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Plate Tectonics

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Ramiro Armenta

Subject: SMT 416 (grade 8th)


Teacher: Mr.Armenta

Date: 11-07-15
School: CSUDH

1. Objective: We will finally transition from Earthquakes to Plate


tectonics. So what is something we know about plate tectonics(wait
for respond). Basically slabs of earth crust that move about the ocean.
Does anyone know about Continental drift? Continental Drift is the idea
that continent particularly south America and Africa fit together like
pieces of a jigsaw puzzle. Idea came about around the 1600s. Alfred
Wegener German meteorologist, came out with idea of supercontinent
know asPangea. Later proclaim that this supercontinent broke
apart, to what is known and they slowly drifted apart. Wegener found
evidence for his theory in the Jigsaw Puzzle, meaning he looked at the
coastline of the continents and found they count fit just like a puzzle.
He then used fossils to support his theory, by showing that identical
fossils organism had been discoveries in rocks from both South
America and Africa. Some of these fossils where those of Mesosaurus,
and Lystrosaurus. Wegener would then find more evidence in rocks. He
noticed that the igneous rock found in Brazil was very similar to that of
Africa. His last evidential support came from ancient climates.
But many refuse his claims, and disagree that continent do not break
though the ocean floor and tidal energy is too weak to cause continent
to be displaced.
Theory of Plate Tectonics- following ww2 new technology in scanning
the ocean floor for submarines allowed us to graph the bottom of the
sea, and this provided new material for the theory of continental drift.
Data collected from rock magnetism the distribution of earthquakes
and mapping of the sea floor gave us this theory, that Earth
lithosphere is broken into several large rigid slabs called lithospheric
plates, and that they are in constant motion. Remember the
lithosphere and asthenosphere, well the lithosphere sits on top and the
asthenosphere at the bottom. Asthenosphere is hot and weaker and.
There are 7 major lithospheric plates:N America, S America, Pacific,
African, Eurasia, Australian-Indian, and Antarctic plate.

Plate Tectonics

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Ramiro Armenta

Keep in mind tthe plates are in constant motion so any interactions


between them happen along their boundaries. There are 3 different
types of boundaries. 1)Divergent plate boundaries (constructive
margins) two plates move apart, result in upwelling of hot new material
from the mantel to create new sea floor. 2)Convergent plate
boundaries (destructive margins) two plates move together, result in
oceanic lithosphere descending into mantle or possible n the collision
of two continental block to create a mountain belt. 3) Transform plate
boundaries (conservative margins) two plates grind past each other
without the production or destruction of lithosphere. (hint hint we have
a.plate)

Divergent plate boundaries are mostly located in the crest of the oceanic
ridges (show in map). Remember this is when new sea floor is created and
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Plate Tectonics

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Ramiro Armenta

this is what pushes the plates, this can also be referred to spreading
centers. There are some that happen in land and those are called rift
valley. Seafloor spreading is the mechanism that operates along the
oceanic ridge. Continental rift is when land is split and water then comes
in and it continues moving apart allowing for a new narrow sea.
Convergent plate boundaries are also called subduction zones, because
thats where the lithosphere is being submerge into the mantle. Deep
ocean trenches are the surfaced manifestation produced as oceanic
lithosphere descends into the mantle. Most important we must know is
that convergent boundaries can form between two oceanic plates, one
oceanic plate and one continental plate or two continental plates.

Oceanic continental convergence most denser slab sinks into the


mantle, when they come in contact. It continues movie down until it
reaches a certain temperature, heats up and it goes.(up). Forming a
volcanic line above the melting point, from there ever spot in the
mountain has the same amount of space from the volcanic structure to
the subduction zone. The volcanoes are called continental volcanic arcs.
Oceanic-Oceanic convergence Very similar to oceanic continental
convergence, one goes underneath the other slab, and mental and
creates are called volcanic island arcs or island arcs. Show example of
Himalayas mountains.
Continental continental convergence Collison between two converging
plates, that usually result in mountain belt composed of deformed
sedimentary and metamorphic rocks.

Plate Tectonics

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Ramiro Armenta

Transformed plate boundaries also called a transform fault, plates slide


past one another without the production or destruction of lithosphere.
Fracture zones are part of prominent linear breaks in the seafloor.
How can we test theory of plate tectonics? By several methods, such as
Ocean Drilling, deep sea drilling was used to gather info from the floor in
order to established its age. They found that when the ocean floor spread,
its spreads almost identically the same, so the older sea floor is away
from the center, where we have new sea floor. (show picture)

We can also prove plate tectonics by Mantle Plumes and hot spots. Simple
terms, we have an hot spot in Hawaii, as the plates move, it creates new
islands. The islands are considered a hot spot track as we can clearly see
their line formation and new island being made. (Disney short film show.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uh4dTLJ9q9o) We can also use
Paleomagnetism to prove this by, studying the magnetism of rocks. This
has to do in relation to the Earth Polaris, North and South.
So what makes plates move? What makes plates move is the hot mantle
rocks that rise and cold dense oceanic lithosphere sink. (example of hot
water) This process is called convection. Meaning material is pushed
upward and then sinks once it cools and the process begins all over again.
Slap pull, is agreement that subduction of cold dense slabs of ocean in
lithosphere is a major driving force of plate motion.
2. Learning Targets: As a result of this lesson, students will know that
plate tectonics and continental drift are different and that one came
out of the other. They will learn some pre-history as in when and why
was deep sea graphing introduced. Students will know the 7 most
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Plate Tectonics

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Ramiro Armenta

important lithosphere plates. (check back on top for all second)


Students will know the 3 different types of boundaries. Students will be
able to identify all 3 and know in which direction the plates move.
Students will also be able to identify all convergent plate boundaries.
Most important student will be able to show examples of how the plate
tectonic theory is supported. By this I mean they should be able to
know paleomagnetism, Mantle plumes and hot spots, Ocean drifting,
the jigsaw puzzle (Pangea), fossils and rock formations. Student should
also know in which direction sea floor spreading happen and be able to
list the new and old sea floor.
3. Relevance/Rationale: The important of this lesson is to bring more
awareness about our world to the students. This is also important
because in case of Emergency, student will be well inform that if and
when a disaster happen they will be able to comprehend what the
meteorologist and new cast will be talking about. Its also important to
know how certain things in our world are created, the beauty,
destruction behind such as the Himalayans mountains, the creation of
island in Hawaii, and so forth. Its also important to give students the
real knowledge of plate tectonics and have them stop believing that
continental drift is factual. Students should also know why it happens
and the evidence behind it, as the world will be left in their hands, and
maybe they could find more correlations aside from volcanoes and
earthquakes within the faults and plates.
4. Formative Assessment Criteria for success: The real way I would be
able to check for comprehension would be through worksheets. I would
either decide in given them for homework or in class activity, where
they could use their book if needed. I would have a worksheet with the
pictures of all 3 different boundaries type and I would have them label
then and show in which direction the plates move. I would have a map
in front of class with the 7 different major plates and I would have
students identify them. I would then make a game out of the lesson
two. Since its too much information that is to be cover, I would do a
multiple choice game. Split class in half, and would ask question about
the lesson, in regards to proving plate tectonics. Such as is
Paleomagnetism a way of proving plate tectonics yes or no? I would
then go further in and ask more questions. I would then give a quiz at
end of week. Similar as to label and draw and list items such as the
plate boundaries.
5. Activities / Task: Some activities we would do are to play games. I
would have them color and label the major plates. I would show the
short film of lave from Pixar to demonstrate hot spots. I would have
students make their own Pangea. I would have then color their own
continent and then paste them together to show what it would look
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Plate Tectonics

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Ramiro Armenta

like. I would also show little experiment with hot water and pot and
sponges, and bring to boil so the sponges would move to show how
plates move.
6. Resources/Materials: colors, paper (world pictures), construction paper,
scissors, glue, computer for short film, book, hot plate, water, sponges,
container for little experiment.