
Agree before bits are sent and how many will be sent at a time , etc.
The older Bluetooth 1.0 standard has a maximum transfer speed of 1 megabit
Per second, as Bluetooth 2.0 can manage up to 3Mbps (Layton & Franklin 2007) .

8.1.4.1.1. Evaluation:
In WPAN I tried to analyse only Bluetooth because currently it is most commonly
Used technology. Bluetooth range is limited (10 to 100M). Its data transfer
Speed is not enough for some applications (Tanenbaum, 2003, p. 310-316).

8.1.4.2. Wireless Local Area Network ( WLAN):


It is a radio-based data network to communicate between wireless devices. It
Covers (100 metres) small area like a home, an office or part of a campus. The
Diagram below explains all 802.11 standards set by IEEE and the comparisons of
802.11a/b/g (Cisco Systems, 2006, pp. 6 -35 to 6-56).

Fig: IEEE 802.11 standards and comparisons of 802.11 a/b/g (Cisco Systems,
2006, pp. 6-56 & 6-54)
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The 802.11a is not compatible with 802.11b devices. Although 802.11a/b/g has
Standard data rates but not all devices receive this.

8.1.4.2.1. Evaluation:
WLAN is unreliable because anyone can use and abuse it. It also interfered by
Electrical & non-electrical objects. It is not a good choice if reliable network
Is required. WLAN data rates slower than wired connection (Cisco Systems,
2006, pp. 6-35 to 6-56).

8.1.4.3. Wireless Metropolitan Area Network ( WMAN):


It was designed by IEEE for digital telephony, Internet access and connection of
Two remote LANs, television and radio broadcasting, and other uses. It is a data
Network that cover up to several kilometres. Its an IP based network
(Tanenbaum, 2003, PP. 302-310).

Fig: 802.16 transmission envir onment (A) & 802.16 protocols layer (B) (Loutfi N,
2007, chapter- 1.3 & 3.1)
WIMAX operates at 10 to 66 GHz standard with point to point and mesh

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Topology. It also supports device interoperability so carriers can use multiple
Vendors products (Loutfi N, 2007, chapter- 1 & 3). It allows wireless ISPs to
Take over market with minimum investment then offer a complete package of
Services to customers. WIMAX will compete cable modem and DSL very soon.

Fig: WIMAX evolution (Shepard, 2005, p.361)

8.1.4.3.1. Evaluation:
WIMAX spectrum changes from one country to another . The frequency spectrum
Of WIMAX should be cheaper than 3G (Loutfi N, 2007, chapter- 1 & 3). It is a
Open system as many algorithms are left for the vendor and connections
Between network. This is probably an advantage but it may create some
Interoperability problems in future.

8.1.4.4. Wireless Wide Area Network ( WWAN):


It is a data network covers wide geographical area. The most presently used
WAN is the Internet network. Here I will analyse only satellite Network.

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8.1.4.4.1. Communication satellite:


It has some transponders. They listen part of the spectrum and amplify the
Incoming signal. Then rebroadcast signal in another frequency to avoid
Interference with the incoming signal . The Downside beam covers a large part of
The earth's surface. The diagram below shows how communication takes place
Between satellites in space, ground and principles of satellite bands.
(Tanenbaum, 2003, PP. 111-116)

Fig: relaying in space; relay ing on the ground; principle satellite band
(Tanenbaum, 2003, PP. 111 & 116)

8.1.4.4.1.1. Evaluation:
One disadvantage of geosynchronous satellites is their orbital altitude. The
Typical transit time for the signal from the ground to the satellite is nearly half a
Second, this is a significant propagation delay for many services like voice and
Video (Tanenbaum, 2003, PP. 111-116).

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8.1.5. MOBILE:
In this section I will try to examine how 1G, 2G, 3G works. GSM is a technology
Mainly used for voice transmission in addition to low -speed Data transmission.
The most important GSM evolutions are:
GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) - It is the packet-switched evolution
Of GSM
EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution) it includes link or digital
Modulation efficiency adaptation. (Loutfi N, 2007, chapter 1.1)

8.1.5.1. 3G (Third Generation Mobile):


3G systems in Europe and Japan are UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication
System) technology and in America is cdma2000 technology (Hwa H & Guizani
M, 2006, pp. 118-159). The diagram below shows overview of 3G.

Fig: an overview of 3G CDMA2000 1x-EV-DO network (Hwa H & Guizani M,


2006, pp. 152)

The main differences between 2G & 3G technologies is downlink speed, average


User throughput for file download, capacity, etc. the diagram below shows the
Difference between them

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Fig: Comparison of capabilities for different 2.5 3G technologies (Hwa H &


Guizani M, 2006, pp. 159)

8.1.5.1.1. Evaluation:
First and second generation devices cannot do soft-handoff. In 800 MHz radio
waves travel in straight lines and are absorbed by trees and plants and reflect on
The ground and buildings. So echo or signal distortion can happen. The first
Versions of 3G are not all-IP network. (Hwa H & Guizani M, 2006, pp. 118 -159)

8.2. METRO AND CORE NETWORK:


Metro and core network are actually WAN. Nowadays these two networks
Commonly uses Frame-Relay and ATM. The diagram below shows the
Evolution of WAN.

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Fig: Evolution of WAN Technologies (Alexis S, 2007, p. 3)

Here I will analyse the followings networks and their drawbacks


Frame-relay
ATM

8.2.1. Frame-Relay:
It is connection oriented and maximum frame length is 4096 bytes. It provides
high data rates at user -network interfaces (2 to 45 Mbps) . It can combine
services of leased lines, circuit and packet Transport (Alexis S, 2007, p. 6 -38).

Fig: overview of Frame-relay network and frame header (Alexis S, 2007, p. 6)

8.2.1.1. Evaluation:
It can cause latency on slow links. It is expensive. It has no flow control & error
Control (only FCS) mechanisms. It has no standards for physical interface
(Alexis S, 2007, p. 6 -38).
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8.2.2. ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode):


Todays core network is fully dependant on ATM. It is connection oriented. These
Connections are called virtual circuit. It transmits all information in fixed -sized
Packets called cells. The cells are 53 bytes long (header 5, payload 48). The
Diagram below shows ATM reference model, its layer and functions (Tanenbaum
2003, PP. 62-65)

Fig: the ATM Reference Model , layer, sub layer and functions (Tanenbaum 2003,
PP. 64 & 65)

8.2.2.1. Evaluation:
Cell delivery is not guaranteed but their order is guaranteed. If cells 1 and 2 are
Sent in order they will arrive in that order, never first 2 then 1. But both of them
Can be lost along the way. Although this guarantee is not perfect, it is better
than what Internet provides. ATM guarantees never to deliver cells out of order.

9. Summary of Existing Network Infrastructure


After analyzing exiting network infrastructure I gained some valuable
Knowledge about communication systems . Interoperability & convergence of
Telecom networks is the main problem. Currently we have four types of
Networks (Data, voice, mobile, television ). These network could be divided into
Many incompatible regional and country-specific network with different protocol.
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They are incompatible and impossible to integrate into one single network.

Fig: converged network overview (ETSI NGN -London, 2006)


New radio technologies for the so -called 4 th generation (4G), Wi-Fi and WIMAX,
All Modern mobile networks will become just one wireless access mechanism to
The Internet. Internet expands the destination for new applications and services
Instantly to the whole world. (Sinnreich & Johnston, 2006, pp. 1-10, 39-52)

To solve these convergence problems we need an entire IP based network . IMS


(IP based multimedia system) is the best platform for convergence (ETSI NGNMoscow, 2006). IMS provides access to IP based services independent of the
Connectivity mobile and fixed networks . It also is capable for basic voice call
(ETSI NGN-London, 2006).

10. The Gantt Chart for N-G-N Project 2007-08


To keep the project on track a schedule is important. The schedule
Made for the project detailed every task, brok en down to individual
Milestones. I Keep track of project progress through project meetings with my
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Project supervisor. The project supervisor indicate the potential problems as
Soon as they are identified because the earlier a problem is identified, th e
More time there is to fix it.
The Gantt Chart for N-G-N Project 2007-08
2007

2008

RESEARCH ON
EXISTING NETWORK
INFRASTRUCTURE
PROJECT PROPOSAL
AND PLAN
OPNET SOFTWARE
INSTALLATION
RESEARCH ON N-G-N
DESIGN N-G-N USING
OPNET
IMPLEMENT AND
TEST N-G-N IN OPNET
DRAFT REPORT
DEMONSTRATION
PREPARATION
FINAL REPORT
PRESENTATION
PREPARATION
Fig: The Gantt chart for the project

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11. OPNET IT Guru


11.1. What is OPNET IT GURU?
It is a network simulation application that provides a virtual network
Environment. Using OPNET it is easy to generate test scenarios. In OPNET we
Can create new node models to define the structures for: Mobile Station, Serving
GPRS support Node, Gateway , etc. (OPNET technologies Inc, 2007)

11.2. Why OPNET IT Guru?


It can simulate, design and test the entire ne twork including hardware devices
Such as server, switches, protocols, routers and individual applications, etc.
Network planner, IT manager and network administrator are now able to solve
All the difficult problem more effectively and validate changes before starting a
Real implementation. If we start implementing a network before simulate, it
Costs a lot to change any part of the network and waste time. All data are
Available to access network performance . (OPNET technologies Inc, 2007)

11.3. Advantages of OPNET IT Guru


Risk Reduction
It performs security checks, simulate failure and overload condition which
Organizations are needed to increase their visibility required that minimize
The risks. (OPNET IT Senitel TM, 2007)
Capital Cost Reduction
It provides an understanding and the performance of network to IT
Developers. This performance of the network impact can cause
Achievement in investment with less expense. (OPNET IT-GuruTM, 2007)
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Business Productivity Increase
It improves application respons e times by solving applications network
Congestion and supporting smooth application deployments since worker
Are dependent on application to perform their work. (OPNET Ace TM, 2007)
Operational efficiency Improvement
It provides structured, repeatable, d iagnostic and validation functions
Which IT organizations are dependent to solve technical problem .
(OPNET IT-GuruTM, 2007)

Research Skills

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Md. Ahsan Ullah

12. References:
12.1. SEMINER/LECTURE:
Alexis S. (2007) Lecture to B Sc Computer Networks students, advanced Topics in
networks, University of East London, 23 rd October, 30 October
Apakoh E. (2007) Lecture to BSc Computer Networks students, advanced Topics in
networks, University of East London, 7 th Nov

12.2. JOURNAL:
Dirk & Paul (1998) the Feature and Se rvice Interaction Problem in Telecommunications
Systems: A Survey, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 24(10), pp. 779-796.
The ACM digital library [Online]. Available at:
http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=297265 (Accessed: 15 October 2007).
Frenzel & Louis E (2007), DSL Dominates Broadband Worldwide Electronic Design,
55(7), pp. 49, 50. EBSCO [Online]. Available at:
http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=buh&AN=24927671&site=ehos
t-live (Accessed: 25 October 2007).
Josh, Mark (2007), Making Sense of WiMAX, Telecommunications - Americas Edition,
41(11 supplement); p.7. EBSCO [Online]. Available at:
http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=buh&AN=27393002&site=ehos
t-live (Accessed: 02 November 2007).
Michael, Wagner & James (2002), A conjoint analysis of voice over IP attributes,
internet research, 12(1), emerald [Online]. Available at:
http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/viewPDF.jsp?Filename=html/Output/Published/E
meraldFullTextArticle/Pdf/1720120101.pdfU (Accessed: 18 October 2007).

12.3. BOOK:
Bianco & Neri (eds.) (2003), Next Generation Optical Network Design and Modelling , 1st
edn, Springer [Online]. Available at:
http://books.google.com/books?id=mPybNUesXdYC&pg=PT1&lpg=PT1&dq=today's+com
munication+network+infrastructures&source=web&ots=3lfhi1vbzh&sig=pq73IkgRhIs1 yIvZvGcJ19wILQ#PPR9,M1 (Accessed: 17 October 2007)
Cisco Systems (2006), Building Cisco multilayer switched networks, volume 2, version
3.0, Cisco Press

Research Skills

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Md. Ahsan Ullah
Forouzan (2003), Data communication and networking, 3rd edn, McGraw-Hill
Science/Engineering/Math
Green (2002), Introduction to Access Technologies, Access Technologies: DSL and
Cable, 1 st edn, McGraw-Hill Education, pp. 1 -14
Hwa H & Guizani M (2006), next generation wireless systems and n etworks, John Wiley
& Sons
Loutfi N (2007), WiMAX: Technology for Broadband Wireless Access , chapter 1.3 & 3.1,
John Wiley & Sons
Moreno, Reddy (2006), designing scalable network, Network Virtualization , 1st edition,
Cisco Press
Shepard (2005), Access Technologies, Telecom Crash Course , 2nd Edn, McGraw-Hill
Professional, PP. 293 -299, 361
Sinnreich & Johnston (2006), Internet Communications Using SIP: Delivering VoIP and
Multimedia Services with Session Initiation Protocol , 2nd edn, John Wiley & Sons
Tanenbaum (2003), computer networks, 4th edn, Prentice Hall PTR

12.4. WWW:
Franklin (2007), Asymmetric DSL, Available at:
http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/dsl1.htm (Accessed: 28 October 2007).
IEEE Std 802.15.1 (2005), chapter 15.1 -802 interfaces, P. 523; [N. B. to view the
PDF file please go to the bottom of the URL and select user type academic/student then
press accept download button] Available at:
http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/download/802.15.1 -2005.pdf (Accessed: 06
November 2007)
Jonathan, Brian, James (2001), Overview of the PSTN and Comparisons to Voice over
IP, P. 5-18; Available at:
http://www.ciscopress.com/content/images/chap01_1578701686/elementLinks/157870
1686CH01.pdf (Accessed: 19 October 2007).
Layton & Franklin (2007), How Bluetooth Creates a Connection, How Bluetooth works,
Available at: http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/bluetooth1.htm (Accessed: 14
November 2007)
Stephen Unger (2005), NICC open forum, P. 2, Available at:
http://www.nicc.org.uk/nicc -public/Public/open_forums/steve_unger.pdf (Accessed: 19
October 2007).

Research Skills

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The white house - USA (2003), Cyberspace Threats and Vulnerabilities: A Case for
Action, Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/pcipb/cyberspace_strateg y.pdf
(Accessed: 18 October 2007).
OPNET technologies Inc. (2007), OPNET annual report, Available at:
http://www.opnet.com/corporate/investor_relations/annual_reports/opnet_2007_ar.pdf
(Accessed: 28 November 2007).
OPNET Ace TM (2007), OPNET Ace, Available at:
http://www.opnet.com/solutions/brochures/Ace.pdf (Accessed: 29 November 2007).
OPNET IT Senitel TM (2007), OPNET IT Senitel, Available at:
http://www.opnet.com/solutions/brochures/IT%20Sentinel.pdf (Accessed: 29 November
2007).
OPNET IT-Guru TM (2007), OPNET IT Guru, Available at:
http://www.opnet.com/solutions/brochures/ITGuru.pdf (Accessed: 29 November 2007).
ETSI NGN-London (2006), ETSI NGN Presentation London, Available at:
http://portal.etsi.org/docbox/TISPAN/Open/Information/NGN_Pres entations/FMC_Londo
n_NGN.ppt (Accessed: 30 November 2007).
ETSI NGN-Moscow (2006), ETSI NGN Presentation Moscow , Available at:
http://portal.etsi.org/docbox/TISPAN/Open/Information/NGN_Presentations/Boswarthick
_for_Moscow.ppt (Accessed: 30 November 2007).

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