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Module 5:
Mass transfer in turbulant flows

Lecture 39:
Transport in Turbulent Flow: Universal
Velocity Profile

NPTEL,IITKharagpur,Prof.SaikatChakraborty,DepartmentofChemicalEngineering

Universal Velocity Profile


For fully developed turbulent flow near a smooth wall: Good for pipe flow as well as boundary
layers.

v+ =

U x + yU *
,y =
U*
v

with

u* =

(4.12)

Where y is the distance from wall and Shear stress 0 deduced from pressure drop measurements.

Near the wall =>

u+ y+

y+ < 5

(4.13)

NPTEL,IITKharagpur,Prof.SaikatChakraborty,DepartmentofChemicalEngineering

u + 2.5ln y + + 5.5

Far from wall =>

y + > 20

(4.14)

In the logarithmic region

ux = 2.5

/
0

ln y + (2.5ln 0
+ 5.5) 0

(4.15)

Viscosity enters only in the additive constant term

Eddy viscosity

(t )
xy

Assuming that

(t )

u x
y

xy 0 (i.e. not very far from wall)

Then,

u x + (t ) du +
=
0 = ( + )
0 +
y
dy

(t )

(t ) du +
(1 +
) + =1
dy

(4.16)

NPTEL,IITKharagpur,Prof.SaikatChakraborty,DepartmentofChemicalEngineering

(t )
(1 +
) is a universal function of y+ .

Measured velocity profiles do not give information for ( t ) near the wall since (t ) << in that
region.

NPTEL,IITKharagpur,Prof.SaikatChakraborty,DepartmentofChemicalEngineering

Mass Transfer in Turbulent Flow

(t )
D =v =

(t )

It is common to assume

and

(t )

(4.17)

J iy(t ) = turbulent mass flux = ciuy = D(t )

ci
y

Near the wall ( y + < 5) v (t ) << v


No info on (t) can be gathered very near wall.
(t )
(t )
But if Sc>>1 (i.e. >>Di), it is necessary to know D(t) closer to the wall. Thus, even if v = D ,
(t )
we can have at some distant D >> Di , even where v

(t )

<< v , if Sc >> 1 .

Thus much of our information about D (t ) (and possibly v ( t ) ) near the wall comes from mass transfer
experiments.
For example, in a pipe

St =

Di
ci
|r = R
< u z > ci r

For Sc >> 1, if D

(t )

Sh
Re Sc

~ y n St ~ Sc

(4.18)
1 n
n

where n = 2,3, 4,...

NPTEL,IITKharagpur,Prof.SaikatChakraborty,DepartmentofChemicalEngineering

NPTEL,IITKharagpur,Prof.SaikatChakraborty,DepartmentofChemicalEngineering