Sie sind auf Seite 1von 10

MECH 423 Casting, Welding, Heat

Treating and NDT

Time: _ T _ J _13:15 - 14:45

Credits: 3.5

Review

Lecture 13

Grading

Assessment Criteria

Share towards final

Presentation

  • 10 %

  • 10 %

Lab (preliminary and final)

  • 10 %

  • 10 %

Assignments (4)

  • 15 %

  • 15 %

Exams:

(with Midterm)

(without Midterm)

Midterm (optional)

  • 15 %

0%

Final

50 %

65%

Total

100%

100%

Final Lab report due on 9 th December

Assignment 4 and project report due today

Final

Closed book exam for 3 hours

80 marks

 

15 True or False questions (1 mark each)

15 multiple choice questions (1 mark each)

10 small questions (2 marks each)

3 questions, that require design, calculations or

explanation, of which you attend 2 questions (15 marks each) Relevant formulae and pictures will be given along

with the question paper

Writing Strategy

Questions will be similar to the ones in the assignments

Answers, it will be better to be crisp looking at all the

possibilities of the questions in full No bonus for lengthy answers

I will be marking based on keywords for example

Preparing Strategy

Casting

Types, classifications, relative advantages and limitations, considerations, techniques etc.

Heat Treatment

 

Types, classifications, relative advantages and limitations, considerations, techniques etc.

Welding

Types, classifications, relative advantages and limitations, considerations,

 

techniques etc.

NDT

Types, classifications, relative advantages and limitations, considerations,

techniques etc.

Weld Zones Prediction

Weld Zones Prediction Lecture 11 The various microstructural zones formed in fusion welds between a pure
Weld Zones Prediction Lecture 11 The various microstructural zones formed in fusion welds between a pure

Lecture 11

The various microstructural zones formed

in fusion welds

between a pure metal (right) and an alloy (alloy).

Schematic of the distinct zones in a fusion weld in a pure metal (a)

and an alloy (c)

as these correspond to phase regions in the hypothetical phase diagram shown (b).

6

Simplified Welding Equations

Peak Temperatures in solid metal:

where:

1

T T

P

0

2

e

0.5

Chy

H

net

1

T T

m

0

T 0 = temperature of workpiece at start of welding (K) T P = Peak temperature at distance y from fusion boundary (K) T m = melting temperature (or liquidus) of metal being welded (K) = density of metal (g.m -3 ) C = specific heat (J.g -1 .K -1 ) H net = heat input (J.m -1 ) = q/v = EI/v for arc welding processes h = thickness of base material (m) e = base of natural logarithms (2.718) y = distance form fusion zone (= 0 at the fusion zone, where T P = T m ) (m)

Simplified Welding Equations Peak Temperatures in solid metal: where: 1  T  T P 0

Simplified Welding Equations

Solidification rate

The rate at which weld metal solidifies can have a strong effect

on microstructure and properties. Solidification time, S t , in seconds:

where:

S

t

LH

net

2

 

k C T T

m

0

2

L = Latent heat of fusion (J/m 3 ) T 0 = temperature of workpiece at start of welding (K) T m = melting temperature (or liquidus) of metal being welded (K) k = thermal conductivity (J.m -1 .s -1 . K -1 ) = density of metal (g.m -3 ) C = specific heat (J.g -1 .K -1 ) H net = heat input (J.m -1 ) = q/v = EI/v for arc welding processes

Simplified Welding Equations

Cooling Rates

Final metallurgical state of FZ and HAZ is primarily determined by cooling rates. Affects fineness/coarseness of grains, homogeneity, phases,

microconstituents etc. Especially in steels where some phase

transformations are dependent on cooling rate (fast cooling can produce hard, brittle martensite).

For a single pass in a butt joint between

thick plates (> 6 passes) of equal thickness:

where:

R

2

k T

C

T

0

2

H

net

R = cooling rate at the weld centreline (K/s) T 0 = initial temperature of workpiece (K) T C = temperature at which cooling rate is calculated (K) k = thermal conductivity (J.m -1 .s -1 . K -1 ) H net = heat input (J.m -1 ) = q/v = EI/v for arc welding processes

Simplified Welding Equations

For thin plates ( < 4 passes):

where:

R

k C

 

2

h

H

net

2

T T

C

0

R = cooling rate at the weld centreline (K/s) T 0 = initial temperature of workpiece (K) T C = temperature at which cooling rate is calculated (K) k = thermal conductivity (J.m -1 .s -1 . K -1 ) = density of metal (g.m -3 ) C = specific heat (J.g -1 .K -1 ) C = volumetric specific heat (J.m -1 .K -1 ) H net = heat input (J.m -1 ) = q/v = EI/v for arc welding processes

Note: increasing the initial temperature, T 0 , (by preheating) decreases the cooling rate,R.