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Xiang Haifan, et al.

Compiled by
Xiang Haifan
Xiao Rucheng, Xu Liping, Shi Xuefei
Ge Yaojun, Wei Hongyi, Han Zhenyong
Shen Hongyan, Qu Yue

Publisher of Engineering and Computer Books

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Book Title: Conceptual Design of Bridges

Author: Xiang Haifan, et al.
Editor-in-Charge: Shen Hongyan, Qu Yue
Originally Published By: China Communications Press
Copyright 2011 by China Communication Press
Version No.: First Edition in June 2011
Printing No.: Firstly Printed in June 2011
Book No.: ISBN 978-7-114-08864-3
Cataloguing in Publication (CIP) Data
Conceptual Design of Bridges / Edited by Shen Hongyan, Qu Yue Beijing: China Communications Press, June 2011.
Original ISBN 978-7-114-08864-3
I. bridge II item III Bridge Engineering - Design IV. U442. 5
Chinese version Library CIP (2011), No. 008931
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After the 1952 adjustment, Chinas Higher Education in Science and Technology basically
inherited the former Soviet system, namely, establishing universities corresponding to
industrial sections. Engineering Colleges were grouped into civil engineering, electrical
and mechanical engineering, hydraulic engineering, chemicals, mining, aviation, geology,
transportation and other colleges to meet the industrial needs for engineers and
technicians. Arts and Sciences were combined into general university, resulting in the
separation of engineering and Arts and Sciences, an unfavorable situation for engineering
In the 1950s and 1960s, most engineering textbooks translated from the former Soviet
Union. Those were teaching materials with practicality in mind, i.e., students were taught
to design according to design specifications. Since the reform and opening up, department
setup started to follow the discipline line and became to follow the international system,
but the industrys influence remained. In the new textbook Bridge Project published in
2004, all articles, chapters, sections arranged basically inherited the former Soviet Union
old textbooks except some necessary changes under the new requirements.
In the 2006 annual meeting of the International Bridge Engineering in Budapest,
Professor M. Schlaich of the Department of Civil Engineering of the Technical University
of Berlin published a report entitled The challenge of education conceptual and
structural design, at the General Assembly. He introduced ongoing civil engineering
education reform at Berlin University, i.e. combining the steel materials department and
concrete structures department into a new conceptual and structural design department,
and the three full professors no longer taught Steel Design, Design of Concrete
Structures according to the standard methods of analysis and design methods, instead,
they taught conceptual design and structural design methods about all types of building
materials according to the structure (bridges, tall buildings and space structures) to
strengthen the cultivation of students innovative ideas and ability, not only the basic
design skills.
2007 onwards, Bridge Engineering at Tongji University decided to open a new course
Concept Bridge Design for graduate students in order to bring forward a new generation
of bridge engineers with conceptual design capabilities to overcome the shortcoming in
innovative ideas quality and aesthetic considerations in Chinas bridge engineering.
The course started in the Spring of 2008, first in the form of lectures given by several
young professor in the division. 2008 summer, Professor Hoi Fan also joined the ranks of
the course construction, participated in determining the teaching guideline, and coauthored with Professor Xiao Rucheng Chapter 1 Introduction; Chapter 2 Bridge
Aesthetics and Design; Chief Engineer and Senior Engineer Professor Xu Liping and
Professor Wei Hongyi at Bridge Design institute co-authored; Chapter 3 Basic Factors to
be Considered in the Conceptual Design and Conceptual Design; Chapter 4 Analyzes
Innovative Ideas; Professor Ge Yaojun Wrote; Chapter 5 Bridge Structural Disaster

Prevention and Durability, and Part of; Chapters 2 and 3; Professor Xiao Rucheng Wrote;
Chapter 6 Bridge Structural System and its Key Mechanical Problems; Professor Shi
Xuefei Wrote; Chapter 7 New Problems in Conceptual Design and Solutions; and Finally
Conceptual Design Chapter 8 was rewitten by Tongji Urban Bridge Alumni, Tianjin
Urban Construction Group Chief Engineer Professor Han Zhenyong, Senior Engineer. The
book was validated by Professor Xiang Haifan before finalization.
Recently, in the midst of the Question of Qian, we feel the urgency and the necessity
of reform in engineering education in China. We hope that the publication of the concept
of bridge design can bring inspiration and encouragement to Chinese students majoring
in bridges sector as well as colleagues to overcome the deficiencies in Chinas bridge
design, to come out of misunderstanding, and to help the education of bridge engineering
in Chinese Universities rid of the shackles of traditional materials and methods and to
keep up with the international engineering education reform. We welcome all feedbacks,
especially to the errors in the book, from colleagues bridge engineering for future
amendment in the second edition in order to further improve this Conceptual Bridge
Design and make it a compulsory textbooks for 21st century bridge engineers.
Xiang Haifan
February 2010

1.1 Overview of the Development of Modern Bridge (1660 to 1945)
1.1.1 Preliminary Period (1660-1765)
1.1.2 Progressive Era
1.1.3 Development Period IThe Born of Steel (1874-1945)
1.1.4 Development Period IISteel Suspension Bridge (1883-1945)
1.1.5 Development Period IIIReinforced Concrete Bridge (1875-1945)
1.1.6 Summary
1.2 A Brief History of Modern Bridge (1945-2008)
1.2.1 Bridge Type and System Innovation
1.2.2 New Materials and Connection Technology
1.2.3 Innovative Structure Construction and Ancillary Equipment
1.2.4 Innovative Engineering Methods and Equipment
1.2.5 Innovation Theory and Analytical Methods
1.2.6 Summary
1.3 Achievements and Shortcomings of China Bridge Construction (1978 to 2008)
1.3.1 Introduction
1.3.2 Bridges the Rise of China in the 1980s
1.3.3 1990s China Bridge Takeoff
1.3.4 China Bridge at the Beginning of the 21st Century
1.3.5 Problems in Bridge Construction in China
1.4 Modern Bridge Engineering
1.4.1 Bridge Engineers Mission and Mandate
1.4.2 Research and Development of Bridge Project
1.4.3 Bridge-building in the Era of Knowledge Economy
1.5 Conceptual Design and Innovative Ideas
1.5.1 Conceptual Design Significance
1.5.2 Basic Principles of Conceptual Design
1.5.3 Definition of Innovation

1.5.4 Create Innovative Ideas

1.5.5 Tasks and Content of Conceptual Design
1.6 Chapter Summary
Review Questions


2.1 Philosophical Foundation of Aesthetics
2.1.1 Philosophical Foundation of the West
2.1.2 Philosophical Foundation of the East
2.2 The Principles of Bridge Aesthetics
2.2.1 Diversity and Unity (Change and Unity)
2.2.2 Ratio and Symmetry
2.2.3 Balance and Harmony
2.2.4 Rhythm and Coordination
2.2.5 Innovations and Aesthetic Considerations in Conceptual Bridge Design
2.3 Success Stories in the World of Bridge Aesthetic DesignWorlds Most Beautiful
Bridges of the 20th Century
2.4 Success Stories in Chinese Aesthetic Design of Bridges
2.4.1 Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge (1968)
2.4.2 Fuzhou Wulongjiang Bridge (1971)
2.4.3 Nanpu Bridge (1991), Shanghai
2.4.4 Qiantang Bridge (1996)
2.4.5 Wanxian Chongqing Yangtze River Bridge (1997)
2.4.6 Jiangyin Yangtze River Bridge (1997)
2.4.7 Lupu Bridge (2003)
2.4.8 Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge (2004)
2.4.9 Su Tong Yangtze River Bridge (2008)
2.4.10 Zhoushan Island Project Xihoumen Bridge (2009)
2.5 China Bridge Aesthetics Design Problem Analysis
2.5.1 On the Rationality of Bridge Main Hole Span
2.5.2 Facade Layout Symmetry
2.5.3 The Side Holes Scales in Cable-stayed Bridge

2.5.4 The Arrangement of the Auxiliary Pier in Cable-stayed Bridge Side Span
2.5.5 Pyramid Select and Proportion
2.5.6 Asymmetric Single Tower Cable-stayed Bridge and Collaboration System
2.5.7 Arrangement of Side Span in Suspension
2.5.8 Proper Height of Main Beam Girder
2.6 Chapter Summary
Review Questions


3.1 A Variety of Natural Conditions and Functional Requirements
3.1.1 Natural Conditions
3.1.2 Functionality
3.1.3 Landscape Requirements
3.2 Horizontal and Vertical Alignment and Hole Layouts
3.2.1 Layout of Bridge-axis and the Horizontal Alignment
3.2.2 Main Navigation Span Setting
3.2.3 Hole Layout
3.3 Applicability of Various Bridge Types and Bases
3.3.1 Bridge Type Evolution
3.3.2 The Type of Scope and Limits
3.3.3 Application Scope of the Basic Forms
3.4 Technical Factors Affecting Economic Indicators
3.4.1 Material and Economic Indicators of Bridge Types
3.4.2 General Layout of 2 Impact on Economic Indicators
3.4.3 General Layout of 3 Impact on Economic Indicators
3.4.4 Impact of General layout on Economic Indicators
Review Questions


4.1 The Bridge Scheme and General Layout Ideas

4.1.1 Tsing Ma Bridge in Hong Kong

4.1.2 Tsing Ma Bridge in Hong Kong
4.1.3 The Tsurumi Channel Bridge
4.2 Technical Innovation in the Bridge Program
4.2.1 Denmark Oresund Bridge-steel Truss Composite Girder
4.2.2 United States East Bridge of the San Francisco Bay Bridge Earthquakeresistant Tower
4.2.3 Chongqing New Shibanpo Bridge of Steel-concrete Composite Beams
4.2.4 Hangzhou Jiubao Bridge, Composite Arch Bridge
4.2.5 Uses of High Performance Steel and Concrete Composite Beam Bridge
4.3 Bridge Program Consideration of Landscape Requirement
4.3.1 Tsing Ma Bridge in Hong Kong
4.3.2 Shanghai Lupu Bridge
4.3.3 Chongqing Caiyuanba Bridge
4.4 Records Span the Right Concept
4.4.1 Denmark Great Belt Bridge
4.4.2 Japan Akashi Kaikyo Bridge
4.4.3 Luo River Bridge
4.4.4 Su Tong Yangtze River Bridge
4.5 Outstanding Structure Award-winning Bridge Profile
4.5.1 Switzerland Sunniberg Bridge
4.5.2 The Miho Museum Bridge
4.5.3 United Kingdom Gateshead Millennium Bridge
4.5.4 France Darius Milhaud Bridge
Review Questions


5.1 Bridge Wind Resistant Design Philosophy
5.1.1 Wind and Bridge Wind-Resistance
5.1.2 Reduce the Static Wind Load
5.1.3 Reduce Wind-induced Vibration
5.1.4 Additional Control Measures

5.2 Bridge Wind Resistant Design Philosophy

5.2.1 Earthquake and Anti-seismic
5.2.2 Bridge Anti-Seismic Principles
5.2.3 Anti-seismic Design Success Stories
5.2.4 Common Seismic Mitigation and Isolation Measures
5.3 Bridge Wind-resistant Design Philosophy
5.3.1 Fortification Standard and Design Principles
5.3.2 Rational Selection of Bridge Site and Bridge Axis
5.3.3 Anti-ship Collision Design Success Stories
5.3.4 A Variety of Ship Collision Prevention Measures
5.4 Bridge Wind-resistant Design Philosophy
5.4.1 Structural Durability
5.4.2 Durability Design Principles
5.4.3 Structural Durability
5.4.4 Structural Durability Measures
Review Questions


6.1 Bridge Structural System
6.1.1 Bridge Structure System and its Classification
6.1.2 Evaluation Standards for Bridge System Quality
6.1.3 Mechanical Properties of Various Systems
6.1.4 System Innovation
6.2 Important Design Parameter Optimisation and Adjustment
6.2.1 Classification of Design Parameters of Bridge Structures
6.2.2 Effects of Design Parameters on Structure Loading
6.2.3 Design Parameter Optimization and Adjustment
6.3 Construction Method Selection and Safety Identification
6.3.1 The Construction Method of Bridge Structures
6.3.2 Relations between Construction Method and Structure Bearing
6.3.3 Selection of Construction Method

6.3.4 Construction Safety Identification

6.4 Estimation of Bridge Structure and Recognition of Advance
6.4.1 The Estimation Method of Bridge Structures
6.4.2 The Rational Scale of Conventional Bridge
6.4.3 Conventional Bridge Materials Index
6.4.4 Identifying Advances
6.5 Important Mechanical Calculation in Concept Design Phase
6.5.1 General Method for Structure Analysis
6.5.2 Strength Calculation
6.5.3 Rigidity and Stability Calculation
6.5.4 Dynamic Characteristics Calculation
6.6 Modeling Method
6.6.1 Method for Model Selection
6.6.2 Geometric Description
6.6.3 Materials and Sectional Properties
6.6.4 Boundary Conditions
6.6.5 Quality
6.6.6 Loads
Review Questions


7.1 Technical Support of Realization of Innovative Design Ideas
7.2 Improvement of Structure and Properties of Structural Details
7.2.1 Innovation of Structural Details
7.2.2 Boundary Conditions Structure Meeting the Requirement of Different Force
7.2.3 Innovative Construction Composition
7.2.4 Structural Connections between Different Interface
7.2.5 Structural Measures to Mitigate Failure
7.2.6 Structural Measures Ensuring Structure Durability
7.3 Innovative Construction Method and Corresponding Equipment
7.3.1 Driving Force Behind Method of Innovation

7.3.2 New Technology of Bridge Erection Adapted to Special Requirements

7.3.3 Equipment of New Bridge Erection Technology
7.3.4 Detection Equipment for Bridge Erection
7.4 Applications of Advanced Materials and High-Tech
7.4.1 Application Requirements of New Materials and High-Tech
7.4.2 High Performance Steel (HPS)
7.4.3 High-performance Concrete (HPC)
7.4.4 Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP)
7.4.5 Role of IT Technology in Promoting Bridge-building
7.5 Choosing Research Topics in Complex Bridge Construction Work
7.5.1 The Purpose and Necessity of Research Project
7.5.2 Choosing Research Contents
7.5.3 Research Technique and Method
Review Questions


8.1 The Concepts of Urban Bridges
8.1.1 The Definition of Urban Bridges
8.1.2 Historical Evolution of Urban Bridge
8.2 Conceptual Design of Urban BridgeGeneral Description
8.3 Conceptual Design of Urban BridgeStructure and Engineering
8.3.1 Choice of Urban Bridge Style
8.3.3 Urban Bridge Structure Characteristics
8.4 Conceptual Design of Urban BridgeStructure and EngineeringThe
Architectural Aesthetics
8.4.1 In Harmony with the Environment
8.4.2 Construction Techniques
8.4.3 Bridge Decoration
8.5 Conceptual Design of Urban BridgeStructure Engineering in Combination with
Architectural Aesthetics



BRIDGE (16601945)
1.1.1 Preliminary Period (1660~1765)
Modern civil engineering went through the initial one hundred years (preliminary period,
1660 to 1765) over a period of 300 years from the 17th century to the mid-20th century.
Italian Scholar Galileo Galilei (1564~1642), published a book Dialogue on the Two New
Scientific Theory in 1638, and discussed the concept of mechanical properties and
strength of the material, and then in 1660, the British State Scholar Robert Hooke
(1635~1703), establish a relationship between stress and strain material (Hookes law),
and in 1687, British Scholar Isaac Newton (1642~1727), suggested the three great laws
on mechanics and they became the theoretical foundation of civil engineering.
The French government established the first bridge ministry in 1715, and established
the worlds first engineering college in 1747, as Paris bridge school. In 1765, before the
British Industrial Revolution occurred, the French engineer Jean-Rodolphe (1708~1794),
led the Paris bridge school to studied the stone arch pressure lines, and calculated the size
of arch and pier using mechanical and material strength theory, and built many flat arch
bridges (Fig. 1.1), bringing the stone arch bridge design in Europe to a high level. While
the emergence of flat arch bridge in Europe was 1000 years later than Chinas Sui Dynasty
arch bridge (1765~1874), they were built on the basis of theory-derived scientific design.

Fig. 1.1 Pont de la Concorde in Paris, France.

1.1.2 Progressive Era

The second period was the development of modern bridge from the British Industrial
Revolution to the Progressive Era before the First World War (1765~1874), the metal

material gradually replaced in natural stone and wood as the main building material of the
In 1779, the British engineer Abraham Darby III (1750~1790), designed and built
the worlds first cast-iron arch bridge, the Coalbrookdale bridge. It was 30.65 m-span (Fig.
1.2) and also known as the end of the ancient bridges from first of modern times.
Subsequently, the British engineer Thomas Telford (1757~1834), built more than a
dozen larger span cast iron bridge, from which the most representative one was the Eaton
Hall bridge (45.75 m-span) built in 1824. For the construction of multi-arch iron bridge,
R. Stephenson (1803~1859), invented the Tied arch in 1849, this design spared the pier
from the force generated by the arch and it established a new bridge type Tied Arch

Fig. 1.2 English Coalbrookdale Bridge.

At the same time, inspired by the Chinese Journey novels, England in the second half
of the 18th century began to try to build Modern Suspension Bridges. The span gradually
increased from the initial 70 ft (21.34 m), in early 19th century. The British engineer John
& William Smith brothers designed and built the Dryburgh Abbey Bridge in Scotland with
the main span of 260 ft (79.25 m). The bridge successfully used wrought iron rod eye as
main cable. Then, in Wales and England several wrought iron rod suspension bridges were
also be built, including the Union Bridge with the main span of 136.86 m built by the
British engineer Sammel Brown in 1820.
In 1826, British engineer Welsh Telford built the Menai Straits Bridge (Fig. 1.3) with
the main span of 176.6 m (580 ft). The bridge still used the shots with wrought iron rod as
eye cable, using stone pier and stone bridge approach, wooden planks laid on bridge
surface. Unfortunately, the bridge was destroyed in 1839, by wind and rebuilt in 1940.
Since then, wrought iron rod suspension bridge gradually spread to Europe and the
Americas, and many suspension bridge in the range of 100~340 m were built in Austria,
Hungary, Russia, the United States and South America, Brazil became important
achievements of European and American Iron Bridge construction in the 19th Century.
In 1850, the British engineer R. Stephenson built a giant (141 m-span) box girder
bridgethe Britannia Bridge (Fig. 1.4) with pieces of wrought iron. Because wrought iron
box girder bridge was too bulky. In 1857, German engineer H. Gerber under the

inspiration of cabin truss built a six-span (131 m) bridge spanning multiple lattice trusses.
In 1864, the first cantilever truss girder bridge with hanging hole was built, with sub-span
of 23.9 m + 37.9 m + 23.9 m. This quiet cantilever truss system with hanging hole is
named Gai Erbo truss, because of its simple and clear stress analysis, soon it became
popular in Europe and America and was a major bridge type of large-span railway bridge.
For instance the 1859, Britains Albert Bridge has the main span of 138.6 m, the 1860
Frances Lu Zhate viaduct has a span of 55.125 m + 57.75 m + 49.125 m.

Fig. 1.3 Menai Straits Bridge.

Fig. 1.4 Britannia Bridge.

1.1.3 Development Period IThe Born of Steel (1874~1945)

In 1874, the US replaced wrought iron with steel and built the first steel arch bridge, and
opening a new era of large-span steel bridge construction. Since then, engineers have
gradually abandoned cast iron and wrought iron and used steel for better performance,
then bridge spans increased significantly. In 1890, the British built a 521.2 m-span Forth
Bridge in England. The bridge used cantilever construction method and the pneumatic
caisson on the basis, becoming a representative work of modern steel bridge (Fig. 1.5).

Fig. 1.5 England Forth Bridge.

In 1909, the United States built the Queens bridge connecting New York Long Island
and Manhattan Dayton across the East River, the bridge uses a cantilever truss, astride
143.17 m + 360.4 m + 192.15 m + 300 m + 140 m, and for the first time used of low-alloy
steel (nickel-containing 3%), with the strength increased 40% than steel, thus greatly
reducing the weight of the bridge. The Quebec bridge, Canada, with 548.78 m main span
of the bridge, after experiencing two Cantilever Erection accident (the first due to the web
instability of bar, and the second time crushed casting connector of the Hanging hole) was
culminated in the 1918, and set the maximum span as a cantilever truss bridge.
In 1869, moved to the United States, the German engineer Roebling family of three
(father, son, daughter in law) began the construction of the Brooklyn Bridge (486 m-mainspan) in New York, and for the first used cold drawn steel wire rod eye-based cable in
place of wrought iron. The bridge was completed in 1883, (Fig. 1.6), becoming a
representing work of modern steel suspension bridge.

Fig. 1.6 Brooklyn Bridge in New York.

1.1.4 Development Period IISteel Suspension Bridge

In early 20th century, the suspension bridge deflection theory established by Austrian
engineer J. Melan in 1888, began to drew the attention of people. In 1912, Lithuanian
engineer LS Moisseiff who had immigrated to New York was the first to designed with
the deflection theory and built the Manhattan Bridge with success. Compared with the
earlier Brooklyn Bridge (1883), and the Williamsburg Bridge (1903), and find out that the
tower and main beams of Manhattan Bridge are more slender, that achieving better

economic efficiency.
Since then, the deflection theory has been rapidly promoted, and between 1926 and
1940, multiple large-span suspension bridge, designed by or consulted with, were built by
using the deflection theory in the United States, the notable ones are:
1. Benjamin Franklin Bridge (L = 533.75 m, 1926)
2. Ambassador Bridge (L = 564.3 m, 1929)
3. George Washington Bridge (L = 1067 m, 1931, Fig. 1.7)
4. Golden Gate Bridge (L = 1280 m, 1937, Fig. 1.8)
5. San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge (L = 704 m, 1937)
6. Bronx-Whitestone Bridge (L = 701 m, 1939)
Advantages of the deflection theory is that the use of gravity suspension stiffness
reduced the bending stiffness of the bridge deck allows design engineers gradually
abandoned bulky truss stiffening girder and used more economical plate girder bridge.
With the reduced plate girder height and corresponding reduction of assumed bending
moment, the safety of the bridge structure is ensured.

Fig. 1.7 George Washington Bridge.

Built in 1940, Washington State Tacoma has a main span of 853 m and the width of
the two-lane bridge is only 11.9 m, the height of plate girder stiffening beam 1.3 m. Due to
the negligence of the deck torsional stiffness in the design and the deterioration of the
aerodynamic performance, the bridge was destroyed by wind 4 months after its
completion (Fig. 1.9). Thereafter, the suspension bridge stiffening beam resumed its
previous hollow truss design which has better aerodynamic performance and become the
basic form of a suspension bridge before the secondary world war.

Fig. 1.8 Golden Gate Bridge.

Fig. 1.9 Tacoma destroyed by wind.

1.1.5 Development Period IIIReinforced Concrete Bridge

In 1875, French engineer Joseph Monier built the first reinforced concrete footbridge
Chazelet Bridge, with a span of 13.8 m and 4.25 m in width, which is a T-shaped bridge, a
new bridge type transformed from the ceiling of house and the pre-cursor of reinforced
concrete bridge. In 1877, French engineer Hennebique built a Steel Concrete footbridge
(16 m-span and 4.0 m width), in 1898, he designed and built a reinforced concrete arch
bridge (52.46 m span)Chtellerault Bridge.
In 1890, Austrian engineer Milan (J. Melan) Push invented a construction method
using stiffness frames as arch to cast reinforced concrete arch bridge, known as the Milan
method which had increased the span of arch bridge to over 100 m. For the instance,
Risorgimento Bridge, L = 100 m, 1911, Swiss Langwies Bridge, L= 100 m, 1914. The
Swedish Sand Bridge (Fig. 1.10), built in 1943, has 178.4 m in span and is a masterpiece
of modern reinforced concrete arch bridge.

Fig. 1.10 Sweden Sando bridge.

Back in 1886, Jackson was the first American engineer to be awarded a patent on prestress, in 1888, German engineer Doehring also obtained a patent in pre-stress application
in the floor, but failed due to low value of steel pre-stress tendons as well as creep strain

and shrink losses of concrete. Success was not seen until 1928, when French engineer
Freyssinet invented the conical anchor using a high-strength steel and high-strength
concrete (1939). After World War II due to shortage of steel, the need for repairing bridges
destroyed in the war led the rapid development of the pre-stressed concrete technology.

1.1.6 Summary
Throughout the course of 300 year development of modern bridges: from the first phase
(1660 to 1765), the theoretical foundation, to the second stage (1765~1874), cast iron
bridge, (wrought) iron truss bridge and eye rod suspension, and the third phase
(1874~1945), of steel (steel truss bridge, steel arch bridge and steel suspension bridge) and
the subsequent emergence of reinforced concrete bridge. It can be said that the mainstream
of modern bridge is steel bridge, including many railway bridges and urban bridge, with
the representing landmark bridges being the Coalbrookdale iron bridge, Scotland Forth
steel truss bridge, steel suspension bridge built in Brooklyn, New York, in the 1930s, and
the representing modern bridges of the highest achievements being the George
Washington Bridge, the Sydney bridge, the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco and
Sweden Sandor bridge.
The span of cast iron arch bridge increased from the initial 30.65 m in steel truss
bridge to more than 500 m in steel truss cantilever bridge, and suspension bridge from less
than 100 ft (30.48 m) of wrought iron rod suspension eye to the Brooklyn bridge of 468 m,
and to Washington bridge which exceeds one kilometer, and the golden Gate bridge set a
striking record of 1,280 m, all are remarkable achievement, results of the combination of
wisdom and hard work of many bridges pioneers. The fifteen most outstanding modern
bridge engineers (16th to 18th century birth) are:
1. Jean R. Perronet (1708~1794), (Fig. 1.11), Stone Arch Pressure Line; France.
2. Abraham Darby III (1750~1790), (Fig. 1.12), Cast Iron Arch Bridge; United
3. Thomas Telford (1757~1834), (Fig. 1.13), Cast Iron Arch and Eye Rod Suspension
Bridge; United Kingdom.
4. John A. Roebling (1806~1869), (Fig. 1.14), the Brooklyn Bridge; Germany.
5. Gustave A. Eiffel (1832~1923), (Fig. 1.16), Cast Iron, Wrought Iron, Steel Arch
Bridge; France.
6. Benjamin Baker (1840~1907), (Fig. 1.17), Forth Railway Bridge Truss; United

Fig. 1.11 J. R. Perronet

Fig. 1.12 A. Darby III

Fig. 1.13 T. Telford

Fig. 1.14 J.A. Roebling

7. Joseph Melan (1853~1941), (Fig. 1.18), Suspension Bridge, Bridge
Construction Method of Milan; Australia.
8. John Bradfield (1867~1943), (Fig. 1.19), Sydney Arch; Australia.
9. Joseph B. Strauss (1870~1938), (Fig. 1.20), San Francisco Golden Gate Bridge;
10. Robert Maillart (1872~1940), (Fig. 1.21), Sarkisyan Valley Bridge;
11. Leon S. Moisseiff (1872~1943), (Fig. 1.22), the Manhattan Bridge; Lithuania.
12. Othmar H. Ammann (1879~1965), (Fig. 1.23), the George Washington
Bridge; Switzerland.
13. E. Freyssinet (1879~1962), (Fig. 1.24), The Founder of pre-stressed Concrete;
14. Ralph Freeman (1880~1950), (Fig. 1.25), Sydney Arch; United Kingdom.

Fig. 1.15 J. Monier

Fig. 1.16 G.A. Eiffel

Fig. 1.17 B. Baker

Fig. 1.18 J. Melan

Fig. 1.19 J. Bradfield

Fig. 1.20 J.B. Strauss

Fig. 1.21 R. Maillart

Fig. 1.22 L.S. Moisseiff

Fig. 1.23 O.H. Ammann

Fig. 1.24 E. Freyssinet

Fig. 1.25 R. Freeman


In about 300 years from the mid-17th century to the mid-20th century, civil engineering
completed evolution from the initial foundation period (1660~1765), to the Progressive
Era (1765~1900), symbolised by the British Industrial Revolution, as well as the pre- and
post-World War I period including the 30 years of great development or Mature Period
(1900 to 1945), and started modern civil engineering characterised by the use of computer
and IT technologies, corresponding to the development of modern bridge engineering.
After the Second World War, the world has entered a relatively peaceful reconstruction
era. After a period of post-war recovery, Europe and the United States started to
implement highway construction and urbanization plans in the 1950s, and emerged many
representing works of innovative technology for modern bridge engineering. Among
them, the pre-stressing technology and related construction methods, the revival of cablestayed bridge and the invention of streamline flat steel box girder bridge, invented and
created by famous engineers and scholars from France, Germany and the United Kingdom
respectively, are three most important landmark achievements in post-war modern bridge
engineering, these achievements greatly promoted the rapid advancement of modern
bridge engineering.
The following sections describe these innovative technologies.

1.2.1 Bridge Type and System Innovation

1. Cable-stayed Bridge, Germany Dischinger, Strmsund Bridge, Sweden (1956) (Fig.
2. Cable-stayed Bridge with hanging hole concrete, Italy Morandi, Maracaibo Bridge,
Venezuela (1962) (Fig. 1.27).

Fig. 1.26 Strmsund bridge, Sweden.

Fig. 1.27 Maracaibo Bridge, Venezuela.

3. X Arch Bridge, Leonhardt, Fehmarnsund Channel Bridge, Germany (1963)
(Fig. 1.28).
4. Streamlined Box Girder Bridge, Gilbert Roberts, Severn Bridge, England
(1966) (Fig. 1.29).

Fig. 1.28 Fehmarnsund Channel Bridge, England.

Fig. 1.29 Severn Bridge, England.

5. The secret cable system cable-stayed bridge, Homberg, Friedrich Ebert bridge,
Germany (1967) (Fig. 1.30).
6. No wind bracing arch and cable-stayed bridge, using the stabilisation theory of
non-orientedly conservative loadings effect, the Knie Rhine bridge, Germany
(1969) (Fig. 1.31).

Fig. 1.30 Friedrich Ebert bridge, Germany.

Fig. 1.31 Knie Rhine bridge, Germany.

7. Mixing Deck Cable-stayed bridge, Leonhardt, Kurt Schumacher bridge,
Germany 1971 (Fig. 1.32).
8. Sling Bridge, TY Lin International, Colorado Bridge, Costa Rica USA 1972,
(Fig. 1.33).

Fig. 1.32 Kurt Schumacher Bridge, Germany.

Fig. 1.33 Colorado Bridge, Costa Rica.

9. Spine Girder bridge, American TY Lin International, San Francisco Airport
Viaduct, 1973, (Fig. 1.34).
10. Inclined Cable Stayed bridge, Leonhardt, Khlbrand bridge, Germany 1973,
(Fig. 1.35).

Fig. 1.34 Airport Viaduct, San Francisco.

Fig. 1.35 Khlbrand Bridge, Germany.

11. Single Cable Plane Concrete Cable-stayed bridge, Mller, Brottone bridge,
France 1977, (Fig. 1.36).
12. Continuous Rigid Frame Bridge, Menn, Feigire Bridge, Switzerland 1979,
(Fig. 1.37).

Fig. 1.36 Brottone bridge, France.

Fig. 1.37 Feigire Bridge, Switzerland.

13. Extradossed Bridge, Menn, Ganter Bridge, Switzerland 1980, (Fig. 1.38).
14. Cable-Rigid Cooperative System, the German company Leonhardt Svensson,
E. Huntington Bridge, 1985, (Fig. 1.39).

Fig. 1.38 Ganter Bridge, Switzerland.

Fig. 1.39 E. Huntington Bridge, Germany.

15. Combined Girder bridge using Twists and turns steel as web plates, Maupre
bridge, France 1987, (Fig. 1.40).
16. Cable-stayed bridge without Spine Girder, Calatrava, Alamillo bridge, Spain
1992, (Fig. 1.41).

Fig. 1.40 Maupre Bridge, France.

Fig. 1.41 Alamillo Bridge, Spain.

17. Cable-stayed Suspension system, British Flint-Neil company, Strait Bridge
program, Bali, Indonesia 1997 (not yet built) (Fig. 1.42).

Fig. 1.42 Strait Bridge Renderings, Bali.

1.2.2 New Materials and Connection Technology

1. High-performance steel HPS-460-700-1100 (China Q345-370-420), 1950s to 1990s;
Germany, and the United States.
2. High performance concrete HPC-80-100-130-150 (China C40-50-60), 1950s and
1990s; France, Germany, the United States and other countries.
3. High-strength bolts, United States, Germany and other countries, was used in the
reinforcement of the Golden Gate bridge for the first time in 1951, (Fig. 1.43).
4. Of crude steel Dywidag anchor, DSL company, Worms Bridge, 1953; Germany (Fig.
5. Lock-coil, the Thyssen company, used in early cable-stayed bridge, Strmsund
Bridge, 1955, Germany (Fig. 1.45).
6. VSL clip anchor, VSL Company, 1958 Switzerland (Fig. 1.46).
7. Strand anchor group, Mller, Brottone Bridge, 1977, (Fig. 1.47); France.
8. HiAm chill casting Heading anchor, Leonhardt, Flehe Bridge, 1979, (Fig. 1.48),

Fig. 1.43 High-strength bolted connections.

Fig. 1.44 Crude steel anchor Dywidag.

Fig. 1.45 Enclosed cable.

Fig. 1.46 VSL clip anchor.

Fig. 1.47 Strand anchor group.

Fig. 1.48 HiAm chill casting Heading anchor.

9. PE sheath parallel finished steel wire rope, Nippon Steel Corporation, Meiko
West Bridge, 1983, (Fig. 1.49).
10. FRP composites, 1970s to 1990s, (Fig. 1.50); Switzerland, Germany, the
United States, Japan.

Fig. 1.49 Japan Meiko West Bridge.

Fig. 1.50 FRP composite materials.

11. Long stroke joints, Akashi Strait Bridge, 1970s to 1990s, (Fig. 1.51);
Switzerland, Germany, Japan.
12. Carbon fiber reinforced plastic cables, in the 1990s, (Fig. 1.52); Switzerland,

Fig. 1.51 Long stroke joints.

Fig. 1.52 Carbon fiber reinforced plastic cables.

13. Combined structure of new shear device (PBL), Leonhardt, Germany Tsurumi
Channel Bridge, 1994, (Fig. 1.53); Japan.
14. Ultra high strength steel, 1860~2000, MPa (China 1600~1770 MPa), Nippon
Steel Corporation, Akashi Strait Bridge, 1998, (Fig. 1.54).

Fig. 1.53 Combined structure of new shear device.

Fig. 1.54 Ultra high strength steel.

1.2.3 Innovative Structure Construction and Ancillary

1. Anisotropic steel deck, Leonhardt, Koeln-Mannheim Bridge, 1948, (Fig. 1.55);
2. Large diameter bored pile foundation, Morandi, Italy Maracaibo bridge,
Venezuela 1962, (Fig. 1.56).

Fig. 1.55 Anisotropic steel deck.

Fig. 1.56 Venezuela Maracaibo bridge.

3. Soft soil ground friction Anchorage, Small Kelp bridge, 1970, (Fig. 1.57);

Fig. 1.57 Small kelp bridge.

4. Split box deck wind-proof structure, Brown, 1980s (Fig. 1.58); England.

Fig. 1.58 Split box deck wind-proof structure (dimensions in m).

5. Bridge longitudinal buffer device, 1990s, (Fig. 1.59); the United States,
6. The main cable de-humidification unit, Akashi Strait bridge, 1998. (Fig. 1.60);
7. Fully assembled three-way pre-stressed bridge, Mller, France JMI
International, Thailand Bangkok Airport Viaduct, 1999, (Fig. 1.61).
8. Shock-isolation Foundation with Reinforced Soil, Combault, France RionAntirion Bridge, 2003, (Fig. 1.62); (Greece).
9. Shear Key Anti-seismic Tower, TY Lin International, Wendi Deng, the New
San Francisco Bay bridge, 2007, (Fig. 1.63); US.

Fig. 1.59 Bridge longitudinal buffer device.

Fig. 1.60 Main cable de-humidification device.

Fig. 1.61 Fully assembled three-way pre-stressed bridge.

Fig. 1.62 Shock-isolation foundation with reinforced soil.

1.2.4 Innovative Engineering Methods and Equipment

1. Cantilever Casting Method, Finsterwalder, Worms Rhine Bridge, 1953 (Fig. 1.64);

Fig. 1.63 Shear key anti-seismic tower.

Fig. 1.64 Cantilever casting method.

2. The backwards analysis method in cable-stayed bridge construction control,
Leonhardt, Theodor Heuss Bridge, 1957, (Fig. 1.65); Germany.
3. Incremental launching method, France, Leonhardt, Germany Agger Bridge,
(Austria) 1959, (Fig. 1.66).

Fig. 1.65 Theodor Heuss bridge, Germany.

Fig. 1.66 Incremental launching method, France.

4. Movable formwork cast, Leverkusen Bridge, France, Germany 1959, (Fig.
5. Movable carriage assembly France, Germany Wittfoht, Krahnenberg bridge,
1961, (Fig. 1.68).

Fig. 1.67 Movable formwork cast method.

Fig. 1.68 Movable carriage assembly.

6. Pre-cast segmental assembly with erecting machine, Mller, Oleron Viaduct,
1964, (Fig. 1.69); France.
7. The beam transport beam method, Sallingsund Bridge, 1978, (Fig. 1.70);

Fig. 1.69 Pre-cast segmental assembly with erecting machine.

Fig. 1.70 Sallingsund bridge.

8. Front Light Cantilever casting method, Dames Point bridge, 1988 (Fig. 1.71);
the United States.
9. The main cable PPWS method, South Bisan bridge, 1988 (Fig. 1.72); Japan.

Fig. 1.71 Front Light Cantilever casting method.

Fig. 1.72 Main cable PPWS method.

10. The integrated installation using large-scale floating crane, 9000t Big Swan
floating cranes, Ele Song Strait Bridge, 2000, (Fig. 1.73); Denmark and
Sweden joint construction.
11. Continuous cable-stayed bridge incremental launching construction,
Virlogeux, Millau Bridges, 2004, (Fig. 1.74); France.

Fig. 1.73 The integrated installation using large-scale floating crane.

Fig. 1.74 Continuous cable-stayed bridge incremental launching construction.

1.2.5 Innovation Theory and Analytical Methods

1. Computer Technology and Finite Element Analysis Theory
The worlds first computer Aini A G (ENIAC) (Fig. 1.75) was born in 1946, the worlds
first PC arrived in 1981, the application of computer greatly promoted the progress of
human civilization in 1943. Courant was the first who introduced the concept of unit; from
1945 to 1955, Argyris development the Structural Matrix Analysis; in 1956, Clough
introduced the idea of structural matrix analysis into elasticity analysis and was the first to
propose the FEM in the 1960s, which was gradually developed and perfected in the
1960s. A large number of mathematicians, mechanics and engineers had made important
contributions in this area.

Fig. 1.75 Worlds first computer Eni Akbar.

2. Bridge Design Analysis Software

Development of the theory of finite element analysis and computer technology laid the
foundation for the development of design and analysis software, and a number of large
commercial software gradually emerged in the 1970s (Table 1.1), and the finite element
analysis started its application in bridge design.
Table 1.1 Well-known commercial finite element software.

Research Institute

First Release Main Developer

Swanson Analysis Systems, Inc



NASTRAN Mac-Neal Schwendler company




University of California, Berkeley


E.L. Wilson


Dorian Janjic & Partner GmbH company


D. Janjic


ADINA engineering company




Hibbitt, Karison company




Finite Element Analysis Company


Paul Lyons


MIDAS IT company in


3. Seismic Theory
Early 20th century, the Great Kanto Earthquake of San Francisco and two disasters caused
emphasis on structural anti-seismic research. Researches basic theory in earthquake,
strong motion records, model test, analysis theory had been conducted in the engineering
fields. Structural anti-seismic research started its rapid development period after 1940. In
1943, Biot published accelerated response spectrum deducted from actual seismic records;
from 1950s to 1970s, scholars represented by Housner, Newmark and Clough of the
United States and Muto of Japan laid the foundation of modern response spectrum antiseismic theory and carried out research on the dynamic response process of structural
elastics and inelastic analysis; in the 1970s, Newmark, Park, Paulay put forward the
concept of anti-seismic design ductility; in the mid-1990s, scholars from the United States
and Japan proposed a performance-based anti-seismic design method.

4. Wind-proof Theory
The wind destruction incidence of the Tacoma suspension bridge in 1940, which occurred
at low wind speeds, triggered the beginning of comprehensive study of wind.
Induced vibration and aeroelastic prelude theory concerning long-span bridge in the
engineering field, and T. Von Karman and others of the USA conducted bridge model
wind tunnel tests.
Wind Theory Studied progressed and was perfected since the 1960s. Davenport of
Canada proposed statistical mathematics approach in wind engineering research, solving
creatively the problem of random buffeting and expressing the wind effect as an
equivalent form of wind loads; Scanlan of the USA formed the bridge flutter theory and
the shaking vibration theory; in the 1990s computed fluid dynamics made a significant
progress in fluid dynamics, which is now able to solve the uniform flow, simple form, low
Reynolds number numerical simulation computational problems.

5. Non-linear and Stability Theory

In the end of the 19th century, scientists discovered that the linear theory of solid
mechanics was not applicable in many cases and began the study of non-linear mechanical
problems. In 1888, Melan of Austria was the first to propos deflection theory and applied
it to suspension cable analysis; in mid-20th century, the theoretical foundation of nonlinear mechanics was Laid; in 1959, Newmark first proposed for solving non-linear
dynamic problem using the Newmark-method; in early 1960s, Turner, Brotton and others
began to publish research results solving problems concerning large displacement and
initial stress. In late 1960s, the combination of finite element method with the computer
gradually helped solve non-linear problems in engineering.
On stability, Euler (L. Eular) in 1744 put forward the famous bar stable formula;
Engesser and Karman of Canada proposed the tangent modulus theory and fold.
Modulus operator theory respectively, based on a large number of observation that
long lever exceeded the elastic limit before buckling. Since the 1980s, the space
elastoplastic stability theory was gradually established based on a computer analysis.

6. Health Monitoring and Vibration Control Theory

In 1969, the paper by Lifshitz and Rotem were regarded as the first one illustrating the
dynamic response of structural health monitoring and evaluation modern structural health
monitoring concept; in 1987, Britain laid sensors on the 522 m three-span continuous steel
box girder bridge Foyle to monitor the operational phase of the bridge under wind loads
and vibration of the vehicle main beam deflection and strain response, the system is one of
the first and complete health monitoring system ever installed.
In the 1960s, linear systems theory and the progress of modern control theory laid a
theoretical foundation for the structure of the active vibration control; in 1972 Yao Zhiping
proposed the concept of civil engineering structural vibration control by combining with
modern control theory and created a new phase of the study in structural vibration; in 1973
The Mass Damper (TMD) passive control style device was first installed on the CN Tower
in Toronto, Canada; in 1989 Active Mass Damper (AMD) was first used in the Kyobashi
building in Tokyo, Japan. Structure control evolved from passive control and active
control theoretical research, and applied research phase of active control devices.

7. Coupled Vibration and Ship Collision Theory

In early 20th century, Kirilov, Timoshenko, et al., carried out beam dynamic response
studies regarding on constant force on the bridge, later A. Schalenkamp, Inglis, Bigggs et
al., further studied the dynamic response of the bridge moving-mass and spring-mass
model of the bridge, these studies were considered classical Axle System Vibration theory.
After the 1960s, the gradual emergence of a wide range of applications and computer
finite element theory, as well as the construction of high-speed railway in some countries
in Western Europe, made the coupled vibration theory and test progressed rapidly, and
modern computing Axle vibration model more refined, and the theoretical research
advanced from plane to space, dynamic interaction and coupling relationship between axle
to more in-depth research, analysis of the bridge-girder bridge advanced from bridge in
the past to arch bridge, suspension bridge and other complex type. Research results have
been applied to the design of high-speed railway bridges, as well as the formulation of the
relevant provisions of the bridge specification.
System research on vessel-bridge collision problem began in the 1980s, IABSE,
AASHTO, Eurocode and other organizations or specification had developed a special
design specifications or guidelines, a wide range of anti-collision facilities had also been
implemented in more than a dozen large bridges, domestic or foreign. However, research
in this area is not yet ripe, and the focus of research is on the aspects of design, protection
policies, ship collision force calculation and design of protective equipment.

8. Durability Analysis Theory

In 1960s to 1970s, the durability problem of concrete were found, and became the
problem of the world. Holland in 1993, defined the durability as the following: under
normal maintenance conditions, the use and the performance of material and structure
does not exhibit a major change after a period of carrying capacity. It is generally defined
in China as: the structure meets safety, functionality and appearance requirements by
design requirements in the lifetime without reinforcement need or extra expenses. In
recent years, the durability studies in materials research mainly concentrated in the
corrosion problems due to carbonation of concrete and steel in the atmosphere in terms of

the main components, and on the performance of corroded reinforced concrete parts in
terms of the components, and research methods such as survey and assessment in terms of
structure. Research in this area is focused on durability analysis using computer numerical
simulation system, durability test basis, lifespan-based concrete aspects of bridge design.

1.2.6 Summary
Reviewing the 60 years of modern engineering development, many new bridge systems,
new structures, new materials, new construction methods as well as the creation and
invention of new theories and methods of analysis have made modern engineering
completely different from the early modern engineering: the value of modern bridge
engineering resides in the spirit of innovation. With the continuous upgrading of the
emergence of new labour law and the corresponding construction equipment, bridge
construction is also increasingly accurate, lightweight, automatic control, less reliance on
manual operations, and the quality of the project better and more durable, continuously
pushing the development of high performance materials. It can be said that the quality and
durability of modern bridge engineering come from equipment innovation. Bridge
engineer must strengthen quality concept, utilising advanced equipment to control and
guarantee the quality, greatly reducing the reliance on manpower.
Bridge engineer should also be continue to improve the aesthetic attainment, master
the method of aesthetics design, promote cooperation with architects, design and create
beautiful bridges to meet peoples aesthetic requirements of the bridge. Beautiful bridges
do not rely on more money, but on balance and harmony of the most reasonable
performance, most economical and most convenient structure construction.
25 internationally renowned modern bridge scholars and engineers are:
1. David Steinman (American, 1886~1961) (Fig. 1.76)
Main designers of the post-war suspension of the United States
Mackinac bridge, 1957
Founder of Robinson & Steinman company
2. Franz Dischinger (1887~1953), Germany (Fig. 1.77)
Externally pre-stressed concrete bridge, 1936
Modern bridge, 1956
Concrete shrinkage and creep theory
3. Ulrich Finsterwalder (1897~1978), Germany (Fig. 1.78)
Hanging basket situ pre-stressed girder bridge construction method, 1950
Pre-stressed concrete sling bridge, 1970
4. Gilbert Roberts (1899~1978), United Kingdom (Fig. 1.79)
British Freeman & Fox Chief Engineer
Forth road bridge, 1964
Severn bridge, 1966
Modern steel box girder bridge, 1966
Humber bridge, 1981
5. Riccardo Morandi (1902~1989), Italy (Fig. 1.80)
Vertical rotation concrete arch bridge construction method, 1955

V-shaped cantilever bridge pier, 1960

Porous pre-stressed concrete cable-stayed bridge, 1962
6. Fritz Leonhardt (1907~1999), Germany (Fig. 1.81)
Anisotropic steel deck, 1948
Construction Control backwards analysis, 1957
Thrusting Method, 1959
Wind-free bracing tower cable-stayed bridge, 1969
Mixing deck bridge, 1971
HiAm chill-cast Anchorage, 1979
7. G. Lohmer (1909~1981), Germany (Fig. 1.82)
First single tower cable-stayed bridge, designer of Severin bridge, Cologne, 1959
8. Hellmut Homberg (1909~1990), Germany (Fig. 1.83)
Closed cable system bridge, 1967
Single cable plane cable-stayed bridge, 1967
9. Tung-Yen Lin (1912~2003), The United States (Fig. 1.84)
Pre-stressed Concrete Design Theory
Reverse Suspension bridge, 1972
Spine girder bridge, 1973
10. Brandon Lee (1913~2005), China (Fig. 1.85)
Practical calculation method of suspension bridge, 1938
Truss bridge deflection torsion theory, 1978
Founder of Chinese independent construction of the bridge, from 1958 to 1990
11. Jean Mller (1925~2005), France (Fig. 1.86)
Pre-stressed concrete segmental construction, 1966
Single cable plane pre-stressed concrete cable-stayed bridge, 1977
The whole assembly floating crane construction, 1997
Three-dimensional pre-stressed viaducts, 1999
Single Cable Composite Beams Suspension bridge, 2000
12. William Brown (1928~2005), United Kingdom (Fig. 1.87)
Modern streamlined steel box girder bridge, 1966
Split founder wind Deck (The above 12 have deceased)
13. Hans Wittfoht (1924 ~), Germany (Fig. 1.88)
Movable carriage assembly engineering methods, 1961
14. Christian Menn (1927 ~), Switzerland (Fig. 1.89)
Continuous rigid frame bridge, 1979
Extradossed bridge, 1980
15. Ito (1930 ~), Japan (Fig. 1.90)
Contact bridge and chief adviser to Japan company
16. Jacques Mathivat (1932 ~), France (Fig. 1.91)
Extradosed board to pull the bridge (in vitro super reinforcement), 1990
17. Jrg Schlaich (1934 ~), Germany (Fig. 1.92)
Reinforced concrete truss simulation method, 1987
Combined Deck bridge, 1993
Multi-span cable-stayed bridge hybrid structure, 1998
Footbridge Innovative ideas
18. N. Gimsing (1935 ~), Denmark (Fig. 1.93)

Honorary Professor, Technical University of Denmark

Establish Gimsing & Madsen company
Great Belt Bridge consultants, (1998)
resund Bridge, 2000
19. Wendi (1938 ~), United States (Fig. 1.94)
Front-light Hanging Watering Act, 1988
Shear key seismic Tower, 2007
20. Klaus Ostenfeld (1943 ~), Denmark (Fig. 1.95)
Great Belt Bridge, 1998
Oresund Bridge, 2000
21. Jacques Combault (1943 ~), France (Fig. 1.96)
Reinforced soil isolated basis, 2003
22. Holger Svensson (1945 ~), Germany (Fig. 1.97)
Cable - Rigid cooperative system, 1985
23. Michel Virlogeux (1946 ~), France (Fig. 1.98)
Continuous push cable-stayed bridge construction, 2005
24. Peter Head (1947 ~), United Kingdom (Fig. 1.99)
Severn Bridge, the main span of 456 m bridge, 1996
Hong Kong Kap Shui Mun Bridge, the 430 m- main-span railway bridge, 1997
25. Santiago Calatrava (1951 ~), Spain (Fig. 1.100)
Spineless cable-stayed bridge, 1992

Fig. 1.76 D. Steinman

Fig. 1.77 F Dischin er

Fig. 1.78 U. Finsterwalder

Fig. 1.79 G. Roberts

Fig. 1.80 R. Morandi

Fig. 1.81 F. Leonhardt

Fig. 1.82 G. Lohmer

Fig. 1.83 H. Homberg

Fig. 1.84 Tung-Yen Lin

Fig. 1.85 Brandon Lee

Fig. 1.86 J. Mller

Fig. 1.87 W. Brown

Fig. 1.88 H. Wittfoht

Fig. 1.89 C. Menn

Fig. 1.90 Ito

Fig. 1.91 J. Mathivat

Fig. 1.92 J. Schlaich

Fig. 1.93 N. Gimsing

Fig. 1.94 Wendi

Fig. 1.95 K. Ostenfeld

Fig. 1.96 J. Combault

Fig. 1.97 H. Svensson

Fig. 1.98 M. Virlogeu

Fig. 1.99 P. Head

Fig. 1.100 S. Calatrava

Most of them have won awards from the International Association of Bridge and
Structural Engineering (IABSE) of structural engineering and other international Awards:
Germany 8, France 4, England 3, United States 3, 2 each for Denmark and Italy, 1 each for
Switzerland, Spain, Japan and China.


1.3.1 Introduction
Brilliant achievements of ancient Chinese bridge had played an important role in the
history of world bridge development, as recognised by the world. The 18th century British
Industrial Revolution created the modern science and technology, empowering Europe and
the United States arrive to a new era of modern engineering.
Opium war in the mid-1800s, resulted the already underdeveloped China beccoming a
semi-colonial semi-closed country under imperialist aggression. Since then, the imperialist
powers plundered the resources of Chinas railway construction, the excavation of the
mine, in the Jin-Pu, Ping-Han railway built by foreign engineers the Yellow River Bridge,
in the early years of forced concessions (such as Shanghai, Guangzhou, Ningbo, etc.)
Despite the construction of a number of bridges, the Yangtze River remained a natural
After the 1912, Revolution, Sun Yat-sen had planned transportation construction in
Chinas Founding outline in successive years but failed to materialise due to Warlord
and long-term civil war. The construction of Hangzhou Qiantang River Bridge started in
1935, and was the first modern steel bridge design by a Chinese engineering, in just 30
months, in September 1937, it was inaugurated, the bridge is a Chinese History
After the founding of new China, with the rise of the national economy, and
transportation infrastructure and bridge construction started booming. In a first five-year
plan to start building the first bridge of the Yangtze River Wuhan Yangtze River
Bridge, with the help of the former Soviet Union, using a new type of Column base and
advanced manufacturing and erection steel beam techniques. In 1957, the 9-hole 128 m
with a total length of 1155.5 m Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge was completed, laying the
foundation for the development of modern large-span steel bridge and deep water
foundation project. In 1968, Yangtze River Nanjing Bridge was design and constructed by
our engineers. Compared with the Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge, Nanjing Yangtze River
Bridge span increased to 160 m, using a continuous steel truss bridge taken off the
stiffening of the third chord. Because of the complex geological conditions on the bridge
site, the bridge is a milestone in the construction of the Yangtze river bridge.
In the 1960s, due to the impact of three years of natural disasters, financial and steel
are very scarce. China provincial highway departments had to develop low cost, less steel,
with a variety of human resources, arch became popular during this period. In 1961,
Yunnan Changhong broke the 100 m span stone arch bridge; Wuxi originated hyperbolic
arch bridge; in 1968 the Henan bridge with a 150 m main span is to the best of this Large
span type. At the same time, pre-stressed concrete technology also began to be used from
the railway bridge to the road bridge, and 1964 saw the completion of the first pre-stressed
concrete T-strap hanging hole rigid frame bridge with a main span of 50 m HenanFive
Ling Wei River Bridge.

Because of problems in curved arch bridge built on the soft soil, in early 1970s
Lightweight construction of the reinforced concrete arch truss bridge suitable on soft
ground was created, with the representing 75 m Zhejiang Ninghai bridge in 1976, and the
9 hole 50 m Henan Song County bridge. Meanwhile, in the Yunnan, Guangxi, Guizhou,
Sichuan, south-west mountainous areas, the development of easy non-support construction
of reinforced concrete box arch bridge were built, e.g., the 100 m Yibin, Sichuan Minjiang
River Bridge (1973), the 116 m Yunnan Red Bridge (1974) and the 105 m Guangxi Laibin
Bridge (1978).
In 1972, due to the need to develop oil fields the Shandong Yellow River Highway
Bridge is relatively rare steel bridge in China. Its main bridge is a 4-hole 112 m
continuous steel truss bridge approach using porous 33 m pre-stressed concrete beams.
Bored piles buried deep at a record 107 m. The bridge plays an important role in the
development of China Steel Bridges.
Western technology of cable-stayed bridge was introduced to China in the late 1960s,
Shanghai and Chongqing research department began to build this new bridge, and in 1975
built the 54 m Shanghai new five bridge and 75.8 m Yunyang Tang River bridge in
Sichuan. The completion of these two pioneer bridge is the harbinger of cable-stayed
bridge in the 1980s, in China. In 1980, the 174 m largest domestic span pre-stressed
concrete T-rigid frame bridge opened to traffic.

1.3.2 Bridges the Rise of China in the 1980s

After the smashing of the Gang of Four, China has entered a new period of reform and
opening up, bridge construction also ushered in a golden age.
In 1981, the first railway pre-stressed concrete cable-stayed bridge with a main span of
96 m, Guangxi Laibin red water river bridge was opened to traffic.
In 1981, at the National Conference held in Jinan experience on the construction of
pre-stressed concrete cable-stayed bridge was reviewed. In 1982, the 220 m of Jinan
Yellow River Bridge opened to traffic, it symbolises cable-stayed bridge in the country
rapid growth in China.
In 1982, the worlds largest rail span Slant Leg Rigid Frame 176 m Shaanxi
Ankang railway bridge in the country was completed, a major achievement of the railway
bridge construction achieved in China.
In the early 1980s, the Guangdong Province has attracted national attention around the
bridge sector counterparts. To solve the Pearl Delta traffic barriers, many bridges were
built. Among them, the 198490 m Rongqi bridge, which for the first time used 5000 kN
floating crane overall erection of pre-fabricated beams and the simple support design. In
1988, Guangdong Panyu Luoxi Bridge of 180 m main span was built as prestressed
concrete continuous rigid frame bridge. This is Chinas large-span pre-stressed concrete
beam bridge construction.
For the development needs of the construction of Shandong oilfield, Chinas first steeltower cable-stayed bridge deck and anisotropy type bridge, 288 m long Dongying Yellow

River Bridge was opened to traffic in 1987, the bridges cables used a New Generation of
hot extrusion PE Parallel to the cable casing system (NWPS). In 1988, the 110 m off the
coast of Guangdong Jiangmen bridge opened to traffic, it is the first short-term use of
precast pre-stressed concrete cantilever erection of advanced construction of continuous
beam bridge.
Throughout the 1980s, the construction of cable-stayed bridge thrived in the country
with the follows worth mentioning:
1. Guangdong Nanhai Jiujiang Bridge (1988), the main span 160 m, using floating
cranes assembled piecemeal cantilever construction.
2. Chongqing Shimen Bridge (1988), the main span 230 m, was the longest cablestayed bridge cantilever construction.
3. Guangzhou Haiyin Bridge (1988), the main span 175 m, the bridge width of 35 m,
was the widest single cable plane cable-stayed bridge.
4. Long Xiangjiang Jiangbei Bridge (1980), the main span 210 m, the first time the use
of light hanging basket full section once before fulcrum suspended casting
construction technology.

1.3.3 1990s China Bridge Takeoff

After entering the 1990s, due to the rapid development of the national economy
development and construction of Shanghai Pudong, bridge construction also expanded
Shanghai Nanpu Bridge construction is an important opportunity, Shanghai Municipal
House has invited Japanese companies to participate in the pre-design work. Upon the
appeal from a professor at Tongji University in Shanghai, the then CPPCC Chairman of
Shanghai Comrade Jiang Zemin decided to entrust Shanghai Nanpu Bridge to the
cooperation in design and construction domestically, a self-building opportunities for
scientific and technological progress achieved through practice. Of course, this is also a
challenge as the state bridge sector realised the leap from the construction of more than
200 m span cable-stayed bridge to a main span of 423 m combination of cable-stayed
bridge girder bridge. Shanghai Nanpu Bridge opened to traffic in 1991, and immediately
after another span cable-stayed bridge, Shanghai Yangpu Bridge with main span of 602 m
was erected in 1993. The successful construction of two cable-stayed bridges was greatly
encouraged by the self-construction of the bridge counterparts large-span bridges of
confidence and enthusiasm, setting off a national upsurge large-scale construction of the
bridge in the 1990s.
Cable-stayed bridge over 400 m include:
1. Hubei Yun County Hanjiang River Bridge, the main span of 414 m, 1993.
2. The Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge, the main span of 400 m, 1995.
3. Tongling Yangtze River Bridge, the main span of 432 m, 1995.
4. Chongqing Yangtze River Bridge, the main span of 444 m, 1995.
5. Shanghai Xuputaiqiao main span of 590 m, 1997.
6. Queshi Bridge, the main span of 518 m, 1998.

The successful construction of cable-stayed bridges encouraged China to build a

bridge of modern suspension bridge. The 452 m of Shantou Bay Bridge is the first
attempt, due to the more serious local air-sea corrosion, pre-stressed coagulation soil
stiffening beams were used. Each main cable contains 110 shares of steel wires of 91 root
5 mm, with outside diameter up to 56 cm. The bridge was built in 1994.
Guangdong Province in the construction of the Pearl River Expressway (GuangzhouShenzhen, Guangzhou-Zhuhai) had also begun planning the construction of Humen
Bridge across the Pearl River. Several British experts were invited to help in bridge
construction. When Professor Li Guohao lettered to the governor of Guangdong Province,
Comrade Ye, strongly appealing for independent construction, and in return of Hong Kong
on the eve of victory in 1997, built a Humen Pearl River Bridge with a main span of 888
m. This suspension bridge, Auxiliary Channel 270 m pre-stressed concrete continuous
rigid frame bridge is another bridge in Chinese Milestone.
In 1990s construction of the bridge has also made important progress. Since the steel
supply has gradually abundant, application of steel concrete arch was introduced in China.
This composite structure with easy installation and construction, the materials used by the
reasonable economy, the ability to carry a big advantage. In 1990 Sichuan wangcang built
the first 115 m main span concrete arch pipe. Later, in the decade built dozens of such
bridge, such as Guangdong three main span of 200 m main span of 270 m Shanxi Bridge
and three in Guangxi Shore Bridge.
At the same time, bridge using the strength of the skeleton of reinforced concrete box
arch has made development. Built in the late 1980s, the 200 m of Chongqing Fuling
Wujiang River Bridge and the 240 m Sichuan Yibin Jinsha River bridge marched into a
new type of steel pipe mixed Concrete arch skeleton, alike the 313 m Yongning Yongjiang
Bridge. Using this technology the worlds longest span concrete arch with main span of
420 m, the Wanxian Chongqing Yangtze River Bridge, was built, another Monumental.
In 1994, preparations for the long Jiangyin Yangtze River Bridge was started, cohesion
of the Chinese peoples dream of several generations of the bridge, the first Chinese long
span suspension bridge over 1000 m designed by the Chinese people. The North Shore has
a huge caisson foundation anchorage and coagulation Dobashi tower construction
company independently by China, the upper structure construction due to funding
problems by the British companys total contracting actually subcontract completed by
Chinese companies. The 1385 m main span of Jiangyin Yangtze River Bridge opened to
traffic in 1999, marking China with its bridge construction scale and speed of development
as well as a variety of bridge-span charts at the forefront of the outstanding achievements
in the world.
It should be noted that before the reform and opening up, China bridge construction,
particularly the large steel bridge construction was carried out by the Ministry of Railways
Bridge Engineering Bureau. Chinese road level is not high, many major rivers still rely
ferry connections. After 20 years of efforts, the Chinese public road transportation
construction team has to grow up quickly, designed and built a bridge across the Yangtze
river and its many deep water foundation. It can be said, in Chinas contribution to the
bridge construction, the provincial Ministry of Transportation and Communications
Department of the design and construction team have occupied a very important position.

1.3.4 China Bridge at the Beginning of the 21st Century

Chinese modern bridge made the last 20 years of the 20th century has made progress and
achievement, and ready to build more ambitious Cross River Bridge Project. After the
1980s, to learn and catch up and 1990s track and improve the two stages of
development, China bridge community should enter a innovative and go beyond the
new era in the early 2000s, through innovative design and construction achieve
development in order to improve international competitiveness of Chinese bridge.

1. Large-span Cable-stayed Bridge and a Suspension Bridge Construction

In 2000, China has built a main span of 618 m Wuhan white sandbar and the 312 m main
span rail-cum cable-stayed bridge Wuhu Yangtze River Bridge, the end of the bridge
construction in the 20th century. Cable-stayed bridge has become the preferred bridge type
for Yangtze River Bridge in Hubei, Anhui and Jiangsu provinces. Many cable-stayed
bridge built simultaneously, on the Yangtze River. In planning Run Yang Yangtze River
Highway Bridge, there are concerns among bridge engineers for Chinas large span cablestayed bridge over 800 m. On the completion of the main span of 1385 m Jiangyin
Yangtze River Bridge in 1999, on the decision to adopt a main span of 1490 m and greater
span suspension bridge. In the 21st century, requires the construction of Stonecutters
Bridge in Hong Kong, the ultra-km cable-stayed bridge, inspired by Chinese community
participation in the design of bridge competition in the process also improves the impact
of ultra-km cable-stayed bridge in confidence. Thus, in previous work Su Tong Bridge,
tried using 1088 m main span cable-stayed bridge program, in order to avoid the
difficulties suspension deep-water anchorage foundation construction.

(a) Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge (Fig. 1.101)

Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge is the longest span cable-stayed bridge in China. Maximum
span of the high tower, the longest cable and maximum width of the bridge is considered
to be a huge challenge. If breaking scale did not meet applicable limits of existing
technology, overcoming the obstacles set by technological innovation can be achieved
through careful construction practice can obtain high-quality results.
Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge Tower Pier using composite foundation, that the
double-wall steel cofferdam, caps and bored pile group consisting of whole resistance ship
collision force, in fact, the use of excessively large span has greatly reduced the chances of
ship collision. Since the bridges small navigational clearance, compared with the first
parallel Japanese Tatara Bridge tower, tower above the bridge deck height and total height
ratio is too small, resulting in Short leg effect, the impact of the towers appearance.
Long cables in full bridge closure after the emergence of a strong rain vibration, plus
an interim decision on the cable after the suppression of the spiral wound vibration, this
experience later provided an important basis for direct production of finished cable with
spiral strips (Fig. 1.102).

Fig. 1.101 Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge.

Fig. 1.102 Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge Helix Cable.

Long cantilever construction control in the Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge, the use of
more advanced neural network control technology in cable force and elevation of dual
control, achieved a higher closure accuracy. Orthotropic steel box girder bridge deck
construction site with steel panels welded joints and U-shaped longitudinal ribs bolted
form, is a new attempt and has promotional value. Finally, the steel deck pavement does
not solve the problem long-term. Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge has introduced American
epoxy asphalt concrete pavement technology through mechanical analysis and
experimental research, improvements and equipment research and development to achieve
a localisation formulations, excellent quality, and to fill the gap. After years of testing in
summer and winter seasons, within the constraints of overloaded vehicles in good running
condition of the bridge, has been applied in more than a dozen subsequent bridge.

(b) Yangzhou Yangtze River Highway Bridge (Fig. 1.103)

When the main span of 1490 m of South Branch Runyang Yangtze River Highway Bridge
was completed, it was the largest suspension bridge in China. In Runyang Yangtze River
Highway Bridge construction, little difficulty superstructure on the basis of experience in
building Jiangyin Yangtze River Bridge, the main Challenges from infrastructure projects.
The 50 m deep north anchorage using embedded rock underground continuous wall (Fig.
1.104). Although underground continuous wall at the construction site is a mature
technology, but for the huge plane size is 69 m 50 m bridge foundation remains a

challenge. Construction side of the use of information technology in construction methods,

a variety of information and continuous wall surrounding soil for real-time monitoring
control and forward and inverse analysis to ensure that the basic construction of fast and

Fig. 1.103 Runyang Yangtze River Highway Bridge.

Fig. 1.104 Runyang Yangtze River Highway Bridge underground continuous wall. North
Anchorage (Elevation units: m; size unit: cm)
Similarly, south anchorage freezing method technique is the traditional construction
technique for mine shaft, but on the basis of the large size of bridges its use is a bold
initiative with a huge risk. Construction by eliminating the danger, and finally succeeded.
Bridge Tower Construction employed foreign template technology, which greatly
improves the appearance and internal quality concrete progress has been made. As the The
deck height is small, although the lateral wind loads can be reduced, also reduced the
torsional rigidity and thus cannot meet the stability requirements. Construction of the first
time the central buckle and central stabilising plate measures to solve this problem (Fig.
Bridge main cable corrosion was first introduced in Japan in dry air de-humidification,
as a new technologies. In addition, the anchorage, foundation, tower, piers and and other
concrete box girder bridge approach works have adopted the technique of fly ash added to
improve the durability of the bridge is expected to ensure a lifespan of 100 years.

(c) Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge (Fig. 1.106)

Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge has a chevron-shaped arc of the new tower. It should be
acknowledged that this is inspired from the Stonecutters Bridge, the second top design in
the Hong Kong international bridge competition. In order to speed up the construction
speed, the bridge over the tower with steel was pre-manufactured, and brought down
tower junction structure puzzle for steel-concrete segments. Eventually, opening on the the
steel tower was opted and in-situ concrete and reinforced through the formation of PBL
shear key was used as the main component load transfer (Fig. 1.107). After wind tunnel
tests, rectangular-section steel tower cutaway was the best possible treatment to suppress
the vibration of galloping and vortex. We can say that the south Beijing Tower Bridge is a
creative design in steel bridge.
Tower located at the depth of more than 40 m, imposing a greater risk to the traditional
steel boxed construction, through careful organisation of the construction unit the
foundation construction was completed successfully. High steel tower 215 m, its the
introduction of a highly efficient air installation crane France, the smooth realisation of the
seal top. Although the steel tower costs more than the average cost of the concrete tower,
but won the construction speed in return.

Fig. 1.105 Runyang Yangtze River Highway Bridge in central stabilising plate.

Fig. 1.106 Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge Full-Bridge.

Fig. 1.107 Mixed Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge pylon connecting structure.

(d) Su Tong Bridge (Fig. 1.108)

Su Tong Bridge (hereinafter referred to as Su Tong Bridge) is Chinas first cable-stayed
bridge over 1000 m. In the wide Yangtze River Downstream waters, both to meet the
100000t seagoing vessels navigation requirements, and to avoid the construction of water
anchorage difficulties, it is necessary to adopt ultra large-span cable-stayed bridge.

Fig. 1.108 Su Tong Bridge Full-Bridge.

The first is the deep water tower pier foundation. By comparison, it was decided to
adopt large-scale construction grasp the larger group pile foundation. The 131 drilled
shaft, 114 to 117 m long from 2.5 m to 2.8 m large diameter bored piles requires a lot of
caps, steel boxed quality reaches 6000t, need to overcome many problems. Meanwhile, in
order to prevent future erosion threatening the foundation, there was need for permanent
erosion protection.
Wind-proof and anti-seismic design was the center of the design phase of the Su Tong
Yangtze River Bridge, focusing on issues considered, after the election and more than the
program, using a combination of rigid and fluid viscous limit longitudinal restraint device,
the introduction of American Taylors advanced liquid viscous dampers, and specially
designed for the bridge with a limit (maximum limit force 10000 kN, maximum limit
750 mm) king damper so that strong winds and a strong earthquake, the bridge will not
lead to large displacements occurred adversely affected by the force of the pylon, and
endanger joints become span bridges important protection systems to ensure the safety of
the bridge tower.
Su Tong Bridge deck is wide, and the use of better stability of the oblique cable plane

layout makes wind stability guaranteed. In order to reduce wind load and lateral
displacement of the deck small cable while preventing cable stormy wind-induced
vibration and other vibration, Su Tong Bridge uses Japans advanced surface treatment
technology with pits, as well as the cable side of the damper device. Meanwhile, largescale detailed high reynolds wind tunnel tests and studies to avoid adverse deck vibration.
Installation of the 300 m high bridge tower construction and advanced overhead steel
anchor box demanded efficient, safe, and secure the crane. Su Tong asked French bridge
crane company for advanced reconstruction and transformation, making it suited for Su
Tong Bridge. It also introduced advanced equipment and climbing formwork concrete
pumping equipment. The 1990s advanced equipment to ensure that the bridge Towers
safe, efficient, fast construction, to ensure the completion of the bridge towers quality.
The construction of steel box girder bridge over 1000 m is a challenge. Because Su
Tong Bridge Deck Normandy Bridge and Japan than in France Tatara Bridge should be
wide, although the cantilever length increases, but instead a small wide-span ratio, so that
the lateral stiffness of the construction phase is relatively large, and the side to windinduced vibration is reduced, which is more advantageous. In order to control the Su Tong
Bridge Construction catch the worlds advanced level, construction workers using the
precise geometry control advanced technology, command and construction general
contractors invited to the British and Danish company. COWI company flourished as a
consultant unit, with their advanced software to assist in the control, and achieved good
results. In order to ensure the efficiency and accuracy of assembly, the introduction of the
British Door Lang Company (DL Tech) advanced bridge crane, make up more than 500
meters cantilever erection smooth closure.
In addition, the non-navigation arch of Su Tong Bridge for the first time uses the
international advanced pre-stressed pre-cast segments and in vitro with cable technology,
through the success of the practice, it has made significant progress, catch up with the
world advanced level, became the pioneer in prestressed concrete continuous beam bridge.
The demonstration project (Fig. 1.109).
It can be said, Su Tong Bridge headquarters insisted independent construction, but
does not exclude the developed countries to assist, so that bridge the technology used to
achieve the international standard of the 1990s, and ensure the quality of the project to
improve the efficiency, Made a lot of progress, has also been praised by foreign

(e) Zhoushan Xihoumen Bridge (Fig. 1.110)

Zhoushan island project in Xihoumen bridge with a main span 1650 m split three-span
continuous box girder bridge. Xihoumen main navigation road water depth of 80 m, and
the wind and waves, is the first international one officially started construction, the use of
split large-span suspension bridge, in order to ensure the wind-proof stability of the

Fig. 1.109 Externally pre-stressed pre-cast segmental pre-cast yard Su Tong Yangtze River

Fig. 1.110 Zhoushan Xihoumen Bridge Full-Bridge.

Xihoumen Bridges main cable used ultra high strength steel, developed by Shanghai
Baosteel, with reduced diameter of the main cable and the weight and thus saving rope
clip accessories, anchorage size and lower cost base, reached the advanced level. Main
cable construction used for the first time the Helicopter pilot rope traction over the sea,
avoiding the risk of traditional methods may bring.
Split deck design, manufacture and installation is the first attempt, the international
community also can learn from the lack of experience in bridge hair exhibition in the
history of the landmark (Fig. 1.111).

Fig. 1.111 Zhoushan Xihoumen Bridge split box section (dimensions: m).

2. The Construction of Large-span Steel Arch Bridge

Chinas steel arch bridge construction had long been lagging behind the Western countries.
In the 1950s, Chinese steel arch bridge spanned no more than Hundred meters, such as the
Jianghan bridge helped by the former Soviet Union in 1955, with a main span of the deck
87.37 m Beam Arch. Chengdu-Kunming railway built in 1966, to welcome water river
bridge with a main span of 112 m Sophie just Truss Arch Combination.
After the reform and opening up, Sichuan Province built the first span of 115 m of
concrete pipe Tied Arch wangcang East River bridge. This good economic indicators,
the construction of the bridge-fast and easy to promote in the country, built in 2000,
Guangzhou Yajisha main span has reached the 360 m, span.
In the early 2000s, China began to try to build modern steel arch bridge with a span
about 500 m, in order to change the backwardness aspect of the Chinese steel arch Bridge.

(a) Lupu Bridge (Fig. 1.112)

Main span of 550 m of the Lupu Bridge is a world record-span steel arch bridge. Arch
bridge spanning over a 300 m generally use hanging erection to reduce the arch truss and
to decrease assembly weight, Lupu Bridge boldly used sloping arch box to obtain basket
handle arch aesthetic styling. Roll stability from the analysis, the surface can be obtained
in parallel arch enough to stabilise the security system, and in the arch sloping surface
quality up to 480t of Ribs segments hanging fight, is indeed a huge challenge. Lupu
Bridge Temporary work units using giant cranes and buckle cable systems, and through a
lot of weights measures, and the introduction of foreign lifting equipment to overcome the
difficulties and Ribs to closure. Shanghais large-span arch bridge on soft soil must be
built strong balance Tied Arch Thrust. There are several systems in the construction to be
converted and temporarily transferred to buckle cable tension level. Construction control
of the whole process should be a very distinctive creative work (Fig. 1.113).

Fig. 1.112 Lupu Bridge Full-Bridge.

Fig. 1.113 Lupu Bridge construction plans.

Arch Rib is a bluff body section, although the arch aerodynamic stability is very safe,
but in a state of uniform flow wind tunnel test a strong vortex vibration rib was observed.
While large urban turbulence intensity may inhibit the occurrence of vortex vibration, a
hydrodynamic calculation method works best without affecting the aesthetics of isolation
membrane pneumatic vibration suppression measures at a pre-set upper rib. The
insulating film connecting device (Fig. 1.114), as the need to install the future. Moreover,
in the vault at the sightseeing platform has played a part in the vortex vibration inhibition.
After the completion of the bridge and from the effects of perspective, although it took
some more steel and construction costs and the economic indicators are not good, it
proved box arch over 500 m is feasible. Compared with the classical truss arch, boxshaped rib arch may be more modern.

Fig. 1.114 Lupu Bridge anti-vortex vibration isolation membrane.

Fig. 1.115 Caiyuanba Bridge.

(b) Caiyuanba Bridge (Fig. 1.115)

Caiyuanba Highway Bridge is an upper and lower dual arch of urban rail transit designed
By Chongqing Jiaotong Research and Design Institute and Tung-Yen Lin International
companies design consortium, a Rigid steel-concrete composite Tied Arch of the new
bridge system.
Caiyuanba is a five cross-symmetrical arrangement consisting of a total length of 800
m including 420 m, 112 m and 88 m side spans. Main arch is inclined basket arch bridge
following the use of concrete arch rib, compared with steel box deck above arch. Both the
deck at the butt level and the formation of a hybrid structure. Orthotropic bridge deck
using steel joist, the upper six-lane highway, the lower two-lane urban rail transportation.
The Caiyuanba has a longitudinal separation system, which is divided into the cross tie
rod and tie rod side span (Fig. 1.116), and anchorage independence in order to carry out
the internal forces and linear adjustment and control.

Fig. 1.116 Separate Tied arrangement (A pair of symmetrical pre-stressed concrete

continuous rigid frame + Tied hogging).

In terms of structural design, construction details Caiyuanba adopted many

optimisation, such as steel box arch ribs and anchor construction boom, the department of
7 strand wire rod in vitro cable with PE jacket, Y-shaped rigid frame and mid-span the use
of separate connecting Tied Tied shear key construction, steel box arch rib concrete rigid
frame with a Y-shaped steel-concrete joint structure of PBL, as well as connecting
structure side span joists and between the Y-shaped rigid frame and so on.
Caiyuanba using a combination of structure, saving 13,000~15,000t of steel.
Construction used the traditional day of hanging, hanging buckle cable and hybrid
programs to fight portion of the stent, and a separate tied and active control technology for
large-span arch bridge construction offers many worthwhile lessons learned.

(c) Chaotianmen Bridge (Fig. 1.117)

Chaotianmen bridge located in the southeast end of the peninsula, famous pier
Chaotianmen about 1.3 km downstream, was the main site of the six lines radiating
outward things to fast main road, connecting the east Nanan District, Chongqing and
Guizhou Expressway Huangjuezhen Bay Interchange.
The main span of the bridge is a record of 552 m, in the traditional continuous steel
truss tied arch bridge. The upper deck of a double two-way six lanes and sidewalks on
both sides, the total deck width 36 m; lower middle lane urban rail lines are arranged on
both sides of each set aside a spare driveway.

Fig. 1.117 Chaotianmen Bridge.

Span arrangement for the 190 m + 552 m + 190 m. Tied plane coincides with the plane
of the main arch truss, force a clear, simple structure, easy construction. The bridge was
opened to traffic at the end of 2007, not only to improve the traffic situation in the main
city, has become the fast-track connection YuBeiOu, Jiangbei district and the South Bank
area, and has important implications for social and economic development of Chongqing.

3. Cross-sea Engineering Construction

Cross-sea bridge project began in the 1930s, with construction of the Bay Bridge (Bay
Bridge), including a bridge across the mouth of the bay, most notably in 1937 when
pushed San Francisco Bay, built in the mouth of the Golden Gate Bridge. The 1890 Bay
Bridge, built in Scotland Forth can be said to herald the Bay Bridge. According to
statistics, the worlds Bridge has built nearly 70 in more than ten countries, including
Japan 18, US 18, Denmark 6, out the top three.

Japan and Denmark are two of the countries in the 1970s, began to connect homeland
across the sea island project. Japans bridge as a starting point, the construction of the
four-island project contact line; the small Danish island project kelp bridge construction
started. In the end of the century with the completion of the two famous sea Belt Bridge
(1997) and the Akashi Strait Bridge (1998), to achieve the ambitious island project plan
while among the world powers of the bridge.
In the 1970s, the worlds longest-linking project is 25 km Bahrain Island Narrows
Bridge between Bahrain and Saudi Arabia by a French construction company.
Bay Bridge construction in China began in the 20th century, the early 90s Shantou Bay
Bridge and the new Hong Kong airport line island project in the three bridges, namely,
Tsing Ma Bridge, Kap Shui Mun Bridge and Ting Kau Bridge. Since then, the Zhoushan
island project has quietly started, gradually advancing to the mainland from the island of
Zhoushan Islands Link. Other coastal cities, island project is also planned.

(a) Donghai Bridge (Fig. 1.118)

Chinas first cross-sea waters off the coast in the vast construction project was completed
in 2005, in the East China Sea Bridge. The bridge connected by Nanhui District of
Shanghai Yangshan Deepwater Port, full-length 32.5 km, at the mouth of Hangzhou Bay,
Yellow Sea and East China Sea at the junction, is a landmark bridge, its built for the
future of China across the sea projects, such as the Hangzhou Bay Bridge, the Hong KongZhuhai-Macao Bridge, as well as the planned Bohai Strait and Qiongzhou Strait project,
providing valuable experience.

Fig. 1.118 Donghai Bridge.

Donghai bridge builders face the harsh environment of the sea, the upper and lower
portion of the structure are made of whole Erection of large pre-fabricated, equipped with
a 2500t large floating crane. To ensure the service life of 100 years, the development of
high performance concrete sea and various anti-corrosion measures to improve the
durability of concrete in marine environment. In the waters of the construction GPS
technology must be used, the construction of large storm-resistant construction platform,
management also uses innovative ideas to ensure the smooth conduct of offshore
The two main navigation bridge Donghai Bridge, though not too long, but all using a
combination of cable-stayed bridge girder bridge creative. Main channel bridge using a
single cable plane and combined box girder bridge, with inverted Y-shaped pylons; stars
Pearl Hill Bridge (Fig. 1.119) was combined with a parallel cable plane of the deck beams
on the bridge tower using light beams steel crossbars. Since the main girder bridge using a

combination of full bridge deck pavement and a new uniform joints large container truck
traffic provides a smooth, durable good driving conditions.

(b) Zhanjiang Gulf Bridge (Fig. 1.120)

Opened to traffic by the end of 2006, Guangdong Zhanjiang Gulf Bridge, located in
Zhanjiang City Maxie Bay, connecting East District, Zhanjiang Port is located on the
international waterway 50,000 tons level. To save costs, and taking into account the ship
out of port speed is constrained using cable-stayed main span of 480 m, in order to meet
the 50,000 ton ocean-going vessel bound two-way navigation requirements.

Fig. 1.119 Stars Pearl Mountain Bridge.

Fig. 1.120 Zhanjiang Gulf Bridge.

Although Zhanjiang Bay Bridge span is small, but in the design and construction
process structure has many improvements made innovative efforts, especially in the antiship collision facilities and construct two cable-stayed bridge anchor, has made good
Used to increase the collision avoidance high design costs, and to resist more than
8000t ship collision force will also greatly increase the cost basis of the span or set
collision pier. Zhanjiang Gulf Bridge proposed a flexible energy dissipation crash
scenario, in order to reduce ship collision force, only the cost of more than twenty million
yuan (two main pier) is to achieve a small hit is not bad, the hit repairable, big hit does
not fall (pier no damage), the goal. In a small bump process, so piers, ships and three
collision facilities are protected, become a three is not bad crash facility.

Designed by Zhanjiang Gulf Bridge Steel Corporation and Shanghai Institute of

Marine Research program was jointly developed by the outer pontoons, pontoon rope bull
ring, the inner composition of the pontoon (Fig. 1.121), when subjected to ship collision,
the bull ring absorption part of the ship collision force, while the bow goes to the side,
along the outer pontoon slip away, thus changing the impact angle, reducing the ship
collision force. This is a very creative achievements, the design of the future bridge crash
will have an important role model.
Cable was anchored to the steel box girder bridge, a methods now mostly used in the
structural form of the anchor box. To simplify the structure, convenient construction,
Zhanjiang Gulf Bridge envisaged commonly used in the I-beam anchor pull extended to
the steel box girder structure success, through a detailed three-dimensional stress analysis
and experimental research to prove the rationality of this anchoring structure advantages
and ease of construction for future large-span steel box girder design provides a reference,
but also an innovative sense of achievement (Fig. 1.122).

Fig. 1.121 Flexible anti-collision Devices Zhanjiang Gulf Bridge.

Fig. 1.122 Cable Anchor Way Zhanjiang Gulf Bridge.

In addition, Zhanjiang Bay Bridge tower design, the bridge approach movable
formwork equipment and deck epoxy asphalt pavement aggregate localisation and other
aspects of a number of technical improvements, become one of the technology
demonstration project in Guangdong Province, China Communications Construction

quality engineering.

(c) Hangzhou Bay Bridge (Fig. 1.123)

In the early 1990s, began planning the construction of Zhejiang Zhapu port connected by
Hangzhou Bay, Cixi channel. Shanghai Tung-Yen Lin commissioned consultants Brandon
newly established pre-feasibility study to compare a few possible direction, bridge type
arrangement and form the basis of the line, and estimate the cost. Financing in the late
1990s, progress had been made, the former Ministry of Transportation Highway Planning
and Design Institute completed a feasibility study report, the Ministry of Transportation
(now renamed as the Ministry of Transport) approved the project, into the formal planning
stage. Ningbo, Zhejiang Province organized a command, followed by Shanghai Donghai
Bridge to start construction later in order to use heavy construction equipment and troops
Donghai Bridge, drawing Donghai Bridge offshore construction experience.

Fig. 1.123 Hangzhou Bay Bridge.

Hangzhou Bay Bridge is located in Hangzhou Bay, with a length of 36 km, the total
length of the bridge over the East China Sea. Navigation bridge located two holes, North
Navigable twin towers 448 m main span steel cable-stayed bridge with double cable
planes, navigation standard 35000 t; South Navigable single cable plane is a single tower
steel bridge, navigation standard 3 milliont. In addition to the North-South traffic
openings, the remaining non-maritime shipping Span are continuous pre-stressed concrete
box girder after 70 m simple support. Donghai bridge construction on some of the issues
that appear, such as crack control of pre-fabricated pier wet joints, continuous box girder
pre-fabrication and pre-tensioning technology, continuous box girder joints wet process so
take a seat at the improvement measures (such as changes in marine concrete mix,
increasing the protective layer and adding good ruth fibers, etc.), has made technological
advances, hoping to solve the joint after the wet concrete cracking durability. For two nonnavigation bridge box girder construction heavy 200t, using design and manufacturing
company from Germany, Italy advanced beam carrier, the precast beams moved into
position by the hole to install, compared with the general adoption of mobile formwork
situ process, improved quality. In addition, to improve the high wind environment lane
bridge, the first large-scale use of wind barriers set up to achieve very good results.
Hangzhou Bay Bridge was built in 2008, and synchronised Su Tong Yangtze River
Bridge, realised with three trunk road across the Yangtze River Estuary and Hangzhou
Bay, the two key projects, coastal Zhejiang and Fujian and Shanghai Zhuchengs leading
road transport more convenient, unobstructed.

(d) Zhoushan Island Project

In the early 1990s, the development of economic Zhoushan and Ningbo had aspirations on
Liandao bridge connecting the islands. At the time, stone is the companys business
owners, from Zhoushan, he is willing to make contributions to an island project planning
and commission of Tongji road and traffic engineering, bridge engineering Zhoushan sent
teachers togather the relevant information has been reconnaissance waters, completed the
program and practicable route to meet the requirements of the bridge-navigation
preliminary plan and estimate construction costs, but this proposal was shelved because
conditions are not ripe.
In the late 1990s, the city has determined to use its own financial resources, advance
the Zhoushan Island and several nearby islands connected together, when conditions
permit, and then connect Jintang Island, the progressive realisation and connecting
Ningbo. In the 21st century, Zhoushan City has completed the three island project, built
Taoyaomen Bridge, the island of Zhoushan Island and booklet fused, the last two
remaining major sea project, namely, Xihoumen Bridge (Fig. 1.124) and across the
waterway connecting Ningbo Jintang Bridge (Fig. 1.125).

Fig. 1.124 Xihoumen Bridge.

The central government approved the construction of Shanghai Yangshan Deep water
Port and Donghai Bridge to form the Shanghai Shipping Center. In this situation, Zhejiang
Province and the Ministry of Transportation decided to use a deep water port in Zhoushan
City resources, and Ningbo Beilun port in Hangzhou Bay south wing jointly build a large
naval base, as the main access to the sea Zhejiang, Jiangxi and Fujian north north-west
region, and echoes and Shanghai, East China together constitute an international shipping
center in the Pacific Ocean in the West Bank.

Fig. 1.125 Jintang Bridge.

Xihoumen Bridge is suspension bridge spanning 1,650 m over the waterway with a
depth of 80 m. As is located in typhoon-prone areas, the basic wind speed up to 44 m/s,
requires flutter test wind speed 78 m/s, exceeding the limits of aerodynamic stability of the
overall streamlined box girder could be achieved, and thus must be split slotted box girder
cross-section. Additional stability is necessary when the central board to improve wind
stability. Xihoumen Bridge has become Chinas largest span when completed, and the first
use of split deck suspension bridge. In 2006, construction of the main cable fairlead first
traction over the sea using a helicopter to succeed, the whole bridge was completed in
2009, making the island of Zhoushan Jintang Island and connected.
Jintang Bridge Engineering Zhoushan island project for the last one to be connected
Jintang Island and the mainland. Originally planned to use the direct route across recently,
due to the Strait of deep water, technically difficult, after the switch to a total length of 21
km, crossing the shallow water ashore in Zhenhai program. A 620 m using the main
navigation span steel bridge, something the two auxiliary points navigable hole hole using
a main span of 216 m of continuous rigid frame and 156 m main span continuous beam,
and the rest were non-navigable approach for 60 m, 50 m and 30 m pre-stress concrete
continuous beam. Jintang Bridge draws on the successful experience of the East China Sea
Bridge and Hangzhou Bay Bridge, the total cost was 7.7 billion yuan, opened to traffic
before the opening of Expo 2009 Shanghai, a century-old dream of Zhoushan people.

(e) HZMB Connection Works (2009-2016)

Pearl river estuary Lingdingyang is the most important estuary, the Pearl river delta has
four of the eight entrances to import Lingdingyang, bay mouth wide and 30 km, an area of
2000 km2. Lingdingyang east of Shenzhen, Shekou and Hong Kong, Zhuhai and Macao to
the west, from the top of the Tiger Bay entrance Humen Bridge 65 km. With the rapid
economic development of the Pearl river delta region, on both sides of the bay mouth
began to consider the idea of the Lingdingyang bridge.
Former Transportation Ministry organized design competition in 1993, collecting a
number of domestic and international bridge-type program. A total length of 33 km, sixlane traffic, construction cost was estimated at about 16 billion yuan. December 1997 state
approved a feasibility study of the project.

Fig. 1.126 HZMB location map.

Due to the construction of the Disneyland on Lantau Island by the Hong Kong
government, the Pearl of the West Bank cities to attract tourists; and the gaming industry
in Macao also hopes to attract tourists to Hong Kong to Macau easy, so the Hong Kong
Parliament rejected the Northern Line Lingdingyang ashore in Tuen Mun bridge program
(I). Highway Planning and Design Institute Limited by HZMB Advance Work
Coordination Group commissioned undertook a feasibility study on various proposed
solutions by detailed comparison, recommended line position IIa (field stone Bay
Northern Line - Beaconsfield / Pearl) and bridge and tunnel combination regimen.
In December 2009, the preliminary design was completed and reviewed at several
rounds of expert meetings, bridge and tunnel construction party decided to use a
combination of programs (Fig. 1.126). The eastern section of the main channel by the
immersed tube tunnel crossing, long 5.99 km. The western part of three auxiliary channel
press the navigation requirements at different span cable-stayed bridge spans: from east to
west, with a main span 458 m Green Island Channel Bridge; 2 258 m main span cablestayed bridge in the Three Pagodas Direct Ship Channel Bridge jianghai; main span of
298 m Jiuzhou Channel Bridge. Bridge length of 22.9 km, a total investment of 34.72
billion yuan. The bridge was under construction by the end of 2009, was opened to traffic

in 2015.

(f) Qiongzhou Strait Project

Qiongzhou Strait Tunnel State national lines is the southernmost project. In the early
1990s, the Guangdong Provincial Communications Department started a program of work,
and invite international companies to do a preliminary exploration. According to the
existing charts, geological, meteorological and hydrological data, preliminary planning a
two-line position, namely, the Straits shortest median line bits and Nishiguchi line
position. The former total length of 20 km, the average depth of 80 m, maximum depth of
160 m for avoiding the need to build multi-span 3000~5000 m suspension bridge; the
latter a total length of 40 km, but the depth of only 40~45 m, can be a smaller span bridge
or bridge and tunnel bonding scheme.
In 1998, Guangdong Provincial Communications Department to allocated 83 million
yuan in special funds, and Humen technology consulting firm was commissioned to carry
out preliminary work of upto five years to complete a total of seven volumes of the 1.8
million word documents, technical standards, and natural conditions, navigation standards,
traffic line position is preferred, conceptual design and environmental, technical and
economic evaluation of bridge and tunnel scheme and so do a detailed study. After
detailed research report comparing and preferred to avoid the basis of the midline 80 m
water depth, recommended Strait Nishiguchi new line VII bit (Fig. 1.127), and
recommend the most economical 2 800 m cable-stayed bridge with three towers
programs. Auxiliary Channel Bridge north and south two 30,000ton ocean-going vessel
traffic requirements, clear height of 50 m, 800 m each using hybrid cable-stayed bridge
deck, the rest of the side holes available 250 m and 50 m continuous rigid frame composed
of pre-stressed concrete continuous beam. Thus, taking the Strait Nishiguchi new full
bridge VII line B program not only mature technology, but also the lowest cost, is an
economically rational basis for competitive programs, feasibility studies for future projects
provide a good technical foundation.

Fig. 1.127 Line position Qiongzhou Strait project comparison chart.

Since 2008, the central government decided to expand the Yangpu Port in Hainan

Province, facing South-east Asia trade; in Wenchang construction of a new space launch
base. For this reason, the requirements of the railway across the Channel to replace the
current ferry transport, and decided to re-planning and preliminary studies Qiongzhou
Strait project led by the Ministry of Railways. In February 2009, two (railway, transport)
and provinces (Guangdong, Hainan) in Haikou, the first joint meeting was held to discuss
the work to build a highway and railway. Joint Working Group proposed a variety of
comparison program, overall, is currently working on preliminary investigations
navigation area, traffic, geological exploration, hydrological and meteorological
conditions are not sufficient to bridge deep water foundation and technical preparation
immersed tunnel is not enough, as well as coordination problems between the Ministry of
Railways and the Ministry of Transport, the need to have sometime to do the preliminary
work consciously careful argumentation comparison, not hastily.

4. Participation and Cooperation of Foreign Companies

After the reform and opening up, Chinas bridge engineering counterparts in developed
countries began to have contacts and exchanges. Visit abroad and participate in
international conferences of university teachers, China Road and Bridge Corporation and
the China Railway companies by overseas contracted projects, but also have a preliminary
cooperation with foreign contractors. In exchange, we deeply felt and technical level of
developed countries there is a big gap between the need to catch up, trying to learn the
developed countries in the 1960s to 1970s, construction boom in the creation of many new
technologies. Design units have introduced foreign advanced design software, and
construction companies are buying a number of advanced equipment to replace the
original inefficient outdated equipment.
In the late 1980s, Shanghai Nanpu Bridge in self-construction process, invited the
Chinese-American Mr. Deng Wenzhong as a design review and technical consultant for
the Asian Development Bank successfully passed the review expert group played an
important role.
Guangdong Province, the first to open up, introduced advanced VSL clip anchor to the
building of the Luoxi Bridge. Off the coast of bridge construction in Jiangmen by foreign
investment in Japan Kumagai served by a contractor, and the use of advanced short precast segmental construction method and hanging fight. Shandong Province, bought
Japanese PE sheath parallel finished wire rope in Dongying Yellow River Bridge
construction. These technologies played as an important bridge between the model and
guide during the progress and development of China.
Since the 1990s, encouraged by the success of the Shanghai Nanpu Bridge and Yangpu
Bridge independent construction, the provinces climax independent construction of the
bridge, the provinces have begun to frequent visits abroad, while also inviting foreign
well-known companies, such as the United States, Tung-Yen Lin (TY Lin) International
Corporation, Japans growing up (Chodai), Germanys Leonhardt companies such as
consulting services. Anhui Tongling Bridge construction, Mr. Deng Wenzhong
recommended cantilever construction of cable-stayed bridge in front fulcrum Light
Hanging Basket; Queshi Bridge is used VSL strand groups anchor cable system; some of
the main cable construction used in Japan pioneered strand (PWS) working method. Some
design and construction units are happy to invite some well-known outside consulting

company as some of the challenges, but also to buy some advanced equipment, such as
Germanys rig, Britain, Italy and France, cranes, movable formwork cast Norway, etc.
Germany and Switzerland as well as large travel joints, vibration dampers and buffers as
well as advanced construction pylon climb molds.
On the software, the United States, Ansys, Korea Midas, TDV, Austria and the United
Kingdom Lusas also introduced major software, major design institutes, independent
design of the bridge to China has played an important role.
In bridge construction boom in the late 20th century, some British companies such as
Hong Kong Maosheng (Maunsell), Halcrow (Hacrow), Ao Weina (Orup) and Bandung
(McDonald) and Denmarks Cowi other well-known companies are in consulting services,
sub-contracting tasks, the joint bid, case studies and other means, to participate in the
design and construction of Chinese Bridge Cooperation of Chinas development and
progress of bridge played a very positive role.
In addition, for some difficult problems to solve, such as steel deck from lack of
pavement, through the introduction of epoxy asphalt American ChemCos patented
technology has been resolved. Another example of fine cracks in the concrete, but also
through the introduction of foreign fiber adding technology to overcome. It should be said,
advanced technologies and successful experiences of developed countries is very helpful.
In the 21st century, our country and outside the companys cooperation has entered a
mature stage. Some large-span bridges and sea project need to rely on large advanced
equipment to ensure the projects quality and durability, but cannot employing sea tactics
and outdated equipment to complete. Some Bridge Engineering Command actively
inviting foreign well-known companies as the sites resident advisor on critical design and
engineering methods were reviewed and checks, and also listed in the budget cost of
purchasing advanced equipment in order to ensure the smooth progress of the project,
such as Shanghai Donghai Bridge, Jiangsu Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge and Su Tong
Bridge. We all recognise that the gap between Chinas equipment manufacturing industry
cannot solve the short-term, we also need time, through the efforts of independent
innovation, to catch up with the level of equipment in developed countries.
In some cities, domestic and international public tenders include foreign and domestic
design companies have begun to design units, or through the establishment of China
branch in the country registered a way to participate. Such as Guangzhou, Chongqing and
Tianjin cities bridges bid by Mr. America Tung-Yen Lin Deng served as the international
design. Some foreign companies have been gradually creative design accepted and
appreciated for the Chinese community has also touched the bridge and inspiration. It
should be said that this is a positive exchanges and cooperation for Chinas development
and progress of the bridge is very useful.
The fifty years of development history of Chinas modern bridge, in the first two Five
Year Plan period (1953 to 1963), by 156 former Soviet Union aided engineering, quickly
established the west since the 18th century industrial revolution two hundred the
accumulated years of modern industrial system. In terms of bridges, aided by the former
Soviet Union Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge, we have mastered the modern steel bridges,
reinforced concrete and pre-stressed bridge of advanced technology, with a design and

construction team and several bridges factories. We can say that we have basically caught
up with the pace of the world bridge project forward.
Unfortunately, the Cultural Revolution made Chinas economic on the verge of
collapse, we completely missed the world in the 20th century, 60 to 70 years of postwar
modern bridge technology booming golden age. When in 1979, the first batch of scholars
and students to go abroad and see the Western Highway and the spectacle of urban
modernisation, tremendous progress can only exclaim post-war modern bridge. We must
study hard to catch up lost time to make it up as soon as possible.
Fortunately, the Chinese bridge circles in the 1980s, after learning and catching up, in
the 1990s, to track and improve both the development stage, and seize the opportunity to
Shanghai Nanpu Bridge and Guangdong Humen Bridge construction, chose a learning
foreign advanced technology, but do not give up the right of autonomy of independent
road construction, and finally succeeded. We gradually catch up with the pace of the world
of modern bridge forward, also won the international bridge industry peer recognition and
praise, to become an international bridge an important member of the extended family.

1.3.5 Problems in Bridge Construction in China

China bridge construction in the past 20 years has achieved tremendous progress and
achievement, but in the face of the 21st century bridge engineering tasks and after entering
the WTO counterparts in developed countries to compete in the Chinese market situation,
we need to address the problems, and overcome as soon as these affect the
competitiveness of the defects, ready to meet the challenge.

1. Design Innovation
Design is the soul of the project, which largely determine the projects quality, cost,
construction difficulty and duration. Since the reform and opening up, although there have
been a number of representatives of the excellent design of this era, but most designs there
is a lack of innovation, poor economic indicators and the problems caused by poorly
designed wasteful and unsafe bridge on the technical progress of the project with be
adversely affected.
Innovation should be the soul of design. However, we seem to lack an incentive
mechanism used in the design of new structures, new materials and new processes. First,
the design cycle is too short, too much to undertake the task, excessive pursuit of
economic efficiency, the unit did not have enough time to make the design and
optimisation of innovative thinking compared to imitation and plagiarism meet existing
design. Secondly, the lack of truly fair and open competition system and strict design
review and supervision system, but also the lack of creativity and economic indicators bad
design passed and implemented. Finally, there is a look at the size of the awards at all
levels of the project, not to pay attention to the tendency of design innovation and
economic indicators, so that innovative ideas for design engineers tend to indifference.
These are the causes for Chinese bridge design lacking creativity and poor economic
Our bridge design has a bad tendency, the thicker text the better the design. However,

the most important design concept is very simple statement, did not say the reason clear
choice programs. Foreign designs are limited to the number of pages of tender documents,
tender design does not have to repeat basic information and requirements, the key is set
forth innovative ideas and solutions approach, so that the file has distinct characteristics
and persuasive.
Foreign bridge design only do the bidding of construction tender design, equivalent to
Chinas preliminary design or technical design, the foundation of a large number of
construction plans by the successful contractor based on business equipment and
experience in the design upto complete the tender. Thus, the design department had
sufficient time and energy to do the work of the design concept and technical innovation.
There are even some smaller consulting engineer firm, specialising in doing the feasibility
study and work program of the competition. This division of labour is very conducive to
innovative design and construction of innovative technologies. We should change the
current form of organisation to complete the design by the institute a full range of work
from the feasibility study until the construction plans as soon as possible.

2. Engineering Quality Problems

The speed of Chinese bridge construction often makes foreign counterparts
unbelievably amazed. However, the haste of the design cycle and the construction
period is not a good thing, it brings a lot of regret, leaving a lot of quality problems. Since
the contract price is too low, even worse, even construction equipment purchase were not
even included, construction contractors only lower than the fixed labour costs. In order not
to lose money, they are forced to subcontract to low qualifications, lack of experienced
engineering team to construction, so the layers of sub-contracting, the phenomenon is
difficult to avoid cutting corners, eventually leading to poor quality of the project,
undermines the engineering durability.
In addition to the problem of technology, processes and qualifications on the Chinese
market, there is still a material fake, shoddy problems. Cement, steel, pre-stressing
equipment, templates and basic engineering materials have many quality problems, some
even very serious. Although the construction supervision system, but there are still many
loopholes and unhealthy, it is difficult to achieve a high degree of responsibility and strict
Some Chinese-American counterparts during a visit to a Chinese bridge construction
site, has repeatedly warned: Chinas bridge may require repair climax in less than 30
years. This is contrary to our long-term project, Quality First slogan. Corruption and
waste is a great crime, if our project is not durable, less than the design life requirements,
which is a tremendous waste, we would have lost to future generations.
China bridge construction engineering quality problems spread through the ChineseAmerican and Hong Kong counterparts, has affected the reputation of Chinese bridges
become their incredible a satire of Chinese speed and annotations. We still have to
promote the rational design cycle, reasonable duration and scientific attitude reasonable
cost, and provide updates to the construction contractor equipment to improve the
development of space technology, the complete elimination of layers of qualification
reduced sub-contracting, resolutely resist shoddy materials and fraud, the implementation

of strict supervision. Only in this way can China bridges to high-quality brand
internationally respected peers.

3. Bridge Aesthetic Issues

Since the reform and opening up, Chinas bridge construction at an unprecedented scale
and speed to make the world wonder. But whether we are in a hurry to build a bridge gives
a sense of beauty is a question worthy of reflection. Bridge is not only an important part of
the transportation system, but also a landmark building. People want to praise uttered by
the bridge at the time, enjoy the beauty. As a bridge engineer has the responsibility to pay
attention to aesthetic value and landscape features in the design of the bridge, to meet
peoples desire to watch.
Foreign bridge engineers and architects have long-term cooperation, especially in a
multi-program comparison of the conceptual design phase, aesthetic assessment of the
bridge is often a very important factor. In some long-span bridges in the international
design competition, aesthetic evaluation even more than the technical indicators become
the decisive factor. In contrast, some of our bridge, since the design is not enough
emphasis on aesthetics, the lack of participation and co-architect of various possible
scenarios compare inadequate and often leave a lot of regret, such as giving a clumsy, dull
and rough feeling and so on.
In the past, our design principle was for the economy, and take care of appearance only
when conditions permitted. As Chinas economic strength, the concerns on the
environment and landscape requirements are also rising. Aesthetic design of the bridge
should become increasingly important principle, bridge engineers to constantly improve
their aesthetic and artistic qualities, so that every bridge became landscaping, bringing joy
to the people of art.

4. Economic Issues
The costs of China bridge from the surface is lower than the cost of European countries, so
give people create a false impression that the is the best interms of economy. Chinese
bridge. However, after careful consideration the impression is not true.
First, because of Chinas low labour costs, many bridges have gathered a lot of sites of
migrant workers, bridge equipment using relatively backward. Although the bridge can be
built, and even record-breaking bridge, but often bring construction quality problems.
While an investment is low, but if life is very short, the future costs of maintenance and
reinforcement is very huge, from the viewpoint of the whole life is still very economical.
Secondly, the bridge construction in China are often the first choice by the owners and
design units, made by a scheme comparison, expert consultation meeting to discuss the
decision by the final implementation plan. In economic comparison scheme will be some
counterintuitive phenomena and man-made, even in order to meet the wishes of the
owners and the total disregard of the economy, so uneconomical, weird, difficult
construction program through false irrational economic indicators and not scientific
reasons to be implemented. During the construction phase and then an additional budget
to make the project economic principles useless.
Again, an important indicator of the economy of a bridge is the amount of material per

square meter deck, attached great importance to this reflects the level of competitiveness
and technology indicators in the international design competition. Because of Chinas gap
in the material industry, almost using the same kind of S345 steel bridge steel, concrete
bridge most of the strength of the relatively low-level of C50 concrete, therefore, thicker
steel plate and steel bridge in more varied, complex structure and bring welding process
problems, concrete bridge also often seem relatively clumsy and obesity, the bridge will
lead to increased costs.
Finally, there is a problem in the choice of the bridge span. In addition to the bridge
site topographic and geologic conditions unfavourable to cross the river to be a special
project requirements, the country has a lot on Yangtze River in the blind pursuit of large
span, even in the Xiangjiang River, a tributary branch of the Yangtze River Gan River and
other inland waterways would have to build super-kilometer span bridge, which is very


The end of World War II in 1945, marked the beginning of modern engineering to IT
technology and computer applications characterised, so far weve gone through the first
six years. From the previously described six years about 60 innovations of modern
engineering can be seen, and before the war compared to modern bridge technology has
made a huge progress, including high-performance materials, finite element method and
computer software, construction method innovation and large-scale automation equipment
and other aspects of construction, showing a more sophisticated modern bridge design,
construction and more high quality and high efficiency, conservation and management of
monitoring techniques are increasingly sophisticated.
In the last decade of the 20th century, there are many international bridges are in 21st
century conference theme. June 2006, the US Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) held a
Future of Civil Engineering Summit in Virginia Rand Youngstown City formed a
prospect, 2025 Civil Engineering report. The report calls for civil engineering
counterparts around the world to work together to take action to create a more beautiful
day for the early 21st century civil engineering.
Bridge project is an important branch of civil engineering, if we can follow the stages
of modern civil engineering that: From 1945 to 1980, period is the foundation of modern
bridge engineering; 1980 to 2010, period is progress, creating the 1950s to 1970s, many of
the new technology has been fully applied and developed in the late sprint cross-sea
engineering and 20 years in large-span bridges; in 2010, the modern bridge project will be
matured in the turning point of this development, we also need Looking to bridge
engineers operational goals for the next 20 years and important mission.

1.4.1 Bridge Engineers Mission and Mandate

2025 Civil Engineering, the report said: Civil Engineers shoulders create a sustainable
world and to improve the global quality of life sacred mission. Therefore, sustainable
development and quality of life is the 21st century, two important proposition, but also
exposed the past 60 years the main issues and challenges faced. So the mission can be
summarised as follows:
1. Bridge engineers are not only planners, designers and builders of the project, they
should also be the lifetime operators and maintainers.
2. Bridge engineers should have the concept of sustainable development has become a
protector of the natural environment and conservation of resources and energy
3. Bridge engineers should be involved in decision-making infrastructure, and
construction of high quality and durable construction through continuous innovation,
improve the quality of peoples lives become an active promoter.
4. Bridge engineer should become the project guardian against natural disasters,
emergencies, accidents and other risks.
5. Finally, bridge engineers should also have team spirit and work ethic to become a
model to resist all kinds of corruption performer.

1.4.2 Research and Development of Bridge Project

To achieve the above mission and mandate, bridge engineering must rely on the latest
achievements of science and technology development, and through ongoing research and
development work, and constantly improving existing technologies to create and invent
more advanced technology to overcome shortcomings and resolve new issues to meet the
greater challenges of the 21st century. Research focused on the following five areas:
1. Improvement of material properties is an important driving force behind the
continuous progress of the bridge project. Modern steel and concrete bridge
engineering is still the main building materials. Over the past six decades, the
development of the steel from S343 to S1100, the development of concrete from C30
to C150, has made substantial progress. A variety of high-strength lightweight
composite materials and smart materials have been used in bridge engineering. In the
foreseeable future, nanotechnology and biotechnology may become an important
driving force of technological innovation in the 21st century, and continue to enter
the field of bridge engineering applications, has become a new generation of building
materials carriers.
2. IT technology and improvement of computer processing power and the
corresponding structural analysis software continues to progress, will make
increasingly refined bridge design, to create the conditions for the realisation of
numerical simulation and the Virtual Reality (VR) technology. Therefore, to carry
out research of advanced theories and methods of conceptual design of bridge
engineering, structural design, construction control, health monitoring, management
and other aspects of conservation and development of appropriate software and
database technology is a very important area of research.
3. Intelligent monitoring devices (sensors, diagnostic monitors, portable computers) and
inventions of large intelligent robot construction equipment, will enable the
construction, management, monitoring, maintenance and repair work of the bridge
and a series of on-site automation and remote management. Our industry is still
relatively backward equipment, heavy construction equipment, advanced testing
equipment and sophisticated sensors are dependent on imports, we should vigorously
carry out research and development work in this field of hardware, and gradually
increase its investment in this regard, to get rid of external dependence.
4. Natural disasters and terrorist threats put high risk to the future world. National
Natural Science Foundation of Chinas recently launched a major research program
on major projects power disaster will help reduce risk and ensure the safety of
peoples lives, but also improve important aspects of peoples quality of life. In
addition, the study of risk assessment and improve the structural durability should be
taken seriously in order to ensure the normal life of major projects.
5. Finally, norms and standards to reflect an important indicator of the level of nationbuilding. In the allowable stress method (1923~1963), after which the limit state law
(1963~2003), developed countries have begun working to develop performancebased design specifications (Performance-Based Design Code) in order to improve
the level of infrastructure construction. The development of this new design is based
on a full life and sustainable development of the concept of performance-based

design codes and standards, should be one of the most important tasks in the early
2000s to keep up with trends in the world of civil engineering development.

1.4.3 Bridge-building in the Era of Knowledge Economy

By the end of the 20th century, a new economic revolution quietly rose. In the 18th
century Industrial Revolution two centuries later, with the information revolution as the
core of the knowledge industry will bring a new era of human knowledge economy.
Era of knowledge economy is essentially an intelligent and efficient era. The
development of modern communications technology makes highly information-oriented
society, but also to family life, office, factory production, transportation, construction,
education and training, health care, national management and other activities can take
advantage of visual communication networks and multimedia, information
superhighway automated and intelligent. Human intelligence and computer networks
combine to make the knowledge innovation has become the most valuable products, a
mainstay of the economy and the core of various industries.
Bridge construction in the era of knowledge economy will have the following
1. In the planning and design phase of the bridge, people will use a highly developed
computer-aided tools for effective rapid optimisation and simulation analysis, virtual
reality application of technology so that the owners can be very realistic in advance
to see the completion of the bridge after the appearance, function, and then simulate
performance under earthquakes and typhoons, the impact on the environment and
landscape day and night in order to decisions.
2. In the stage of manufacturing and erection of the bridge, people will use intelligent
manufacturing systems complete the processing components in the plant, and then
use the Global Positioning System (GPS) and remote control technology, thousands
of miles away from the site outside the headquarters of the management and control
of the bridge construction.
3. After the bridge is completed and delivered, by automatically monitoring and
management system to ensure safe and proper operation of the bridge. Once a fault or
damage, health diagnosis and expert system will automatically report the injury site
and conservation countermeasures.
In short, in the knowledge economy era bridge engineering and other industries will
have the intelligence, information and remote automatic control features. A variety of
intelligent building robots managed by computer software under the control of the
commanding officers at headquarters, the completion of underwater and aerial work under
field conditions, precisely as planned bridge construction, it will be a 21st century bridge
engineering magnificent sight.
By the end of 2007, the US National Academy of Engineering announced the approval
by more than 50 experts in the 21st century 14 major engineering challenge project,
belonging to sustainable development, health, disaster prevention and improving the

quality of life in four areas. Which in addition to the health sector, and the remaining three
are related and future bridge projects.
Looking into the modern engineering in the next 20 years, we should be fully
understand the mission of bridge engineers and tasks in materials, software, hardware
(construction equipment and monitoring equipment), disaster prevention and re-double
their efforts to a new generation of standardised five aspects, greet challenges across the
sea and island project for building and sustainable development in line with the concept of
the whole life of the 21st century, modern bridge engineering our contribution.
Finally, it should be noted that the invention of plastic in 1907, one hundred years has
gradually developed into a new family of materials. Metal and mineral products have been
a large number of high performance fiber reinforced plastic composites and replaced in the
field of electrical appliances, medical equipment, automotive, aviation, agriculture,
machinery and equipment, etc., and has been infiltrated with cement and steel as the basic
material of the modern civil construction. After the near future (probably in 20 to 30 years
later), engineering plastics and composite materials instead of cement and steel will
gradually become the protagonist of building materials, playing the role of a landmark,
which will be modern civil engineering (engineering) into modern new era, and caused
revolutionary changes in design theory, system configuration, connection technology and
construction method and the like.


Conceptual design is responsible for each project engineer given a mandate in the initial
stages of brewing in the hearts of design ideas, but also the starting point for creative
designers. In the past, civil engineering education in most countries in the world university
professor of materials according to specifications at the different structural design. In the
21st century, many European countries have begun to recognise the need to train students
innovative ideas, you must set up concept design new course.
In order to catch up with this new trend, Tongji Bridge Engineering decided to open a
concept bridge design course, hope that through this engineering education reform,
strengthen innovation consciousness of young engineers from the bridge for China to
bridge power.

1.5.1 Conceptual Design Significance

Conceptual design is the core of engineering design, but also the entire design phase of the
project the most important and the most difficult part, can be said that the soul of design.
Conceptual design reflects the designer of the overall objectives of insight, ability to
control the design task, and the ability in technological innovation, engineering thinking
and integrated treatment and the like. The success or failure of a design task and depends
heavily on the quality of its conceptual design, a mediocre concept design from the outset,
the project decided at a disadvantage in the competition, even if the approval is also
unlikely to succeed. Of course, a good conceptual design may also be due in the
subsequent design phase aborted or not implemented destroyed the original idea.
Conceptual design includes the concept generation and the concept selection in
two stages. The concept generation is defined according to the needs arising from multiple
objectives, targets and constraints to form a thought process all reasonable and feasible
solutions. At this time, insight engineers is very important, this insight includes intuition,
genius, inspiration, knowledge and experience, but also reflects the designers unique
personality and style.
From the brainstorming the generation of program should be the more the better.
Therefore, we can mobilise the imagination and creativity of the design team, as much as
possible to accept different personalities, different styles, different perspectives and
emphasis of the design, to avoid missing some ingenious design concepts and ideas.
Concept of choice is all possible options to evaluate and compare screened out a few
excellent programs for analysis, research and detailed comparison in order to finalise an
optimum conceptual design.
In general, the conceptual design stage does not need to invest a lot of money and
manpower, does not need too detailed calculations, especially to avoid using technical
design and detail design methods to do conceptual design, and to focus on reflection and
comparison, and with a small amount of text and a few pictures to express the designers
ideas and creativity, outstanding personality and style that some different from the
traditional, conventional and existing design highlights. In short, to demonstrate the

designers insight and creativity.

1.5.2 Basic Principles of Conceptual Design

Foreign bridge design emphasises the 3E principle that the efficacy (efficiency), the
economy (economy) and beautiful (elegance) are the three elements, this and practical,
economic, aesthetic care, where possible conditions, the construction of the originally
proposed guidelines are consistent. As Chinas economic strength, peoples living
standards improve, for aesthetic demands more attention, coupled with safety and quality
problems occur frequently, the principles of engineering design was changed to safe,
suitable, economic, aesthetic. This character principle has become the consensusbuilding system, appeared in many engineering design documents. It should be said, that
the goal of safety and quality of construction of the main pre-requisite for the design,
which is included in the design specifications of the various articles, the site is the design
engineer must follow the law, that is designed according to specification requirements.
As a basic principle of conceptual design, in addition to security, application,
economic and aesthetic, construct ability should also be considered to guarantee the
conservation of nature and life-use features durability. In recent years, for the
sustainability of the project (sustainable engineering) saving resources and protecting the
environment should be an important principle of the concept conceptual design to be
In short, the bridge concept design in the 21st century should meet the safe, practical,
economic, aesthetic, durable and environmentally friendly, the six basic principles to
reflect the spirit of conservation and environmental protection and sustainable
development. And innovative ideas or creative (innovative or original idea) must run
through the whole concept of the design process.

1.5.3 Definition of Innovation

The concept of innovation was first used by Schumpeter (J. Schumpeter), published in
1912, Theory of Economic Development presented in a book. He will be lead to a
qualitative change in the means of production and the development of the economy is
defined as the occurrence of a new combination of innovation, while for small steps
simply by adjusting production, although it also brings some amount of change or growth,
but it cannot be called innovation. Visible innovation is a revolutionary tool that can cause
things change.
Innovation in technology should be a core technology for product innovation, rather
than on the periphery of the secondary components or partial to make some adjustments
and changes, which can only be described as an improvement. Thus, changes in
qualitative or quantitative changes only, it should be important to define the criteria
between innovation and improvement.
Chinas Eleventh Five-Year Plan put innovation into three levels, namely, original
innovation, integrated innovation and the introduction of absorption and innovation.

Obviously, living in the highest level of the original innovation, it is the first (initiation)
and original (origination). If science to discover (discovery) as the core technology is to
the invention (invention) and creation (creation) as the core patent is a legal means to
protect the original innovations, and core technology came from those with a patent the
original innovations.
About two later levels of innovation, in October 2008, at the Chinese Academy of
Engineering President Xu stated in the speech, to implement the scientific concept of
development, building an innovative country.
Integrated innovation generally is overall an autonomy design driven by national
needs, but the core components are often the best value for money to buy foreign products,
assembly (integrated) up as high-speed rail EMU, regional aircraft, large tunnel excavator.
Introduction, digestion, absorption and re-innovation is primarily a local
improvement based on the imitation, such as home appliances and information industry,
although some core components can be produced, but the poor performance, not durable
(due to materials, production equipment, technology level gap), and some also purchase
foreign patents components and software, pay high royalties, even if completely
successful imitation, but the problem still exists levels of durability, which is the gap.
Have a similar situation in China bridge construction of large mechanical equipment, such
as drilling rigs, cranes and so on. Lower levels of generic success is not truly independent
research, completely independent intellectual property rights, and some do not actually
complete, and some overall design of the product is to ask foreigners to do with the
high-priced purchase. Therefore, innovation must be realistic, to tell the truth, should not
be exaggerate.
Developed countries have a strong technological power innovation, invention patent
them through continuous research and development arising, holds the industrys core
technology. They can stand on end, not only leading the development of science and
technology, but also through the export of capital and technology from high-end low-end
production leadership and command of developing countries.
As Song Jian, former director of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, said: Our only
way out innovation, innovation in order to break the limit, to get rid of containment,
withstood threats, only innovation can grasp out of containment inventions and intellectual
property rights in order. equal access to international cooperation, the former president of
the Chinese Academy of Comrade Zhou Guangzhou also said:. innovation must stand on
the shoulders of giants, the giant is mastered the core technology, leading the developed
technology. Therefore, we must first learn to be innovative application of the most
advanced technology, this is a tough process to the forefront. If you want to further
improve, it can only create new and better technology to replace the existing old
technology, it is necessary new channels, innovation.
At the early stage of reform and opening up, we introduced a lot of international
cooperation through advanced technology and production equipment, but very little
digestion difficult to re-innovation. Comrade Zhu Lilan, former director of the National
Science and Technology Commission said: The core technology is the soul of innovation,
while the core technology cannot be bought. So, to master the core technology, but also

to continue to move forward, we must have a stable R&D investment, the establishment of
a high level of R&D team, and advance technical preparations for sometime, in order to
obtain truly original innovation and core technology, otherwise it will be always lag
From concept bridge design point of view, the reform and opening up in the 1980s, in
the study of innovation in many developed countries started in the design, there are some
improvements. Since the 1990s, across the major rivers due to the need began to impact a
variety of bridge-record span. To ensure the quality and improve efficiency, we have the
introduction of foreign advanced construction equipment and design software, and also
invited some well-known international companies to help do some of the technical
difficulties of consulting services, has made great progress in technology, has also been
international peer recognition and praise, can be said to have entered the advanced ranks.
In the 21st century, some of the design and construction enterprises have gradually
realised the importance of technological innovation, developed through research and
development to continuously improve learning and experience in technology updates,
have set up R&D team as a backup and technical support, it should be said that this is a
great progress.
Some people think, according to its nature and intensity innovation can be divided into
breakthrough innovation and incremental innovation. The former brings a qualitative
change in technology is a completely different old things revolutionary change, is an
original and pioneering technology, such as modern bridge projects described above 60
years is about 60 original innovation, it makes modern bridge completely different from
the modern bridge of epoch-making change. The incremental innovation is a partial
improvement is based on the original replacement, such as a variety of new variants cablestayed bridge, thin cable becomes tight rope pyramid innovation, cable corrosion change,
the same construction method equipment replacement and advancement. This
improvement may occur dozens a year. Thus, innovation is original or groundbreaking,
but is associated with the core technology. The rest should be called improvements or
updates are local quantitative and improvements based on the original. In the introduction
of absorption based on re-innovation, if not a breakthrough can only be a kind of
improvement. The integrated innovation was more ambiguous and difficult to define.
In short, the conceptual design of a project can have 1 to 2 real breakthrough
innovations and technical improvements of 3 to 5 is a remarkable achievement, there can
be a lot of innovations. Innovation in the a word is a creation (creation) of Italy, cannot
arbitrarily labeled innovative label, but should have the support of patents, a qualitative
change in the performance of the core technology mission to lead a new trend initiative.

1.5.4 Create Innovative Ideas

President of the world-famous Tung-Yen Lin International, Inc. (TY Lin International),
American Academy of Engineering, Chinese Academy of Engineering, Foreign Member
Teng Wenzhong said on innovation: A bridge engineer if you do not attempt in each
design as much as possible to improve, then he did not do due to the obligation engineer.
Visible, innovative ideas from the existing level of technology continues to be improved

motivation, that past achievements and satisfied with the desire to climb new heights.
When a series of quantitative improvements reached its limit, but it is difficult to solve the
problem when it must be broken, namely, the need to create a new technology to replace
old technology. At this time, there have been a qualitative change, an innovation was born.
On bridge innovative, Mr. Deng Wenzhong said in his article urban bridges
innovation, innovation can be simply defined as meaningful improvement. The socalled meaningful must add value, just to different and change, it makes no sense,
cannot be considered innovative.
Modern bridge project six years, cited about 60 major innovations of modern
engineering, including innovative bridge type and systems, new materials and connection
technology, innovation and structural construction and ancillary equipment, innovative
engineering methods and equipment, and innovation theory and analysis methods in five
areas. These are original and inventive, it should be listed as the first level of the original
innovation. And a lot of bridge engineering innovation activities is Mr. Deng Wenzhong
said meaningful improvements to make existing technology to get more value, they are
reflected in the improvement in function and reduce costs (economy), enhanced
durability and aesthetic effect. There is a form in the application of traditional concepts
and methods of expanding its range of applications, because most of the original system
and the beginning of innovative engineering methods are used for smaller spans, such
expand or extend (expansion or extension) is also greatly promote the progress of the
bridge, but also a creative achievement.
To sum up, there innovative bridge is at three levels; original (origination) and
invention, a meaningful improvement, as well as to expand the (extension) on the
application of the prior art. We should have great respect for pioneering achievements,
such as Shibanpo Bridges first hybrid continuous rigid frame bridge deck, the French
Millau bridges first cable-stayed bridge continuously pushing construction. To encourage
a large number of bridge engineers meaningful improvement, every new bridge will be
able to do a better job than the previous one bridge to overcome the shortcomings and
eliminate hidden dangers, step on a higher level. For the expansion of technology
applications have certainly, but do not bother to pursue the span of, and should not be go
barely expanding, wasteful, and thus give up on inventions to explore new and better
technologies. Therefore, we must be meaningful expansion, which must be beneficial
and add value. Specifically, to get more value in the structural performance, economical,
convenient construction, increased durability and so on. For example, the caps do more
deep foundation piles high the greater the number of most contention pile, size of the caps,
but in a strong river erosion, or strong earthquake zone, or other aspects of the anti-ship
collision, high-pile platform whether it is the best? Are there hidden dangers and risks?
We must consider whether it makes sense to expand this, if there is a better solution, not to
pursue meaningless expansion.
Mr. Deng Wenzhong said: Innovation comes from a question. First ask why? This
problem gives us the opportunity to challenge the conservative habits. Why only use the
same old thing? Why should imitate, copy the original design? Why only someone did
something we can do?
The second question is why not? It gives us the opportunity to introduce new ideas and

breakthroughs constraints. Why not another way to do it? Why not try another material?
Why cannot modify the old norms? Why not put anything else in the industry learn from
the successful experience to solve our problems? The Why not? the problem is the core
of innovative power, which lead us to be bold and innovative, play our greatest
imaginative and creative, resulting in many new concepts and solutions, greatly improving
the quality of conceptual design.
The third question is What if? It allows us to be cautious and conservative, that is
properly solve new problems arise because of the creative, so creative carried out, without
a security risk. Some people say: Innovation will increase the risk. This is the
traditionalist excuse is lazy in philosophy. For the result of innovation and the challenges
and the way forward in what we need to do is overcome the difficulties, and it is part of
the innovative ideas.
Among the three questions of Innovative, the last one is the key to success.
Mr. Deng Wenzhong stressed: The project is a multi-program, so the engineers duty
is to choose the most suitable solution. Therefore, we must not meet in the conceptual
design for feasible, and to the pursuit of excellence that all aspects of the requirements
and conditions to find an optimal solution.

1.5.5 Tasks and Content of Conceptual Design

As previously mentioned that the conceptual design is the soul of design, which showed
the designers creativity, imagination, innovation and spirit of exploration.
Imagination and conceived in the form of a bridge designers mind, in addition to
meeting the basic functional requirements and mechanical properties, but also consider a
variety of important factors. Designers experiences, lessons learned from the past and
knowledge accumulation are the basis of his creativity in the conceptual design of the
Mr. Ostenfeld K. President of the Danish company COWI Zhu Wen had described his
experience in the conceptual design of major bridge projects, he said, The bridge design
is a multi-disciplinary working way (a multi-disciplinary approach), in addition to
technology, but also there are many political, social, environmental and other common
constraints final decision.
In the process of conceptual design (engineering feasibility and preliminary design
phase), the engineer but also through more programs, select the optimal integrated
solution from a number of viable options in order to ultimately reflect the safe, practical,
economic, aesthetic, durable and environmental protection, six basic principles as
1. Safety: In addition to the structure with excellent mechanical properties, but also
contains withstand natural disasters, ship collision, anti-fire and other man-made
disasters, other sporadic anti-risk capability and extreme (small probability events) as
well as the case.
2. Function: Refers to satisfy the deck transportation, bridge navigation, and other

basic requirements for aviation bounding functions.

3. Economics: Refers to the cost in the whole life philosophy, conservation and
management of the economy, as well as in the design of structures for durability,
constructability, you can check, can take full account of the conservation of nature.
4. Esthetics: Conceptual design aesthetic considerations should include a variety of
aesthetic requirements of the bridge structure as well as the coordination of the
landscape and the surrounding environment (see Chapter 2).
5. Durability: Non-durable structures will be cause great waste and damage the
reputation of Chinese bridge. Among them, promoting the use of high performance
materials and the development of higher durability design standards will be Chinas
bridge in the future must focus on solving the issue.
6. Environment Protection: Core conserve natural resources and protect the
environment, reduce CO2 emissions and the sustainable development of scientific
concept of development, but also important challenges of the 21st century, the world
faces. Infrastructure in resource consumption and CO2 emissions and energy are high
proportion, must draw the attention of bridge engineering.
The above six are important factors in decision-making and the right bridge design
concept is the core mission, which must be fully demonstrated, in order to avoid a lack of
creativity, mediocre, plagiarism, and grandiose, the blind pursuit of large span, weird the
difficult construction, not durable, non-economic and unreasonable solutions by not
rigorous review and is implemented, which greatly affect the progress of Chinas bridge.
Finally, the conceptual design of the content is generally divided into the following
four steps:
1. Conceiving: Imagination, conceived plan, compare the selected creative process, but
also the conceptual design is the most important step.
2. Modeling: On the idea of a structural program abstraction for analysis and
calculations. But the conceptual design phase of analysis and calculation accuracy
and technical design requirements are different, not the pursuit of precision, mainly to
relatively program between, and for the next step to determine the size of the service,
so approximate methods and means of empirical coefficients, etc., may be used.
3. Dimensioning: Is an estimate of the number of the main engineering and cost,
including the application of high-performance materials and combinations of
different materials used.
4. Detailing: For innovative systems, construction and improvement of traditional
technologies meaningful, we must consider the relevant details of construction, so
persuasive and creative programs, feasibility and security implementation.
Chapter I to V of the book will be focus on the conceptual stage and Chapter VI on the
key size selection and mechanical accounting, Chapter VII on the details from design
through construction, application of innovative equipment and high-performance materials
and advanced technology, sound conceptual design to solve new problems arise, that is, to
solve Mr. Deng Wenzhong presented What if the third question, so that creativity can be


According to the seventh volume, the statistics, of Dr. Joseph Needhams Chinese
History of Science and Technology, China since about 4500 years BC to the 15th century,
the year 3000 has contributed nearly 300 inventions, in many ways ahead of the world,
including four great inventions and 26 are arranged in alphabetical important invention of
the world-famous, there are pontoon (4th century BC) in bridge engineering, outrigger
beam bridge (4th century AD), rope bridge (6th century AD), open shoulder Arch (610
AD Sui) and consistent wooden bridge (AD 1032 Song), etc.
However, unfortunately, since the 16th century European Renaissance, Chinas
creative activity began to decline until the demise became the famous Needham
Question: Why does not China modern science and technology to produce advanced why
China cannot maintain the advantage and take the lead in creating? Industrial revolution
happened and why China in the 19th century, the country was actually reduced bullying
powers suffer ignorance and backwardness?
Some with insight pointed out: Chinas centralised authoritarian system of feudal
society stifled the spirit of freedom of the Chinese people and the elite intellectuals had
been attracted to a career via the imperial examination system and advocating obey the
will of the emperor of a unified, thus weakening the inventions enthusiasm. Coupled with
the complacency and lack of motivation to compete, eventually leading to a decline of
nearly three hundred years of Chinese science and technology. We can say that this idea
legacy still affects our younger generation of creativity.
In commemoration of the founding of new China 60 years ago, we are at the historical
turning point. After 30 years of reform and opening up efforts, Chinese bridge in the world
community has kept up with the pace of modern bridge and entered into the international
advanced level.
However, we cannot be complacent, but to acknowledge gaps and weaknesses, our
way in innovation. Only truly master the advanced core technology innovation in order to
get rid of containment and control of the developed countries, in order to achieve the great
re-juvenation of the Chinese nation. Premier Wen Jiabaos recent speech at the University
of Cambridge, said: China to catch up with developed countries, there is a long-long way
to go.
Articles of technical summaries are mostly straightforward but are lack description of
the concepts like design and creative from foreign counterparts, instead emphasise more
on size, such as the number of difficult and how most used words. In addition, many
bridges are very similar, the lack of features and ideas, which is common in Chinese
culture advocates, imitation and consistent, not to encourage negative reflecting the
maverick consciousness, but also the technical progress of the taboo.
The Chinese nation is nation of wisdom, Chinas five thousand years of history and
cultural heritage will be help us achieve revival. As long as we do not complacency, face
inadequate and prudent, and through education reform, renewed the younger generations
imagination and creativity, we will be able in the near future through innovation efforts,
from bridge to bridge solidly Liang Daguo power.

1. In 60 years of the development of modern bridges, unlike in developed countries has
created many new bridges of modern technology, is widely used around the world,
what do you think are the ten most influential technology? And compared these
advanced technologies, China reform and opening up 30 years built a major bridge
project, there are several technologies which have originality?
2. Chinas achievements and progress in modern bridge is huge, compared to developed
countries, but there are still gaps and weaknesses, what do you think the main
reason? How to overcome these problems?
3. Innovation There are many different interpretations and positioning, which view
you agree? Media propaganda in the completely independent intellectual property
rights was, how should evaluate?
4. Are you on the conceptual design, meaning, principles, tasks and content of a new
understanding? In the future design work in practice, how would you go to
implement it?

[1] Yin Delan Wendi with Bridge Chinese articles Beijing: Tsinghua University
Press, 1988.
[2] Brandon China Bridge Shanghai: Tongji University Press; Hong Kong: Hong Kong
Building and City Press, 1993.
[3] Square Mingkun Bridge Essay Beijing: China Railway Publishing House, 1997.
[4] Modern Highway Bridges. Twentieth Century Blend of Major Scientific
Achievements, 1998.
[5] Meng Hoi Fan Bridges Twenty-first Century, Shanghai CAST: Shanghai Branch of
the Altar, 1998.
[6] Troitsky M.S. Conceptual Bridge Design//Bridge Engineering Handbook. CRC
Press, 1999.
[7] Of the Twentieth Centurys Greatest Engineering Achievements of Science and
Technology Highway Articles. Chinese Academy of Engineering, 2001.
[8] Klaus H Ostenfeld. Major Bridge ProjectsA Multi Disciplinary Approach. IABSE
Workshop Shanghai 2009-Recent Major Bridges, IABSE Reports, 2009 (95).
[9] Hoi Fan, Hong Xuan Pan, Zhang History of the Holy City of China Bridge
Shanghai: Tongji University Press, 2009.


Efficiency, economy and elegance are considered to be the three elements of design
guidelines since ancient Greece and its followed by the world engineers. Chinas reform
and opening up previously, due to the limited economic conditions, the only mention of
the practical, economic, possible conditions under proper care and beautiful
construction principles. In the 1990s, with the national strength, this principle has been
changed to safe, suitable, economic, aesthetic, the eight-character principle, to secure a
prominent position. Especially in urban bridge construction, bridge aesthetic requirements
continue to increase, reflecting the demand for functional and aesthetic value of the
landscape in the future to improve the lives of the bridge. Therefore, the aesthetic design
of the bridge should be an important part of the concept of bridge design. As a bridge
engineer, one has the responsibility to strengthen the aesthetic ideas in the initial stages of
the design concept, engaging with beautiful ornamental bridges to meet peoples
Of course, aesthetic considerations should not violate the basic principles of technical
safety, application and economy. Similarly, when according to technical and economical
criteria options, nor should deviate from the target aesthetics.


Unlike animals, humans are capable of thinking and manufacturing tools. In the tools era
in the progress of human civilisation (from 2.5 million years ago to 50,000 years ago,
Paleolithic and Neolithic from 50,000 years ago to 6,000 years ago), humans in order to
survive and gradually get rid of the nascent, gregarious nest to acquisition-based primitive
life, entered a hunting and fishing, animal husbandry, cooked and farming era, and the
transition from a matriarchal society to a patriarchal society, the formation of association
and the national society. In the course of evolution, humans are bound to ponder the nature
of the moon and stars, thunder and lightning storm, biological growth, and reproductive
senescence phenomena and human individual and social Relationships between groups,
gradually gave birth to the original philosophy, which also includes Reflections on the
United States.
Mr. Tang Huancheng stated in his book bridge philosophy of beauty, a book
mentioned in the introduction: Bridge is a bridge aesthetic philosophy of beauty, height
is not raised to understand philosophical aesthetics. Therefore, learning bridge aesthetics
will be certainly talk about the philosophical basis from aesthetics.

2.1.1 Philosophical Foundation of the West

Western philosophy began in ancient Greece, 10th century BC to the 3rd century. When
the 5th century BC, ancient Greece into the Golden Age, 331 BC, the Greek Alexander the
Great conquered the ancient Persian empire. Development of ancient Greeces industrial,
commercial and seafaring culture and art and promote the prosperity of philosophy, there
has been a number of far-reaching influence on Western civilisation philosopher. Of which
the most famous are Pythagoras (Pythagoras, 582 BC to 500 years) (Fig. 2.1), Socrates
(Socrates, 469 BC 399 years) (Fig. 2.2), Plato (Plato BC 427~347 years) (Fig. 2.3), and
Aristotle (Aristotle, 384 BC 322 BC) (Fig. 2.4), et al.
In ancient Greece, many natural phenomena did not have scientific explanation, but by
virtue of the ancient Greek philosophers intuitively recognise the genius of nature does not
change things are in motion in repose, resulting in the initial astronomy, meteorology,
biology science and mathematics. Pythagoras that things are harmonious whole number
composed by the United States lies in the proper proportion and harmony numbers.
Socrates is considered standard of beauty is a measure of the utility, useful to the United
States, harmful to the ugly. That is advocating social standards of beauty, or functional
beauty. Western political philosophy of Plato as enlightening, as was the slave owners to
establish a national democratic system and political philosophy, namely, human and social
norms. In terms of aesthetics, he believes that philosophy is all of this, is the origin of
beauty, artistic beauty is a concept of beauty to share. Aristotle is known as ancient
Greeces greatest philosophers and scientists, who, as an objective materialism
representative, does not agree with his teacher Platos objective idealism concept says,
and that the essence of the concept of beauty is not called, and in a complete form of the
object, and orderly, well-balanced and clear regarded as the formal beauty of the law
that emphasises the beautify of form.

Fig. 2.1 Pythagoras

Fig. 2.2 Socrates

Fig. 2.3 Plato

Fig. 2.4 Aristotle

In 284 AD, ancient Greece was conquered by the Roman Empire and became part of
the Eastern Roman Empire. In Roman times, the dominant theology and religion, God is
exalted as the source of beauty. As the new Plato philosopher Plotinus (AD 204~270
years) (Fig. 2.5) stated that God is the source of beauty. St. Augustine (Augustine St,

AD 354~430 years) (Fig. 2.6) then said, God is the root of all things beautiful.
AD 476, the Western Roman Empire was defeated by the Northern Germanic peoples,
Europe entered a medieval feudal period, which is the knight and theocratic despotism
period of upto one thousand years of the Dark Ages. Italian 15th century Italian
Renaissance Alberti (Alberti) (Fig. 2.7) defined beauty as the harmony of the parts, and
again to carry forward the ancient Greek philosopher Pythagoras aesthetic philosophy.

Fig. 2.5 Plotinus

Fig. 2.6 St. Augustine

Fig. 2.7 Alberti

The rise of western classical school in the 18th-century generated German idealist
philosopher Baumgarten (1714~1762) (Part Fig. 2.8), Kant (1724~1804) (Fig. 2.9) and
Hegel Seoul (Hegel, 1770~1831) (Fig. 2.10), as well as students of Kant Schopenhauer
(1788~1860). Western materialistic philosophy school, there are British Burke
(1729~1797), Diderot (1713~1784) (Fig. 2.11) and the 19th-century Russian revolutionary
democrat Czerny Schiff Chomsky (1828~1889) (Fig. 2.12). Baumgarten is known as the
father of Western aesthetics, his book in 1750, Aesthetics, a book advocating
Aesthetics is artistic beauty way to thinking, is beautiful art theory. Kant believes that
the aesthetic nature of the representation of an object is something purely subjective
aspects. Hegels idealism has established a complete aesthetic system, he believes that
the concept of beauty is absolutely outside by the human mind into the sensual image that
America is the concept of emotional show.

Fig. 2.8 Baumgarten

Fig. 2.9 Kant

Fig. 2.10 Hegel

Fig. 2.11 Diderot

If the German idealist philosophy is representative of the maintaining of a medieval
theocratic feudal rule of conservative ideas, then British philosophers represented
materialist aesthetic system represents the emerging bourgeoisie and the Industrial
Revolution infancy, but also inherited and developed the ancient Greek philosophy simple
materialism. Burke believes things change a variety of reasons constitutes quality
beauty. Diderot is that beauty is the thing itself attributes are present in our around
them. Chernyshevski is presented Beauty is Life famous thesis, he stressed the
objectivity of beauty that the US cannot leave people and their activities independently
Before the 18th century industrial revolution, low productivity, science and technology
was not developed. The majority of poor people cannot control their own destiny, but also
the fear of divine nature, only in the hands of religious superstition and dreams afterlife
transport. Imperial and theocratic religion and idealism also depend on the natural values
and social values to maintain authoritarian rule. While a few pioneering scholars tend to
materialism, but the force of a single potential thin, after all, cannot resist the ravages of
the inquisition and oppression, such as the sufferings of Galileo (1564~1642) and Bruno
Controversy between Philosophical idealism and materialism existed for two thousand
years, Engels (1820~1895) (Fig. 2.13) in the Dialectics of Nature, a book of
contemporary natural science made great discoveries and important results summary
philosophical idealism to materialism defeated the foundation, while drawing on the core
of Hegels rational, and finally to establish a correct understanding of the nature of the
unique waymaterialist dialectics.
Engels comrades, the great Marx (1818~1883) (Fig. 2.14) fought in the field of social
sciences on behalf of the oppressed working class was to establish a dialectical materialist
conception of history and Marxist doctrine, and on this basis the formation of an advanced
Marxist aesthetic theory.

2.1.2 Philosophical Foundation of the East

Although China entered a bronze as a symbol of the slave society of the Xia Dynasty
(2140 BC) nearly two thousand years later than in the West, but it had developed rapidly,
after providers and Zhou have reached the heyday of the slave society, the Book of
Changes yin and yang, gossip already pregnant with the simple philosophy. To the Spring
and Autumn Period of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770 BC to 221 BC), Chinese society
began the transition from slavery to feudalism, the emergence of contending ideological
thinkers and cultural prosperity. Eastern philosophy whereby the originator, the most
influential thinkers in when Confucianism and Taoism.
Confucian, founder of the school of Confucius (551 BC to 479 BC) (Fig. 2.15)
promoted virtue and music, mainly the pursuit of harmony and unity of man and society.
Aesthetic concepts of Confucianism is Zhiyong, head concept, Bede, Praising God,
stressed the practical beauty, shape beauty, moral beauty and spiritual beauty, namely,
about beauty and ethical unity.

Fig. 2.12 Chernyshevski

Fig. 2.13 Engels

Fig. 2.14 Marx

Laozi, founder of the Taoist school (about 600 BC to about 500 BC) (Fig. 2.16)
advocated the road as the source of the universe, the main pursuit of unity and harmony of
nature, to go in and change things opposition unity create beauty realm.

Fig. 2.15 Confucius

Fig. 2.16 Laozi

Laozis thought inherited that from Huangdi and this is also referred to as HuangLao. Confucius followed Zongzhou, and the two are not inconsistent, but complementary
A. Five Emperors era, society is relatively simple, and therefore is to explore the
relationship between Taoism main-man and nature; the Shang and Zhou, the complex
social conflicts, wars between slaveholders frequently, and therefore more concerned with
the relationship between Confucianism and society. However, Taoism and Confucianism
are that the universe is constantly moving and changing world, and recognise the
opposition and unity of yin and yang. We can say that the ancient Chinese philosophy
already has a simple Dialectics. Especially Taoism is full of original ideas materialist view
of nature. Thus, the ancient Chinese aesthetic thought still shining wisdom charm.
In summary, the Chinese culture respected realistic, practice makes perfect,
Practice is the sole criterion for testing truth and so reflects the essence of materialism.
And think things are in constant motion and change, recognise primary substance, also

admitted that the reaction of the spirit and initiative is the essence of dialectics, the two
combine to form a contemporary outlook of materialist dialectics.


Mr. Tang Huancheng (Fig. 2.17)s bridge beauty philosophy, is a good summary of
Eastern and Western philosophy based on the principles of the basic rules of bridge
aesthetics. He particularly stressed: Any arts requires law as a rational guide, but to create
works in practice cannot completely rely on the law, and to use their imagination and
wisdom. Therefore, we need to know the law, as the book calligraphy, painting tips,
metrical poetry, but cannot make it rigid and inflexible. Here are several laws of bridge

2.2.1 Diversity and Unity (Change and Unity)

This is the first law of dialectical materialism aesthetics, because the world is diverse and
unified. Chinese culture and different and Heaven, and the Greek Pythagoras thought
Harmony is a unified multi-hybrid is a meaning, namely respect for diversity and
change things, opposed to the monotony and uniform, but not chaotic, but to seek unity in
diversity, and unity in seeking change.
Mr. Tang Huancheng mentioned several times in his book the three unities are the
most important attribute of beauty; the unity of emotional and rational, that feeling and
consciousness of unity; unity of subjective and objective, namely, to harmonise the natural
and human; form and content of unity, that unity of style and function.
Germanys famous bridges and aesthetic specialist Prof. Leonhardt (Leonhardt F) (Fig.
2.18) said in his monograph: The US can change and similarities between the display,
between the complex and orderly, and thereby be strengthened. Visible, both complex
changes, and orderly re-unification between non-identical and non-messy show rich level
and content is giving to enjoy the beauty and soul stirring aesthetic essence.
We create beautiful bridge following the aesthetic rules should be as beliefs in mind,
and throughout the conceptual bridge design, which reflects the bridge design is the most
important innovation beauty.

2.2.2 Ratio and Symmetry

Pythagoras of the ancient Greece believed that number is the nature of things, Beauty
is harmony and proportion. Here is the previously mentioned harmonious diversity and
unity, while the proportion reflects the beauty of mathematics, or that an important
proportion of US law. Plato also believes that proportionate form is beautiful. Medieval
da Vinci (Fig. 2.19) also attaches great importance to the ratio, the proportion he believes
not only in numbers but also in sound, quality, time, location being. The ratio is a relative
number, the proportion of the United States may exhibit symmetry, adaptation, decent,
presenting a proportional beauty.
Leon Hart said: We first respond to the proportion of objects that width to length
ratio, high aspect ratio, or the ratio of the size and depth in the space between. Grasp the
concept of a variety of scales in bridge design an appropriate proportion between the very

important. Improper proportion will be give a feeling of deformity, weird, ugly and
distorted image.

Fig. 2.17 Huancheng Tang

Fig. 2.18 Leonhardt

Fig. 2.19 Medieval Da Vinci

Symmetry is not only a uniform and symmetrical, collectively, but also contains the
right proportion, meaning decent match. Chinese Literary Arts pay attention to symmetry,
such as the poetry of duality, couplet, buildings are arranged symmetrically around the
central axis stress, gives a solemn, balance and beauty. Symmetry reflects the unity of the
opposition and philosophy, that up and down, left and right, and echoes similar before and
after, but not exactly similar.
Strict symmetry represents dignified beauty, but can be too serious, strict and gives a
dull feeling. Sometimes forcibly arranged in irregular environments symmetrical structure
but will result in consequences clumsy and uncoordinated. In the terrain and the river
bridge asymmetric-asymmetric arrangement but give people a kind of wisdom and
coordinated beauty. Similarly, in the height of a small navigable waterway insist arranged
oversized lower span of the bridge, will be lose the proportion of the beauty, people feel
very depressed, and wasteful.

2.2.3 Balance and Harmony

Bridges is a force-bearing structure, rather than a craft, and therefore must emphasise
balance of forces. Its body shape to obey the laws of mechanics, gives a sense of security
and stability. Also, handle the balance between security and economic, to make the best
use, rational distribution to avoid waste.
China put great emphasis on aesthetics of relative harmony and unity between two
opposite features, such as rigid and soft, harmony with the movement of Yin and Yang and
the actual situation, etc., between 4 opposites, reflecting a harmonious beauty.
All arts are inseparable from the rigid, requiring there are just soft, firmness and
flexibility. In the bridge, there are just beams with flexible and rigid arch flexible beam,
the beam is also flexible with just the tower and the tower just soft beam.
Another manifestation of rigid-soft is still and movement. In the plastic arts should
behave out in a static, static in action, showing the movement changes, relaxation, advance

and retreat of harmony and unity.

Yin and Yang was originally the collective sum of opposing faces, natural light and
dark, cold and heat, fine buildings and rough, complex and simple, reflects a harmonious
and orderly change between Yin and Yang.
The essence of the actual situation of Chinese aesthetics is virtual and real, imaginary
in reality, is the highest in a virtual realm of art, the creation of the bridge will be a great
In short, the structure should be the shape and design of various antagonistic
relationship, such as security and economic balance and harmony, load and strength.
Therefore, the bridge will be able to shape the beauty reflecting all aspects of balance and
harmony between the various parts, namely, to find the most reasonable force system,
most economical and most convenient arrangement structure construction technology to
simultaneously showing the bridge. Mechanics beauty, Balance of beauty and
Harmonious beauty.

2.2.4 Rhythm and Coordination

Rhythm is at the heart of art, but also the focus of any art trauma and feelings.
British engineer Faber stated in the aesthetic concept of civil engineering design,: a
structure to the beauty, there must be touching interest (excite interest), and attractive
(charm). English charm of the term can be translated attractive word charm, magic, the
equivalent of the Chinese charm.
German professor Leon Hart said in the book Bridge Aesthetics and Design, bridge
construction needs charm (reize), which is intended charm or rhythm.
Chinese and foreign poetry should rhyme according to certain rules to reflect the
change and repeat rhythm or regular, making it touching beauty, in order to achieve
character or charm of the overall artistic charm.
In the overall design of the bridge, in the main bridge and the parts, the main hole and
side hole, superstructure and substructure, bridge and harmony with the surrounding
environment (culture, geography, landscape), the goal is to find this rhythm and charm and
to achieve seamless and coordinated beauty.
In summary, the aesthetic design of the shape of the bridge is to make a bridge to
reflect global and local innovation (change) United States, unified the beauty, the
proportion of beauty, balance beauty, harmony and beauty, rhythm and coordination of the
beauty, so the bridge in its life not only has the function of traffic, and can never get tired
of its charm, gives a sense of beauty, when people through the bridge will be a beauty,
physical and mental feeling of pleasure. As the American philosopher John Ruskin said:
When we build a project, not only for current use, should it become a future generations
will thank us work.

2.2.5 Innovations and Aesthetic Considerations in

Conceptual Bridge Design

In section 1.5.4, it is has already cited Mr. Deng Wenzhong words:. A bridge engineer if
you do not attempt to make improvements in each design as much as possible, then he did
not try to engineer bounden duty, he did here said, innovation, but with the
improvements, in fact, improved innovation was derived from the idea that does not
repeat old, have been found for the problems and shortcomings of the past cannot repeat,
but to be overcome to improve the existing technology, the constant development, has
become a source of innovation.
Innovative, safe, plus art is Dengs design philosophy. Among them, the last of the
Art is the concept of bridge design aesthetic considerations. He said, Engineers should
make this world more beautiful and proud, relative to the mediocre designs, people are
more concerned about the appearance of the bridge, but also willing to pay more to keep
their aesthetic appearance of the bridge is more durable, and that if there is a bridge
engineer aesthetic accomplishment, slightly a little effort you can put a bridge made very
beautiful. he added, progress is the accumulation of innovation. Engineers must make
every building we built through innovation, while ensuring the safety applies more
economical and more beautiful.
Leonhardt professor of Germany in his bridge aesthetics and design (Bridge
Aesthetics and Design) introduces the creative process to bridge engineer of the creative
1. The design is based on a variety of information and completely digested in mind;
2. To understand the scope of application of various types of bridges and adept in the
3. The original idea in the minds of possible solutions;
4. Lays out the first sketch, drawn in accordance with an appropriate proportion of the
preliminary general arrangement and approximate size of each portion;
5. To continue the consider other possible scenarios for comparison;
6. The sketch on the wall of the programs they watch, and asked questions of peers and
colleagues and critics to discuss the appropriate construction method;
7. The satisfaction of the draft can be drawn for a large proportion of the map, and to
consider the structure and detail size;
8. Trying to think about it, were aesthetic considerations and treatment, and asked the
architect as a consultant to carry aesthetic design and processing;
9. Construction engineer comments please select the appropriate engineering methods,
or systems and structures for innovation, create new public law;
10. After much discussion and improvements can be selected for the program will be
drawn into a clear drawing, counting and checking, checking the assumed size meets
the requirements;
11. Rounds of calculations performed on the basis of this, modify the size, in order to
achieve the most economical and reasonable layout of the indicators;
12. Through the production of models and photographs, from the perspective of each
angle of the bridge to observe and judge the appearance of the bridge and its impact
on the surrounding landscape, and examine the aesthetic effect.

While the above does not specifically emphasise the creative process of innovation
and aesthetic considerations, but Professor Leonhardt who has created many new
technologies bridge aesthetics master minds, innovative ideas should be run through the
how to make in this creative process reflects their design work in front of the beauty
talking about innovation, unified the beauty, the proportion of beauty, balance beauty,
harmony and beauty, rhythm and coordination of the beauty, only through constant
practice and compare to comprehend, the final contest results will be on your best
judgement creative work.


In 1999, the British Bridge Design and Engineering magazine held a 20th century
worlds most beautiful bridge contest. Magazine editorial department invited 30
internationally renowned bridge academics, engineers and architects, including the United
States, Tung-Yen Lin and Deng, the German Schlaich J, French Virlogeux, Menn
Switzerland and the United Kingdom Firth, Flint and Head, etc. Call for comments on the
20th centurys most beautiful bridges. Although tens of thousands of bridge built-in the
20th century, but in the end only 15 were nominated bridge, the top three receiving most
of the votes are:
1. Salginatobel Bridge (Fig. 2.20) designed by Swiss engineer Maillart R. in 1930. This
is a cross-valley sickle deck arch bridge. Architects said: Walking on the bridge is a
real spiritual enjoyment you and mountains, white clouds, blue sky so close, it
constitutes a beautiful Alpine landscape., All parts of the bridge are just right,
impeccable. This is truly a combination of fine art and bridges.
2. Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco (Fig. 2.21) designed by American engineer J.B.
Strauss in 1937, with Swiss engineer Amman (Fig. 2.23) as consultants. Its
comment: Its sleek, proportion, is the jewel in the bridge project, so that the
designers of this century has been unable to go beyond.

Fig. 2.20 Salginatobel bridge.

Fig. 2.21 Golden gate bridge.

3. The French engineer Jean Muller designed Brotonne Bridge (Fig. 2.22) in
1974. Although there are so many beautiful cable-stayed bridge in the world,
but this is only the span of a single cable plane 320 m concrete cable-stayed
bridge with its simple, clean, shape and hardness and softness coordination
demeanor got the judges unanimously appreciated.

Fig. 2.22 Brotonne bridge.

4. Kirchleim Bridge Overpass (Fig. 2.23), Germany design by J. Schlaich in
1993. Streamlined shape and bending moment diagram of the bridge is similar
to the body, gives a sense of strength.
5. Orly Bridge (Fig. 2.24), France design by E. Freyssinet in 1958. It is delicate
and graceful curves gives a strong feeling.

Fig. 2.23 Kirchleim Bridge Overpass, Germany.

Fig. 2.24 Orly bridge, France.

6. First Bosporus Strait Bridge (Fig. 2.25), Turkey designed by the Freeman
Foxand Partners Brown (William Brown), United Kingdom 1974. This design
by the British Eurasian Bridge is an impressive building.
7. Sunniberg Bridge (Fig. 2.26), Switzerland designed by C. Mann in 1997. This
is a beautiful rainbow, a boutique bridge building.

Fig. 2.25 First Bosporus Strait Bridge, Turkey.

Fig. 2.26 Sunniberg Bridge, Switzerland.

8. The French Normandy Bridge (Fig. 2.27), designed by M. Virlogeux in 1994.
This cable-stayed bridge with a perfect coordination with local landscape.
9. Tatara Bridge (Fig. 2.28), Japan designed by Bridges Syndicalism in 1998.
This is the maximum span cable-stayed bridge in the 20th century, with a
mysterious oriental beauty.

Fig. 2.27 Normandy Bridge, France.

Fig. 2.28 Tatara Bridge in Japan.

10. Severinsbrcke (Fig. 2.29), Germany designed by C. Lohmer in 1959, the
earliest single tower cable-stayed bridge, with simple and beautiful modeling,
and shines with the Cologne Cathedral.
11. Ting Kau Bridge (Fig. 2.30), Hong Kong designed by Germany in 1998. The
bridge is a masterpiece of hybrid structure, art and unified technology.

Fig. 2.29 Severin Bridge, Germany.

12. Ganter Bridge (Fig. 2.31), Switzerland designed by Mann in 1980. This is a
real art surgical products, an innovative system.
13. Harbour Bridge (Fig. 2.32), Sydney designed by Brad Freeman and Fuerth in
1932. It brings the beauty of Arch from any angle.
14. Fehmarnsund Bridge (1963) (Fig. 2.33), Germany designed by F. Leonhardt.
Beautiful basket arch bridge and cross the ramp boom gives the space a sense
of stability.
15. Danish Great Belt Bridge (Fig. 2.34), COWI company Ostenfeld K Design
This is not the longest span suspension bridge in the 20th century, but the unique
design of the bridge towers and anchorages gives a deep impression.
Among the above 15 are suspension bridges, Golden Gate bridge, Booz Poros Bridge,
and Great Belt Bridge; 5 Stayed Bridges: Severin Bridge, Brooklyn Bridge, East Carolina,
Normandy Bridge, Tatara Bridge and Ting Kau Bridge; 3 Arch Bridges; Sarkisyan Valley
Bridge, Sydney Bridge, Fehmarn Belt Bridge; 4 plate pull bridge: Kish Beckham Bridge,
Olin Bridge, Shengniboge bridge, Gan Patel Bridge.

Fig. 2.30 Ting Kau Bridge in Hong Kong.

Fig. 2.31 Gan Patel Bridge, Switzerland.

Fig. 2.32 Harbour Bridge, Sydney.

Fig. 2.33 Fehmarn Belt bridge, Germany.

From the above the nationality of the bridge designer one can appreciate the countrys
contribution to the aesthetics as well as the artistic accomplishment of the designer
himself. Among them, four in Germany, Switzerland and France all three, England two,
the United States, Denmark and Japan each one.
It can be seen from this authoritative selection that span is not the most important
factor. The top three winners were arch, hanging rope bridge and the bridge, but not the
maximum span of this bridge type. Ranked fourth and the fifth are two overpass spans are
35 m and 53 m. World-known names of the bridge agree, Do not bother to pursue the
longest span. Span should be meet navigable and natural topographic and geologic
conditions determine the requirements, how the safety and under the premise of making a
bridge designed to be more applicable economic, more beautiful is what we should strive
for the ideal.

Fig. 2.34 Danish Great Belt Bridge.

All the selected 15 bridges have a higher aesthetic and landscape value, convincingly.
In appreciation of the process, we will realise the beauty of their innovations, the
proportion of beauty, balance beauty, harmonious beauty, rhythm, coordination and
harmonisation of the US America. As a learning object, let some aesthetic problems on the

domestic large-span bridges were cross-sectional analysis and find out some errors and
gaps in order to strengthen our bridges in the future aesthetic considerations design.


Although China has not been nominated for the bridge in the 20th centurys most beautiful
bridge in the selection, but in many Chinese bridge also has aesthetic value was
recognised by some bridges the public and industry experts. Here are 10 (arranged by the
completion of age) in innovation and the United States, the proportion of the United
States, the mechanical beauty, beauty and modeling aspects of successful examples of
coordinated beauty.

2.4.1 Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge (1968)

In 1959, China began the Sino-Soviet split and the journey of self-construction of the
Yangtze River Bridge. Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge (Fig. 2.35) In addition there are
many technological advances in the form of steel and foundation engineering aspects, the
main span of 160 m of continuous steel truss used to increase the stiffness of the third
string, aesthetically also received a magnificent appearance.

Fig. 2.35 Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge.

2.4.2 Fuzhou Wulongjiang Bridge (1971)

Main Span of 144 m Fuzhou Wulongjiang Bridge (Fig. 2.36) was built in a difficult period
of ten years of the Cultural Revolution was built in a record span pre-stressed concrete Tshaped rigid frame bridge. The bridge pier 45 holes, length 552.22 m. 55.5 m cantilever,
with hanging hole 33 m, the roots of high 8.5 m, to middle reduced to 2 m, arc-shaped
curve is very beautiful and appropriate proportions, is for aesthetic success.

Fig. 2.36 Fuzhou Wulongjiang Bridge.

2.4.3 Nanpu Bridge (1991), Shanghai

Under the impetus of the late president of Tongji University, Brandon Lee, Shanghai
Nanpu Bridge (Fig. 2.37) pioneered the success of independent Chinese long-span bridge
construction, the bridge uses Tongji proposed light weight, construction speed, more
suitable Bond Beam deck Cable Stayed Bridge in Shanghai Soft and busy Huangpu river
shipping channel conditions. The bridge tower, tall and beautiful, was hailed as the most
beautiful cable-stayed Shanghai citizens.

2.4.4 Qiantang Bridge (1996)

For W-shaped river channel, Hangzhou Qiantang River Bridge (Fig. 2.38) using the
Southbank (Xiaoshan) and North Shore (Hangzhou) two single tower reasonably
symmetrical arrangement of cable-stayed bridge, the central shoal is connected with a
continuous beam. It is first domestic design to make use of kiloton single cable plane
shape, yielding very simple and good aesthetic effect.

Fig. 2.37 Nanpu Bridge, Shanghai.

Fig. 2.38 Hangzhou Qiantang River Bridge.

2.4.5 Wanxian Chongqing Yangtze River Bridge (1997)

Main span of 420 m Wanxian Yangtze River Bridge (Fig. 2.39) is the worlds largest span
reinforced concrete arch bridge, with steel skeleton outsourcing Reinforced Concrete
grade C-60 high performance concrete and advanced control technology built
construction. The 1/5 span ratio is reasonable and beautiful, becoming an important
landscape project upstream of the Yangtze river.

Fig. 2.39 Wanxian Chongqing Yangtze River Bridge.

Fig. 2.40 Jiangyin Yangtze River Bridge.

2.4.6 Jiangyin Yangtze River Bridge (1997)

In 1385 m main span of Jiangyin Yangtze River Bridge (Fig. 2.40) is Chinas first superkilometer suspension bridge. Carried out on the bridge tower aesthetic treatment,
compared with other several suspension bridges, its tower line to beam size ratio is
appropriate, and remains its attractive appearance and excellent quality a decade after use.

2.4.7 Lupu Bridge (2003)

Main span of 550 m, the Lupu Bridge (Fig. 2.41) has a span of a world record in the steel
arch bridge, but does not have the conventional parallel truss arch form, and the use of
more aesthetic in basket-style box bearing rib arch. Due to the quality of the rib segments
box reached 480t, in the face of the inclined arch Cantilevering is a huge challenge. While
much of the construction costs of steel, and to overcome the difficulties of construction
control, but the aesthetics point of view, than the box-shaped arch truss rib arch more
modern. 2008, Lupu Bridge gained international bridge associations outstanding
architecture award.

Fig. 2.41 Lupu Bridge.

2.4.8 Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge (2004)

Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge (Fig. 2.42) was the first use of /\ shaped curve pylon
cable-stayed bridge, the program may be the revelation of the international contest second
stonecutters bridge in Hong Kong Heaven concept. Tower bridge following the adoption
of concrete, steel deck above the tower to speed up the construction speed. Mixing tower
joints using advanced shear construction, its magnificent pyramid-shaped tower is loved
by the public.

Fig. 2.42 Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge.

2.4.9 Su Tong Yangtze River Bridge (2008)

The worlds first ultra-km cable-stayed bridge, due to the large span bridge tower 300 m,
with a stable and strong sense of inverted Y-shaped pylons are necessary. Total length of 6
km of horizontal and vertical curves arranged like a dragon across the wide Yangtze River,
constitutes a beautiful breathtaking views, giving eternal beauty. Su Tong Bridge won the
first place in the Bridges and structures Photo Contest 2009, held at the International
bridge association.

Fig. 2.43 Su Tong Yangtze River Bridge.

2.4.10 Zhoushan Island Project Xihoumen Bridge (2009)

Xihoumen Bridge (Fig. 2.44) is a suspension bridge with a main span of upto 1650 m, and
is located in the region of strong typhoons, must be separated from the double deck box to
meet the requirements of wind stability. On the pylons were aesthetic styling treatment,
the first time this world with large-span suspension bridge split stance with its magnificent
bridges become another milestone in China.

Fig. 2.44 Xihoumen bridge.


2.5.1 On the Rationality of Bridge Main Hole Span
Main hole span of bridge is the most important aspect in long-span bridges scale, which
determines the bridge type selection. Main hole (Navigable) navigation bridge span must
first meet the requirements, taking into account the main pier anti-ship collision safety.
Chinas inland waterways is no clear uniform standard, they use a bridge deliberations,
after the Ministry of Transport Water Transport Department to conduct feasibility studies
depending on the circumstances at the bridge site fairways make case decisions. In this
case, since the revetment work is limited to China waterway near the city zone, resulting
in a large and stable enough swing waterway, plus there are still a large number of small
vessels and large tugs hit pier accident, waterway sector is often calls for increasing the
main span of the bridge to ensure navigation safety. There are also the owners in order to
pursue the span of the first, indicating the use of excessive force span, which brought
the ratio between the bridge across the main navigable height and disorders, but create a
sense of oppression.
The normal ration of main span (two-way navigation) to the navigable clear height
falls between 15 m to 18 m, the maximum should not be exceed 20 m. An arrangement of
two navigable holes (top and bottom rows of holes navigation), the main span and the
clear height ratio should be 10 or less. However, there are many domestic large-span
bridges have exceeded this proportion. Since the main crossing points is too large, so that
cable-stayed bridge pylon height above deck and below deck height imbalance, especially
when used in deck elevation elected at the legs of the gem-shaped pylon, it shows the
lower part too short and tall enough to affect the aesthetics of the bridge tower shape.
A Case Study of Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge, the bridge main span of 628 m, while
the navigation bridge is only 24 m in height restricted Nanjing Bridge upstream, resulting
ratio between the two is 26.2. Tower high above the deck for 150 m, above and below
deck tower higher than 150/24 = 6.25, which creates the effect of short leg pylon gem type
(Fig. 2.45), make cable-stayed bridge in overall lack of beauty. In contrast, the Shanghai
Nanpu Bridge and Yangpu Bridge pylon shaped gem because there upright sense of proper

Fig. 2.45 Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge.

In the middle reaches of the Yangtze River (WuhanNanjing section), in order to meet
the requirements of navigable inland level (clear height 24 m), the use of cable-stayed
bridges with the main span of 400~500 m is a reasonable choice for the economy. If the
underlying low construction cost can also be used across 160~200 m of multi-beam bridge
to meet up and down the rows of holes navigation. However, in the blind pursuit of largespan, but there have been some misguided thinking across a river 800~1000 m span cablestayed bridge, and even super-kilometer suspension bridge. At this point, span and bridge
clearance height ratio much higher than the 20 : 1, even upto 50 : 1 entire deck lying on
the water, completely lost beauty. Moreover, the cost is very expensive, and the adjacent
smaller bridge span is also very coordinated. France, Greece, in the design of the Strait of
Rion-Antirion bridge, in order to meet the requirements of 180000t of navigation, the use
of multi-span cable-stayed bridge 560 m (Fig. 2.46). Between Denmark and Germany Fei
Manen Channel Bridge, for the navigation 260,000t seagoing vessel, the recommended
solution is multi-span 780 m double rail-cum Cable Stayed Bridge, bridge truss Composite
Beam (Fig. 2.47), a solution worth learning.

Fig. 2.46 Rion-Antirion Channel Bridge, Greece.

Fig. 2.47 Fei Manen Channel Bridge.

2.5.2 Facade Layout Symmetry

Arranged in accordance with the position of the main channel fairway hole layout
principles is a quite natural layout. However, some owners prefer regardless of position in
the water channel width symmetrically arranged, or even ask to move the channel by
channel diversion works and dredging, which is very unreasonable.
Facades of foreign long-span bridges are mostly arranged to determine the position of
the main hole span and in accordance with channel centerline, while the edge of the hole

at the actual water depth and geological conditions are arranged left-right asymmetry (left
and right edges of different pore size). As the water widens, it can also be arranged in a
symmetrical side hole, plus about the length of different non-navigable water hole bridge,
to form an asymmetric distribution holes in general, and to indicate to the navigation of
the ship channel the water side of the actual bias location. Sometimes, you can also
employ single tower cable-stayed bridge asymmetric arrangement or the use of
collaborative systems to adapt to nature, and to achieve the purpose of the economic fabric
of the hole.
Take the design of a bridge to the program as an example [Fig. 2.48(a)], because the
owners unreasonably required by the symmetrical arrangement of the water and had to
increase the span of the main hole to 428 m, and the need to move the channel 46.5 m, in
order to meet shipping requirements, navigable but still biased side of the main pier,
increasing the risk of ship collision. Moreover, increasing the main hole is not conducive
to the stability of the whole economy and arch bridges, but also increases the difficulty of
Instead, the use of asymmetric arrangement [Fig. 2.48(b)] not only conforms to the
natural, to the economy and security in general, but also in the aesthetic point of view, a
reasonable asymmetrical arrangement can also be presenting a beauty.

Fig. 2.48 Facade arrangement of a bridge (size unit: m) (a) Arranged symmetrically; (b)
Are arranged asymmetrical.

2.5.3 The Side Holes Scales in Cable-stayed Bridge

The ratio of side hole and central hole in the twin tower cable-stayed bridge is a question
of the overall arrangement must focus consideration. According to earlier studies,
Professor Leonhardt of Germany, in order to control the magnitude of stress tail cord to
ensure its anti-fatigue properties, the tail rope must reserve sufficient internal forces of
dead-load, live-load so that the positive and negative changes caused by the internal forces
without causing too much stress amplitude. One important measure is appropriate to
shorten the length of side spans of dead-load to increase the tail rope tension, and deadload and live-load than the smaller side span and is also smaller than the mid-span.
At anchor when the ratio of maximum stress to minimum stress is under kac = 0. 4,
relationship shown in Table 2.1 can be drawn from Fig. 2.49.

Domestic cable-stayed bridge, a strong side beams and pouring of concrete at the ends
of the hole plus the weight of the transition are commonly used to to provide balance
weights, there will be a mutation in the shape of the beam, affect the appearance. It is
mostly used in foreign countries made a long pull anchor seat, anchor pier on the use of
weight to balance the tail rope pull force, and set the continuous transition pore (transition
span), the joints move to the rear end of the transition pore to optimize the structure at the
anchor pier, as shown in Fig. 2.50.

Fig. 2.49 Beam stiffness affect the relationship between la/lm and p/g of (kac = 0. 4 time).

Fig. 2.50 End processing in cable-stayed bridge.

Note: The solid line is ignoring curvature, shaded conditions included bending stiffness.
Table 2.1 Effect of the beam stiffness on the la/lm and p/g ratio
Deck type

Deck live-load, constant load ratio


Side-span to cross-span ratio


Steel deck



Bond beam



PC deck



2.5.4 The Arrangement of the Auxiliary Pier in Cable-stayed

Bridge Side Span

Whether applying auxiliary pier on the side span is an important issue to be considered in
the preliminary design.
If the side spans are in the water and often the same structure is used throughout the
bridge deck, then an auxiliary pier is used mainly to resist high wind resistance cantilever
construction phase, because the balance will-enable shimmy double cantilever,
construction boom length frequency increases with a sharp decline, with a corresponding
wind stability also decreased, but increased the amplitude of the cantilever end of
construction very unfavourable. In the side span navigable meet the conditions required,
you can set an auxiliary pier, in order to advance the fixed side of the cantilever, the
formation of a single cantilever construction better stability.
When the side spans are arranged on the shore, you can use the mixing deck approach,
that edge may be more economical PC across the deck and arranged a number of shoreside pier, so that the force to meet the high beam simply supported beam construction
phase state requirements, and with the cross-beam of high co-herence.
Side span of the pier can be uniformly arranged [such as France Normandy bridge,
Fig. 2.51(a)], can also be arranged unevenly, across the river to the shore that is gradually
decreasing cross direction, in order to achieve a sense of rhythm aesthetic [such as Hong
Kong Ngong Shuen Island Bridge, Fig. 2.51(b)].

Fig. 2.51 Arrangement of shore side span in cable-stayed bridge pier aid (size unit: m) (a)
Nommandy bridge; (b) Stonecutters bridge.

2.5.5 Pyramid Select and Proportion

Pylon cable-stayed bridge is an important factor in the landscape, we must attach great
importance to the proportion of its shape and size, and the latter more important.
The tower of built bridges can be summarized as follows:
1. Gantry towers parallel to the surface of the cable and H-shaped towers (vertical

column and diagonal column).

2. A-shaped ramp tower cable plane, inverted Y-shaped towers, as well as the legs to
form a bridge following gem-shaped pylons.
3. Single column towers wit single cable plane of (Stonecutters Bridge in Hong Kong),
and after additional cable plane cable-stayed to ramp-shaped tower mixed gems (such
as the Ting Kau Bridge in Hong Kong).

Fig. 2.52 Various cable-stayed bridge tower.

Various pyramids as shown in Fig. 2.52.
In these tower designs pay special attention to the two proportional:
1. Height of tower above the deck to bridge width ratio H2/B.
2. The deck height and full-tower high ratio H1/H.
High tower cable-stayed bridge deck above the main span L and economy than H2/L
0.2~0.25. As most of the domestic requirements of six-lane bridge deck width, namely, B
30 m. If you wish to H2/B upto 4 or more, to make sense of the pyramid there is upright,
the main span of L must satisfy the requirements of the following formula:

Obviously, cable-stayed bridge with span less than 500 m, if the bridge width is more
than 30 m, the ratio of H2/B is not good enough, the pyramid will be look chunky and not
Navigation bridge deck clearance height determines the deck height H1, if they wish a
H/H1 ratio less than 4, the main span of L should satisfy the requirements of the following

Thus the follows are deducted:

As mentioned earlier, such as the Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge, the bridge height less
than 30 m, main span of 628 m, is inappropriate and unnecessary in the navigation. Under
the bridge span is too large to make the legs after Chantha than the total height of the
tower is too small, resulting in poor aesthetics short legs. Similarly, Su Tong Bridges
main span of 1088 m, but insufficient headroom under the bridge 60 m, such as the use of
the legs of the proportion of gem-shaped pylons are not good enough, do not use inverted
Y-shaped legs of the tower is more beautiful, is the right choice.
Hong Kongs Stonecutters Bridges main span is 1018 m, bidding plans such as single
column bridge pylon tower, A-shaped towers, inverted Y-shaped towers all avoided the
imbalance problem caused by legs.
In addition to Nanjing Bridge, the Yueyang Dongting Lake Bridge, white sandbar
Bridge and Runyang Bridge Auxiliary Channel Bridge also used gem-shaped pylon legs,
the height of its deck following a high percentage of the total column and are small, giving
a sense of short legs, affecting the aesthetics of the bridge tower. Each of the bridge are the
result of the irrational pursuit of large-span. Only when the main span to navigable
headroom maintain proper proportions, can sleek pylon be achieved.

2.5.6 Asymmetric Single Tower Cable-stayed Bridge and

Collaboration System
Bend in the river at a mainstream bank often tend to form asymmetric riverbed section. In
this case the use of asymmetric single tower cable-stayed bridge is more appropriate, such
as Germany Rhine Flehe bridge (Fig. 2.53). Shoal in the side span can be arranged into a
small cross, and the use of PC deck, while the steel bridge across the river, forming a very
economical and easy mixing deck construction.

Fig. 2.53 Flehe German Rhine bridge.

The First single tower cable-stayed bridge using the collaboration system was the
United States East Huntington Bridge (Fig. 2.54). Since the river side of the bridge
approach across multi-span continuous form beams, cantilevered and then use the relative

access cable-stayed bridge formed a collaborative system. In order to make use of the side
beams and double cable-stayed bridge deck and use a central box girder continuous girder
bridge can smooth docking, you must set a transitional period, so that the bridge structure
is more complex, which is a drawback collaborative system.
Our Zhaobaoshan Bridge has a similar topography, also used the transition period with
a single tower cable-stayed bridge and the bridge connecting structure of the cooperative
system. Although the cable-stayed bridge cantilever bridge construction, due to improper
control of the emergence of the web and the bottom of the box girder section crush
accident, but after the removal and repair damage zones and construction control method
has been adjusted and pre-stressed arranged after successfully built a bridge. Clearly, as
long as the design and construction handled properly, this cooperative system with single
tower cable-stayed bridge in the special terrain is very appropriate.

Fig. 2.54 US East Huntington bridge.

2.5.7 Arrangement of Side Span in Suspension

Suspension currently uses the vertical arrangement of double cable plane (large-span
suspension bridge there may be cases of three cable plane or spatial cable plane), and
therefore is not appropriate pyramid changes, mostly using gantry bridge tower, the only
difference is the number of beams.
The main problem is in the main span to determine how the terrain conditions
appropriately furnished by side span. When the side span to cross the water and the long,
hanging on the main cable is necessary to form a three-span continuous deck. Such as
pylons already ashore, direct access to the main cable anchorage, but with the formation of
small independent single-span suspension bridge span bridge approach. When the crossstrait situation is not the same, while there may be side span continuous deck, while the
asymmetric arrangement of small independent cross, and even using some of the
suspension, a small cross-section independent special arrangement, not in order to
construct and calculate the simple use of unreasonable symmetrical arrangement. Typical
arrangement of side span suspension bridge shown in Fig. 2.55.

Fig. 2.55 Suspension facade arrangement (dimensions: m) (a) Tsing Ma Bridge in Hong
Kong; (b) Dragon Bridge, Hong Kong.

2.5.8 Proper Height of Main Beam Girder

Girder suspension and cable-stayed bridge girder selection is an important issue in the
conceptual design factors to be considered are the following two aspects.

1. Coordination between the Main Bridge and the Height of Bridge

Approach Main Girder
Suspension bridges with large span or cable-stayed bridge with Facade layout span on
both sides of the main bridge should be accompanied by a certain length of bridge
approach. Approach bridge type usually choose economic aperture as 50 ~ 70 m of small
and medium-span continuous beam or a simply supported beam, high beam is 2.5~3 m
deep. In order to make the entire bridge deck has a uniform height of the sides in order to
achieve a coherent aesthetic, the height of the main bridge deck and bridge approach
should be close to the height of the main beam, avoid large jumps.

2. Meet the Wind-proof Requirements of Large Span Bridge

From the perspective of wind stability, suspension and cable-stayed bridge on the main
beam height requirements are different. Most mining suspension with parallel straight
cable plane, this time mainly depends on the main girder high torsional stiffness and
provide corresponding torsional frequency, and therefore the main beam height should not
be too small. As the Danish Great Belt bridge final selection 4.5 m high beam depth with
aspect ratio of B & h main beam = = 7, to obtain enough to twist and twist
frequency ratio. Run Yang Yangtze Bridge using high beam is small, although the lateral
wind loads can be reduced, but the twist frequency is low, so that lack of stability, and
finally had additional central stabilising plate to meet the wind requirements. Long Span

Bridge is generally used oblique arrangement of cable plane. At this time, due to the
oblique cable plane (structural measures) provide a good torsional capability, high beam
girder can be small as much as possible, through a wider aspect ratio to reduce wind
resistance and vortex shedding. Such as the use of parallel cable planes and even a central
single cable plane cable-stayed bridge, you still need to consider the main beam should
have sufficient height and torsional rigidity. When using separate double box and slotted
central section (aerodynamic measures), the main beam height can be chosen to be as
small as possible, because the separation tank has provided sufficient aerodynamic


Bridge aesthetics philosophy is that every bridge engineer must have the basic literacy. We
designed the bridge in addition to the life of each period to maintain the excellent quality
of service, you must also give the user the enjoyment of beauty, that bridge not only have
traffic function, but also has aesthetic and landscape value.
Famous bridge in the world are beautiful, and beautiful bridge will get more
protection, will be more durable. With the improvement of peoples living standards,
people will continue to require strengthening of bridge aesthetics, and even willing to
increase a certain percentage of the cost of programs to choose more beautiful, but not the
most economical solution. However, the appearance does not necessarily rely on more
money, but through innovative efforts to find the ratio of the structure, balance and
harmony, tend to force the most reasonable performance, most economical and most
convenient structure construction, but also can be the most beautiful bridge.
Well-known foreign design companies have a high bridge engineer aesthetic qualities,
but also to establish long-term cooperative relationship with the architect, the whole
concept of the design process in constant communication and discussion, to seek technical
and artistic coordination and harmonisation.
Chinese bridge design profession shows inadequate attention to aesthetics, and the
lack of participation and collaboration of architects, and sometimes there is interference
and misconceptions affect homeowners, there have been some flaw in violation of
aesthetic principles and mistakes, hoping to learn a lesson, to overcome this deficiency,
and constantly improve the level of Chinese aesthetics of the bridge.

1. Fundamentals bridge aesthetics to evaluate the bridge you are familiar with China
and the worlds most beautiful bridges and make a comparison, talk about your
2. What is your evaluation and learning experience for the German professor Leon Hart
of the creative process?
3. Successful examples of your Chinese aesthetic design of the bridge and there is a
problem any different opinions or supplementary examples.

[1] Engels, Dialectics of Nature Beijing: Peoples Publishing House, 1956.
[2] Huancheng Tang Bridge Beauty Philosophy Taipei: Plain Bookstore, 1994.
[3] Leonhardt Bridges Architecture and Modeling Beijing: China Communications
Press, 1988.
[4] Yin Delan Wendi Articles with BridgeChina Beijing: Tsinghua University Press,
[5] Ito school. Bridge Shape. Japan Maruzen, 1998.
[6] Troitsky M.S. Aesthetic Requirement / / Bridge Engineering Handbook. CRC Press,
[7] Hoi Fan. Aesthetic bridge thinking. Science, 2002, 54 (10).
[8] Cai ytterbium Bridge Building bridges Yizhu dreamTaipei: Technology Books,
[9] Xu Fengyun, Chen Derong Aesthetic Principle Bridges Beijing: China
Communications Press, 2007.



The basic concept of the design factors that should be considered include other natural
conditions, function and various bridge type and basis of suitability and investment.
Natural conditions is an objective at the bridge site, not to change the will of the
designer, we have through research, collect and test analysis to fully understand and fully
grasp it. Extensive research, such as the river regime, must be at the bridge site over the
years of hydrological data, the reaction riverbed erosion and siltation, the deep channel
stability, etc., over the years bathymetry and tidal information, etc., to make sub-holes are
arranged to meet the riverbed underwater environment the laws of nature, laws of nature
without destroying hydrology, but also to ensure the structural safety of the bridge.
Conversely, if the destruction of the hydrological environment, leading to a lot of erosion
and siltation, causing riverbed changes, deep grooves change, will be affect shipping,
affect bridge safety. Therefore, through full study, understanding and digesting the results
of the rational use of the thematic biography bridge natural conditions, the concept can be
scientifically designed to meet these natural conditions, a basic safety requirement for
conceptual design.
Functional orientation must be subject to the objective requirements of engineering
construction and road construction, urban construction, transportation construction and
shipping master planning regulatory documents. Determine the functions to meet the
functional requirements, including bridges flat, vertical alignment design, layout, and
other section shall meet the requirements of the traffic feature, set the main navigation and
sub-hole layout should meet the requirements of the shipping function, the applicability of
the concept design of the basic requirements.
A variety of bridge type and applicability is one of the bases of the professional
knowledge, only more learning, more accumulation, in order to ensure the creation of the
designer has a scientific basis and foundation of all kinds of bridge type has its history,
characteristics and stress the applicability of the concept is designed to meet the scientific
laws, can only local conditions and constant innovation.
Economy is a basic requirements of designers from the state, conceptual design must
comply with reasonable requests economy. Rational innovation economy is the real
technical innovation, meaningful innovation. To understand the evolution of technical
suitability, as well as the scope of the various forms of bridge-variety basis, and know how
to use economic point of concept selection. This is the conceptual design of technological
innovation and economic rationality of the basic requirements.


Collection of natural conditions and functional planning and other basic information are
done mostly through the professional sector or industry department in the form of research
reports and raw data for statistical analysis and inference, through a certain review or
approval procedures provided for bridge designers its use. Of course, the study of these
thematic information itself requires a certain period, so that the work is often synchronised
with the design phase, a phased approach. Such as engineering feasibility study stage, you
need to geophysical and geological data for individual drill hole data available to the
preliminary design phase requires Chukan geological reports, construction design phase of
the project requires detailed geological survey data reports.
Conceptual design must submit the appropriate depth of these basic data requirements
for the outcome, as the basis of the information or documents conceptual design, of
course, it does not need as much detail as the preliminary design and construction design,
comprehensive, but require accurate, able to seize the natural conditions or functional
orientation characteristics, difficulties and points.
Natural conditions and functions of the conceptual design is the first step, and it is an
important step.

3.1.1 Natural Conditions

Natural conditions include river regime, hydrology, climate meteorology, topography,
geology water quality, environmental and earthquakes, this section describes each of these
bridge conditions at the same time, by engineering examples illustrate how to analyse, use
of the information, how to make the conceptual design for to meet these basic conditions.
These data used in the conceptual design phase generally has two aspects: on the one
hand, the understanding of these materials on the basis of digestion, to seize their core
elements and control conditions, the formation of the embryonic form of our ideas and
layout; the second aspect, calculation and analysis (macro and control) for general and key
components, verification and adjustment of previous ideas and arrangements. As for the
geological data, you first need based on geological data and other relevant data to form the
basis for discussion and conceptual design and form the basis of this kind of basic size,
construction methods and key technologies controlling data, followed by application of
geological information related to the macroparameters to checking the feasibility of the
basic program.

1. River Regime
In the river dynamics, river regime is defined as a plane posture rivers, including the
mainstream lines, waterlines and flat morphology (e.g., branch road, corners, edges beach,
the heart of the beach, riverbank, floodplain) posed and surface phenomena is about the
form of the elements of assembly, sometimes referred to as the basic river flow potential.
In addition, there are also pointed out that the definition of river is river flow situation and
development trend of the plane. Include: changes in the distribution and trend of river flow

dynamic axis position, direction, and the bay, shoreline and sandbars, beaches and other
Evolution of river bed is a branch derived from the research and practice of river
regulation process by engineering and technical personnel and technology workers from a
broad riverbed evolution out of pure research to a separate branch of the flow plane
change. Therefore, the river regime change is the interaction of water and sediment and
bed boundary conditions, the results of mutual influence.
The main factors influencing the evolution of river generally include the following
three aspects:
1. Water and sediment conditions: mainly refers to the total amount and the process of
entering the water and sediment downstream.
2. River border: mainly refers to accommodate the main features and parameters and
constraints river border movement of water.
3. Project boundary: mainly refers to the case of other works by the stream length,
arranged in the form, size and spacing between the upper and lower engineering
convergence as well as engineering.
Overall, the main concern when choosing the bridge site is about how over the years in
the area of the riverbed mechanical action of the water, the main river channel, waterway
and other elements of the situation, determine the extent of the impact the stability of the
natural elements, and after the bridge on these basic conditions.
River regime also inflience the location of navigable hole layout and thus plays a
decisive role.
Example 3.1. Taizhou Yangtze River Road Bridge over election.
Reach for the comparison of Zhenjiang Yangtze river bridge site from the existing
shoreline conditions and planning, as well as the stability of river areas, identified three
possible positions, namely, Wing Chau North, South Wing Chau Bridge eight bits. Fig. 3.1
Taizhou Yangtze River Highway Bridge segment total plane.
Wing Chau Pak channel on the right bank of the water turning red top position, the
downstream heart bypass beach area, look left and right support thalweg still swing within
a certain range from years of data analysis, but the range is limited, cross-sectional area
over the water, river width, average depth change is limited. 1998 more after the changes
tend to be small, river regime basically stable. Fig. 3.2 shows a cross-sectional Wing Chau
North Bridge bits.
Wing Island South Corridor is wide and shallow riverbed, was typical W-shaped,
central to the heart of the beach, the main features of evolution: Heart on the beach above
mentioned diversion point decline occurred when the heart beach plane position is not
stable enough, about thalweg appears limited swing (over 200 meters), the river regime is
relatively stable. Fig. 3.3 shows a cross-sectional Wing Chau South Bridge bits.
Eight bridge has wide and shallow river channel, deep grooves stickers right, Ushaped cross-section, the deep grooves on both sides of the development of this position
closely with upstream over the hearts of Boat Harbour Beach, while the confluence point

of the lateral movement of a large (500 m), 1998 years later, and have put on the right.
Beach and river regime by heart day Xingzhou greater impact. Fig. 3.4 is eight bits Bridge

Fig. 3.1 Total flat section of the river bridge site.

Fig. 3.2 Wing Chau North Bridge bit section.

Fig. 3.3 Wing Chau South Bridge bit section.

Riverbed evolution analysis; Taiping Island left branch (Oe) three elected positions
than from the perspective of both fluvial Guojiangtongdao basic macro with the
construction of river conditions. After comprehensive comparison believe, Wing Chau Pak
channel section of river conditions macro better.

Fig. 3.4 Eight bits Bridge section.

2. Hydrologic
That is flow, flow, water quality, tidal, wave and other basic information on the maximum
and minimum navigable water level, of bridge site area and needed for bridge design,
constant level, the design frequency of flood level, wave height, wave power, etc., design
According to General Specification for Highway Bridge Design (JTG D60-2004),
freeway, highway design flood frequency Bridge 1/300, 1/100 Bridge.
The pier is located in the water, the water pressure should be calculated, and so the
role of wave forces on piers, bridge tower.
Example 3.2 Wuhan White Sandbar Bridge.
Wuhan White Sandbar Bridge is City Master Plan linking the north and south sides of
another traffic arteries, the Hankou hydrological station, 11.1 km downstream, during
which the Han river to import, according to statistics, the average annual flow of the Han
river accounts for about 6% Hankou station, average annual sediment load accounted for
10.8% Hankou station, therefore, Hankou hydrological station sediment eigenvalues
basically reflects the bridge site reaches of run-off and sediment conditions. Table of
hydrology, sediment characteristics Hankou station value Tables 3.1.
Table 3.1 Hydrology, sediment characteristics Hankou station value tables (table elevation
Wusong elevation).

Water level (m)

The maximum value & the minimum value

Value Date (Year, Value Date (Year, Average Statistical
max month. day) min month. day) years
29.73 1954/8/18 10.08 1865/2/4
19.16 1865~1991

Flow rate (m3/s)














0.611 1953~1991


Annual sediment load (one

hundred million t)
The annual average
sediment concentration

23438 1865~1991

From the run-off and sediment from the Hankou station statistics, Hankou station to

sediment run-off during the year mainly concentrated in the flood season in October,
73.3% of its accounts for the year runoff, sediment accounts for the year 84%, more
sediment than to focus on the flood water.
Wuhan river flood control standard shows, according to the Yangtze river flood control
planning, once in a century flood contained within dikes and flood diversion area
upstream of the joint use of the standard range of defense, while the water level in Wuhan
dike designed for the highest level measured in 1954, 27.64 m (Yellow Sea elevation, the
same below), therefore, the use of bridge design water level with the corresponding values
of 27.99 m, the design flow using the value of 1954 Hankou station measured maximum
flow rate 76100 m3/s minus the Hanjiang river flows into the sink after 73380 m3/s.
Highest navigable water level used is the 20-year flood peak of 26.25 m, the minimum
guaranteed rate of navigable water level of 99% using the low water level 10.21 m.

3. Weather and Climate

Meteorological refers to the atmosphere of hot and cold, wet and dry, the general term for
the wind, clouds, rain, fog, snow, frost, lightning, and other physical phenomena and
physical processes. Meteorological observation projects have air temperature, humidity,
temperature, wind direction, wind speed, precipitation, sunshine, barometric pressure,
weather phenomena.
Climate refers to a region-specific integrated weather for many years, the so-called
unique weather conditions refers to the average weather conditions in both years,
including the area in individual years the emergence of some extreme weather conditions,
is an area of cold, warm, dry wet weather conditions and other basic features of a
comprehensive reflection. Various statistics of meteorological factors (temperature,
precipitation, wind, etc.) (mean, maximum, probability, etc.) is the fundamental basis for
the expression of the climate.
Determine the parameters and design based on meteorological data directly relevant to
the study of climate.
Basic design wind speed in bridge area (m/s), is according to the Department of flat
open ground, 10 m high from the ground, the return period of 100 years 10 min, average,
maximum wind speed calculated and determined; when the lack of wind speed
observations bridge area, v10 can norms national basic wind speed map and weather
stations across the country the basic wind speed and basic wind pressure value of the
relevant data and the use of the field after investigation and verification.
Construction stage of the design wind speed is multiplied by the wind speed according
to different return periods return period factor, such as the return period of 5 years, the
return period is 0.84 coefficient of 0.78,10 year, when construction of the bridge over the
surface structure of less than 3 years, may be not less than 5 years return period wind;
when the construction period of more than three years or a bridge located typhoon-prone
areas, we can use a moderate increase than the actual wind conditions return period factor.
According to bridges and culverts specifications, calculate the role of bridge structures
caused due to a uniform temperature deformation or constraint applied, the structure
should be restrained when the temperature begins to consider the role of the effect of the

highest and lowest effective temperature. Maximum and minimum standard value of the
effective temperature of the structure is calculated according to the local calendar highest
or lowest average daily temperature average daily temperature, such as for steel deck
bridge, with temperatures between 20~45C, its effective temperature standard value = 38
+ (Tt 20)/2.00; the temperature is between (2~50C), the effective temperature of the
standard value = 1.48 + Tt / 0.91. Such as the lack of actual survey data, the value
adopted by the specification table.
According to the environmental conditions in which the durability of bridge design is
performed, specification of the environmental atmosphere is grouped into four
environmental categories: (i) class is warm or cold regions, and non-aggressive contact
with water or soil; (ii) class is cold regions of the atmosphere use of de-icing salt
environments, coastal environments; (iii) class is the marine environment; (iv) class is
subject to aggressive substances affect the environment.
Example 3.3. Hangzhou Bay Bridge.
Hangzhou Bay is located in the eastern coast of China, the sub-tropical monsoon
climate zone, monsoon significantly, the annual four seasons, mild climate, humid, and
rainy. Meteorological elements characteristic bridge area values can be analysed based on
the series of Cixi weather weather stations and bridge the north shore of Pinghu south
bank from 1954 to 2000, measured data, the results shown in Table 3.2.
Table 3.2 Meteorological eigenvalues bridge area exemplar project Pinghu Cixi.

Air temperature

Extreme maximum temperature (C)



Extreme minimum temperature (C)



The annual average temperature (C)



The average temperature in the coldest month

(January) (C)



The average temperature in the hottest month

(July) (d)



35C average number of days (d)



0C average number of days (d)



Average annual precipitation (mm)



The maximum monthly precipitation (mm)



50 mm annual precipitation days (d)



The longest continuous precipitation days (d)



The maximum wind speed (m/s)



Maximum wind speed (m/s)






Fog Day (d)

Often wind



Strong wind



8 winds number of days (d)



Typhoon affect



The annual average number of typhoons















Years up
The annual average

Relative humidity Annual average

days (d)

Years up
The annual average

Snow depth (cm) Maximum

Severe weathers affecting the Hangzhou bay area are mainly typhoons, tornadoes,
thunderstorms, strong cold air, fog, heavy rain, etc. These severe weather has some effect
on the construction and operation of the bridge, need to be considered.

4. The Topography
Topography mainly refers to the terrain and location of surface morphology, including
natural and artificial surface features, including the feature, the ups and downs of the state
of the surface. Its natural form can be divided into mountains, hills, plains and basins.
Example 3.4. Hangzhou Bay Bridge.
Hangzhou bay is located in the Yangtze river in the landscape, river plain area north of
Zhejiang plain area, is composed of coastal and lake sediment accumulation formed
environment, low and flat, the general elevation of 2~7.5 m, many in the region, Wu Tong,
dense river network. Near the bridge site can be divided into land, beaches and waters of
the three geomorphic units.
1. Land: Across the Hangzhou bay is a vast plain terrain, flat, local monadnock
2. Beaches: Beaches across the Hangzhou bay has developed, with silty sand and silty
floodplain dominated under the tide, is a tidal flat topography. North Shore beaches
narrow to shore erosion mainly south coast beaches, said three north shallows to
silting based.
3. Sea: Under the strong trend of Hangzhou bay, the main role of the formation of the
trend and the trend of the ridge notching two landforms.
Example 3.5. Su Tong Bridge.
It was known from October 2001, underwater topographic maps that the main channel
bridge bit of Su Tong Bridge has a steep slope on the right side, in the south of the main

pier on both sides to be selected around each 200~300 m slope of 2.5% to 4% zone
relatively slow, and the bridge upstream position 40 m deep trench distance of about 500
m, obviously this bridge than the engineering feasibility study stage main pier south axis
to optimize more favorable position, shown in Fig. 3.5.
Figure 3.6 June 2003 schematic cross section measured bridge axis, the distance
between the levee is about 6250 m. Main channel was V shape, a bit south coast, 10 m
contour covering waters width 1970 m, 20 m contour covering waters width 1170 m, the
deepest point elevation of about 32.7 m, the north-south main tower location situation
bed elevation are about 15 m and 26 m; clip groove in the main channel south of the
main channel and clip groove center distance of about 1700 m; clip was bowl-shaped
groove, width of 430 m, a bottom surface elevation of about 10 m .

5. Geology
Geology refers to the nature and characteristics of the earth. Mainly refers to the earths
material composition, structure, construction, development and history, including the
Earths spheres of differentiation, physical properties, chemical properties, rock properties,
mineral composition, rock formations and output state, the contact relationship between
the Earth history of structural development, biological evolutionary history, the history of
climate change, as well as the status and distribution of occurrence of mineral resources.

Fig. 3.5 River bed topographic maps near the South Main tower.

Fig. 3.6 Axle shaft section.

These data are obtained by geological and geophysical exploration drilling.

Geophysical map identify: geological structure (fracture location, size, fragmentation
width, occurrence, nature, etc.), poor geological phenomena, the bridge near the axis of
the underwater terrain, cover thickness, bedrock depth, lithology and so on. Given soil,
bedrock material through mechanical parameters of the standard penetration test, soil
testing, rock testing. These data are used for the designer to select pier bit bearing stratum
and construction methods.
Example 3.6. SuTong Bridge.
Bridge site area bridge site area is divided into 22 engineering geological layers based
on geological strata expose era, genetic type, lithology, and burying their physical and
mechanical characteristics, each layer is mainly characterised as follows.
Holocene (Q4) is divided into four layers (1~4 layers): one for the north side of the
upper layer of silt loam or silt clip, sub-divided into three sub-layers; two for the south
bank of the upper layer of clayey crusty layer; 3 layers of silty loam or silt south side of
the upper mezzanine, divided into two sub-layers; 4 layers for the bottom of loam or silt
loam with inter-bedded.
Upper Pleistocene (Q3) is divided into four layers (58 layers): five layers of siltbased, local clayey, is divided into three sub-layers; 6 layers of coarse sand.
Pebbly, local sand, was divided into two sub-layers; 7 layers of fine sand, silt; eight
layers sandwiched coarse pebbly silty sand, clay sandwiched lens-shaped sub-divided
three sub-layers.
Pleistocene (Q2) is divided into 6 layers (9 to 14 layers), lithology powder, sand layer,
clayey soil.
Lower Pleistocene (Q1), on the third line (N) at 200 m above the roof depth, roughly
divided into eight engineering geological layer (15 to 22 layers). 16 to 22 projects for the
Lower Pleistocene geological formations and the Upper Tertiary sediments, sand next to
the main folder Pleistocene clay, on the third line for the semi-cemented like clay, sandbased, bottom to expose the basalt. Table 3.3 Quaternary stratigraphy profile.
Table 3.3 Quaternary stratigraphy exemplar.




Main lithological
<70 Top pale yellow loam, silt clip Asian
central gray clay, the lower order mucky
Asia Clip silt clay.






Gray, pale yellow powder sand, pebbly

sand, local tan clay, loam.




The upper blue-gray, gray and yellow,

gray-green sub clay, iron and manganese
and calcium-containing tuberculosis,
clip sallow fine sand; the lower part of

sallow clayey, pebbly coarse sand.



30~100 The upper sub-brown gray-green clay,

calcium-containing iron and manganese
qualitative tuberculosis, the lower the
fine gray powder sand, pebbly coarse

Geological survey results show that 1 in 4 layers of loose overburden, 5 layer of dense
dense fine sand, 6 to dense sand layer below.
Layer-based, local folder with soft plastic clay layer. 6-1 and 8-1 large sub-sub-layer
thickness, depth of approximately 65 m, 76 m, stable distribution Fixed, is an ideal base
The downside of the Su Tong Bridge bedrock geological conditions that are deeply
buried (on the 21st floor of weak wind flower basalt, elevation 309.59 m, that is the
bedrock depth of nearly 300 m), not directly as a substrate bearing stratum, the foundation
cannot support the underside strength. The deformation of the rock; advantageous in that a
sedimentary, stratigraphic distribution is relatively stable, relatively uniform thickness,
which base at the end deformable surface is also more evenly, reducing the likelihood of
uneven settlement.
Preliminary design studies may form the basis of a variety of uses, after a preliminary
post-election than the main caisson foundation and pile foundation for two species form
the basis of equal depth research, and various forms of pile foundation conducted a
comprehensive comparison. Holding force on the caisson foundation analysis layer as
shown in Table 3.4.
Table 3.4 Described the basement geology
North tower
Substrate 6-1 layer of coarse
bearing sand, formation
stratum elevation 87. 2~80.6
m, Thickness of about 7
m, thickness,
distribution is more
stable. Foundation
allowed Carrying
capacity of 450 kPa.
of 300

7 layers of fine sand, dense, containing a small
amount of grit. Stratigraphic elevation 91.8~ 73.6
m, thickness of about 18 m. Thickness, the
distribution of stable foundation permit.

5-2 layers of fine sand 6-1 layer of gravel sand, small thickness of about 4
overlying strata,
m, distribution is more stable. Ground capacity Xu
saturated, dense,
carrying capacity of 450 kPa.
relatively homogeneous
in thickness than the
small, distributed stable
foundation allowable

bearing capacity for

240 kPa.

Under the seven layers 7 layers of silt, dense and relatively homogeneous.
of fine sand strata
Small thickness, foundation permit hosts force 200
lying, dense, relatively kPa.
homogeneous. Greater
thickness distribution
Stable foundation for
allowable bearing
capacity 300 kPa.

Based on Uncorrected allowable

bearing capacity of the
analysis foundation for the 450
(500) kPa, the thickness
is large, can be used as
a base caisson holding

Layers, such as elevation of the substrate disposed in

a certain depth of the layer into the, ideal can be
obtained carrying capacity. Allowable bearing
capacity of the foundation uncorrected for 300 kPa,
greater thickness, can be as a base caisson bearing
stratum, such as setting the base elevation in the feed
into a certain depth of the layer can be obtained more
satisfactory bearing capacity.

Conclusions on the main tower pile bearing stratum are shown in Table 3.5.
Table 3.5 The main tower foundation pile tip bearing stratum and program and evaluation.
Project pile tip bearing stratum program a sharp bearing stratum Option II
Pile tip
6-1 layer of coarse sand,
8-1 layer of coarse sand, gravel containing
dense, containing gravel,
local pebbly sand, dense, roof Elevation
roof elevation 73.6~
94.2~94.9 m, depth 71.5~80.4 m, thickness
78.2 m, depth of 54.5~54.7 30.9~34.9 m, average 32.9 m, thickness,
m, thick 13~18.2 m,
distribution is more stable. The upper clamp 8average 15.6 m, thickness 2 layers of fine sand, the North Tower
and distribution of stable. dunshang clayey layer sandwiched 8-3
Overburden 5-1 layer overlying strata 7 layers of silt, dense and relatively
powder, sand, sandy loam, homogeneous. Stable distribution.
dense, relatively
homogeneous, thick
Degree, the distribution of
7 layers of silt, dense and
lying strata relatively homogeneous.
Small thickness,

9 stable layer sub-clay, hard plastic, with a

small amount of calcium tuberculosis. Stable

Evaluation 6-1 layers are not suitable for the pile tip stratum. Two towers at the north
and south piers 8-1 layers stable distribution, greater thickness, is an ideal
pile tip bearing stratum; pier at North Tower uneven 8-3 Layer in 8-1 layers

of soft plastic clayey layer sandwich, nature, although the thickness of only
2~3 m, but if the pile tip close to the settlement of the larger pile tip should
be pass through the layer. Pile tip elevation 120 m around, or 9 layers for
the pile tip bearing stratum, the pile tip elevation 125 m below.
After analysis and calculation, the north tower base layer used 8-1 layer, south tower
selected nine-layer as a drilling pile bearing stratum on the basis of the pile tip, pile
bottom elevation 126 m.

6. The Seismic
Earthquakes are the Earths internal media locally generated seismic rupture occurs
abruptly, causing the phenomenon of ground shaking within a certain range. Earthquake
Earths surface is a fast shock, also known as the earth in ancient times. It and the wind,
rain, lightning is a natural phenomenon often occurs on earth. The earth shook and the
earthquake the most intuitive and general performance. Strong earthquake occurred in the
sea or coastal areas, can cause huge waves, called tsunamis. Earthquakes are very
frequent, global earthquake occurred about 5 million times a year.
Usually through seismological bureau and other departments, seismic safety
evaluation report was produced on the bridge site, such as in Jiaojiang bridge designed for
Earthquake Research Institute proposed bridge site area of ground motion parameters
study the technical requirements: The bridge site area of fault activity and fracture the
impact of the bridge project to evaluate the liqueifaction potential discrimination grounds
under shock effect and impact on the land bridge to determine the programs tower bridge
pier at the bedrock and soil in site design ground motion parameters, characteristics of
long-period ground motion.
1. According to the data collection and field geological survey, combined with
geophysical exploration carried out the preliminary design phase, the results of
exploration drilling work near the bridge site area comprehensive evaluation of fault
activity, as well as possible to evaluate the impact of the bridge.
2. Provide Pylons bit of surface drilling location venues around the 100-year base
period, three probability level of ground motion parameters were 100-year
probability of exceedance 63%, 10%, 4% (corresponding to a return period of 100
years, 950 years, 2500 years) of the horizontal and vertical acceleration response
spectrum, response spectrum should be considered long-period components, cycle
should be greater than 15s; when given design ground motion parameters, you should
be consider 3%, 5% damping ratio of the two.
3. Provide drill bits around the main tower of the location of each probability level, i.e.,
100 years beyond the 63% probability, 10%, 4% (corresponding to the return period
of 950 years & 2500 years) site under the surface of each drilling location horizontal
and vertical acceleration and horizontal displacement to process data files synthetic
seismic waves, provide at least three samples in each time course data. To provide
horizontal and vertical ground acceleration synthetic seismic wave, you should
consider the long-period component (greater than 15s), and the corresponding
reaction with spectral match.

4. Offers typical north and south bridge approach surface drilling location venues
benchmark 50-year period, the probability of three levels of ground motion
parameters were 50-year probability of exceedance 63%, 10%, 3% (corresponding to
a return period of 50 years, 475 years, a 642 years) of the horizontal and vertical
acceleration response spectrum; in the design ground motion parameters are given,
considering 3%, 5% damping ratio of the two.
5. Provide drilling north and south bridge approach typical location of each probability
level, i.e., 63% probability of exceedance in 50 years, 10%, each drilling location site
surface 3% level under the direction and vertical acceleration and horizontal
displacement of synthetic seismic wave away data files, each time history data to
provide at least three samples. To provide horizontal and vertical ground acceleration
synthetic seismic wave should be react with the corresponding spectral match.
6. Response spectra and seismic waves process data must be provided in a spreadsheet
Example 3.7. Zhejiang Taizhou Jiaojiang Bridge.
Modern seismic project area is characterised by the strength of the weak, the small
magnitude, low frequency, the basic seismic intensity less than VI degrees. According to
historical statistics and information on the recent earthquake monitoring stations, Taizhou
and adjacent regions (including North since Ning Hainan to Wenzhou, east to the west
coast of Jinyun) historical earthquakes was recorded rarely, mostly less than 4 magnitude,
which is equal to or greater than 4 in the historical earthquakes have six times the
maximum magnitude 4.75 earthquake Wenzhou October 17, 1813 occurred. Strong
earthquake in the history of the region (referring to an earthquake greater than or equal to
4) are concentrated in the 55 years between 1813~1867.
Recent earthquakes are less than two microseismic, and occurred in the area west of
the Western Cape - Fenghua large fault zone near the north-east, and there is a certain
distance from the surveyed area.
Earthquake intensity: motion parameter zoning map China to (GB18306-2001)
according to the State Quality and Technical Supervision issued in February 2001, the
work area partition peak acceleration of ground motion parameters for < 0.05 g area.
Scour depth engineering site design ground motion parameters in Table 3.6.
Table 3.6 Engineering site design ground motion parameters (erosion layer depth,
damping ratio 5%).
Ground motion parameters
North shore of

100-year probability of exceedance


Am(g) m m(g) T1(s) Tg(s)

0.050 2.25 0.113 0.1


100-year probability of exceedance 4% 0.075 2.25 0.169 0.1


South bank of the 100-year probability of exceedance


0.046 2.25 0.104 0.1


100-year probability of exceedance 4% 0.069 2.25 0.155 0.1


3.1.2 Functionality
Use features include transport function (road-rail, rail and pedestrian non-motorized
transport), shipping functions (navigation bridge, port, etc.) as well as possible to reserve
space for development (reserved lanes, rail or navigable holes, etc.) landscape feature
Bridge construction to meet the social development needs of direct transport function,
landscape features, etc., but it is a structure for shipping obstructions, so the two bridges
span arrangement and there is always demand for navigable waterways contradictory,
mutual influence, later see Art. 3.2.
Bridges functionality should be determined according to their orientation of highways,
railways, urban transport planning, construction regulatory documents, by type of
discourse analysis needs roads, function, class, capacity and rail, rail transportation, etc., if
necessary, to consider their long-term needs reserve function, determine the basic
technical criteria including design, including a cross-section.
Here we have different types of bridges with different conceptual design requirements
in accordance to their functional aspects, in general, different functions of the bridge, its
construction clearance (including width and in height), load, stiffness and power
requirements are not the same.

1. Highway Bridge
(a) Vehicle Load
Highway bridge design load is divided into road I and II levels. Lane load by uniform
load and concentrated load components. Highway I level lane load uniformly distributed
load standard value qk = 10.5 kN/m, concentrated load standard value selected according
to the following provisions: a bridge span is less than or equal to 5 m computing time, Pk
= 180 kN; bridge span is equal to or computing greater than 50 m, Pk = 360 kN;
calculations span bridge between 5~50 m, Pk values obtained using interpolation within
the line. Lane highwaylevel load uniformly distributed load and concentrated load
standard value 0.75 times the standard value according to the load lane highwaylevel

(b) Live Load Deflection

Various types of bridge live load maximum deflection requires: beam bridge girder span
should not exceed the calculated 1/600; cantilever beam bridge girder end of the cantilever
length should not be exceed 1/300; concrete cable-stayed bridge with a main span span
should not exceed diameter 1/500; mix a combination of steel beams, steel beams and
hybrid girder cable-stayed bridge should not be greater than 1/400; suspension of not more
than 1/250 to 1/300.

(c) Construction Clearance

Roads and bridges by road class (including highways, a four highways, etc.) provides for
the construction of bridges and culverts clearance gauge, highway bridges and culverts

clear width specified by the traffic lane width W, the left and right shoulder width L1, L2
and other components. Among them:
W Lane width (m), for the number of lanes, lane width multiplied, and included in
the set plus (minus) fast lane, emergency stop road, climbing lane, the slow lane
or the wrong lane width. Lane width is determined according to the design
speed, generally 3.75 m, 3.5 m and 3 m.
L2 Bridges and culverts on the right shoulder width (m), corresponding to different
levels of road have different requirements.
M1 Intermediate width (m), the two left-side curbs and median strip with a
composition, which varies with design speed related, such as design speed of 120
m/s, median strip width of 3~2 m.
L1 Bridge on the left shoulder width (m), eight-lane highways and bridges should be
set on the eight-lane over the left shoulder, and its width should be 2.50 m. The
left-side of the left shoulder width contains curbs width.
H Clearance height (m), highways and bridges on secondary roads should be 5.0 m,
three, four bridges on the road should be 4.5 m.

2. City Bridges
(a) Vehicle load is all vehicle load defined by the existing roads and bridges. Also given as
four flat trailer loads of special loads, respectively, 1600 kN, 2200 kN, 3000 kN, 4200 kN
special flatbed trailer.

(a) Deck Clearance

For city bridges, bridge cross-sectional form is determined by the following 5 factors of
roads and bridges: speed, trunk roads and bridges, once dry roads and bridges, roads and
bridges and bridge support. Bridge can be used as rapid Fig. 3.7(b) arranged in the form
shown in the bridge and the bridge, the central median line drawing can be used instead.
But must be set between the fast lane and a bicycle lane or the fast lane and sidewalk
median or divider fence, the fence should be re-established, when necessary, the clearance
can be arranged in the form shown in Fig. 3.8.
Motor vehicle lanes clear height requirement shall not be less than 4.5 m, 5 m can be
used while driving trams. Non-motorized vehicles clear height h desirable 3.5 m,
sidewalks clear height should not be less than 2.5 m.

3. The Footbridge
(a) Crowd Design Load
Beam, truss, arch, and other large-span structures, using the following formula: When
loading length is 20 m or less (including 20 m),

When loading length is 21~100 m (100 m over the same 100 m),

where W = load per unit area of the crowd, kPa;

L = load length, m;
B = half bridge width, m, more than 4 m by 4 m dollars.

Fig. 3.7 A central median clearance gauge (two) (dimensions: m).

Fig. 3.8 Three or five median clearance gauge (four) (dimensions: m).

(b) Maximum Deflection and Vibration

Flyover upper structure, the maximum vertical deflection by the crowd load calculation
should not be exceed the following values:
Liang plate girder span

L/600 (L to calculate span)

Plate girder beams cantilevered end

L1/300 (L1 cantilever length)

Trusses, arches


To avoid resonance, reduce pedestrian insecurity, bridges superstructure vertical

vibration frequency should not be lower than 3Hz.

(c) Clear Width and Headroom

Calculated according to people within the design life of rush hour traffic and the design
capacity, the bridge deck width should not be less than 3 m. The minimum clear height is

2.5 m; all levels of overhead cables and bridges, stairways surface, the minimum vertical
distance between the ramp surface shall comply with City skywalk pedestrian underpass
technical specifications (CJJ 69-95) Table 2.3.3 requirements.

4. Rail
(a) Train Vertical Static Live Load
Trains are divided into large car and small car sub-categories, static live load calculation
formula shall comply with Fig. 3.9, wherein the axle load P(kN) value access: When fully
loaded, large and small cars were 160 kN, 140 kN; empty upload, large and small cars are
95 kN, 70 kN.

(b) Beam Bridge Vertical Deflection and Transverse Auto-vibration

Elevated section of the beam structure under a train bridge span static live loads, its
vertical deflection allowed values: bridges span of 30 m or less, shall not be exceed
L/2000; span more than 30 m of the bridge, should not be exceed L/1 500, L for the span
of the beam.
Transverse girder overhead bridge spans the interval structure of the natural
frequencies of not less than 90/L (Hz), L is the bridge span (m).

Fig. 3.9 Single train static live load calculation schema (dimensions: m).

(c) Clearance
Rail gauge should be determined according to the outline of a comprehensive analysis of
the size and performance of different vehicle line features, equipment installation and
construction methods and other factors. Rail-bound and bound into a vehicle, equipment
gauge, construction clearance. Pantograph gauge is an integral part of the vehicle
Vehicle gauge is the maximum dynamic envelope of a vehicle under normal operating
Equipment clearance is intrusive boundaries outside a vehicle for limiting installation
Construction clearance is a bounded envelope equipment outside. Clearance between
construction clearance and equipment should be fully considered installing equipment and
pipelines on the location of the building, in the width direction should stay out of 20~50
mm safety clearance between the equipment and pipelines and equipment gauge.
According large vehicles such as (catenary power supply) vehicle contour, vehicle
gauge, gauge and plot devices, equipment gauge at its widest point is 3 530 mm, line
segments outside the cave highest pantograph gauge for 4 800 mm.

5. The Railway Bridge

(a) Train Live Load
Train vertical static live load must adopt Peoples Republic of China railway standard live
loads, namely the live load live load calculation standard schema in Fig. 3.10. Design
used when in the live load load, live load calculation standard drawings can be
arbitrarily intercepted.

Fig. 3.10 The live load drawings (dimensions: m).

(b) Vertical Deflection

Vertical deflection beam bridge span structures due to train vertical static load caused by
living in Table 3.7 should not be exceed the permissible value (Table 3.7 is simply
supported beam or continuous beam span across seized count).
At the 1/4 span of an arch bridge at the train vertical live load generated by the static
vertical deflection (absolute value) the sum should not be greater than the calculated 1/800
Table 3.7 Beam bridge span structure vertical deflection allowable value examplar.
Bridge span structure deflection

Allowable value

Simply Supported Steel Truss

Continuous Steel Truss





Simply Supported steel beam


Simply Supported reinforced and pre-stressed concrete beams






Continuous reinforced concrete and pre-stressed

concrete beams

(c) Clearance
According to the standard gauge railway construction clearance standard gauge (1435
mm) railway construction clearance limit is defined as a cross-sectional contour and line
perpendicular to the centerline. In this profile, in addition to rolling stock and locomotives
have interaction with a device (vehicle speed reducer, train staff giving and receiving, a

contact wire and other), other equipment or buildings shall not be intrusive. Bridges and
bridge restrictions limit-1A limit-B applies to new and re-built steam and diesel traction
singlet and double rail, its load of freight trains should not exceed the height of 5300 mm,
bridges and bridge limit-2B limit-2A applies to new and re-built when single-line and
double electric traction railway, using the gauge, cargo train loading height should not
exceed 5300 mm. Fig. 3.11 and Fig. 3.12 are the bridge and the bridge limit -1B limit -1A
gauge chart, bridges and bridge limit-2B limit-2A bounded diagram, figure, the solid line
for the bridge construction clearance, dashed for the basic construction clearance in the
basic building can be installed lighting, communications and signaling equipment between
the gauge and bridge construction clearance.

Fig. 3.11 Bridge and the bridge limit -1B limit -1A bounded diagram (dimensions: mm).

Fig. 3.12 Bridge and the bridge limit -2B limit -2A bounded diagram (dimensions: mm).
Understanding and being familiar with roads, city bridges, railways and rail traffic lane
width and height of the other basic requirements help designers conceived the bridge
section and its flexible structure types. In modern bridge function, since urban land
resources, major rivers Guojiangtongdao resources are increasingly scarce, and urban
development need to build more roads and municipal bridges, high-speed railway bridges

and rail bridges, so in many cases bridge will be need to share a bit of resources.
When required to meet highway bridges, rail transportation and other functions, one
should pay attention to its technical requirements, as described below.
Design Live Load
Combined rail bridge on the existing railway bridge specification double railway live load
combinations, you can access the reduction factor of 0.9, while the live load in
combination with the road, multi-lane highway in the live load in accordance with the
specifications off road under reduced circumstances, is still on the road after the live load
reduction be discounted; Metro design specification is not specified live load reduction
when the double railway portfolio, mainly taking into account the urban rail transport
loaded with high probability, for highway and railway bridges integration whether the
reduction of live load when a combination of road and rail is not specified. Taking into
account the full rate of urban rail transit, traffic density, for not double railway live load
reduction when combined cannot live load reduction when the rail and highway live load
combinations, only the live load in accordance with its lane highway number of reduction
according to specifications.
Vertical Deflection
Note the difference between the S-Bahn and a large railway, high-speed railway between
the bridge stiffness requirements. Railway freight train load large, vibration, bridge
stiffness requirements of the most stringent; high-speed rail load light, but the speed is
high, the train bridge, bridge will have a greater vibration of the bridge stiffness
requirements are very strict; Urban Mass Transit load, low speed across the bridge, the
bridge stiffness requirements can have a greater relaxation. In addition, in the form of road
and railway bridges with one of the plane has a larger lateral stiffness, which makes the
upper part of the lateral stiffness of the beam is no longer a controlling factor, or even the
main navigation Long Span Bridge can also be natural to meet the train running for the
bridge lateral stiffness claim.
According to domestic and international rail and metro design specifications, for beam
bridge, using stiffness standard L/1500; for such large-span cable-stayed bridge Shanghai
Yangtze river bridge, the main channel of the bridge, according to the actual construction
experience at home and abroad, using stiffness standard L/500s .
On large-span bridges, railways states had no clear specification limits stiffness from
railway bridge has been built at home and abroad to see, flex cable-stayed bridge across
the ratio between 1/350 to 1/550, Suspension Bridge scratch span ratio between 1/200 to
1/250. These vertical stiffness of the bridge is much less than the relevant norms
prescribed value on small and medium-span railway bridge, but the operations of these
bridges are very good.
Pier Longitudinal Stiffness
The requirement for the limit for the longitudinal stiffness of the pier are for two main
purposes: First, to meet the requirements of CWR, the second is to meet the train operator
safety requirements. As Shanghai Yangtze river bridge consecutive non-navigation bridge
over 350 m in length, temperature and more cross-linked structure long beam joints of

large deformation, the bridge is set long CWR is difficult. The bridge mostly high pile
platform, and high piers, pier stiffness by increasing CWR meet set requirements,
extremely unreasonable economically, there are also difficulties in the design, the bridge
structure to be used simply support system, is more unreasonable. To this end, the track
joints in the beam off, set the track telescopic adjustment means for controlling the basic
design is no longer off the rail force, longitudinal horizontal stiffness requirements of the
piers can also be relaxed; as for traffic safety issues, are as previously described urban rail
traffic load is small, low speed across the bridge, the bridge stiffness requirements can
have a greater relaxation, has been carrying out analysis of train running study, the
conclusion is entirely feasible.
Beam End Corner
Different railway bridge specification standards for different trains made different
requirements on the beam end corner, depending on the circumstances, Shanghai Yangtze
River Bridge in Urban Rail Transit train, the beam end knuckle using 3% limits. In
addition to the main navigation calculations show cable-stayed bridge, the other bridges in
the road and rail transport joint action live load can be controlled within 3%, the main
channel cable-stayed bridge in the joint action of road and rail transport of live load, Liang
end knuckle can be controlled in 3%, but with neighbours across superimposed over 3%.
To this end, consider setting retractable buffer device to solve, or adopt appropriate
measures to reduce the beam end knuckle value.
Example 3.8. Shanghai Yangtze River Bridge take into account urban rail transit across
the bridge, using the same forms to build roads and railways plane is different from the
typical highway bridge, is also different from a typical rail bridge, shown in Fig. 3.13. The
bridge design has more characteristics of roads and bridges in general, and must be
consider the technical requirements of rail transportation.

Fig. 3.13 Shanghai Yangtze River Bridge cross-section layout (dimensions: m).
Example 3.9. Originally designed the Tsing Ma Bridge in Hong Kong, only road and rail
access to the airport, and on Lantau container berth will go through the Tsing Ma Bridge,
then this channel has also been retained to cope with bad weather. Capacity to achieve this
all-weather shell encased by stainless steel rail and two road lanes. Fig. 3.14 shows a cross
section of Tsing Ma Bridge arrangement.

Fig. 3.14 Tsing Ma Bridge cross-section layout (dimensions: m).

Example 3.10. Shanghai Minpu Bridge upper deck for the eight-lane highway, both sides
of the emergency strip, design speed of 120 km / h; the lower deck for six-lane urban local
road design speed of 60 km/h. I standards for highway design load level. Fig. 3.15 shows
the Shanghai Minpu Bridge cross-section layout.

Fig. 3.15 Shanghai Minpu Bridge cross-section layout (dimensions: m).

Example 3.11. Is the Yangtze river bridge in Shanghai high-speed railway (300 km/h) on
the channel across the Yangtze river in Nanjing, Shanghai-Wuhan-Chengdu Railway is the
river channel, at the request of Nanjing also equipped with dual sub-way. Design live load
for six railway, is the design load largest high-speed railway bridge in the world. The main
bridge main span of 336 m of two steel truss arch structure.
At the beginning of Dashengguan planning and construction, Nanjing Bridge was
already under construction 1.5 km downstream of the bridge site, and the Nanjing bridge
used a 648 m main navigation arch. Thus, the bridge across the hole arrangement to be
considered including the Nanjing Bridge, including habitual route, bridge-type programs
to meet the channel requirements.
Since the large railway live load and requirements for train operation, using the same
large span bridge across the railway is economically and technically not a reasonable
choice. In navigation, the route between the two bridges also require smooth convergence.

Therefore, the preparation of navigable hole, the first being the Nanjing bridge main span
of 2, using two 330~340 m of hole-way navigation programs; followed by two-way
shipping to select single-hole program, try to use more main navigation large span (then
drawn about 500 m). The technical requirements of special demonstration showed that the
two-way hole hole 336 m of the main navigation scheme is more suitable smooth
convergence route between the two bridges, better than other programs.
Established in accordance with technical requirements for navigation span
arrangement requirements, span and side span are 336 m and 192 m, respectively, its sidecenter ratio is 0.571, far more than the general layout of cable-stayed bridges, especially
when using three-tower cable-stayed bridge during its vertical stiffness are worse, it is
difficult to meet railroad operational requirements. While the 0.571 cross-ratio is more in
line with the edge of mechanics characteristics of warping, but 336 m main span girders
Stiffness requirements for bridge will be find it difficult to meet the high-speed rail.
the 336 m main span constructed of vertical stiffness of steel truss arch structures, on both
sides of the cross smaller side-span continuous steel trussed girder, smooth connection
between the formation of a six-span continuous steel truss archtruss composite structure
bridge beam alignment graceful, structural rigidity, can meet the high-speed trains run on
the bridge and smooth navigation of ships required under the bridge, realisation of bridge
style and the bridge function in a perfect integration.

3.1.3 Landscape Requirements

Landscape architects mainly based on bridge location and surrounding environment,
human landscape and a bridge has been constructed nearby, such as bridge-building, also
owners and the cite departments concerns and concerns on urban planning to put forward
what style bridge needs to be built, or according to area the importance and significance of
the bridge itself bridge functions, landscape orientation and requirements. These are all
subjective needs, all with builders, architects and owners themselves aesthetic value,
aesthetic quality and so on, when bridge engineers in the ideas programme concept, have
the responsibility to make the landscape requirements consistent with bridge aesthetics the
basic principles of subject to bridge the rational, reasonable cost, such as the basic idea.
See Chapter 2 bridge aesthetics design.


In bridges horizontal and vertical alignment and hole layouts, the main factors to consider
include: traffic on both sides of the horizontal and vertical alignment of the bridge to meet
plan requirements; bridge axis, waters port shipping facilities such as to meet the safety
requirements of linear horizontal and vertical curves parameters and their combinations to
meet the requirements of traffic safety and the smooth landscape; the hole layout to meet
force of bridge structure, underwater topography, existing channels and at the request of
the planning course (main navigation, secondary navigation, or a dedicated navigation
etc.) shipping requirements and so on.
Conceptual designs for many specific parameters of the technical standard (General
horizontal curve radius, gradient, the sustainability of specific coordinates, and so on) do
not needs to be exhaustive, detailed explanation. However, for horizontal and vertical
alignment and hole layouts played an important controlling parameters or related read the
specific parameters of the feasibility of the design, the size should be accountable.

3.2.1 Layout of Bridge-axis and the Horizontal Alignment

Topics such as hydrology and navigation results based on bridge axis flow as far as
possible in accordance with the water flow to the orthogonal to meet on both sides landuse planning, principle of demolition and less wiring on both sides, the axis of the bridge
was laid. Long span bridges plane line layout exhibits S, C shapes and so on, making
the angle between the axis of the main navigation channel bridge and water flow is more
reasonable, and avoid long straight lines, causing drive driving fatigue. While bridge
landscape is more fluid and variable. When you view birds eye view from the air, like a
Dragon Snaking River Bridge, like scallops fluttered to Earth again, it seems difficult to
find a more appropriate words to express its complete the expressiveness and vivid image.
From the viewpoint of driving will see near bridge over and when the distance changes,
deck rich can give people the comfort and sense of pleasure.
Example 3.12. Donghai bridge in Shanghai international shipping centers Yangshan deep
water port (deep 16 m) supporting the important works.
Project starts at luchao port, Nanhui, Bay across the vast North Sea to Yangshan port
phase transition point, is about 32.5 km across the board there are four navigation channel
for vertical control points, non-navigable and navigable height difference between 15~35
m. Bridges largest longitudinal slope is 3%, minimum longitudinal slope for drainage is
not less than 0.3%.
Horizontal alignment: sea line has 4 turning points, the smallest circle r = 2500 m, full
range of linear or smooth, as shown in Fig. 3.16. Fig. 3.17 shows the total facade of
Donghai bridge layout, Fig. 3.18 shows Donghai bridge renderings.

Fig. 3.16 Bridge line plane.

Fig. 3.17 Total facade of Donghai bridge layout.

Example 3.13. In design of horizontal and vertical alignment, the Su Tong bridge, for one,
two or three different profile layout, specifically landscape analysis of horizontal and
vertical coordination.

1. Scheme 1
Effect of horizontal alignment as shown in Fig. 3.19, curvy layout landscape better.

Fig. 3.18 Effect chart of bridge of Donghai bridge.

Fig. 3.19 Scenario a horizontal alignment rendering.

Effect of vertical alignments as shown in Fig. 3.20, from the side elevation point of
analysis, between the main private channel bridge is slightly rough, but concaving part is
not so obvious. Effect of bridge traffic view is shown in Fig. 3.21, you can see the
majestic appearance of the bridge very well from the main bridge and private airlines.
Road and bridge junction is slightly concaved, but linear pattern is basically smooth.

2. Scheme 2
Effect of horizontal alignment as shown in Fig. 3.22, curvy layout landscape looks better.
Effect of vertical alignments as shown in Fig. 3.23, seen from the side view, the whole
bridge line in one fell swoop, complete smoothly. Bridge traffic view effect is shown in
Fig. 3.24, the high bar provides a good view of the main bridge-view can be used to show
the curves of bridge deck, the whole line radian is beautiful, good landscape effect, the
scheme is recommended.

Fig. 3.20 Scheme 1 scenario horizontal alignment rendering.

Fig. 3.21 Scheme 1 Bridge Road-view results.

Fig. 3.22 Scheme 2 scenario horizontal alignment rendering.

Fig. 3.23 Scheme 2 scenario longitudinal alignment rendering.

3. Scheme 3
Effect of horizontal alignment as shown in Fig. 3.25, bending linear layout compared to
the programme of one or two minor changes, the whole plane change is not obvious.
Curvy layout landscape better.

Fig. 3.24 Scheme 2 Bridge Road-view results.

Fig. 3.25 Scheme 3 scenario horizontal alignment rendering.

Effect of vertical alignments as shown in Fig. 3.26, from the side elevation point of
analysis, between the main private channel bridge is slightly rough, but bridge line is not
smooth enough. Effect of bridge traffic view is shown in Fig. 3.27, the longitudinal
gradiant in K20 + 446 ~ K21 + 807 of the programme there is a marked concaving, as the
slopes on either side of the main bridge adjustment, from a driving point of view a bridge
line is not smooth enough.

4. Comprehensive Analysis
Bridge adjustment programmes meet the recommended scheme of horizontal alignment of
bridge landscape requirements, main channel bridge and private airlines road and bridge
connecting the transition gently, dovetail with the approach curves and smooth, from
bridge traffic view when you can see at different distances the main bridge tower images
while watching the bridge there is a coherent whole momentum, but due to the overall
horizontal alignment of the bridge does not is a double-curved s-shaped, curved to the left
(birds eye view from Nantong direction), so compared to the landscape and the left lane
right lane is a bit poorer.

Fig. 3.26 Scheme 3 scenario longitudinal alignment rendering.

Fig. 3.27 Scheme 3 Bridge Road-view results.

Example 3.14. In Jiaojiang bridge bridge site selection Jiaojiang bridge-bridge located
downstream of jiaojiang, channel is busy, around port-intensive, research laid bridge axis
enforcing several specifications as follows:
1. The pathway and bridge axis angle according to the General specification for design
of highway bridges and culverts (JTG D60-2004), bridge axis angle between normals
and pathway is less than 5.
2. The distance between axis and pier of the bridge in accordance with the general
design of river port engineering practice (JTJ 212-2006), bridge and upstream/
downstream ports the safety distance (distance), respectively, shall be not less than
4L and 2L, L to design a ship or pier for the berthing of ships and realistic length.
3. The distance between axis and pier of the bridge in accordance with the general
design of river port engineering practice (JTJ 212-2006), bridge and upstream/
downstream anchoring sites the safety distance, respectively, shall be not less than 4
L and 2L, L to design a ship or pier for the berthing of ships and realistic.
Engineering feasibility study stage three bridge programme (Fig. 3.28):
1. Scheme A a planned bridge, the bridge site is located in the North Shore rats Jiang
Tao Zha XI Island, South Bank wearing Zhejiang Jiuzhou Pharmaceutical Holdings
Limited Division Plant, Jinghai Pharmaceutical East Shugang road, Jiaojiang Bridge
a total length of 3548 m, and flight path angle 74345. The scheme bridging midline
of the normal flight path angle is too large, upto 15.9.
2. Scheme B bridge site is located in the North Shore rats Jiang Tao Zha XI Island, from
the conch cement Terminal 465 m, South Shore line by the Zhejiang Huadee dyes
chemical plant to the South East of Tengyunshan, after the barracks through the
mountains to the west deflect shugang road. The scheme avoids rock head substations
and hisun pharmaceutical plant. Jiaojiang bridge bridge a total length of 3640 m, and
flight path angle 8507, the channel was about 5, meet the standard angle should
not be greater than 5 requirement, but need to relocate troops barracks, shooting
range, 3.35 kV high voltage tower.
3. Scheme C the bridge site is located on the North Shore rat islet West of the Fortress
Hill, 150 m Hill, from the conch cement Terminal 221 m, South Division plant,

Jinghai Pharmaceutical East shugang road, Jiaojiang bridge bridge a total length of
3460 m, and flight path angle 74345. 85327, namely, bridge line of the angle
between the normals and waterway about 4.9, meet the requirements specification
for angle is not more than 5, but the premise is to remove moved to Anhui conch
cement pier, policy processing is difficult. North and south, the two sides had an S
bend, alignment is poor.
Comparing the above three bridge schemes, it is concluded that plan B has the basic
line with overall urban planning, the bridge centre line with pathway near orthogonal,
marina and buildings demolition have constructability, engineering cost (taking into
account the relocation of plant and equipment cost) the advantages of lower, has obvious
advantages, it is recommended to implement bridge.

Fig. 3.28 Bridge scheme selection.

3.2.2 Main Navigation Span Setting

According to the navigation needs to determine the size and position of the main
navigation channel was assigned by the facade of the bridge priority and bridge engineer
considered in the design of the first scale. Hole size will be the decisive factor in selection
of bridge type.
Sea the worlds major rivers, are set up in the Bayou or some distance away from the
mouth of the harbour as a demarcation of maritime and inland waterway transport and the
point of interconnection, such as Thames London, Hamburg, Elbe, Weser, Bremerhaven

port, Rhine, Rotterdam Hong Kong, North America, New Orleans Mississippi River
The inland river system in China, Yangtze River and Pearl River is the most important
navigable waterways, leads to the East and South respectively. From Yibin to Shanghai,
more than 700 km of the Yangtze River waterway navigation is basically divided into
three sections: the Nanjing port carries upto 50,000 tons below below the level of the sea
wheels, vertical clearance of high 50 m; to consider the future development of the
shoreline of Jiangyin bridge needs, so its navigable levels increase to 100,000 tons level,
vertical clearance is a 62 m.
Nanjing to Wuhan over our waterways inland I-level channel, required vertical
clearance of high 24 m, 160 m net wide for 2 holes with a main span 160 m of the Nanjing
Yangtze River Bridge to meet I-level standard of waterway; above from Yibin, Wuhan is a
river II-level channel, requires clean and high 18 m, NET a 2-hole 105 m, Wuhan Yangtze
River Bridge main span of 128 m meet the navigation standard.
After the completion of the three Gorges Dam, reservoir water depth increased,
suitable for larger inland waterway vessel traffic, sources say-Chongqing section of the
three gorges allows Navigation of 10,000 ton ships. But the three gorges ship lift was still
designed for 3,000 tons ships, 10,000 ton ships cannot pass the three Gorges to the
Nanjins waterways, and therefore cannot be sailed from Shanghai to Chongqing.
Guangzhou channel of the Xijiang River waterway and Delta of the Pearl River water
system according to the standard of inland waterway segment classification (see Table
Table 3.8 China inland navigation standard.



Clear width






75 14 2.6

III 1000



2. 0~2.4

67.5 10.8 2.0




1. 6~1.9

45 10.8 1.6



1. 3~1.6

35 9.2 1.3






32 7.0 1.0






32 6.2 0.7


Underwater Ship dimensions (Length width

(m m m)
75 16.2 3.5

Build bridges over river shipping channel needs to meet more than 5,000 DWT ships
navigation requirements, such as the lower reaches of the Yangtze river, the Pearl river
access to the sea and waterways of Shanghais Huangpu river.
According to the International Committee of Qiaoxie Tissue Research was proposed to
prevent accident risk reduction of ship collision with bridge piers ship domain theory
(Fig. 3.29), free (dont slow down, about 30 knots 55 km/h) safety of navigation width is

3.2 L (the captain), and constraints (snare) navigation can be halved to 1.6 L, such as
seagoing vessels entering and leaving the harbour pilots dictate speed-pass span; or
waterway, only a small number of large-tonnage ships occasionally through the bridge
opening, should be also take into account slowdown, saving bridge cost.
Greece sailing Rion-Antirion bridge is to use constraint criteria of 180,000t ship to 16
knots ( 30 km/h) speed by bridge provides two high net 65 m, net 500 m wide holes up
and down navigation clearance, finally uses the porous 560 m cable-stayed bridge CHST,
and does not take into account kilometers or more long-span bridge program. This is
worthy of our reference examples.

Fig. 3.29 Ship activity domains.

According to statistics, 1~30 ton (seventh-generation containers) the length of the ship
between about 150~350 m, press 1.6 L meter A constraint sailing required vertical
clearance of wide (1.6 L) between the 240~560 m, taking into account and reservation
width between piers, upstream or downstream line hole navigable span between 300~600
m required for each hole. As more expensive due to the cost of deep-water Foundation,
may also be considered on the downside hole transport, where a two-way navigation span
of 600~1200 m. If the Cross-Sea Bridge is not near the port does not request slowdown or
freedom of navigation, up and down-hole sailed every hole spacing will be doubled to
600~1200 m, and with a hole sailed span requires 1200~2400 m. Limit can be considered
as seagoing vessels in the future development of a 500,000 ton, high vertical clearance
may be still will remain at 70~75 m to fit the criteria of an existing bridge, mainly
increased the width, length and draught of the ship.
Captain is expected to reach 460 m, needed to hole up and down navigation at this
time the largest bridge span in 3,200 m (see Table 3.9).
Table 3.9 Ship size and navigation requirements for seagoing vessels (freedom and
restriction of navigation).
Ship dimensions
Length Underwater

depth (m)
(empty size height

Navigation requirements
Vertical Net
clearance (m) navigation navigation B
(Loaded ~
B (m)
Separate Separate Joint

hole hole



10000 t 150 m



2 600

2 300



30000 t 250 m



2 700

2 350


50000 t 270 m



2 800

2 400


100000 300 m



2 1000

2 500 1000 IV 4400

200000t 320 m



2 1000

2 550 1100 VI 6000

300000t 350 m



2 1200

2 (

500000t 460 m



2 1500

2 750 1500 VIII 20000




1200 VII 8000

Therefore, it is recommended that water transport sector according to the shipping

planning and bridge proposed freedom of navigation or bound voyage requirements,
and when two sailing up and down-hole navigation the clearance criterion, as for the hole
or holes from the design department under economic rationality to decide, not rigid rules
to enforce sailing through joint holes and only uses the ultra long span bridges. Such as
unreasonable in middle reaches of the Yangtze river, uneconomic large-span suspension
bridge, bridge height-span ratio resulted in serious disorder, and incongruously and
adjacent to the bridge.
Investing a great deal of cross-Sea Bridge should be more realistic shipping planning
and assessment, according to the number of ships, comprising and future development,
reasonably determine navigation standard. Such as is being planned by the Qiongzhou
Strait, shipping status only under 10,000 ton, it is yet earmarked 300,000t of navigable
standards. According to holes bound voyage requirement, the original double 800 m
cable-stayed bridge programme has been able to meet the requirements. If certain
requirements freedom of navigationis required, one can consider double 1200 m cablestayed bridge scheme, nor recovery 2500 m with a hole for suspension bridge scheme, so
as to avoid deep water Anchorage Foundation construction at risk, and the cost will be
increase, which needs to be carefully considered.

Channel setting the upper and lower rows of holes (two channel) or up and down rows
of holes (a channel) traffic, how to choose separate hole or joint holes depending on
topography, geology, and foot bed construction conditions, to span the economy (from the
top hole of a structure and principle of equal to the lower part of a pier and abutment
Foundation cost) is smaller than hole sailed wide vertical clearance requirements, you
should choose separate hole navigation programme based Pier, Greece Rion-Antirion
bridge 2 560 m hole 180,000t of seagoing vessels for navigation requirements. Such as
base cost is too high, you should use more than 1000 m one of the main hole to meet up
and down-hole the navigation requirements.
And as the Huangpu road, Shanghai is 35,000 DWT of shipping lanes. Due to heavy
shipping, should not be located in the water tricks, one hole across the River, and therefore
uses the above 400 m of large-span cable-stayed bridge with one hole and arch bridge
spanning the Huangpu River.
Suzhou-Nantong Yangtze River Bridge asked to see 100,000 tons of shipping,
demanding high net 62 m net wide and 800 m (or 2 400 m), are used.
Cable stayed bridge with a main span of 1,088 m, side spans are arranged in auxiliary
navigation channel of the river steamer is reasonable.
Combination of the Shanghai Yangtze River tunnel for the South Northbridge,
continues South as requiring carries upto 150,000t boats, tunnel crossing. North port
requires only 50,000 tons of lanes, one hole 712 m cable-stayed bridge.
Jiangyin Yangtze River Bridge spanning 50,000 ton lane, net height 50 m. 800 m at
that time was considered a hole of cable-stayed bridge over economic programme, decided
to take advantage of the South Bank of the construction of a suspension bridge with a
main span of 1385 m anchorage conditions.
Above from Nanjing to Wuhan Yangtze river level fairway, navigation or hole that you
can use 2 160 m 1,320 m hole transport, depending on the economy may be. Tongling
Yangtze River Bridge, built in the early 1990, of the 20th century (432 m), the Jiujiang
Yangtze River Bridge (216 m), Wuhan Yangtze River (400 m), the Wuhu Yangtze River
Bridge (312 m) in hole pattern is very reasonable. Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge over the
river grade channels in Yichang, vertical clearance of high 18 m, movement 2000t class
vessels. However, starting in the late 1990s, the pursuit of span to break the trend had the
upper hand, a number of bridges over the upper reaches of the Yangtze River 600 m and
even the span of more than 1000 m. At the level of river channel (NET 24 m) 500 m on
long-span bridges, if there is no special reason it is inappropriate, certainly is not
economical. We should have a very good reflection, out of misunderstanding. In the hole
layout first step in design of navigation requirements and meet the economic and rational
concept of hole designs work well.
Height of the ship design (water lines to top of mast) and Helen have a certain
proportion of the length of, and safety mark vertical clearance and wide wheel having a
certain relationship, such as constraint navigation 1.6 times rounds long. Therefore, the
vertical clearance of high and wide net there a certain ratio. Such as inland waterways,
General Navigation NET width and height in ratio 6~8 between the main span to height
ratio is generally not advisable for more than 10, if the terrain needs to cross the river or

water depth and geological complexity make larger span, consider hole transport, main
span and height ratio should not be more than 20, or it will make the imbalance, affect the
bridges appearance. See Chapter 2 bridge aesthetics design.
According to track lay out of main navigation span (one hole or two holes) and the
necessary auxiliary navigation opening size and location, we can start bridge type

3.2.3 Hole Layout

Elevation hole layout consists of main channel bridge, and non-navigable bridge span of
secondary channel bridge arrangement, factors to be considered are: primary and
secondary navigable spans of the navigation requirements; main channel bridge, and nonnavigable spans of the bridge structure itself of secondary channel bridge of reasonable
needs; lines span the coordination of continuity and change in sense of rhythm; the ratio of
span deck height beauty; span and water depth and geological condition economy and
construction of in-water pier of ship collision-proof requirements.
Non-navigable spans of the bridge is often account for the bulk of total cost, it should
be place particular emphasis on the economic hole in order to get a reasonable score hole
Example 3.15. Main navigation span of Donghai bridge, the Vice-navigable and nonnavigable spans of layout.

1. The General Layout and Construction Technology of Non-navigable

Spans of Continuous Beam
50 m continuous beam, standard is 7.60 m continuous beam, standard is 6.70 m
continuous beam, standard is 5.
Near luchao port side movable bridge span 50 m span continuous beam construction;
near Great Turtle Island side 50 m span continuous beam piecemeal incremental launching
construction of cast. Remaining whole span pre-casting of segments, simple set up,
segmental pier in situ method for forming continuous beam construction.

2. The General Layout of Side Navigation Span Continuous Beam

1000 ton vice navigable hole span arrangement for 80 m + 140 m + 140 m + 80 m,
navigable clear height hole 25.0 m.
500 ton vice navigable hole span arrangement for 70 m + 120 m + 120 m + 70 m,
navigable clear height hole 17.5.
500 ton vice navigable hole span arrangement for 90 m + 160 m + 160 m + 90 m,
navigable clear height hole 17.5 m.
Side navigation span continuous beam cantilever segmental construction method was

3. The General Layout and Construction Technology of Non-navigable

Spans of Continuous Beam

5000 ton main navigation span cable-stayed bridge span arrangement for 73 m + 132 m +
420 m + 132 m + 73 m, 830 m in length, as the twin towers steel box-concrete combined
girder of single cable plane cable-stayed bridge. Navigable clearance 40 m, bridge deck
width 33 m (wider than the standard bridge increase the 1.5 m). Stiffening girder
construction method for segmental. Fig. 3.30 shows total facade of Donghai bridge layout.
Example 3.16. Su Tong bridge spans.
General layout of full-bridge combinations as follows: [(12 30) + 3 (11 50) + (50 +
9 75) + (10 75)] m pre-mix concrete continuous bridge + (2 100 + 300 + 1088 + 300
+ 2 100) m steel box girder cable-stayed bridge + (5 75) m prestressed concrete
continuous bridge + (140 + 268 + 140) m pre-stressed concrete continuous rigid-frame
bridge + 3 (11 50) m pre-stressed concrete soil continuous beam bridge without
abutment is 8146 m.

Fig. 3.30 Total facade of Donghai bridge layout.

Main layout uses double tower double cable plane cable-stayed bridge of main span of
1088 m, side spans two auxiliary piers, its concrete span layout for 100 m + 100 m + 300
m +1088 m + 300 m + 100 m + 100 m = 2088 m, as shown in Fig. 3.31.

Fig. 3.31 Bridge span (unit: cm).

Through six programmes of landscape simulation and study on comparison and
selection, continues that a dedicated channel bridge and the bridge due to the short
distances, should not be used on the bridge building plan. Beam bridge can be used to
highlight the tall, majestic and imposing towers. Scheme 1 bridge bridge flat and focused,
to better set-off on the main role and the overall coordination of the bridge, on the whole,
more prominent main light stretch, tall images, momentum and volume in favour of main
bridge, the bridge focus process out clear priorities. From a landscape point of view
therefore recommends a dedicated channel bridge, bridge program. Table 3.10 shows
bridge type comprehensive analysis.
Table 3.10 Bridge combo list.
one: beam

Effect simulates

Landscape analysis
Combination of beam bridge and cable-stayed
bridge makes the main bridge cable-stayed


bridge model more prominent, highlighting the

bridge towers imposing and majestic
1. Cable-stayed bridge of main forms, mainly
showing a line of beauty and dynamic beauty
and arch bridge characterised by curves soft, so
the bridge combination stylistically
2. Speaking from proportional relationship, tall
main tower, gas situation, and the dedicated
channel bridge towers are relatively high, at
close range cases, the height gap, discord.

two: cablestayed

3. On each side of pylons of main bridge of the

combination of high larger image blur and
distracting the main full-bridge focus of
4. The cable-stayed bridge is a double
combination, combination seems to repeat, and
the body of main navigable spans of the bridge
are not equal, does not fit, so visual effects not
5. Speaking from bridge structure, the Group
had not fitted reason, increases the difficulty of
construction and cost is not economical,
distracts the main focus on the bridge,
environmental effects are not good.


Bridge engineer or architects mastery of bridge engineering, structural mechanics, and
architectural aesthetic expertise, with a engineering experience, the concept design phase
of an exciting programme is an important basis for so-called lofty towers from the ground.
In this section, geithner and finishing of various type of evolution data, discusses the
scope and limits of various type of offers a number of super long-span bridges design
research and information, for your reference in the conceptual design phase and hope
through research and learning, technology change into the source, technical innovation,
technical progress, ways of thinking, mode of operation and technological advances of the
historical role of technology development principles.

3.3.1 Bridge Type Evolution

In order to overcome obstacles, people invented many different structures. Many of the
bridge has a very ancient history, along with people class the progress of civilisation, the
oldest bridge in its own structure on the characteristics of the materials and the
construction methods based on evolving and in the process, also spawned new structural
forms. Various type of evolution is the growing awareness of the new material and
continually evolving processes of expansion and on the methods of construction. Existing
bridge main arch, beam and continuous continued rigid-frame bridges and cable-stayed
bridges, suspension bridges, cable-stayed suspension combination bridge, the selfanchored suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridge with low pylon.

1. Arch Bridge
Arch Bridge is an ancient bridge type. From the historic stone arch bridge, such as the
Zhaozhou bridge in China and Italy completed Augustus bridge (Pons Augustus), the first
cast iron bridge was built in 1779, 1867~1874 year for the construction of Eads Bridge
Steel Arch Bridge, 1978 United States using weathering steel-built masterpiece of earlyage concrete arch bridge in the New River Gorge Bridge, 19 centuryfrance Chatellerault
Bridge until our countrythe modern concrete-filled steel tubular through arch bridge of
yajisha bridge and welded steel box arch rib of the Lupu bridge. Construction method of
Cantilever construction of full space supports, slings, erection and other, forming a rich
and varied material application and construction method of the bridge type system, and
other aspects of the history of technology, learning the history, can we provide conceptual
design an important accumulation of knowledge.
The first cast iron bridge was built in 1779, Coalbrookdale bridge across the Severn
river, a main span of 30.5 m, composed of 5 parallel consist of cast iron arched ribs, as
shown in Fig. 3.32.

Fig. 3.32 Coalbrookdale Bridge.

Fig. 3.33 Eads Bridge.

In year 1867~1874 construction of the Eads Bridge, the lower arch, consists of three
trans 158.5 m composed of steel, there are road, rail double-deck road, as shown in Fig.
3.33. The completion of the bridge, ushering in a new era of long-span steel arch bridges.
In 1916 United States milestone in New Yorks Hell Gate Bridge is a steel arch bridge.
The bridge for the next half-through steel arch bridge span 298 m railway passage four
columns, as shown in Fig. 3.34. Hell Gate Bridge for modern steel arch bridge has laid the
technical foundation.
In 19th century the biggest long-span concrete arch bridge in France Francois
Hennebique designed Chatellerault Bridge, as shown in Fig. 3.35. It is also representative
of early-age concrete arch bridge, which spans more than 100 m.

Fig. 3.34 Hell Gate Bridge.

Fig. 3.35 Chatellerault Bridge.

Completed in 1997, Chongqings Wanxian Yangtze Bridge on the stiff skeleton of
concrete-filled steel tubular arch with a main span of 420 m, rise 67 m, wide 23 m, as
shown in Fig. 3.36. Single hole across the River, no underwater, similar bridge span
dominating the world first. Main arch ring of steel tube combined with stiff skeleton of
reinforced concrete box-section (Fig. 3.37), using the method of cable erection and
buckling of the Cantilever construction. Bridge width 24 m, according to the four-lane
highway in design. The completion of the bridge, arch bridge construction in China is a
world leading position.

Fig. 3.36 Wanxian bridge.

Fig. 3.37 Steel tube with rigid skeleton.

Guangzhou Yajisha bridge, completed in 2000, was 360 m main span arch, as shown
in Fig. 3.38. The bridge is the first selection section 6-tube arch ribs, each rib 6750 mm
composed of concrete-filled steel tube, connected by a horizontal flat plate, spandrel
concrete-filled steel tube truss. Inner, middle, outer 3.pole through the flat board to form a
joint force of rib-plate-like structure, between upper and lower rows of tube pass web form
stable space structures along high arch axis using the variable-width section. Was used in
the bridge construction technology of kapyong turn vertical, as shown in Fig. 3.39.

Fig. 3.38 Yajisha bridge.

Fig. 3.39 Yajisha Vertical Rotating during Construction period.

Fig. 3.39 turn peace-vertical rotation construction of Yajisha bridge completion in
2005, the Wu Gorge bridge across 460 m of concrete filled steel tubular arch, arch rib
vault section of the high 7 m, arch sections with high 14 m, rib-width 4.14 m, every rib top
1220 mm 22 mm, inner C 60 concrete fill, concrete-filled steel tube winding rod and
lower chords connected by beams and vertical steel tubes made of concrete-filled steel
tube truss.

2. Continuous Girder and Continuous Rigid Frame Bridge

Continuous beam is one of the oldest and most common type of bridge. After the
industrial revolution, steel, concrete and other materials, application techniques mature
and in-depth study of structural systems, based on the modern concepts of continuous
beam bridge in the original has been greatly developed.
Continuous rigid-framed bridge is evolved from the t-shape rigid frame bridge, its
structure is characterised by continuous beam, beam pier consolidation, there is a great
deal of CIS bridge bending rigidity and transverse torsional stiffness, to meet the force
requirements of long-span bridges.
Development of continuous beam bridge in the 20th century, primarily development of
pre-stressed concrete continuous girder bridge. By 1953, the Federal Germany engineer
Ulrich Finsterwalder Worms Nibelungen were built-in Br u CKE, main span 114.2 m, as
shown in Fig. 3.40. This marked the application of traditional construction method of steel
bridge with precast segmental cantilever method on pre-stressed concrete creative
applications, and develop at -Frame.
Before 1964, the Federal Germany and completed the construction of main spans of
208 m Bendorf Bridge, as shown in Fig. 3.41, once again showed a Cantilever advantages
of construction method at the same time, Nibelungen Br before u CKE structures were
made on the basis of innovation. Lightweight main Pier with the upper row Liang Gu, and
formed arrangement of bridge for 43 m + 44.35 m + 71 m + 208 m + 71 m + 44.35 m + 43
m, intermediate cross-belt of continuous-rigid-frame hinge system.

Fig. 3.40 Nibelungen Brcke.

Fig. 3.41 Bendorf Bridge.

In the mid 1950, of the 20th century began construction of pre-stressed concrete beam
bridges in China, started late than in Europe. But for the last 20 years show quick
construction. Built-in 2000, Nanjing Yangtze River beichaqiao, long-span 90 m + 165 m
3 + 90 m.
In addition to pre-stressed concrete beam, also of continuous Liang Zhuliang materials
useful beam, girder, and the use of high-strength, lightweight mix concrete is one of the
developing direction of the beam. Built-in 1962, Germany Rheinbr U CKE WiesbadenSchierstein, see Fig. 3.42, the main bridge span for 70 m + 170 m + 4 70 m + 85 m +
205 m + 85 m + 70 m. Its 70 m + 170 m + 70 m and 85 m + 205 m + 85 m span parts of
using a steel box girders, and medium span trestle and Bridge uses a composite beam. The
main bridge box girder beam depth is 6.5/7.9 m, central main span is 3.7/4.2 m. This
bridge is also used for the first time 2500t large bearing bridges.
In 1998, Norway Central 184 m, Stolma across 301m bridge built using high
performance lightweight aggregate concrete structures.
China Chongqing shibanpo bridge is a continuous rigid frame bridge of steel-concrete
composite structure, as shown in Fig. 3.43, span combination: 86.5 m + 4 138 m + 330
m + 132.5 m, Middle 103 m is a steel box girder main span, weighing about 1400 t.

Fig. 3.42 Rheinbrcke Wiesbaden-Schierstein.

Fig. 3.43 Shibanpo Bridge.

3. Cable-stayed Bridge
In the 1850, of the 19th century, Dischinger design of cable-stayed bridge in the sense of a
first realCable Stayed bridge, Strmsund Bridge, see Fig. 3.44. The bridge is located in
Sweden, built-in 1956, with a main span of 183 m, on both sides of the cross is 74.7 m, the
tower is a door-frame, cable a radial arrangement, beam formed by two pieces of plate
Study on calculation means of limitation did not prevent the engineers and design
better, more innovative forms of bridges. At the same time, in 1966, the German H.
Homberg designed the first secret cables of cable-stayed bridges in the worldon the
Rhine, Friedrich Ebert Bridge, as shown in Fig. 3.45. After most of the cable-stayed
bridge cable system uses this key. Friedrich Ebert Bridge recovery with a thinner cable,
and before the cables are relatively crude. Box girder used in 20th century 50~60 Pu again
using the steel box girders, and greater use of concrete stiffening girder of cable-stayed
bridges in the future.

Fig. 3.44 Strmsund Bridge.

Fig. 3.45 Friedrich Ebert Bridge.

6 years later in 1972, Germany Ulrich Finsterwalder engineers designed the worlds
first all-concrete, steel twisted pair cable of cable-stayed bridgeNew Hoechst Bridge, as
shown in Fig. 3.46. Length of main span of the bridge 148 m, using concrete the Tower of
pre-stressed concrete girders.
Due to the use of pre-stressed concrete cable-stayed bridge construction techniques
have been developed. In 1978, the United States of Columbia Ya he built first of
prestressed concrete segmental cable-stayed bridgePasco-Kennewick Intercity Bridge,

Fig. 3.46 New Hoechst Bridge.

Fig. 3.47 Ed Hendler Memorial Bridge.

Now known as the Ed Hendler Memorial Bridge, as shown in Fig. 3.47. Main span of
299 m, long 722 m, tower height of 72. 94 m. The Cantilever Assembly to the side from

the main tower of the bridge, with crane lifting every piece of 270 t of pre-cast segments.
The bridge is North Americas largest for long-span cable-stayed bridge, completed by
Arvid Grant and Fritz Leonhardt cooperation. The bridge stay cable using a radial, and
cables all from cable top pass, as shown in Fig. 3.48. Fig. 3.49 shows the construction of
pre-stressed concrete girder of the bridge.
Composite girder cable-stayed bridge main span is an example of classic 465 m
Canada Annacis Bridge, as shown in Fig. 3.50 and 3.51. Full bridge girders of girder
system, consists of two longitudinal steel girders and enemy of the steel cantilever steel
beams and the sidewalk and other components of the steel frame combined with the beam
on top of the concrete form. Tower for h-shaped steel-concrete structure by using
rectangular hollow cross section.

Fig. 3.48 Diagram of Anchoring Zone.

Fig. 3.49 Construction of pre-stressed concrete Girder.

Fig. 3.50 Annacis Bridge.

Fig. 3.51 Annacis Bridge Girder.

Typical examples of hybrid girder cable-stayed bridge is France the Normandy bridge.
Normandy bridge is a double Tower double cable plane for long-span hybrid girder cablestayed bridge, full length 2141.25 m, located in France North-west between northern
peninsula south of Honfleur and Le Havre in Normandy on the mouth of the Seine with a
main span of 865 m. Side span and pre-stressed concrete section is close to the Tower,
with three-cell box girder; main span of 624 m is in the middle of flat steel box girder. Use
y-shaped bridge towers, the lateral wind load resistance is very effective. Bridge tower
202.7 m. Using cantilever construction control of super long, parallel strand cables and
new rain vibration of helical surface treatment and resistance players. Figs. 3.52 and 3.53
show the pouring of concrete box girder of the bridge of Normandy and hoisting of steel
box girder, and Fig. 3.54 shows the coagulation steel box girder of tuliang binding sites.

Fig. 3.52 Pouring of Concrete box girder.

Fig. 3.53 Steel box beam hoisting.

Fig. 3.54 Concrete beam and steel box girder binding site.
Zhihou, Japan very much renound as Mr. bridge for Normandy bridge, became the
longest cable-stayed bridge in the world. Many Luo bridge 890 m, beam has been adopted.
Luo bridge has also been adopted for the first time, while many parallel wire hot-extruding
anti-corrosion cable bushing, concave surface finishing of construction methods.
Our main channel bridge of Su Tong Yangtze River Bridge main span of 1,088 m, is
the worlds largest long-span cable-stayed bridges, steel box girders, beams of the tower
for the first time by damping plus the limit connection system, damper for seismic and
other responses play a role; limit focuses on limiting under vertical wind plays a limited

longitudinal displacement between the beams of the tower, but also can effectively control
tower force.

4. Multi-Tower Cable-stayed Bridge

Tower cable-stayed bridge with single tower cable-stayed bridge in the process of
development, is the extent and development of multi-tower cable-stayed bridge. The
earliest tower inclined cable-stayed bridge was built-in 1963, by Italy who designed by
Ricardo Morandi Venezuela Maracaibo Bridge, as shown in Fig. 3.55. It is the first
prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridge in the world, its structural concept is clear: a
series of pre-stressed concrete truss rigidity support cantilevered sections, simply
supported beams hanging connections.

Fig. 3.55 Maracaibo Bridge overall print (size: m).

Later, Many scholars performed a study of multi-tower cable stayed bridge. Now there
are basically rigid tower system and Jiajinsuo system the two systems. Typical rigid tower
system with Greeces Rion-antirion Bridge, as shown in Fig. 3.56; stiffening cable
fragrance Ting Kau Bridge in Hong Kong, as shown in Fig. 3.57. Yiling Changjiang River
Bridge in tower cases do not use rigid tower and jiajinsuo, through reasonable matching
ideal stiffness of the structure, as shown in Fig. 3.58.

Fig. 3.56 Rion-antirion Bridge (size: m).

Fig. 3.57 Ting Kau Bridge.

Multi-tower cable-stayed bridge in the France of the Millau Viaduct is a characteristics
of one seat, as shown in Fig. 3.59. High pier of 240 m, connected to energy beams.
Bottom of the reinforced concrete column type piers 17 m 27 m, at a certain height
along the vertical forks, fork height 90 m. Such designs make the pillars have greater
flexibility, better to adjust the horizontal and vertical direction of change. The construction
method is also very original, first pushing steel box girders, in order to reduce the pushing
distance across erecting a set fitted with tow equipment of steel-tube truss of Falsework.
After the closure, tower trailers delivered to the deck is not installed the appropriate bridge
directly above the pier. Tension and temporary support towers above the pier, tower tilted

upward reversal, installed directly above the pier.

Fig. 3.58 Of Yiling Yangtze River Bridge.

5. Suspension Bridge
Development of modern suspension bridge started in 1883 with United States Brooklyn
Bridge, as shown in Fig. 3.60. Its main span is 486 m, cross 286 m on both sides. By the
famous engineer John A. Roebling designed. Roebling had already involved in the design
work of several suspension bridges, and in 1854, at wheeling a suspension bridge that
spans the Ohio river disaster after largely influenced his design ideas. The accident
inspired him using other than the rigidity of cable itself has greater stiffening girder and
cable way to make up for the shortcomings of simple suspension system. At the time of
construction of the Brooklyn Bridge, roebling suspension bridge high-order hyperstatic
systems cannot be accurately calculated. But through the component force between a
reasonable distribution, and guarantees that the overall balance to guarantee against failure
of security.

Fig. 3.59 Elevation of Millau Viaduct.

In 1931, and completed the construction of long-span Bridge 1000 mGeorge
Washington Bridge for the first time, as shown in Fig. 3.61. The bridge span arrangement
for 186 m + 1067 m + 186 m. The bridge began plans to double-deck, upper pass cars,
lower passing trains. However, due to the great depression in the late 1920 of the 20th
century, the original design was cut, only built upper deck, because this begun to not
actually stiffened girder of the bridge, set only at the deck stringer small bending stiffness
of carriage way. Still, the bridge still has sufficient stability, this is because bridge uses
concrete and dead loads great, while 8-lane bridge the width as well. In addition, the main
span length is less than one-sixths short side spans are to some extent compensated for the
lack of longitudinal stiffness, increased cable system of strong performance. Finally, in
1962, built on the lower deck of the bridge deck is complete.

Fig. 3.60 Brooklyn Bridge.

Fig. 3.61 George Washington Bridge.

Completed in 1937, Golden Gate Bridge main span is 1280 m, span larger than the
George Washington Bridge 20%. But this use of the two main cables, each 930 mm,
mainly because only one layer of the deck of the bridge. While George Washington Bridge
uses four main cables of each 910 mm. In beam high regard, Golden Gate Bridge shows
suspension bridge in a long refinement development direction, height-span ratio of only
1:168. Space trusses composed of only 3 pieces of plane truss and two vertical and a
horizontal truss-to-truss. Such structure allows the torsional stiffness of truss section is
small, at that time did not fully understand importance of torsional stiffness for
aerodynamic stability. In December 1951, 4 h of winds, the vertical amplitude of the
bridge achieves the 3.3 m, had to shut down the bridge. In the aftermath of the Tacoma
Narrows Bridge wind destroyed, Golden Gate Bridge is in vertical add horizontal support
between the bottom chord of the truss. In this way, contains 3 pieces of space truss trusses
with open sections into contains 4 pieces the closed section of truss (Fig. 3.62 and 3.63).
In 1940, of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge main span is 852 m and height-span ratio is 1
: 350. This is due to the large deflection theory is extended to three-dimensional stress
characteristics of the ultimate results. Wind speed wind destroyed the bridge to 56~67
km/h, far below the designed resistance to most wind speed. However, when it comes to
structural analysis and consider only the static air pressure without noting beam angle
formed by fluctuating wind vortex dynamics. Selection of wind destroyed the bridge
reveals a maximal length of fine design prone to aerodynamic instability.

Fig. 3.62 Front opening space trusses before Reinforcement.

Fig. 3.63 Front opening space trusses after Reinforcement.

Tacoma Narrows Bridge after the accident, engineers focused on vibration
characteristics of suspension bridges and air on the dynamic vibration response,
established a method for aerodynamic vibration of suspension bridge design, and this
approach has become to build important part of the design of cable-supported bridges.
After World War II, other suspension bridge in the west came from behind to form
different from United States-style suspension bridge points. United Kingdom the Severn
Bridge main span was built-in 1966, 988 m (Fig. 3.64), the main span was built-in 1981 to
1410 m of the Humber Bridge is representative. Continental suspension bridges in the
United States for breakthrough in accumulated technology and experience in the
construction of suspension bridges. In order to reduce the weight while maintaining good
aerodynamic properties, continental used set a steel Crossbeam of suspension bridge cell
box girder. Beam shape design is used with a good aerodynamic shape. From the antiseismic point of view, stiffening of flexible undertaking only limited earthquake load,
while the bridge relatively rigid Suo Tacheng under strong ground motions.

Fig. 3.64 Severn Bridge.

Severn Bridge uses a flat steel box girder of 3 m (first flat steel box girders), heightspan ratio 1 : 324, similar to that of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge main span. But by the
closed section of the streamline of wind tunnel experiments and makes wind stability and
torsional stiffness has been very satisfactory.

Fig. 3.65 Great Belt East Bridge.

Denmark Great Belt East Bridge (Fig. 3.65) is a European Cable Bridge an
outstanding representative of the bridge, which span arrangement for 535 m + 1624 m +
535 m. Upper structure made of flat steel-box-girder, high 4 m, wide 31 m. The bridge
anchorage structure is unique, by the anchor room, cable saddles as well as between the
hollow knot structure-composition, as shown in Fig. 3.66.
In Asia, economic power Japan started in in the 1960, of the 20th century built for
long-span suspension bridge larger than 300 m (1962, Fukuoka-Seto bridge main span of
367 m), to the South like bridge was built-in 1988 (main span 1100 m) put an end to
Asias non-kilometer TRANS-bridge history. 10 years later, in 1998, the Akashi Kaikyo
Bridge (main span of 1 990 m, (see Fig. 3.67) built, marks a long-span suspension bridge
construction has shifted to Asia.

Fig. 3.66 Hollow gravity anchor.

Fig. 3.67 Akashi Kaikyo bridge, Japan.

In the 1990, of the 20th century, the suspension bridge of China also entered the
development team, in 1995, completed the construction of the Xiling Yangtze River
Bridge (main span 900 m), Humen bridge was completed in 1997, (main span of 888 m).
In 1998, Hong Kongs Tsing Ma Bridge (main span of 1377 m) and 1999. Years of
Jiangyin Yangtze River Bridge (main span of 1385 m, as shown in Fig. 3.68) respectively
into the fifth in a series of long-span bridges in the world at that time and in fourth place.
452 m Shantou Bay Bridge main span pre-stressed concrete stiffening girder, span bridge
of its kind in the world rank one. Shanxi Hou men bridge main span of 1650 m, 26 m
longer than Denmark Great Belt East Bridge. The bridges built, not only to fill the Blank
modern suspension bridges, and to modernise the Chinese entered the master design,
analysis, construction technology of large-span suspension bridges advanced ranks.

Fig. 3.68 Yiling Yangtze River Bridge.

6. The Combination of Cable-stayed Suspension Bridge

In 1938, Germany renowned bridge designers Dischinger design across the Elbe river
suspension bridge with a main span of 753 m railway time proposed cable-stayed
suspension system different from the Roebling. Its base idea was similar to A. Arnodin
thoughts close to cable-stayed and suspension cable his responsibilities. Unlike Roebling
cable on cable reinforcement ideas, dischingers system is a true mutual collaboration.
While he established a cable design of the originalOnly under very small dips, cables
can be rigid enough to keep the main beam deflection at the lower limit. But because just
after people have come to realise the advantages of structural system of cable stayed
bridge, the bridge out of the outlook of people.
Given the advantages of cable-stayed suspension, programmes all over the world to
build bridges among this type is frequently raised. In 1998 years, the United Kingdom of
Flint and Neil company and jointly presents Javan Halcrow (Java), Bali channel meter
scale cable-stayed bridge programme in collaboration with cable, as shown in Fig. 3.69.
But this type of bridge is not a very mature type has its own deficiencies. First, as a cablestayed suspension bridge that brings together two different types, then in construction
requires two sets of different mechanical device and secondly, two cable forms and
suspension cable of cable-stayed force and deformation characteristics vary, therefore at
the junction there is often a deformation compatibility problems; and, third, two cable
stiffness differ, on load distribution, be very careful.
In October 1997, Chinas Guizhou province, has built the worlds first combination
Dischinger system cable-stayed suspension bridge, Black River Bridge (Fig. 3.70), the
bridge of long-span 288 m.
Tongji University in Lingdingyang Bridge connecting Zhuhai in Guangdong and Hong
Kong (Fig. 3.71) scenario, cable-stayed-suspension system construction control of bridge
fatigue control and Sling were studied was proposed for this system is very advantageous
construction methods, and by setting the cross sling and supporting piers as a way to
decrease the sling alternating axial force. Mechanical properties of cable-stayedsuspension bridges and the chai were studied, and points out that in terms of mechanical
properties, than the loss of height to span suspension bridge in the role of global design
parameters in degraded partial design parameters, while lifting span is also local design

Fig. 3.69 Java-Bali bridge rendering.

Fig. 3.70 Wujiang River Bridge.

Fig. 3.71 Lingdingyang Bridge main navigation plan.

7. Self-anchored Suspension Bridge

Second half of the 19th century, Austria Yuesefulangjin engineers and United States
engineer chalisibende independently conceived from anchor type hanging bridge looks.
Patented Bender in 1867, Rankins in 1870, in Poland built a small self-anchored
suspension bridge type railway. In 20th century, self-anchored suspension bridge already
in Germany. In 1915, Germany Designer on the Rhine river in Cologne built the first large
Cologne Dizzle self-anchored bridge, mainly because of the geological conditions
constraints enable engineers chose this type of bridge, the main span of the bridge 185 m,
wood scaffolding support beam until the cables are in place.
Since then, the United States, Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh 3 bridges across the Allegheny
R. and Japan Tokyo-built Ching Chau Bridge under the influence of Diez bridge in
Cologne. Diez 25 years after the completion of the bridge in Cologne in Germany and
built 4 suspension bridge on the Rhine river. One of the most famous Cologne Mlheim
bridge was built-in 1929, the bridge main span of 315 m, although the bridge was
destroyed in 1945, but it so far (2006) still retains its self-anchored suspension bridge span
on record. Initially stiffening girder of self-anchored suspension bridge-production
Steel structures, such as traffic in 1990, Japan the flower bridge, Korea wing
suspension bridges, Estonia muhudaoqiao as well as the United States old gold mountainOakland Bay Bridge, and so on.

United States San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge main span 385 m, side 180 m, 2007
years to build and is shown in Fig. 3.72.
Self-anchored suspension bridge construction has just started in China, history is less
than 10, but is developing rapidly, in order to meet the urban landscape requirements.
N-bridge of Zhuji city, Zhejiang Province, was completed in 1999, Chinas first selfanchored suspension bridge built by one of the pedestrian bridge. Its long-span 2 70.6 m
Dalian jinshitan Golden Bay Bridge, completed in 2002, is the worlds first reinforced
concrete self-anchored suspension the bridge, the main bridge span for 24 m + 60 m + 24
m, the main bridge width 12.5 m fushun wanxin bridge of Hunhe river, completed in
2005, is a double cable planes pre-stressed concrete self-anchored suspension bridge with
a main span of 160 m, TRANS-70 m, anchorage cross 15 m height-span ratio is 1 : 8.
2007 pingsheng bridge built for a world level and difficulty with single tower and singlespan four cable plane self-anchored suspension bridge, cross the Dongping waterway, the
main bridge span arrangement for (from North to South): 29.6 m + 30 m + 350 m + 30 m
+ 5 40 m + 39.6 m, the main bridge length 680 m, wide 2 m, as shown in Fig. 3.73.
Stiffening girder of steel and concrete composite structure, pylon for the three column
gantry-style tower.

Fig. 3.72 United States, San FranciscoOakland Bay Bridge.

Fig. 3.73 Foshan Pingsheng Bridge.

Compare with cable-stayed bridge, although again without anchorage of self-anchored
suspension bridge, but must be installed on the bracket before main cable main girder of
bridge installed, which cannot be carried out as cable-stayed bridge with pre-cast
segmental cantilever. Generally speaking, in 400 m with the lower span of the river
stream, when the ease of set up and support navigation requirements are not high when
considering this type of bridge. Main cable of large span would bring in the beam
difficulty and complexity of anchor structure, both in production and construction is
In terms of structural rigidity, suspension bridges are not as cable-stayed bridge,
rigidity is more prominent when the span is small, sometimes with a tilt hanging rod
instead of the traditional direct-to increase the stiffness of the hangers. In order to

overcome the fatigue problems and responsibilities for inclined hangers hangers exert preloading, main cable shape when you will no longer be a parabola, and must use exact nonlinear finite element determined by iterative calculation of main cable, whether calculation
errors may result.
Finally, it would be point out that self-anchored suspension bridge structure low
redundancy, once the main beam failure will lead to structural failure disaster
consequences. Therefore, the self-anchored suspension bridge is not a system of excellent
performance, economy and ease of construction.

8. Low-tower Cable-stayed Bridge

Cable-stayed bridge with low pylon is the rise in recent years, a new type of bridge
structure. This type of design thinking by France engineers J. Mathivate designed in
France South-west Al Darai (Arret Darre) viaduct when the alternative is proposed. The
design of the programme, including with the consolidation of low bridge superstructure
towers, pre-stressed concrete uniform box girder of long span 100 m wear leads more low
Tower cable saddle on a pre-stressed concrete cables instead of cable.
In 1980, designed by Christian Menns famous Gant (Ganter) bridge (3.74), called low
tower cable-stayed bridge (Drawing), pioneer of concrete box girder of the bridge made of
pre-stressed concrete cable-stayed suspended at a very high tower. However, the bridge
received widespread praise not because of its technical innovations, but because its
structure is so beautiful, and the Switzerland mountains perfect knot hopewell,
compliment each other.

Fig. 3.74 Ganter Bridge.

In 1994, built the worlds first cable-stayed bridge with low pylonOdawara in Hong
Kong the bridge thereafter Japan and dainan built housing, North bridge, crab purging
bridge, New Tang dynasty TV cabinets bridge and other bridges. To date, Japan built
cable-stayed bridge with low pylon is more than 20 m beam span from the early Odawara
bridge 122 m reached 292 m bridges among the elderly in Hong Kong. 2 m in addition to
Japan, but Manda-Mactan II bridge was built-in 1999, in the Philippines, its main span is
185 m, the bridge deck width 21 m; Laos was also completed in 2000, Basel the bridge,
which spans 143 m, width 11.8 m, Switzerland in 1998 completed the Sunni bogeqiao
(taiyangshanqiao) five-span continuous low pylon cable-stayed bridge with a main span of
140 m.

Direction-Tower cable-stayed bridge with low pylon cable-stayed bridge with low
towers, steel-concrete concrete composite girder with corrugated steel webs main Liang
Aita PC cable-stayed bridge.
Matakina is high-tower cable-stayed bridge with low pylon of the bridge, according to
the results of main tower with the cost of cable-stayed tower height 25~30 m minimum.
Taking into account the pier base foundation engineering and future maintenance and
other factors to finalise the main tower height is 26.5 m China also belongs to the higher
Tower of Xiamen Yinhu bridge
Mucengchuan bridge (Fig. 3.75) in order to meet the needs of 275 m long-span girder
in main span of 110 m cable-free area in the Middle uses a steel box beam. Connector
located at upper flange pressure positive bending moment within a segment, to improve
the decks life span. PC with corrugated steel webs refers to the roof beams and floor
using concrete materials, Web plate steel webs, with vitro VIVO cable cable box girders.
Applied cable the axial force acting on the top and bottom all; mainly with corrugated
steel webs under shear stress produced by the bending and torsion. Compared with the
ordinary concrete box girders, PC girder with corrugated steel webs weight lose
25%~30%. Currently, Himi Yume Bridge is concrete composite girder with corrugated
steel webs main Liang Aita PC cable-stayed bridge (Fig. 3.76).

Fig. 3.75 Mucengchuan bridge overall schematic diagram (size: m).

This type of bridge in China started late, in 2000, built Wuhu Yangtze river bridge,
which is Chinas first cable-stayed bridge with low pylon, as shown in Fig. 3.77. Built-in
2001, Zhangzhou, Fuzhou bridge is a three-span continuous prestressed concrete box
girder of cable-stayed bridge with low pylon, which is on a highway and urban road cablestayed bridge with low pylon. Since then, the Tongan in Xiamen Yinhu bridge, Lanzhou
Xiaoxihu Yellow River Bridge in succession built. Due to this type of bridge has a good
price-performance ratio, in long-span beam bridge with cable-stayed bridges, between the
stiffness high bridge has a strong competitive edge, as well as for construction of the
cable-stayed bridge tower height restrictions, rigidity of multi-tower cable-stayed bridge
difficult to meet requirements, the cable-stayed bridge with low pylon is also a good

9. Summary
Throughout the history of bridge technology, it can be seen that bridges technical progress
from the demands of human civilisation, bridge technical progress achieved depends on
the development of science and technology in human society, including materials science,
theory of computing, structure, construction technology and other developments in the
field, making bridges technical progress can be achieved, so the bridge fully integrate
technological advances in human society in the development of science and technology.

Study the history of technology, contribute to its development a part of our law will help
us to scientific and technological innovation, helps us to grasp the bridge to technology
development and trend.

Fig. 3.76 Himi Yume Bridge.

Fig. 3.77 Wuhu Yangtze River Bridge.

3.3.2 The Type of Scope and Limits

According to the mechanical characteristics of the bridge can be divided into four main
categories, namely, warping, arched bridges, cable-stayed and suspension bridge. After
modern times to the present about 500 years of development, as currently known, scope
and limits of various type of modern bridge span as shown in Table 3.11.
Table 3.11 Scope and limits of various type of modern bridge span.

Bridge type

scope (m)

Span limit

RC slab bridge



PC simple support beam bridge (Arch),



PC continuous girder bridges (RC arch bridge)



PC continuous rigid frame bridge (concrete-filled

steel tube arch bridge)



Continuous steel girder bridge (girder bridge)



PC cable-stayed bridges (steel box arch bridge)



Composite girder cable-stayed bridge (steel truss

arch bridge)



Deck cable-stayed bridge of steel cable-stayed

bridge, mixed



Suspension, collaborative system of

1 000~5000



Cable bridge


In general, each bridge has a span of its most affordable. Under or over this affordable
economical range, although it is possible to build, but is often not economical or technical
difficulties on the other indicator. Therefore, should in principle within the scope of the
economic alternative to competing programs. Main span of 200 m bridge PC continuous
girder bridges, PC continuous rigid frame bridge with continuous beam bridge, arch
bridge of concrete-filled steel tube and steel, steel box arch bridge and PC cable-stayed
bridge (Tower) options and comparisons. Main span of 500 m bridge steel box arch
bridge, a steel truss arch bridge, PC cable-stayed bridge, girder cable-stayed bridge
options and comparisons. Generally, 700 m should choose a lighter steel deck pavement of
bridge deck cable-stayed bridge cable-stayed bridge. However, due to Chinas truck out of
control, durability of steel deck pavement has not been properly resolved, paving damage
cannot be repaired in a timely manner would cause fatigue crack of the orthotropic steel
bridge deck, affecting the durability of steel deck. Because this improved performance
more reliable structural steel deck and extend use of composite girder cable-stayed bridge
is worthy of consideration.
Cable-stayed bridge spanning breakthrough kilometers, its economic scope upto 1200
m, 1400 m, plus, stiffness, cable-stayed bridge cable replacement, and does not require
anchorage advantages will be an advantage in competition and suspension bridges, thus
forced back toward the larger span of suspension bridge. Can even be envisaged within the
span of 1500~2000 m, cable-stayed and suspension cable system may be able to anchor
construction easily made of low stiffness and suspension bridge and further to 2000 m
back down.
According to the development trend of seagoing vessels, the seventh generation of
container ships has reached 400,000 tons, high vertical clearance requirement is above 70
m. In order to adapt to existing port bridge navigation standard, larger seagoing vessels
would limit height, and continue to grow in width and length show vertical clearance
width will increase accordingly, but will not increase without limit. We shall continuously
improve the lower foundation in deep water technology and economic level, across the
span of a bridge linking the island and the Taiwan Strait in the future limit at the level of
around 3500 m to improve bridge competitiveness of the beams for the tunnel option.
Because as the bridge span increases, and its cost will rise rapidly, in the face of
increasingly sophisticated tunnel DAO technical and economic indicators, the bridge will
be difficult to compete and tunnel scheme.

Finally, it is to be noted that, from the perspective of the development trend of ship
navigation (see Table 3.9) and is currently navigable routes less than 300,000 tons road
hole bound navigation time, 2 holes 750 m of multi-tower cable-stayed bridge has been
able to meet the requirements, such as being designed by Germany and Denmark carries
upto 260,000t of Fei Manen Strait between ocean liners, 34 Tower cable-stayed bridge
across 780 m more economic plan would eventually overcome the large-span (5)
suspension bridge even for the future potential of a 500,000 ton lane, 2 1500 m
navigation requirements can also be used more competitive multi-tower cable-stayed
bridge scheme, so as to avoid deep water anchorage difficulties. Furthermore, programmes
are more likely to meet the rail cable-stayed bridge for two stiffness requirements for
bridge, especially the advantages of cable can be replaced, durability and total lifecycle
cost of the cable-stayed bridge suspension bridge better than the suspension bridge. In
short, the km over the span of bridge type selection of cable-stayed bridges should be
given priority, and caution on suspension bridge. Unless faced with water deeper than 100
m and a wide channel, which span more than 1500 m, you must use consecutive TRANS2000 m (5) suspension bridge At this point, such as Sham Shui Po anchorage must be
addressed through research and development, anti-sliding at the tower of the main cable,
and rigidity of customs key technical problems and also had to face the strong competition
of the tunnel option.
Denmark and Germany between instances of the Fehmarn Belt Bridge is an important
revelation: in order to meet 260,000t sea navigation ask, after thorough investigation and
analysis of ship collision risk, recommending three-span bridge program is a four tower
780 m of truss composite beam cable-stayed bridge, who gave up on large cross-(2000 m)
ICP-suspension bridge, to stay competitive on the tunnel option.
Since most of the tonnage of the ships below 300,000t, ultra large ocean liners were
just a few of the more than 300,000t. Even if you want to ask at full speed, freedom of
navigation porous 1~200 m have been 300,000t to meet the shipping requirements (see
previous Table 3.9), occasionally there are a few more than 300,000t of ultra large ocean
liners pass through, deceleration can be used by constrained navigation. In this way,
1200 m long-span cable-stayed bridge is the most competitive Cross-Sea Bridge. Cablestayed bridges stiffness, wind resistance performance is good, cables can be replaced, and
avoid deep water anchorage of suspension bridge and across the main cable saddles of
suspension bridge tower problems such as skid-resistance, not only economy better than
suspension bridges, but also has the competitive advantage of the tunnel option. Therefore,
in addition to 5 km-width Super Sham Shui Po (100 m) strait-tower suspension bridge
spans must be used (for example, Italy Messina Strait Bridge), the water is wide (20 km)
Strait Bridge should be give priority to the economic rational scheme of cable-stayed
bridge, rather than blindly span breakthroughs, not economical for large-span suspension
bridge scheme and loss of competitiveness in tunnels.

3.3.3 Application Scope of the Basic Forms

Bridge foundation construction technology for development along with the evolution of
the bridge structure, and construction equipment improved, as well as bridge builders
design concept and idea development.

In General, the current main types of rigid spread foundation of bridge foundations,
piles and column bases, the caisson and bell-shaped bases, sink box foundation and piles,
pipe, bell formed the basis of open caisson, a combination of foundation, where the oldest
and most commonly used in amounts foundation is the biggest pile, then caisson
foundation. Pneumatic caisson construction of foundation for security and other reasons,
this technology in Japan has become less application, instead, auto pneumatic caisson
foundations in the early 1990, of the 20th century, the medium-term, fundamental
developments are mainly tubular column base combined base and bell-shaped bases and
foundation; late in the 1990, of the 20th century, forms the basis of many other bridges to
build, such as locking steel pipe pile, column bases, underground continuous wall of
double tubular column foundation bearing platform, and so on. At present, with the needs
of the sea-cross bridge construction and advances in construction technology, pre-cast or
overall basis set show prospect, which is similar to the offshore drilling platform design
and construction of ultra deep foundation also received wide attention and research
In bridge foundation design, must consider the feasibility of bridge structural system
and construction as well as depth, geology, hydrology and environment many bridges,
such as the natural conditions by analysing and comparing the foundation type selection.
Natural conditions of the bridge is the underlying type determinants of choice.
For the depth of water is less than 5 m and have exposed bedrock, rigid spread
foundation is the preferred type for depth of 5~50 m range bridges, piles, tubes and
caisson is the underlying type of the applicable, in which 5~20 m depth, domestic
construction technology quite mature; at a water depth of 50~70 m base, the construction
is very difficult, more suitable for installation of pre-fabricated construction of sinking
well foundation and bell-shaped base, in this regard, there are many success stories
abroad; for a water depth larger than 70 m basis, whether in the basic shape type selection
and appropriate construction technology is a challenge, may adopt similar forms the basis
of offshore platforms.
For the foundation through the overburden thickness, steel piles and pipe buried near
50 m; 100 m bored pile to soil; open caisson of fitness appropriate range of 35~50 m,
maximum 100 m locking steel pipe pile 35~50 m soil depth is more appropriate based on
the underlying type.
For bridge site geology, such as thick in the river gravel layers greater than 10 m,
driven piles, pipe foundation, locking construction of steel pipe pile foundations have
difficult issues.
If structural basis, ground and river areas are required to have the ability to resist
horizontal force, inclined pile foundation, Shen Jing Ji bases are a good choice.
All in all, a variety of bridge Foundation respectively, to adapt to different geological
conditions and environmental factors, at the location of the bridge superstructure of
requirements and load characteristics, and so on. the following three general forms the
basis of modern times, appeared after the war forms the basis of modern and 1990s, there
were two forms the basis for the development of three new categories based on their
structural characteristics and fit as described in condition.

1. Basis of Three Commonly Used Forms

Various types of pile foundation and caisson, caisson foundation is the foundation of
modern forms, respectively, below their technical features and development, applicable
conditions, as well as typical examples.

(a) Foundation
Pile foundation of bridge deep water Foundation is the most commonly used and forms
the basis of the most economical.
Pile foundations are so versatile, versatility, working mechanism varied, so piles are
often based on the material, the degree of impact on soil, construction, construction
method and load conditions as well as the relative position of the CAP, were classified.
Table 3.12 lists components of poles.
Table 3.12 Post classification.

Types of pole
Stakes, steel piles, reinforced concrete piles pre-stressed concrete
piles, composite pile.

Set status piles

Straight, sloping piles.

Construction method Sinking piles, piles, stir in situ soil,

Pile the forces

Friction piles (pure friction piles, pile end bearing friction) piles
(piles pure friction piles).

Location of caps

Elevated pile foundation pile, low pile caps pile.

Relationship pile and Non- pile, rock-socketed pile.

Compared with open caisson and caisson foundations, in most cases, the foundation
has the following advantages: needed to sink into the depth of pile sinking well, small
caisson sinking depth required; when the caisson, depths of caissons and piles are equal,
pile of material about than the caisson, caisson foundation 40%~60% less material.
Therefore, the cost than the caisson, caisson pile foundation; however, along with the
advantages and disadvantage is: pile foundation stiffness ratio of open caisson, caisson
foundation of small, especially in the case of velocity, scour depth, diameter scour depth
increases as it grows, so that its advantages are gradually reduced.
Pile the generally applicable conditions are:
1. Low strength and compressibility of the soil covering, or for other such as the ice
heaving soil or expansive soil.
2. Unstable soil, and under it in the appropriate depth when there are good supporting
layer of soil can be used as in the quake zone, soil covering is liquid.
3. Soil, under which a vibration-resistant stability of soil when Pier Foundation under
horizontal force you want about surface soil covering the punching.
4. Brushing effect of large have higher requirements for settlement of bridge

5. Specific site conditions and construction feasibility on pile foundation design options
need attention:
For sinking piles, RC, PC, PHC pile suitable water depth is 20~30 m, permeable
overburden thickness upto about 35 m, mass for the saturated fine sand, clay, sand and
gravel; compared to the steel pile and pile type mentioned above, as long as the
construction equipment available, which adapt to water depth, covering a wide range of
thickness but 10 cm over gravel layer, containing a lot of the strata of rocks or other
obstructions, the types of sinking piles are suitable for. Similarly, when the surrounding
pipelines or dilapidated houses, are sensitive to soil compaction effect, there is no suitable
use of soil compaction effect of sinking pile foundation.
Bored pile than sinking piles, piles can be penetrate the hard gravel, cobble and
Boulder, also available through the complex geological conditions cave, construction
equipment, simple, no squeezing effect, construction noise and vibration, suitable depth
and depth greater. Among which the rotary drill hole piles suitable water depth upto about
30 m, depth is more than 100 m; impact drill hole pile adjustment suitable water depth and
reach the hole is slightly decreased, but you can use a variety of ground conditions,
especially in karst areas, would be a plus application of bored pile.
Considering pile bearing capacity of end-bearing pile applied in soft soil surface is not
very thick, but for hard soil layer in the lower part of the case; brush pile applied in soft
soil surface with a thick, with moderate compressibility of the soil layer in the lower part,
and hard soil depth in a lot of situations.
For low pile foundation and high pile bearing platform of choice depends on the depth
and ease of construction, typically in the floodplain, or shallow water sets the low-pile pile
foundation. High-pile bearing platform of design should be noted for the underside and
navigable relationships to protect the pile from influence of ship collision.
In addition, from the point of use, helical pile than a vertical pile has a strong ability to
resist horizontal force, may ship impact, waves beats and seismic effects used on the
bridge. At present, some latest piling barge equipped with a plug piling upto more than 82
Inclination of 18.5 increased pile capacity; but in the bored pile construction tilt,
limited capacity of domestic equipment, generally only achieved approximately 5 of
inclination sloping pile. In contrast, foreign construction equipment more capable,
diameters can be carried out 1.5 m, 40 m length, tilt 1 : 4 bored pile construction, while
form 3 in diameter. 5 m expanded diameter.
At present, the pile foundation construction technology is very mature, large pile
foundation success stories, too many (as in bridge bored maximum diameter pile has
reached 4 m Su Tong bridge main pylon pile foundation composed of 131 diameter
2.5~2.8 m, 124 m bored pile), Has very good economic effect of piles, on many occasions
would be preferred. Pile foundation design, there are two points it is worth mentioning:
firstly, pile foundation of bridge in the country at present some bias in the application of
the project, seems to be without piling without foundation tendencies. However, in a
busy shipping channel, bridge with earthquake requirements, whether with high-pile

foundation bearing platform appropriate is questionable; second, the bridge pile

foundation bearing platform structures are often designed as a solid structure, under the
force of the quake, the high-pile piled foundation piles due to pile more and more bent,
resulting in not meizoseismal bridges pile foundation design of seismic control. Thus,
measures that could be considered reduced quality in the design, such as the design of
hollow pile cap, set at an angle to reduce small-cap area.
Example 3.17. Donghai bridge in Shanghai.
Starting Luchao port in Shanghai Nanhui Donghai bridge across Hangzhou Bay in
northern waters, and Shengsi in Zhejiang Province small rocky islands of ocean mountain
Island, is about 31 km, is the first offshore sea-crossing bridge. Main forms of continuous
beam bridge structure (construction method) and the cable-stayed bridge, sub-structure for
pile foundations (PHC pipe pile foundations, steel pipe pile foundations).
Seen from the geological conditions, typical geological layer from top to bottom to
grey-brown mud, black-gray silty clay, gray clay, four-story gray-green, sadly, 1 layer of
grass and yellow sand silt clay silt, sadly 2 layer of dust and grass-gray silty (Foundation
pile the bearing layer), hydrological conditions and average tidal range 2.75~3.20 m the
maximum velocity of 2.4 m/s, wave height of 3.45 m (NNE) and 2.15 m (SE).
Considering the tide, tide, wave, wind influence of hydrologic conditions on
construction jobs, as well as the corrosion of sea water on the pile problems in the design
of the original, non-navigable spans of all foundations set to pile in low pier area high
intensity, the compactness of concrete, Cl-penetration resistance performance is good and
relatively cheap cost of PHC pipe pile (1200 mm), by vertical piles and piles of pile
combination (Fig. 3.78 for 70 m to bridge abutment pile layout and structure). According
to the stage of the actual pile of design changes to adjust the pile, the vast majority of the
pile into a steel pipe piles. The main reasons are the following several points.
1. Bridge sea tide, tide, wave, wind, fog and hydrometeorological conditions affecting
the stability of the pile driver, resulting in the missed hammering and thus pile
2. The bridge pile foundation bearing stratum of soil top elevation is generally high, and
layers thick, and with high sand content in the soil, for Low compression compacted
soil, and SPT blow counts, and not conducive to PHC pipe pile sinking.
3. PHC pipe pile tip large section, resulting in large amount of soil compaction and
resistance, is not conducive to the pile sunk. Although construction of the additional
the steel pile shoes, helped sink the effect is not obvious. In the PHC pipe pile
through low compressibility of compacted soil layer is not enough.
4. PHC pipe pile with low cost, good corrosion resistance advantages, but the fighting
ability of PHC pipe pile steel pipe piles is poor, and when the hammer more often,
when penetration is smaller, it tube pile easily damaged.

Fig. 3.78 Cap structure and pile layout schematic (size: m) (a) platform faade structure;
(b) pile layout.
5. Pile hammer equipment capacity and length of PHC pipe piles, pile weight and
the pile bearing capacity of an uncoordinated, cant be Heavy hammers
tapping the pile requirements.
Construction of pile foundations of Donghai bridge practice experience is: the choice
of pile foundation of bridge pier foundation should be take full account of environmental
conditions the influence of high strength, torsional behavior of the pile should be chosen
well, hitting resistance capacity of steel pipe pile; offshore waters affected by seabed scour
and deposition, wave impact differs from the geological structure of the continental shelf
seabed geological structure, the design should fully analyse soils and bearing capacity
force of bridge pile foundation in offshore waters, and upon the request of both vertical
and horizontal bearing capacity; whether the waters off the coast with PHC pipe pile
foundations, should be based on comparison and selection of foundation conditions were
reasonable, to control the construction of the total number of blow and penetration, in
order to ensure piling process the pile structural integrity and durability of structures
Example 3.18. United States, San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge.
United StatesSan Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge East span bridge is a double-deck
all 10 lanes of large-span bridge, with a total 4 km, full-bridge into self-anchored
suspension bridges and viaducts on the sea, on both sides of the approach spans four parts
of wiring, substructure for the pile foundation.
Foundation design of one of the most characteristic is the use of inclined pile
foundation of high-pile, pile structures in multi-cell box shaped steel frame filled with
concrete, being a concrete-filled steel tube. From the perspective of geological condition
of the bridge, river bed under the soil distribution varies widely, on main bridge tower is
located in relatively shallow bedrock slopes. Most other foundations located deep in the
mud layer.
Oakland Bay Bridge East span bridge located in the strong earthquake, seismic risk
can cause two major geological fault lines of Sandy Bridge site 12 km and 25 km only.
Requests by two fortification level for aseismic design (normal use and safety features of
First piers of the viaduct by sea 50 m high bridge pier foundation (Fig. 3.79) as an
example, the pier is located deep in the slime layer shang, pile high 6.5 m, water 2 m,

constructed in the form of box-shaped steel frame filled with concrete, to fight for
concrete shrinkage, creep and deformation caused by temperature and reduce the cracks.
Foundation due to earthquake deformation and the size of the cap, and cap set of 6,
diameter 2.5 m, length about slope respectively, 1 : 8, 1 : 12100 m, pile of steel pipe piles.
Design wall thickness along the pile of steel pipe pile long range, range from 51~68 mm,
mainly based on bending bearing capacity of piles, ductile, corrosion and scored based
meter. Within the upper two-thirds length of steel pipe filled with concrete, in order to
ensure the transfer of load from the combination between concrete-filled steel tubular
pipe, steel pipe pile (a concrete filled area) welded onto the inner wall of shear studs,
bottom weld shear ring plate. Fig. 3.79 shows the plane and elevation of pile-raft
foundation and steel pipe pile elevations.
Construction sequence was: Mencke MHU 1700 hammer for pile foundation
construction and pre-fabricated pile floating and sinking in place, through the internal steel
frame system pile with steel pipe piles and pier reinforcement of internal connections, and
then fill high strength concrete and light-weight concrete, finally setting collision bezel

Fig. 3.79 Elevation plan of the piled-raft foundation and steel pipe pile elevations (unit:

(b) The Open Caisson Foundation

Caisson is the underlying type of an application has a long history, the earliest
documenteds caisson at around 5 m tall wooden caisson (1738), but by the time limit of
construction technology, the caisson were unable to penetrate deep enough to resist the
erosion of soil layer in a long time not used, replaced by a pneumatic caisson foundation.
Until the early 20th century, sink well technique to large gauge die use, especially in deep
water Foundation, such as the United States Oakland Bay Bridge (1936), depth of 32 m,
covering layer thickness of 54.7 m, floating caisson, position suction sink, base depth is
73.28 m. Now, with the large hoisting, transporting construction equipment located and
seabed drilling-and-blasting and cleaning floor leveling, pre-casting and installation of
open caisson as the main deep water Foundation has been used many times in real cases of
cross-Sea Bridge project.
Characteristic of sunk shaft foundation embedded depth can be large, high integrity
and good stability, can withstand large vertical loads and water flat load; open caisson
foundation and construction of cofferdam retaining and retaining structures, the

construction process is not complicated. The open caisson foundation disadvantage is that
during a long, fine sand and silt soil in the hole pumping prone quicksand phenomenon,
caused the caisson tilt; under the open caisson sunk in the process of large boulders, rock
or the bottom surface of the trunk tilted too much, will bring to the construction of certain
difficulties. Table 3.13 lists part of the caisson classification form.
Table 3.13 Caisson classification.

Types of pole
Steel open caisson


Concrete, reinforced concrete caisson

Ferro-cement thin-walled open caisson

Sinking support measures

Production methods

Air curtain in open caisson

Mud lubricated sleeve caisson
Cast-in situ sinking open caisson
Floating open caisson

Based on the principle of reasonable strength, construction may, generally in the

following circumstances can the open caisson foundation.
1. Load larger, while the extent of allowable bearing capacity of foundation soil on the
surface, spread foundation excavation work, and support difficult, but under a certain
depth (8~30 m under the surface) have good bearing layer using caisson foundation
comparing with other deep foundations, while economically reasonable.
2. II in the mountainous river, although better soil properties, but erosion, or have a
larger river pebbles and inconveniences pile foundation construction.
3. The surface relatively flat and covered with thin layers of rock, but the river deeper,
using construction cofferdam for spread foundation when you are in trouble.
4. In depth, wave height, tidal rush of cross-Sea bridge project as a basis for precasting
and installation settings.
Example 3.19. Air curtain open caisson of the.
North anchor foundation of Jiangyin Yangtze River Bridge Jiangyin Yangtze River
Bridge superstructure loads to Anchorages main function was effectively the main cable
64000 kN forces to the foundation, and horizontal displacement control within the allowed
range; based on geological conditions of anchorage zone of overburden depth 77.6~85.6
m, Clayey and sand layers, respectively (I), fine sand layer (II), and clay layer (III), fine
sand, or gravelly sand layers in (IV), can be used as bearing stratum II and IV layers,
depth of 30 m and 60 m, form the basis of comparison for diaphragm walls and sinking.
For underground continuous wall construction broke up and makes the construction is
not a global stress after forming the basis structures to withstand the anchoring structure
outside great water pressure, and at that time the excavation of the underground
continuous wall construction experience 40 m integrated in all circumstances, the last
anchor foundation of choosing sinking.

Jiangyin Yangtze River Bridge anchorage (Fig. 3.80) sunk well of length 69 m, width
51 m, high 58 m, was the worlds largest caisson.
To ensure smooth caisson sinking, elaboration of the general construction plan for
non-wood production for the land, repeatedly sinking, sinking method according to the
specific conditions of drained and undrained sink combination, and auxiliary air curtains
help heavy under water concrete.

(c) Pneumatic Caisson Foundation

Difference between pneumatic caisson and caisson foundation lies in its section at the end
of a top cover and top cover plate installed on the well pipes and airlocks construction
Studios. About a century before and during the early 19th century, pneumatic caisson is a
major basic types of bridges. Later because of the size of worker safety issues, this
structure except in Japan has been less used outside. Caissons great advantage is to
eliminate stagnant water in the basement, the staff can enter the bottom box Interior to
implement barrier removal, substrate Inspection Department.
And other construction work, for a variety of complex geological and hydrological
conditions, basic quality more reliable; main drawback is construction complex equipment
and high construction costs, there are safety issues such as protection of workers into the

Fig. 3.80 The Jiangyin Yangtze River Bridge North anchoring sunk shaft foundation of air
curtain structure (unit: cm).
To address safety problems, currently Japan auto pneumatic caisson base was
developed. Mechanised mining system in order remote control excavator operations,
minimise artificial the caisson and improves the safety of construction to automatically

control information management system and testing caisson sinking.

When deep water foundation of bridge to be built-in the large permeability of soil
containing difficult obstacles, or base required special treatment situations, sinking could
not sink, caissons can be used.

2. After World War II a Modern Basic Form

In the 1950, of the 20th century, the first Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge and successfully
applied to tubular column base, forms the basis of pipe string and its combinations with
other base (such as the caisson) were further developed.

(a) The Column Base

String based on the built-in 1953, at the Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge, the first of a new
foundation forms.
In Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge, the first and the actual use of tubular column base
due mainly under the influence of hydrological and geological: bridge-bit depth upto 40
m, the maximum water level fluctuation between 19 m and high level long enough; the
river bottom overburden soil to sand, bedrock surface is undulating, scope of bridge pier
foundation rock surface height difference upto 5~6 m, under the influence of erosion and
cover may be washed away some pier is at the rock for toxic gases. Or detrimental to
security and bedrock caisson caisson construction falls bed stability, such as limiting the
use of open caisson and caisson. Moreover, the effect of negative pile anchor badly and
stability. By various analysis and comparison, final adopted by 35 number of pile,
diameter 1. 55 m depth 2~7 m string consisting of rock-socketed pile foundation.
At present, the development of pipe pile foundations: the Nanjing Yangtze River
Bridge will be reinforced concrete pipe column instead of pre-stressed reinforced concrete
tubing diameter grew to 3.6 m in Nanchang Gan River Bridge, further developed to 5 in
diameter 5.8 m. In other countries, the former Soviet Union, Japan and the Europe and the
United States began to use tubular column foundation, and in terms of construction
methods and equipment have increased and improved, among them, Japan on the
expansion of this type of foundation, improving the most powerful, the Yokohama Bay
Bridge tubular column foundation (3.81) tubing diameter 10.0 m. Even more important is
the base string by the scope of River Development Foundation in deep water to the big
wind, wave and tide rush hammer and ice-melting impact larger deep water foundation.
Tubular column base with large diameters or small diameter open caisson foundation
of pile foundations of main difference between column base of the pipe string is socketed
rock. Its main features are: take column base embedded in the rock and pillars embedded
rigid CAP reduced the free length of columns and improves the overall foundation
stiffness of second string forces comprising primarily pre-fabricated wall (reinforced
concrete, pre-stressed concrete or steel) bear, when up by a tube filled with concrete or
reinforced concrete.

Fig. 3.81 Pipe pile foundation of Yokohama Bay Bridge (unit: mm).
Pipe column base materials can be divided into reinforced concrete pipe, pre-stressing
force concrete tube, steel tube column, according to the cap position low string based, high
pile bearing platform management foundation.
Tube base can be used for deep water, tidal influence, the rock face rugged riverbed
without coating or overlay is very thick, are suitable used to close clay and all kinds of
rock, soil, and through caves, boulders supported on dense soil layers or fresh high on a
rock. String base not too applies to regions with serious geological defects, such as
crushing or serious fault loose areas. In general, within sunk pile appropriate range of
application pile foundation tubing can be used.
Example 3.20. Wuhan Changjiang river second bridge piers, 8th: steel-pipe column base.
Wuhan Yangtze 8th pier continuous rigid frame bridge with intermediate activities
supporting pier. Construction during flood period the maximum velocity of about 1 m/s,
deep ~ 25 m, the geology is complex, covering layer thickness 23~27 m top to bottom is
silty and fine sand in layers and 0.2 ~ 0.3 m thick round gravel rock surface elevation
about 21.5 m, under which the conglomerate fully strong weathered and weak weathered
and conglomerate fracture zone.
8th original design for double-wall steel cofferdam for pier foundation bored pile
foundation bearing platform, but taking into account the adverse geological conditions, the
cofferdam resistance water area is large and has little depth, a structure may vary
depending on local soil erosion is difficult to guarantee stability. Comprehensive
comparison of select high pile steel pipe column base (Fig. 3.82).
The foundation a total of 12 pieces of steel pipe column, column inner diameter of 2.2
m, wall thickness 14 mm, long 49.5 m; hole diameter 1.8 m, drilling deep 14.5~28.5 m
double-wall steel cofferdam for outer diameter of 20.6 m, thickness 0.6 m, the level 22.05

Fig. 3.82 Sketch of infrastructure (unit: cm).

Foundation construction, set-provides orientation of steel tubular column with steel
surrounding cage, inserting steel pipe column into the rock surface, steel pipe column
cover mix concrete tube and begin drilling and pouring concrete, all string after the
construction is completed, dismantle the steel surrounding cage, lifting and sinking
waterproof cofferdams, cofferdam sealing concrete pouring pumping building cap.
Example 3.21. Canton Railway Zhaoqing Xijiang Bridge: double tubular column
foundation bearing platform (Fig. 3.83).
Double cap tube on the base is made up of pile caps, pipe columns, consisting of rocksocketed pile and bored pile under, which is different from the column increase foundation
located under the cap role to reduce the length of string.
Canton Railway 5 144 m of continuous steel trussed girder of Zhaoqing Xijiang
bridge, 4th pier is located in the main channel of the Xijiang river in water, double-pile
tube CAP, tube on the pillar base is made up of columns, consisting of rock-socketed pile
and bored pile under.
Foundation design construction is mainly because:
base location for extrusion cement limestone bedrock, single axial compressive
ultimate strength of more than 400 MPa, has good bearing capacity;
the bedrock overburden soil is coarse and gravelly sand, its thickness increase change
hydrological impacts reduction between 10~13 m. When designing a high water
level, local scour of the riverbed extends to rock face, which added the length of the
string, resulting in column design of bottom bending stress exceeds allowable limits
from a construction point of view, the pier depth (depth of water into the rock face at
38 m) covering layer and shallow, it tube columns position in the construction
process and security deposit issue. Therefore, in the design of foundations, taking
into account the structural strength to the full load of rock-socketed pile-supported
piers, do not consider pile cap itself load-bearing function. The cap role only to
decrease the string length to meet the lateral stiffness of the structure, no basement

drill subjected to bending moment in order to avoid the inadequacy of rocks in

tectonic. All in all, cap is set to replace the eroded under overburden foundation
provides embedding functions more effectively.

Fig. 3.83 Double cap tubular column foundation (Size: m).

(b) Composite Foundation

In depth very deep and very thick cover or case with complicated geological conditions,
and because of their limited capacity, could not be a single foundation sinking when the
desired depth is reached, can take two different forms the basis, build a bridge to use the
relay to Sham Shui Po, usually called this combination forms the basis for the foundation.
Typical combination is based on the caisson with bored piles, pipe, bell-shaped bases,
combined to form the foundation. While considering the construction of temporary
facilities, and another double-wall steel cofferdam in combination with piles, pipe forming
Example 3.22. Of main bridge of Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge, 2nd pier and open
caisson and tubular column foundation (3.84).

Fig. 3.84 Main bridge of Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge, 2nd Pier and open caisson and
tubular column foundation Schematic (unit: cm) (a) sunk shaft with steel Tubular column
foundation structure; (b) level of caisson and Cap hinge.
Hydrogeological conditions along the pier located at the depth of about 30 m, covering
layer thickness of about 40 m, scour the riverbed of 23 m, based on the technical
conditions to adopt the single string base have difficulties or caisson foundation. From the
caisson and string combinations to form the basis of, it tube embedded within the bedrock
of the lower end of the column, top embedded in the pile of concrete, concrete caisson
bottom sealing and capping the connection string into integer steel can be used as a guide
frame and cofferdam in construction of open caisson, is part of the permanent structure,

enhances the rigidity of the base.

3. In the 1990 of the 20th Century has two Basic Forms of New
Owing to the harsh water conditions, construction time and quality are difficult to ensure,
on the other hand, pre-casting and installation needed for transport, cranes and other
equipment and technology to further mature, large pre-cast foundation in deep water or
floating installation process as a whole has developed rapidly.
As early as 1939, United States pioneered the Bell foundation in recent years, there
have been new developments and applications. Similarly, underground continuous wall
foundation originated in the 1950, of the 20th century in Europe, alongwith the dredging
machinery and technology development, is another forms the basis of the recently
developed rapidly.

(a) Install Pre-cast and Pre-fabricated Base (Basis Set)

Pre-cast and pre-fabricated installation base (also known as the basis set) on the basic
form is divided into two kinds: pre-fabricated caissons, this forms the basis in Japan and
the United Kingdom, and Denmark have been used; another is a bell-shaped base, United
States, and Japan, and Canada are also used.
Japan as early as 1988, built North and South of great Seto bridge 6 based at sea, using
the float in place, direct placement the whole foundation of open caisson foundation,
followed by pre-cast caisson applied gradually, such as built in 1991, United Kingdom
Thames Dartford-steel cable-stayed bridge over the river, which was completed in 1998.
Denmark great belt Strait to the East, Nishihashi and completed the same year Japan
Akashi Strait Bridge has adopted this basic form.
Clock-based initiative in United States in 1939, on the Yubotuoma River Bridge, at
present, the United States, and Japan, and Canada, and Denmark countries, have been used
in the construction of deep water foundation of bridge foundation form.
Bell-shaped base compared with the sinking, in addition to structural shape
differences, main difference: sinking in place construction of open caisson is a permanent
bearing structure, is a bell-shaped base in construction of thin shell structure, can be
described as waterproof cofferdam concrete construction forms, is non-wing long
structures only become final only upon completion of cast in place concrete permanent
load bearing structure.
Technical characteristics are the basis of Bell: first base and part of the pier on the
shore of shape steel plates for welded steel or reinforced concrete, a bell-shaped thin-shell
pre-stressed pre-cast concrete box, and then place this box lifting in total sound
foundations or piles on it. Then, the pouring of concrete of pile caps and pier at the same
time, make it into a whole. (Fig. 3.85) The United States in 1959, St. Mary Stewarthaiwaer
bridge built in combination with steel piles forming the basis of Bell-shaped base.

Fig. 3.85 American St. Mary Stewart iron bridge built-in Haiwa on the basis of Bellshaped pile.
The clock on the pile-foundation this simple base with less construction materials,
construction methods, construction speed the advantages, but its biggest drawback is the
high technical requirements for construction. In addition, by Yu Zhong-Foundation for
main tower of large span bridge, Pier foundations, foundation load capacity, high
requirements for foundations, built directly on the basis of sometimes requires the rock
stone ground.
In use, bell-shaped foundation and caisson resemblance, namely, pre-fabricated
loading method and applied to sea-spanning bridge construction.
Example 3.23. Canada Federal bridge Bell Foundation.
In 1997 completion of Canada Federal bridge across the Northumberland Strait, for 44
holes of main spans of pre-stressed concrete box girder of long span 250 m, in order to
meet the conditions for offshore operations, it, bell-shaped pier foundation and upper
structure are all using pre-fabricated components, factory pre-fabricated on shore, use
large gondolas for installation on site. Bell-shaped base (Fig. 3.86) basal diameter of 22 m,
based on height to the depth of 10~35 m vary within a range, base made cone-shaped
platform at the top, with the pier closed. Construction used large floating hanging bellshaped base lifting sinking into place, then piers pre-cast foundation crane-mounted
directly into the top of the cone-shaped platform, through the pre-stressed structures both
as a single entity.
Example 3.24. Greece Rion-Antirion Bridge: reinforced earth base isolation.
Greece bridge of Rion-Antirion bridge in highly exceptional circumstances,
environmental factors, depth of greater than 2500 m length range more than 65 m, steep
on both sides of the sea bed, accompanied by strong seismic activity (recurrence period of
2000 the maximum peak acceleration 1.2 g) and the tectonic movement (Fig. 3.87). Gulf
shipping request, ship impact force for 180000 t/16 section (section 1 = 1 nautical mile/h =
1.852 km/h); geological factors (Fig. 3.88), bedrock depth of the bridge over 500 m, under
the sea-bed soil order are as follows: (a) 4~7 m non-stickiness gravel, (b) rather unstable

sand, silty sand and silty clay layer, free (c) 30 m is a homogeneous layer of silty clay or
clay, for the typical soft ground. A 20 m liquefaction of deep layer is on the north shore.
The bridge main controlling factors on the seismic safety of the design. Apart from the
upper structure selects five outside the floating structural system of cable-stayed bridge
span continuous, in the sub-structure of the processing, diameter 2 m, deep steel pipe piles
with 7 of 25~30 m~8 m the spacing of soil and solid, covered with sand, gravel and
crushed stone pile top 3 m thick composed of sand-gravel cushion forming class
Composite Foundation, which is located on 90 m in diameter formed box foundation for
the sliding of the reinforced earth base isolation (reinforced soil foundation) (Fig. 3.89).

Fig. 3.86 Canada Northumberland Strait Bridge Bell Set the base (size: m).

Fig. 3.87

Fig. 3.88 (Size: m).

Fig. 3.89 Rion-Antirion Bridge: reinforced earth base isolation, Greece.

(b) Underground Continuous Wall

Underground pile bent diaphragm wall type, slot type, pre-cast and many other structures
and modular forms, but should be used in bridge foundation structure is mainly made of
grooved-section. In bridge construction in China, the transport sector application starts
when the construction of the Guangdong Humen bridge and research in anchorage of
runyang Yangtze river highway bridge in Jiangsu, was also adopted.
At present, underground continuous wall of most developed countries are Japan, has
accumulated over 15 million m2 of underground continuous wall built, among other things
is in the application of bridge deep water foundation. Its main construction in two ways:
one is the cofferdam built island in the water, and then in the above the underground
continuous wall construction. Another is used as waterproofing and resistance of
underground continuous wall cofferdam of earth pressure in the surrounding excavation
work within the Weir, arrived at the design elevation in situ perfusion deep like a caisson
Example 3.25. Japan Aomori bridge main pylon Pier foundations of main span (Fig.
Japan-Aomori bridge-tower cable-stayed bridge across the 240 m, through to the
caisson, shaft, locking pipe piles and pile with large diameter diaphragm wall under
programmes such as comparison, selected underground continuous wall for its
infrastructure. Also according to the ground conditions, focus on the basis of support, on
the large flat area (20.5 m 30 m) and shallow (45 m only), small surface area (12 m 30

m) and the deep (85 m) two schemes make choices and, finally, according to
characteristics, economic and reasonable structure, construction easier and used the flat
shallow scheme. Also used a similar lock in construction (with gaps of steel tubes and
steel plugs) the new connector.

Fig. 3.90 Aomori diaphragm tower foundation of pylon pier of the bridge division of the
element and the construction sequence (size: m).


Since entering the 21st century, due to the low carbon economy and sustainable
development, the whole-life design philosophy of attention to bridge design follow the
safe, suitable, economical, beautiful, durable and environmentally friendly six principles
has become a consensus among members. However, with the Chinese classics increase of
economic development and national investment, the economic principles of bridges in
China seem to get overlooked. Some economic and unreasonable large-span program,
often due to the owners over-ambitious was used and designers blind pursuit of largespan bridge, technicians mistakenly, that spans breakthrough was innovation is the
world leading level of realisation and, to that end, will take a doubled price, and even
cause serious imbalance (span/height ratio), and evil in the vastly disproportionate to the
adjacent bridge. We should encourage the adoption of innovative effort to reach the best
mechanical properties, the reasonable constructional details and the most convenient
construction technology, but also the most cost effective and aesthetically pleasing
bridges, thereby enhancing the reputation and competitiveness of Chinas bridges.
Projects of product conceptual design phase the idea choice, you need to consider
many factors, economics is one of the most important factors. Different bridge-type has a
different economic and technical indicators, and indicators changes alongwith changes in
the condition of building the bridge. Therefore, for special set the conditions of bridges,
project selection to choose the economic programmes are needed; for a specific bridge,
spans of different layouts, section, tower shape, structure, and will be also demonstrate
different economics; construction will affect programme of the economy; with basis in
particular deep water foundation account for a higher proportion of the total investment,
so concept of selection is based an important task in the design stage.

3.4.1 Material and Economic Indicators of Bridge Types

Bridges are an important indicator of economic deck material consumption per square
metre, attaches great importance to this international design contest reflect the indicators
of competitiveness and technology. Due to gaps in the materials industries, our bridge
material grades is relative backwardness. Design of steel box girder, Europe and the
United States, using the HPS460 (Europe)-HPS480 (United States) BHS500 (Japan), high
performance steel, even at high stress areas with a small amount of local HPS560 and
HPS690 to reduce thickness board, simplifying construction and manufacturing
difficulties. An S345 steel used mostly in China, but of different thickness steel plate
welders arts and inconvenience, it is also very economical. In terms of concrete structure,
China has mostly C50, and foreign high-performance HPC80 has been commercialised.
Thus, our concrete bridges tend to be relatively clumsy and fat, but outside the concrete
bridge is much more slender and light (smaller dimensions, wall thickness is thinner),
concrete is also greatly reduced, there is a clear gap.
Suspension bridges more expensive, a long construction period, regardless of the
cross-river project in the lower reaches of the Yangtze river, coastal sea island drive and

cross in the mountains of West-Central Valley Project, the priority should be relatively
economical and cable-stayed bridge cable can be replaced or suspension bridge scheme.
Full justification must be provided for suspension must be used, and is not to replace the
main cable control rot should be dealt with seriously, in order to ensure the durability of
their lifecycle. Not only the pursuit of span by ignoring economic principles when
choosing suspension bridge schemes.
Same bridge conditions, different layout structure and span of the bridge material
indicators, economic indicators are different and, therefore, economy of bridge type
alternatives tend to be conceptual design scheme selection of the most important
Example 3.26. Of Taizhou Yangtze River Bridge.
Taizhou Changjiang bridge preliminary design phase for a total of six economic
analysis and comparison of the design, as shown in table 3.14.
Table 3.14 Six programmes cost comparison

Dual-tower cablestayed bridge with

main span of 980 m

Projects Length Construction- Index Cost

installation (RMB/ (10,000
costs (10,000
m2) Yuan) construction
costs (USD)
Approach 3580
4485 334638 347922

Main span of 980 m

uneven-tower cablestayed bridge





Approach 3840


4572 321295

Main span of 1328 m

of three-span
suspension bridge





Approach 3450


4511 355544

Main span of 1280 m

of three-span
suspension bridge





Approach 3520


4479 349359

Main span of 2 1080 Main

m of three-span
Approach 4880
suspension bridge




4614 359887

Main span of 2 950

m of three-tower
suspension bridge




Approach 5160


4690 348354







Example 3.27. Su Tong bridge preliminary design phase bridge type selection.
1. Tower cable-stayed main span span is determined as 1088 m, take 500 m side spans,
two auxiliary piers, taking into account the auxiliary channel, khunj uplink channel
requirements, the span arrangement for 100 m + 100 m + 300 m + 1088 m + 300 m +

100 m + 100 m.
2. With a total length of 2088 m continues taking into account location, south anchorage
on the main channel and navigation channels between shoals, north of anchorage on
the north side of the main channel the 8 m terrain around, considering the main
channel and the secondary channel is set in the bridge main span that are required in
the span of about 1510 m, mining with a three-span suspension, integrated structure
factors, take 453 m + 1510 m + 453 m = 2416 m cloth across the way.
3. South anchorage in a dedicated channel on the South Shore levee between the shoals,
north of anchorage on the north side of the main channel is 5 m elevation close,
considering the main channel and the secondary channel is set within the main span,
dedicated lanes set up in the South Shore, and the use of three-span crane, Heald
structure factors, take 938 m + 2010 m + 938 m = 3886 m cloth across the way.
Investment estimation: full-bridge cable stayed bridge with a main span of 1088 m
programme a total investment of 59.0 Yuan, suspension bridge with a main span of 1510
m programme bridge, a total investment of 68.300 million Yuan, 2010 m programme full
bridge suspension bridge main span with a total investment of 82.200 million Yuan. Main
span of 1510 m cable bridge program investment than cable stayed bridge with a main
span of 1088 m price 9.300 million Yuan, a main span of 2010 m scheme of suspension
bridge main span 1 088 m cable-stayed bridge scheme investments increased by 23.200
million Yuan, the cable stayed bridge with a main span of 1088 m programme of
investment in the province.
Example 3.28. Qingdao Bay Bridge.
Qingdao haiwan bridge across Jiaozhou Bay connected with the main city and
Huangdao of Qingdao and auxiliary city city of large bridges, railway bridge project
surveying and designing Institute in the feasibility study report of the bridge, ferries and
two bay bridge under different conditions of bridges examined a number of long-span
suspension bridge scheme.
According to traffic under the bridge function, combined with topography and geology
and other natural conditions, respectively, on the ferrys bridge and the bay bridge overall
(a) The ferry bridgeBridge Program (Fig. 3.91). East side features two large holes
meet the requirements of port channel and the central fairway, Lee of nonnavigable spans of sand ridges area in central pier or contact the bridge in the
middle, with waters on the west side or edge of the cay set in shallow water anchor
pier based on cay on the west side of port channel setting in the middle of longspan cable-stayed bridge.

Fig. 3.91 Qingdao Bay ferry bridge scheme selection (size: m).
Prepared a programme of three tower suspension bridge, spans the composition 350 m
+ 1200 m + 1200 m + 350 m, central tower of 250 m, two 160 m tower. Main cable
resulting from the unilateral load in order to overcome the huge levels of tension vertically
using a main tower-like structure, this class bridge-both at home and abroad, there is no
large instances.
Option II for suspension bridge with two hand decorate, share a bi-directional
anchoring, anchoring the main cable. Span consists of 350 m + 950 m + 350 m + 350 m +
950 m + 350 m. Similar bridge main span in the world for the first time.
Option III for a two-seat hybrid cable-stayed bridge joint layout, steel box girder of
cable-stayed main span and side spans of pre-stressed concrete box girder span constitute
330 m + 950 m + 330 m + 330 m + 950 m + 330 m. The main span of the bridge is also a
world record.
(b) The ferry bridgeBridge Program (Fig. 3.92). Each bridge main span across the
central deep water shipping. Depth on both sides of the main tower is about 25 m,
anchor set in near-shore shallow water district.
Programme I of three tower suspension bridge, spans the composition 646 m +
1652 m + 646 m, central tower of 250 m, two RC master 255 m tower. The main
span of the bridge at the first bridge of its kind in the world.
Programme II of three-span continuous steel box girder of suspension bridge,
spans the composition 652 m + 1832 m + 652 m, RC primary 265 m tower.
Programme III is a three-span suspending cable-stayed hybrid structure, spans
the composition 592 m + 1832 m + 592 m. The bridge world the first.
(c) Number of Major Works: Corresponding to the above-mentioned scheme, number
of main bridge of the main projects as shown in tables 3.15 and 3.16.
Table 3.15 Ferry and bridge engineering quantity comparison.
Project three-tower


Suspension bridge
with two of 950 m

Two 950 m of cablestayed bridge

Cable wire (t)




Steel box beams (t)












Main tower of
concrete (m3)

Fig. 3.92 Qingdao Bay ferry bridge scheme selection (size: m).
Table 3.16 Ferry and bridge engineering quantity comparison.
Main Span 1652
m suspension

Main span 1832

m suspension

Main span 1832 m


Steel box
beams (t)




Main tower of Tower

concrete (m3) Foundation















Cable wire (t)

concrete (m3)

3.4.2 General Layout of 2 Impact on Economic Indicators

General features include size, the presence of deep-water foundation, the main beam with
long span cross-section tower of forms and materials, shapes and materials, economic and
technical indicators of the whole bridge, so mastering its general laws, contribute to
overall layout phase fully into account in programme economy, the economy took the first
step for the programme, and a decisive step because the bridge and the overall layout of

the economy is controlling factors of the economy of the entire programme, once the
bridge and determine the layout and is difficult to reduce costs, only partially, a small
amount of to optimise and reduce costs.
At present, long-span cable-stayed bridge has exceeded kilometers, and there is
development potential in the range of 1200 m-span entirely from anchor angle laqiao of
the economy will be significantly better than suspension bridges. Also, rigidity and windresistant stability of multi-span cable-stayed bridge and construction are superior to many
suspension bridge. For example, France designed by Greece Rion-Antirion bridge, depth
of 65 m, and is located in an earthquake zone, navigable sea of 180,000t round, 560 m said
that a very economical and reasonable scheme and new cable-stayed bridge of reinforced
soil-isolated foundation, does not adopt a more cross-suspension bridge Such as Germany
and Denmark Marne Strait bridge between (Fehmarnsund Bridge) programme selection
spans 780 m of cable-stayed bridge to meet 200,000t navigation requirements for seagoing
vessels, is the most economical Cross-Sea project, for the lower reaches of the Yangtze
River in China Cross-River project and the southeast coast of the island-sea link project
has provided an important reference.

(a) The Span Arrangement

Increased span, avoid water foundation, also may choose to a conceptual design of
economical and reasonable.
Example 3.29. The Yangpu bridge, the bridge river main channel on the East Coast, East
of main pier is located on the shore, West pier would be located on land, shore or in the
water, which can be three-span arrangement, as shown in Table 3.17.
Table 3.17 Yangpu bridge piers plans comparison.
Main pier

Two piers Proprietor pier on land,
are on land west main pier at the shore

Proprietor pier on land, in
the water main pier west

Main span (m)




Lower structural
costs/ total cost




N + 1 470

N + 640

Total cost
(10,000 yuan)

Plan A: Two main piers are located on land, main span is 602 m;
Plan B: East main piers located onshore, west side main piers located in the original
terminal location, half water, half on the ground, the main span size is 580 m;
Plan C: East main piers located onshore, west of main piers in the water, main span 520 m.
These three scenarios, such as plan a main pier foundation construction cost for 1.0,
and the shore, the proportion of the cost of in-water pier foundations 1.0 : 2. 1 : 3.3,
directly affect the total cost of the bridge. Although cost is directly related to the size and
span of the superstructure, the greater the span the more expensive. But because the cost

of land based and water based differences, resulting in long span 602 m model a total cost
than span B, 520 m and span C, 580 m programmes were reduced to 6.4 million Yuan and
14.7 million dollars.

(b) Deep-water Foundation

Large-scale deep-water foundation of costly, risky, directly affects the economic effects.
To allow for lower construction cost comparison, from several cable-stayed bridge in
engineering, expressed in a lower construction cost and percentage of total cost. 400~600
m span cable-stayed bridges: main piers located on the shore of the Nanpu bridge and
Yangpu bridge, the geological conditions of main piers located in shallow water or in low
water level for onshore construction when the Chongqing Yangtze river, lower
construction cost of cable-stayed bridge with a total cost of 19%~22%. When pier located
in good geological and topographic conditions, lower structural costs will be lower, such
as Jialing river of Shimen bridge lower construction cost total 16.4%. When the main piers
located in the water when the sub-structure cost total cost ratio with the hydrological,
geological, topographical and change, general 30%~40%. In normal circumstances,
decreases with long span, lower structural costs as percentage of total cost goes rising

(c) Master Girder Forms and Materials

Girder bridge is a PC an intermediate form between the steel deck and the deck, its weight
is about 300 kN/m, and PC bridge (500 kN/m) and the steel bridge (150 kN/m).
Accordingly, in the cable-stayed bridge with a large scope of application (l = 200 ~1000
m), three decks have the advantage of the most economical and reasonable range
(i) PC Bridge (for l =200~500 m)
When the length of the cantilever exceeds 250 m, the heavier deck will expose the
weaknesses of PC. To reduce weight, need thinning of box girder wall thickness, and thus
increase the stress level in the construction phase, plus required pre-load stress against the
live load of tensile stress in the future. As control construction quality problems of
improper or, Ningbo Zhaobaoshan bridge appears as attending the passive situation, and
even lead to crushing accidents.
(ii) The Girder Bridge (for L = 400~700 m)
Girder bridge due to covered with pre-cast concrete bridge decks, deck asphalt pavement
conditions and perhaps the PC Liang Yi achieve, especially at high temperature region of
steel deck pavement technology is still a problem case, selection of combined beam can
avoid later concerns. Composed of composite girder with steel girders and beams beam
line, manufacturing and installation is very convenient, high-strength bolt connection can
be used, the construction convenient, low cost than steel box girders. In the cable-stayed
bridge under 700 m, as long as the inclined plane of the cables, the open knot beams
already has plenty of wind resistance, such as the main cross 605 m Fuzhou Minjiang river
bridge is a successful example. Although knot deck is heavier than steel box girder deck,
cable steel and base quantity increase, but the broad economic indicator is still better than
steel box girder well and are worth considering.

(iii) Steel Box Girder Deck (for L = 700~1200 m)

700 m should select light weight cable-stayed bridge of steel deck. Suzhou-Nantong
Yangtze river bridge, studies have shown that, when used plane and six-lane closed
rectangular box girder flyover, then its critical wind velocity of more than 100 m/s, to
meet the worlds most wind in areas prone to wind-resistance requirements. If the side
span of cable-stayed bridge has landed, you can choose the side span PC bridge, main
span steel bridge deck mixed forms, rigidity and wind-resistant stability of bridges will
also be further improved.
Example 3.30. Main navigation span of Donghai bridge bridge program.
Design of main navigation span of Donghai bridge, for double tower double cable
plane, twin single-cable-plane cable-stayed bridge with steel box girder of concrete box
girder, twin and single cable plane cable-stayed bridge with box girder, double tower
double cable plane cable-stayed bridge I-girder cable-stayed bridge with four programmes
were compared, as shown in Table 3.18. Its span arrangement are as follows: 94 m + 111
m + 420 m + 111 m + 94 m, per square meter economic indicators were 23680, 19500,
20940 and 21180. 2% higher than the concrete box girder of steel box girders, both were
higher than the combined beam 13% and 12%.
Table 3.18 Donghai bridge main navigation span scheme selection.
Scheme name
Double tower double cable plane cable-stayed
bridge with steel box girder

Jian fei
(10,000 yuan) relationship


Towers and single-cable-plane of concrete box

girder of cable-stayed bridge




Double tower single-cable-plane combined box

beam cable-stayed bridge




Double tower double cable plane I-girder cablestayed bridge with



Example 3.31. Jiaojiang bridge main span 480 m girder structure of the program as a
whole process of idea generation, is in a great deal of information based on the collection,
analysis, test design based on the results of the various concepts, through the concept of
choice, eventually forming the half-closed steel box set beams, a new concept of
composite beams. During the main girder of pre-stressed concrete box girders, I-beams,
fully enclosed steel beam combination beams, box-girder beams, fully enclosed and semienclosed steel box composite beam of steel box composite beam test design and
estimating the investment results are shown in Table 3.19.
Table 3.19 Cable-stayed bridge of main girder structure scheme design.
Name of main girder structure construction

Jian fei
(100,000,000 yuan)



Side of the main beam pre-stressed

concrete beam



Full steel

Fully enclosed steel box girder



Composite box-girder beam



Fully enclosed steel box girders of

the steel beam



Semi-enclosed steel box girders of

the steel beam



I-shaped edge girder composite beam


Example 3.32. Completed in 1986, Canada Annacis bridge main span 465 m of composite
beam cable-stayed bridge, two main towers, respectively located in shallow waters on
both sides of the river channel and filling sand foundation construction connected with the
bank. According to the proposal (programme for process tuliang coagulation, option two
for composite beams) results: the economic performance of composite beams with more
advantages than the concrete beams, laminated beams has a cost about 20% lower.
Example 3.33. Completed in 1984, Spain Luna bridge main span of 440 m pre-stressed
concrete double tower, double cable plane cable-stayed bridge main span across the water
reservoir of 50 m reservoir bottom gravel overburden thickness of 17 m layer, the bedrock
is limestone. Two main tower located on the shore. In early 1980, the design, and made 22
of the ICP for main girder of steel girders, concrete beams are superimposed demonstrate
the beam, came to the conclusion that: a concrete beam construction cost.
Example 3.34. In accordance with Chinas Anhui Province, preliminary design, detailed
comparisons of Anqing Yangtze river bridge: the main span of 500 m steel cost about
124% of the concrete cable-stayed bridge. Based on domestic economic conditions, 500 m
within the main span concrete cable-stayed bridge has a considerable competitive edge.

(d) The Tower Type and Material

Different tower types with the same material, and its cost is different. For the same type,
using different materials, and its cost are also different. Generally speaking, steel tower of
the most expensive, and its cost is 2.5~3 times.
Example 3.35. Su Tong bridge tower-shaped materials and different economic
comparison Fig. 3.93 for the design of each tower-shaped landscape scheme optimised
selection of landscape renderings.

Fig. 3.93 Three tower schemes (a) Inverted y-shaped tower (b) Diamond-shaped towers;
(c) A-shaped tower.
Table 3.20 comparison of different engineering and construction of the tower. Because
the one tower anchor area separation of two towers, tower space is relatively small, and
steel-anchor-box anchorage, other towers of steel anchor box and circumferential
prestressed programmes carried out analysis and comparison. As can be seen from the
table in the use of steel-anchor-box anchorage of the same mode, inverted y-shaped towers
than the diamond-shaped tower JI, Jian province about 1 of 5 million Yuan. When using
circumferential pre-stressed, diamond-shaped tower with a-shaped tower cost basically the
same, and inverted y-shaped towers the most economical.
Example 3.36. Su Tong bridge tower-shaped materials and different economic
comparison in the preliminary design stages, the tower of reinforced concrete, steel, steelconcrete combined the three schemes are the same depth of research and compared.
Tower: The tower height is 297.7 m lower pylon column for ministers at the end of 15
m, wide 8 m, wall thickness 1.5 m chang 8 m, anchor, 8 m wide, wall thickness 1.2 m.
Cable tower: The tower height is 297.7 m lower pylon column for ministers at the end
of 15 m, 8 m wide, steel plate thickness 40 mm; head of anchor 8 m, width 8 m, plate
thickness 38 mm.
Steel-concrete composite pylon tower: The tower height is 297.7 m lower pylon
column at the base length of 15 m, width 8 m, wall thickness 1.5 m, anchorage area is
steel structure, length 8 m, width 8 m, plate thickness 38 mm.
(Note: in the selection of materials section, cross Tower Bridge to the direction
longitudinal to size for top of tower 8 m 8 m, bottom of tower 8 m 15 m, and
eventually selected the top size 9 m 8 m, 8 m 15 m at the end of vary, and coagulation
tusuota cable uses a section of steel anchor box.
Tower project number and cost comparison of different materials are shown in Table
Table 3.20 Tower of quantities and construction fees (all bridges).

Inverted Diamond


Inverted Y-shape Diamond shape



Bars (t)


steel (A3) (t)


(Circumferential (Circumferential (Circumferential













Anchor box
of steel
(Q345) (t)



Strand (t)






Anchors (set)






fee (10,000











Table 3.21 Tower project number and cost comparison of different materials.
Concrete (m3)

Concrete pylon

Steel tower

Combined tower



Bars (t)




Steel (t)




Construction fee (RMB)






Strand (t)

Construction-installation ratio

Note: Tower engineering to scheme comparison of early value, little different from the
final design recommendations.
As can be seen, towers of concrete, steel towers, tower of steel-concrete composite
construction cost ratios of about 1 : 3.163 : 1.480.
Example 3.37. Taizhou Tabgtze River Bridge Tower of steel tower with concrete tower
concrete structure of the tower two, a steel tower of a scheme is shown in Table 3.22.
Table 3.22 Side tower plan comparison.
Tower plan

Tower scheme one

Tower scheme two

Tower number

costs (10,000
Cost ratio

Concrete tower:
Concrete tower: a concrete light
ktype concrete beams beam crossing with a steel cross
web portfolio

Steel towers: a
k-cross beam







Scheme Comparison


Analysis according to Table 3.22, steel tower cost concrete tower 2.6 times, therefore,
finally, concrete tower scheme as a recommendation.
Example 3.38. Tower of Jiaojiang bridge scheme comparison.
Scenario comparison and selection of design after several rounds of tower, tower
concentration in bud form, on a diamond-shaped and Vase-shaped, as shown in Fig. 3.94.
According to the consultants, observations on the three towers has done to further
optimisation. Table 3.23 is a three-tower design renderings and the material quantity, cost

Fig. 3.94 Three tower schemes (a) diamond-shaped tower; (b) bud-shaped tower; (c) a
vase-shaped tower.
Table 3.23 Comparison of three-towers-jiaojiang bridge.
Quantity (m3, a single Suo Taji)
Construction fee (10,000 yuan) (based on full
bridge two meter)
Construction installation ratio

about 10683

Flower bud Vaseshape








Recommended solutions

recommendation selection


By comparison, diamond-shaped tower construction cost, construction technology,

vertical small frontal area, clear, and thus finally this scheme was adopted.

3.4.3 General Layout of 3 Impact on Economic Indicators

Based programmes had a great influence on the bridge in economic indicators, especially
deep water foundation, tend to invest in full-bridge 30%~40%, and greater risk of deep
water foundation construction, often concerns the success or failure of the bridge.
Therefore, a good concept based gage foundation (including the method of its
construction) must have the construction risk, duration can be controlled and economical
characteristics, and economic design of the foundation is also one of the highlights of the
whole design.
Example 3.39. Tower of Taizhou Changjiang River Bridge pile foundation and caisson
scheme comparison.
Rounded rectangular open caisson well plane size is 58.2 m 44.1 m, fillet radius 7.95
m, to facilitate suction soil sinks, layout of open caisson for the 12 12.7 m 12.7 m
large hole. Because of sinking depth deep, surrounding wells is set to round end shape,
Arch formed to resist water pressure, in order to facilitate sinking, in arch has a diameter
of 1.0 m water hole.
Use rounded rectangular open caisson (Fig. 3.95), the pier scour elevation 19.27 m,
scour elevation 59.57 m, caisson bearing layer selection-68.88 m gravel sand layer. Taking
into account the erosion and changes affecting the river, sinking bottom elevation
production 70.00 m, in order to prevent the ship hit the tower, top of sinking well
exposed above the highest navigable water, elevation to + 6.0 m, open caisson high 76 m.

Fig. 3.95 Three-tower suspension bridge towers in rectangular open caisson solution (unit:
Main tower of bored piles with 118 root f3.1 m/2.8 m bored piles (steel pipe diameter
3.1 m), as shown in Fig. 3.96. Friction piles, plum blossom decorate bottom of pile height
110 m, 106 m bottom of pile bearing stratum for gravelly sand. Caps shuttle shape, flat
feet inch is 87.4 m 67 m. Cap above the highest navigable the cap crest + 6 m, cap 10 m,
sealing concrete thickness 2.5 m to prevent the ship impact pile, lateral sealing concrete
along the cap end of a local thickening. Table 3.24 shows bridge caisson and scheme of
bored pile works.

Fig. 3.96 Tower suspension bridge pile foundation program (unit: mm).
Comprehensive comparison of the recommended solutions based on open caisson.
Example 3.40. Tower of Jiaojiang bridge scheme comparison.
According to geological data were furnished with the friction pile and pile embedded

in rock, as shown in Figs. 3.97, 3.98. Friction piles with 2.5 m pile diameter, 48 numbers
of pile of length 108 m. Variable diameter rock-socketed piles and pile diameter from 2.9
m change to 2.6 m, 24 numbers of pile at North Tower with an average length of about
115 m, the South Tower, with an average length of about 135 m. By calculation, allowable
value of axial compressive bearing capacity of single pile of 68230 kN, pile total lateral
resistance of 8049kN (12%), the total lateral resistance of rock-socketed segment 22393
kN (33%), the total resistance is 37789 kN (55%).
Table 3.24 Caisson drilling pile schemes.
Concrete (m3)
Project volume

Programme drilled

Caisson pile

Bars (t)



Steel (t)




49850.81 (the sinking ratio 1.58)



Construction costs (10,000 yuan),

Duration (months)

Total 60 m of open caisson (Fig. 3.99), elevation 55.17 m, top height + 4.83 m
Caisson Song Festival 15 m steel concrete caisson, the remaining segments for 45 m high
concrete open caisson concrete strength class C35 underwater, cutting edge of plate wall
16 mm and the remaining wall thickness of steel segment 8 mm, concrete wall thickness
of 1.2 m, 8 mm steel shell concrete wall insulation thickness. The bearing layer containing
clay roundstone (4-2), the fa0 = 320 kPa. Three basic scenarios shown in Table 3.25.
Table 3.25 Side tower plan comparison.
Type of
Flat size (m)

Embedded rock pile

Friction pile foundation Sunk shaft
Raft was hexagonal, 45.2 Cap was hexagonal, 57.7 Round-ended,
56 32

Total height (m) Average length 125m,

Average length of 108m,
variable diameter 2.9 m diameter 2.5 m, 3 m + 5
2.6 m, Cap thickness 6.0 m m = 8 m Cap thickness


Settlement (mm) Except piles of rocksocketed pile compression


Settlement since has

entered the highly
weathered rock
formations, sink

Very small
reduction 244
(bridge later

Full bridge cable 50532

tower foundation
concrete (m3)







Fig. 3.97 Pipe pile foundation of Yokohama Bay Bridge (unit: mm).

Fig. 3.98 Main pile foundation of Yokohama Bay Bridge (unit: mm).

3.4.4 Impact of General layout on Economic Indicators

Investments in construction methods directly related to the bridge, under normal
circumstances, a certain bridge engineering, construction companies are often will be
based on its own experience and equipment, choosing the most economical solution
construction in order to gain the maximum profit, and owners tend to focus on duration,
project quality, and capital investment. An excellent construction enterprise must be able
to fully take into account a variety of factors, construction innovation, advanced
equipment, security technology, advanced management of quality, technology,
construction and profit in a win-win.
Construction itself, closely related to design and construction method, a design may
have a number of options for construction method of construction experts in special
studies of needs and optimal construction method. In many cases, the design is more
specific (past construction method can not be applied), or construction requirements are

relatively harsh (a similar construction method where did not have the conditions
imposed), concept design must take into account specific construction methods.

Fig. 3.99 Caisson Foundation scheme (unit: mm).

Example 3.41. Construction of Yajisha bridge scheme selection.
Traditional construction method of arch bridge cable erection method, brackets and so
on, but as the bridge span increases, construction equipment and temporary facilities costs
rising sharply, long duration and high cost disadvantages, and there in the upper section
assembly, welding quality guarantee. Yajisha bridge will have a span of 360 m, vector 76
m, using traditional construction methods, in terms of possibilities and an economic
rationality, it is not desirable.
Combination of bridge and bridge of Yajisha bridge features of open space and
convenient sea transport across the Taiwan Strait, of main arch installation puts forward
three lifting, such as Kapyong turn whole floating, vertical construction program.
1. The three stage lifting scheme. To meet the requirements of navigation, the main arch
was divided into three segments, segment of each side is 70 m, the field is 204 m.
Both segments separately in bridge erection bracket assembly, middle 204 m Yaji
group after a spell on the sand, slip into barges floating transported to the bridge,
vertical lift in place closing (Fig. 3.100).
2. The whole floating programme. The programme overall float to the main arch span
of 344 m bridge installed, in order to reduce work on the water (Fig. 3.101). By
sliding the track moved to arch the whole barge, submerged barges, each 120 m long,

30 m wide, mass 15000t.

3. The kapyong turn vertical programmes. Considering the condition of bridge site open
space on both sides and reduce Spider-man, the main arch rib-installation production
kapyong turn vertical construction scheme, quality of vertical rotation 2058t,
horizontal rotation quality as 13865t, horizontal rotation quality as the largest Fig.

Fig. 3.100 Three stage lifting scheme (unit: mm).

Fig. 3.101 Whole floating scheme (unit: mm).

Fig. 3.102 Kapyong turn vertical programmes.

4. The Scheme Selection

(i) Three lifting and rotation programme various operating conditions calculations are to

meet the design requirements, it is technically feasible. Three stage lifting scheme of arch
bracket assembled on the bridge, bridge alignment easier to control, middle section of
main arch by temporary tie rod alignment adjust shape, while keeping the structure system
transformation is more complicated. Swing construction programmes take full advantage
of the side arches and across half an arch formation self balancing system, large diameter
loop ensures that the balance is in the rotary process, enough of the factor of safety against
overturning and adjustment buckle Suo Lali, can make the side arches and a main arch
during the rotation process in an optimal stress state, but using high-precision synchronous
lifting technique. Whole floating hoisting transport Fulcrum 53 m vault of 88 m transport
system for variable structure, risk is too big. And because of inadequate treatment, bridge
caused a number of residual stress in the cross section is too large, has obvious flaws in
the technology.
(ii) Three stage lifting scheme of peacetime construction influences on waterway is small,
but because the waterway favour south, scaffolding and construction trestle occupied main
channel waters and waterways, department continues expanding to the north, and set
emergency turn-around bridge upstream and downstream areas, and smaller ships waiting
parking area, in the interest of navigational safety. Middle section of main arch floating,
positioning, lifting both construction procedures need to cover, such as homework, in
order to ensure Hong Kong normal production, requires two 24 h completed within a
climatic ebb and, unable to carry out continuous operation.
Erection scheme of main arch assembled on shore, changed a lot of Spider-man for the
ground operation. Because the clearance under the main arch much greater than the design
navigation clearance, in the process without cover, Swivel, to minimise the impacts on
(iii) Three hoisting assembly bracket and lifting scaffolding upto 60 m, a larger amount of
material, temporarily tied several times adjustable the entire, complex operation. Due to
the side effects of supports on channel, it is necessary to widen the waterway, while deeper
draught barges required for floating van surrounding waters for dredging, and aerial
operations required compensation for the shipping sector, incurred large costs and difficult
to estimate.
Swing construction programme despite an increase of some agreed temporary works,
and rotation construction requires high-precision synchronous lifting equipment, but less
uncertainty, project cost control.
(iv) Three stage lifting scheme can be of rotation programme and processes work in
parallel, can shorten the duration.
Comprehensive comparison, swivel construction plan is safe and reliable, with
minimal impact on waterway, short duration, economy, experts demonstrated many times,
review determined to implement the programme. Swing construction successfully
completed on October 24, 1999.
Example 3.42. Anchor block of Taizhou Changjiang River Bridge construction method of
comparison with economy.

Fig. 3.103 Diagram of anchor structure (North anchor) (unit: cm) (a) side facade; (b)
Rectangular open caisson foundation programmes: general arrangement to reduce the
overturning moment, anchoring, anchoring base with eccentric reset hole in the back
filling grouting in rock ballast, so that more uniform stress under dead load. Due to the
supporting layer of silty sand North Coast as far South Bank is deeply buried, so North
anchorage of caisson sizes larger than south anchorage. Sinking plane dimension of north
anchor with 52.0 m 58.8 m sink caisson depth 57 m, floor 1610.8 m 12.5 m borehole;
the South anchor with 50.0 m 56.8 m, open caisson high 51 m, layout of open caisson
for the 16 10.3 m 12.0 m large hole. Section wall thickness at the end of 2.15 m, the

remaining wall thickness 2.0 m, wall thickness 1.6 m sink hole section of 10 m for
concrete-filled steel and the remaining section of reinforced concrete. Sealing concrete 10
m, covers an average thickness of 5 m. Steel Q235 steel, concrete C30, sealing concrete
water C30, C40 manhole cover concrete. Knot frame as shown in Figs. 3.103, 3.104.

Fig. 3.104 Diagram of anchor structure (North anchor) (unit: cm).

Underground continuous wall base surface can be arranged into rectangles and circles
in two scenarios. While working with a circular cross-section in construction of
underground continuous wall of reasonable strength, but due to anchor the bottom section
is rectangular, round base with rectangular cross-section does not match the anchorage,
rounded volume large, uneconomic. Underground continuous wall of rectangular layout is
very compact, and longitudinal stiffness, reasonable force as a whole, the composite
diaphragm wall foundation considers only rectangular plan.

Fig. 3.105 Of north anchor underground continuous wall chart (unit: cm) (a) I-I profile;
(b) floor plan.
North anchor underground continuous wall foundation: its structure and open caisson
structure the same size as north anchor wall anchorage to the substrate 29 m, structure is
shown in Fig. 3.105.

Design according to the comparison (Table 3.26), featured rectangular open caisson
foundation programme.
Table 3.26 Underground continuous wall of sink well and plan comparison table (North of
anchorage, for example).


Rectangular open caisson


Rectangular diaphragm wall


Bars (t)


7 953

Steel (t)






Duration (months)

1. Related to climate and meteorological data analysis what are the basic parameters in
which designers can use? And brief usage.
2. Please tell us your main factors on bridge site selection.
3. The brief span several main span of the bridge economy and limit.
4. Would you please talk about the advantages and disadvantages of self-anchored
5. Briefly mix based on applicable conditions.
6. Select landscape when you tell us what type of bridge requirements and control
investment relationship.

[1] The sea sails. Conceptual Design of Large-span Bridge Problems//proceedings of
the 16th National Conference on bridges. Beijing: China Communications Press,
[2] Ocean sail. Reflection on Chinese Economic Problems of Bridge. Bridge, 2010. 4.
[3] Haifan, et al. Introduction to Civil Engineering. Beijing: Peoples Communications
Press, 2007.
[4] The Lei Junqing, Zheng Mingzhu, Xu Gongyi. Suspension Bridge Design. Beijing:
Peoples Communications Press, 2002.
[5] Shao Changyu, Lu Yongcheng. Technical Characteristics of Shanghai Changjiang
River Bridge//proceedings of the 17th National Conference on bridges. Beijing:
peoples China Communications Press, 2006.
[6] In Highway Planning and Design Institute, et al. preliminary design of SuzhouNantong Yangtze River Bridge project across the river. 2002.11.
[7] Jiangsu Provincial Highway Traffic Planning and Design Institute etc. Taizhou
Yangtze River Highway Bridge Crossing the River Bridge Project Preliminary
Design, 2006.10.
[8] The Research Institute of Tongji University Architectural Design (Group) Co., Ltd.
Jiaojiang bridge preliminary design and wiring engineering. 2008.
[9] Dou Wenjun. The Choice of Large-span Cable-stayed Bridge Main Pier Location.
1994 International Symposium of the Conference of the cable-stayed bridge.
[10] Yin Haohui. Construction Scheme of Main Arch of Guangzhou Yajisha Bridge
Option. Guangdong Highway Transportation, 1999 (4).
[11] He Zonghua. Urban Light Rail Transit Engineering Design Guides. Beijing: China
Architecture and Building Press, 1993.
[12] Yi Lunxiong, Gao Zongyu. New Record of High Speed Railway BridgeBridge of
Nanjing Dashengguan. The bridge, 2009 (4).
[13] The Peoples Republic of China Industry Standards. CJJ 69-95 Technical
Specifications of Urban Pedestrian Overcrossing and Underpass. Beijing: China
Building Press, 1995.
[14] The Peoples Republic of China Industry Standards. JTG D60-2004 General
Specification for Design of Highway Bridges and Culverts. Beijing: peoples
Traffic Publisher, 2004.
[15] The Peoples Republic of China industry standards. CJJ 11-93 City Bridge Design
Standards. Beijing: China Architecture and Building Publishing, 1993.
[16] The Peoples Republic of China Industry Standards. TB 10002. 1-2005 of Railway
Bridge and Culvert Design Specifications. Beijing: China Railway Publisher, 2005.
[17] In Shanghai Municipal Engineering Construction Standard. DGJ-08-109 Code for

Design of Urban Rail Transit in 2004.

[18] Anton Peterson, Zhang Jinping. Cross-channel ChallengeNorthern and Longspan Bridges in the World. The Bridge, 2009 (5).



Conceptual design is based on safety, utility, economy and beauty, durability and
protection principle in order to bridge engineering and related disciplines knowledge and
practical experience on the basis of (large bridges in particular requires a multidisciplinary
approach), with technical innovation as the goal, make suitable natural conditions, to meet
with functional design. Concept design is the soul of design.
Due to the condition of building the bridge is different, it is impossible to copy others
outstanding design achievements, however, we can learn people managed to design
thinking, grasp its essence, together, become a rich source of our conceptual design.
Learning, research the innovative ideas and design concepts, as well as successful
experience is learning to concept design, innovative ideas important ways.
For this reason, this chapter from the following view descriptions, analyse the
successful conception of philosophy and its distinctive design.
1. The bridge scheme and general layout ideas. Bridge scheme refers to all kinds of
bridge the conception and selection, overall including the layout and facades the span
and cross-section layout, etc., containing the main navigation span settings, side
spans, towers, piers and girders and other major structures, study on the structure and
support system, and so on. It is the overall layout considerations and decision-making
of conceptual design for structure, concept design fully reflects the basis and
guarantee of six design principles.
2. Technical innovation in the bridge program. Mr. Man-Chung Tang, a bridge
engineer said, if you do not try to in the design of each as much as possible to
improve, then it does not fulfill the obligation of the engineer. Natural conditions and
the functional requirements of each bridge vary, provided through research and ideas,
creating groundbreaking technology solutions and become a technology of
conceptual design flash points of light, is technological innovation. A bridge
program, the pursuit of 1~2 innovative ideas, worthy of our bridge technicians work
more efforts and re-double their diligence.
3. Bridge program consideration of landscape. Comparison and selection of bridge
schemes conceived and is based on the principles of economical and suitable for all
bridge programme should be accord with aesthetic principles. For the city an
important bridge to living in the city (region) demand for landscape designers will be
become an important factor in order to fully meet the needs of landscape functions.
This would need to be designed to rely on wisdom find a balance point of six design
principles and purpose.
4. Records span the right concept: Maximum span of each bridge there is a current
record, there are also bridges performance and its limitation span of the current
material properties (see Chapter 3, Section 3.3.2), and they are developing and

changing. It is very important task is to establish the overall layout of main

navigation span, a record span the overall layout of the very important task is to
identify the main navigation span, a record span of the bridge is the idea of the
outcome of the overall layout of a special cases, its special is made up of natural
conditions (including geology, topography and water depth, etc.) and shipping
capability request form. Conceptual breakthrough long-span bridge to record
programmes, in particular, we would like to emphasise the application of economic
principles and, establish a correct idea of philosophy.
Finally won the outstanding structure award will systematically introduce other
bridge (other award-winning bridge in this chapter, or its he is introduced in the
section), in order to facilitate the reader to fully understand and absorb their design


Many factors affecting the bridge scheme and general layout, such as a river, hydrology,
meteorology, topography, geology, climate, environment, construction conditions and high
aviation limited, port terminals, landscapes, and so on. In considering how under these
restrictive conditions, structure think economy, construction convenient bridge scheme
and layout, we need to have the boldness and innovation capacity. Here are a few
conceived scheme and general layout of the bridge phase of successful experiences.

4.1.1 Tsing Ma Bridge in Hong Kong

Design Idea: According to the topographical differences on both sides and side of Tsing
Yi Road interchange arrangement requested by asymmetric cross, cross-and Ma Wan side
of tower two-span suspension bridges that span suspension concept is also the longest
clear span of road-railway suspension bridge.
Referring to the benefits of stiffening truss Liang Hang lane Central ventilation and
closed box section of wind-resistant high effectiveness and low drag co-efficient of
potential, proposes streamlined cladding of stainless steel with double girder design and
enclosed double box girder of the central slots combines concepts.

1. Selection of Bridge Schemes

Feasibility studies began in 1978, in detail a series of programmes linking North Shore
city, and Ma Wan. In order to reach across the Strait, using bridges, sunk pipe tunnel and
into the tunnel of the three programmes and carry out economic and technological to
demonstrate and compare three scenarios-building costs were 1.45, 1.44 and 1.75 billion
Three programmes for across the straits from the design and construction, maintenance
and operation costs, limit traffic adaptability, flexibility, ring shipping of environmental
impact and vulnerability assessment in every respect. From view point of numbers alone,
drilling has been ruled out of the tunnel, which cost significantly more than the other two
programmes, construction issues, as far as the bridge, under normal weather conditions, its
construction speed faster than alternatives the Czech Republic, especially the sunk pipe
tunnel, since the tunnel dug with the shop, but also to make some previous discussions and
leak-plus works. But under severe weather conditions, its building efficiency and far
exceeds that of other programmes, because it is outside the scope of architecture is
separated from outside, so it is not affected by weather and environmental influences.
Moreover, the suspension bridge finished, due to strong winds by reducing its transport
In terms of flexibility, drawbridge can be said to be the fastest growing one, because it
consists of the original four-line development to after eight lines, both proceed from the
bridge itself, just at the right place in building more roads would have been enough, but
the other two programmes, the need to increase the lane, you must be build a new tunnel
and, therefore, in terms of cost and time, and should bridge the economy. Last used

Suspension Bridge.

2. Overall Layout
Tsing Ma Bridges main span the width of navigation under the bridge, here to hang a
width of 1200 m, east of the bridge tower was built on the shore, while the West Tower
was built-in where the water is relatively shallow, and therefore decided to bridge the most
economical main span of 1377 m, 2160 m (Fig. 4.1).

Fig. 4.1 Facade layout (size: m).

Six-lane separated from the upper deck of the bridge layout is bi-directional roads,
lower level is a double-track railway lines and two single-lane closures highway.
Side of Tsing Yi Island, steep terrain, severe restrictions on the new highway
interchange, 3rd. As the shore the water is very deep, route plan calls for starting with the
main line at Lane approach roads from the bridge tower.
Depth on the shore of Tsing Yi Island and tower was built on the shore, highway
interchange lines prevented the side span suspension bridges programme, approach
supported by four hollow reinforced concrete piers consisting of 72 m long-span, and
equipped with overhead lines between Anchorage and later cable. Ma Wan side towers
built near an undersea Continental Shelf offshore 350 m, towers built around an anti-ship
collision strike protection of Islands, this is final 1377 m inter-and 355 m in Ma Wan sidespan suspension bridge with two spans of the arrangement.
East pylon foundation of reinforced concrete spread foundation, each tower foundation
for long 27 m wide, 19 m, 7 m, based on coagulation direct placement 7 m deep in the
rock pit, the top surface flush with the bank, for offshore reasons, based with steel rods
were painted epoxy resin layer to prevent corrosion. Near Ma Wan Island is based on the
tower consists of two 28 m long, 20 m width and 16 m high fabricated steel made of
reinforced concrete caissons. When first put in the water of the seabed surface blasting out
of rough stone floors, finishing, the tug towed the caisson to the foundation office, add
water, sinking, sinking it to the design height. Depth here is about 10 m, a caisson
concrete, forming a giant bridge tower foundations. Four weeks plus a stone layer and
caisson breakwater, forming an artificial island, to protect the tower structure is to
damaged of vessels. Fig. 4.2 shows the photos of Tsing Ma Bridge in Hong Kong.

Fig. 4.2 Tsing Ma Bridge in Hong Kong.

3. Study of Bridge Structure

Since in the 1940, of the 20th century since the Tacoma Narrows Bridge was destroyed by
the wind and aerodynamics research shows that surfaces of suspension bridge benefits of
stiffening truss carriageway with central ventilation, this form of ventilation has been
reflected in the forth road bridge in Scotland. However, other studies have also shown that
closed box section of wind-resistant efficacy and resistance co-efficient is low.
Immediately after the Forth Bridge Design England, Severn Bridge has a main span of
similar, stiffening girder box-section is used.
Nasty windy climate, the Tsing Ma Bridge requires optimal aerodynamic efficiency, so
the composite study on the forth bridge severn bridge and the main potential benefits of
performance. The Tsing Ma Bridge, the last of the double box-section truss stiffening
structure and non-structure edge deck units, streamlined appearance, providing upper and
lower longitudinal ventilation, to increase stability.
Original design, only road and rail link to the airport, and container berths on Lantau
will go through the Tsing Ma Bridge, the latter this passage has also been preserved, for
the bad weather. This round-the-clock capability through the lower aerodynamic
performance good stainless steel case cover rail and two road lanes to reach.
Section includes two final 6.3 m high longitudinal trusses, 30 m, which supports lane
cross interaction of orthotropic deck plate provides flexural rigidity, hollow horizontal
framework supported above the longitudinal diagonal bracing trusses, stiffening Liang
Hang lane components together. Non-structure 1.5 mm stainless steel baffle plate edge of
the shell surface, upper deck dual carriageway between 3.5 m wide vertical vents spaced
railway mainly within the box, located in the central 12 m vertical vents on either side are
two hidden highway lanes (Fig. 4.3).

Fig. 4.3 Facade layout (size: m).

Aerodynamic testing bridge models to monitor the different arrangement of ventilation
when the size, position, and orientation of the edge detail bridge surface performance. To
change the upper and lower ventilation effects separately, while the upper vent width from
9.4 m reduction to 2 m, remain satisfied with the critical wind speed and amplitude of the
Eddy current divergence decreases. When the width of the lower ventilation changes,
discovered eddy flow divergence amplitudes decrease, needs on both sides of the tracks
have a short closed length. In both cases, come to a totally closed ventilation can lead to a
sharp decline in critical wind velocity of conclusions.

Fig. 4.4 Section space renderings.

Cross-section aerodynamic testing to prove there is no divergent oscillation which
measurement of swirl diverging oscillations. This is what happens when wind speed is
low, the amplitude size and frequency is acceptable. Due to the lack of actual Typhoon air
flow pattern near the center of information, so the bridge is at risk. Wind deck
performance is in a horizontal tilt of 7.5 to 5 determination. But there should be
emphasized under test only, in order to understand the section in wind acts include a larger
point of view, and does not reflect a projected bridge site conditions. Fig. 4.4 shows
section space renderings.

4.1.2 Tsing Ma Bridge in Hong Kong

Design idea: according to the terrain and waterway conditions, selected from among more
than three-tower cable-stayed bridge scheme, which does not use more than more
expensive rigid tower design, instead of using stable cable and plug in the cable tower of
steel anchor box and beam, transverse cable, steel-concrete composite beams with
combined structure, such as a series of distinctive design and construction.
Ting Kau Bridge is the 3rd most important part of the route, the bridge tunnel in north
main line of country park, across the Rambler Channel South Tsing Yi and Lantau Link
and can be provide the North-West New Territories to the Chek Lap Kok new airport,
Kowloon and Hong Kong Islands convenient channel.
Bridge navigation headroom requirement is 240 m wide, high 62 m channel. If there is
a Tower located in the Strait, plus ship collision protection system to guarantee total
tonnage of vessels of upto 220000 DWT without disturbing the fairway to the piers. 250 m
continues minimum width of the anti-collision facilities a safe distance so that the
minimum span between the towers of 300 m, and headroom is limited to the bridge towers
higher than 220 m, since Hong Kong is often affected by Typhoon, bridge design for 3s
gusts of 200-year flood event for 300 km/h.
Survey results show that at Ting Kau coast, fine grained porphyritic granite are in the
land of 2~3 m, in Rambler Channel seabed stratigraphic layers for marine sediments, rock
and alluvium of the original soil, 26 m thick layer of marine sediments of raw soil from
under the very soft composed of weathered volcanic Tuff and granite of Tsing Yi Island,
waterway center maximum depth of 25 m.

1. Tower Cable Stayed Bridge with Three Spans (Main Span of 420 m)
In order to facilitate the project bid, the Government commissioned a consultant engineer
to do a feasibility design, bridge-like facade decorated for 140 m + 420 m + 140 m tower
cable stayed bridge with three spans (Fig. 4.5), pylons as folding legs h-shaped, PC box
girder bridge is a single room, beam 6 m, a tower pier is located shore of Tsing Yi Island,
while another pylon located on an artificial island in the Strait.

Fig. 4.5 Twin towers three-span cable-stayed bridge scheme (unit: m).

2. Single-span Suspension Bridge

This design for the cross-river, the advantage is avoiding built piers in the channel,
eliminating the expensive ship collision with protective facilities built, elevation layout for
140 m + 900 m + 140 m suspension bridge (Fig. 4.6), the bridge beams with vertical bars
of pure-warren truss-free, total thickness 5 m, plus stainless steel streamlined oval
veneered on both sides, so as to reduce wind resistance. Main beam is provided by two
main truss elements, because of its resistance to torsion enormous stiffness, deck light,

construction is easy. 220 m, a-pylon could increase the torsional stability of the tower
itself, or cancellation in addition to the traditional design for main cables of suspension
bridge caused by reversing the effect, two steel cables diameter of 77 cm, near bridge
main span towers one-fourth midspan, two main cable connected form for single cable
form, thus increasing torsional stiffness and reduced the main cables of the bridge tower of
torque, would count as a new design. However, after the review believes that this is the
most expensive option.

Fig. 4.6 Single-span suspension bridge scheme (unit: m).

3. Dual-Tower Cable Stayed Bridge with three Spans (Main Span of 900
This is the programme instead of cable-stayed bridge of single span suspension bridge
above, and 146 m + 900 m + 146 m of main tower of three-span double cable plane cablestayed the bridge (Fig. 4.7), the two 146 m there are two auxiliary side of pier, bridge
towers as a tilted h-shaped deck for the inverted trapezoid, add beam in steel box girder of
main span is 5 m high, plus streamlined cladding on both sides, while the side span for 5
m PC four-cell box girder, increased to reduce the upward tension caused by its main span.
Cable adopts France Normandy galvanised steel wire beams design concepts in parallel, in
order to facilitate installation and maintenance. This disadvantage is the main span and
side spans quite uneven, pull upward at the side spans have a great foundation special

Fig. 4.7 Twin towers three-span cable-stayed bridge scheme (unit: m).

4. Three-tower Cable-stayed Bridge

Bridge-like facade decorated for 136 m + 450 m + 450 m + 136 m a four-span cablestayed bridge with three towers (Fig. 4.8), on either side across a auxiliary piers. This
programme compared with the 900 m cable-stayed bridge, except in the middle of adding
a Rambler towers and cables volume is nearly cut in half. Bridge tower in the middle of
the sea-bed, happens to have a prominent landforms, natural location used to emplace

bridges pier. PC girder of 5 m high six-cell box girder, with a balance of on-site pouring
concrete in construction law, construction of main girder at speeds up to daily 1 m. All in
all, programmes in terms of aesthetic, economic, construction, construction and
construction costs than other programmes a plus. This programme and final programme is
very similar.

Fig. 4.8 Twin towers three-span cable-stayed bridge scheme (unit: m).
In January 1994, the department chose seven qualified companies to carry out the
design and construction methods of bidding, according to owners of existing designs,
bidders to present their design and cost. Through the commercial and technical
assessment, the lowest bidders won. Finally, successful programs at 17. HK $ 3.8 billion.

Fig. 4.9 Elevation of Ting Kau Bridge layout (size: m).

Ting Kau Bridge is a four-span continuous steel-concrete composite girder cablestayed bridge with three towers, its span into 127 m + 448 m + 475 m + 127 m, with a
total length 1177 m, see Fig. 4.9.
This design feature is the tower of the bridge structure, long circular section concrete
column is used, while in the horizontal steel structure and cable to be widened, forming
width necessary for supporting girders.
Main girder of the bridge into a trough steel plate welded open sections of the steel
beams. Steel channel beam height 1500 mm, flange on the top surface lay 250 mm thick
pre-fabricated reinforced concrete bridge deck. Steel channel beam and deck are separated
by 19 mm of high strength bolt (STUD) combined. Girder steel Liang Quangao 1750 mm.

Fig. 4.10 Ting Kau Bridge.

As a four-span cable-stayed bridge with three towers, the central tower, designers
turned away abandoned a costly programme of rigid towers, and using an additional
Tower is stable approach to stiffness of the central tower of the cable required. Stable
cable on each side a total of 4, is located in between two sets of main beam 5.8 m free
range, stable cable bolted to the top of the tower at the top of steel anchor box, anchored at
the bottom to set two group on the anchor beams between girders. Fig. 4.10 shows the
photos of Tsing Ma Bridge in Hong Kong.
Tower from Tower Pier of the bridge to the top since the Central Suo Tagao 157.35 m,
the towers of each side is 129.35 m (Ting Kau coast) and 120.35 m (Tsing Yi coast).
Towers are long circular reinforced concrete column section, central main pylon for 10 m
(portrait) 5 m (horizontal), towers on either side are the 8 m (portrait) 5 m (landscape).
In the soffit, towers and tower columns of horizontal steel beams, bracing, transverse cable
composed of steel structural scaffold tower widens to a total width of 50 m. Two groups
respectively in Suo Tachu is supported on the steel supporting frame for main girder of
steel beam (Fig. 4.11).

Fig. 4.11 Layout and structure of tower (size: m) (a) Main tower column cross section; (b)
Main pylon; (c) Tower.
Tower anchorage of cable-stayed, the bridge used in concrete pagoda design of lateral

anchorage of column of steel anchor box, this can be obligate omitted in the tower body,
casting anchor link, on the installation of steel anchor box for cable, stretching and
provides jobs platform, especially for four-cable-plane cable-stayed bridge of this bridge,
this design shows more advantages (Fig. 4.12), as shown in Fig. 4.13 construction photos.

Fig. 4.12 Cable-Tower anchor structure.

Fig. 4.13 Construction photos.

4.1.3 The Tsurumi Channel Bridge

Design idea: according to the main and auxiliary channel and channel dimension as well
as the request of the two bridges is arranged in parallel without auxiliary piers the
maximum span single cable plane cable-stayed bridge concept and increasing tower height
to improve rigidity and horizontal cable between the taliang and resistance to improve the
Condition of building the bridge: Bridge, effective road width of 29 m, containing wind
up 38 m; main channel of 450 m 49 m, auxiliary lanes on both sides 200 m 25 m air;
deep 12 m, two parallel bridges in urban planning, which 49.75 m; flutter testing wind of

74.4 m/s; seismic intensity = 7.8~8.2 level.

According to the channel required, cross-cross 510 m, side 254 m.
Due to the 1 : 2 of side, cross-ratio, span and cannot be located within the secondary
pier, side live load deflection in particular, in order to reduce the load reduce cable stress
and deflection, and require an increase in tower height, dominated the economic height of
the tower across a span of 0.2~0.25, the bridge takes 0.25, so the height from the base of
the tower is 180 m at the top (Fig. 4.14).

Fig. 4.14 Elevation of Ting Kau Bridge layout (size: m).

Two bridges is arranged in parallel so that cables may appear chaotic complex, and
finally decided to adopt the single-cable-stayed bridge.
Flat steel box girders, box office, beam height 4 m (Fig. 4.15).
Because of single cable plane cable-stayed bridge of torsional stiffness for double rope
bridge with only one-fifth, which is parallel to the bridge, likely at low wind speed chatter
and the center barrier needs to be increased to raise the bridge when wind resistance.
Tower Vase-shaped, lower pylon column size to take in, in appearance to increase tower
base using pneumatic caisson construction, more than the cofferdam relief and not enough
spacing between the two bridges tower is less than 3 m (Fig. 4.15).
Tower height, wind loads, the rigidity of main beam and longitudinal beam with
horizontal elastic rope and spiral damper main beam elastic joint between the tower and
reduced beam longitudinal and horizontal cable in seismic stability (Fig. 4.16 & 4.17).
Home about 250 m3 concrete ballast beam placement.

Fig. 4.15 Tsurumi channel bridge girders and tower (unit: mm).

Fig. 4.16 Tower and a horizontal cable connection structure.

Fig. 4.17 Propeller type damping device.


Concept scheme requires in-depth study and understanding of the natural conditions and
function, through repeated thinking, constantly changes, and more comparison and
selection, to form the technical improvements and technical innovations of design works.
Innovation in technical innovation requires designers to establish a correct concept,
rejection of plagiarism, not content to imitate, not blind pursuit of firsts and best.
Reflections on innovation from the. As elaborated in chapter 1th, the innovative three
ask (Why? Why not? What if?) Is shabby, establishing new forms of reasonable and
prudent technology trilogy.
Following the introduction of composite structure bridge also experienced such
innovation development process, since entering the 21st century, by in concrete bridge and
the problems of orthotropic steel bridge decks and disease continue to be found to make
composite structures has been in Europe and America States and Japan bridge area
recognition and application, the technology has been further research and development.
Explain some of the best technical innovations in the bridge program and its results.

4.2.1 Denmark Oresund BridgeSteel Truss Composite

Design Ideas: as one of the largest composite structure with long span bridge, a good
representation of the composite structure bridges the past half century development. The
bridge with double-deck structure, upper level concrete slab width 25 m, directly
supported by the two main truss top chord. Because common cizongliang in the steel
bridge and beams are omitted here.
The Oresund bridge, concretes role is not only to vehicle load transfer to the main
truss, also increase the transverse stability, and form part of a closed frame. The closed
frame is from the lower box-shaped diagonal steel beams, truss and steel truss, on holding
between chords composed of concrete.
Oresund bridge with a total length of 8 km, is likely to be the largest composite
structure bridge, but it may be surpassed by the Feynman Strait Bridge. The bridge
between the Taiwan Strait continues to approach spans with a total length of about 16km.
(Referenced above Denmark Professor Ji Muxin as SEI Volume 20, Number 2, 2010
composite construction album write introduction.)
Full 16 km Oresund Cross-Sea project, made up of three parts, of which 7.8 km
bridge, 4 km road on the island, 3.8 km cross harbour tunnel and the coast extends to 0.4
km, connecting Denmark Copenhagen and Swedens third-largest city of Malmo, in
Started in 1995, was completed in July 2000.
Layout 140 m + 160 m + 490 m + 160 m + 140 m = 1090 m main channel bridge of
long-span, steel truss composite girder rail for two use double-deck, upper level is a 4-lane

highway, the lower level is double-line railway bridge navigation clearance of 57 m. Main
tower is an h-shaped bridge tower stayed-cable of the harp-shaped parallel cable (Fig.

Fig. 4.18 The Oresund Bridge.

Fig. 4.19 Railway concrete channel beam construction.

Of stiffening girder steel truss composite girder, upper transverse post-tensioning
prestressed concrete bridge deck, the lower level is concrete channel beam (Fig. 4.19)
combined with the steel structure as a whole, thereby reducing rail noise, improve overall
strength, across the trusses transverse forms a seal closed steel box. Truss rods angle of
about 30 and 60, inclination can match the cable inclination angle, pull cable anchor
solid lies on the same outrigger truss diagonal angle. For hollow rectangular bar full of
steel truss girder welding, rod is equipped with de-humidification system to improve the
durability of trusses (Fig. 4.20 and 4.21).
Steel structure by using S420 (EN10113) steel plate thickness for the primary span
railway bridge from the center underside of the 9 mm to pylon joints webs 50 mm.

Fig. 4.20 Main bridge steel truss composite girder section (unit: mm).

Fig. 4.21 Bridge approach steel truss composite girder (unit: mm).
Manufacture of steel truss composite beams (Fig. 4.22) and pouring of the concrete
deck slab is in Spain. Beam segment length 140 m, 7,000t, contains upper concrete deck
and lower deck railway concrete channel beam, use flat-bottomed barges transported to
the bridge site, dabeiertexiqiao Swan, crane ship (lifting capacity up to 8700t, raising 70
m) lifted onto a pier (Fig. 4.23).

Fig. 4.22 Main bridge steel truss girder manufacturing.

Also and with the same height of stiffened girder of approach spans and structural steel
truss composite continuous beams, each hole span 140 m, truss an angle of 45, each truss
element length is 24 m, on both sides of the bottom chord at every 24 m in the node are
connected by beams (Fig. 4.21). With the same hoisting the hole.

Fig. 4.23 Steel box beam hoisting.

4.2.2 United States East Bridge of the San Francisco Bay

Bridge Earthquake-resistant Tower
Design Ideas: In the landscape need only cylindrical tower of limiting conditions, move
closer to the gate-tower two towers, beam cut short, the door translate the beam flexural
yielding shear yielding seismic energy consumption, forming a vertical pylon under strong
earthquake remain elastic seismic single tower concept.
In the mid 1930s, the construction of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, 12.8 km,
is the longest in the world at the time, high technical level of the bridge, still to the main
line of the East Bay of the San Francisco peninsula, heavy traffic, daily traffic nearly
280,000 vehicles. Design earthquake force is small, the east bridge (steel truss bridge) in
1989, at 7 on the Richter scale. 1 partial collapse during an earthquake, so that
construction of the new East Bay Bridge to replace the existing bridge, 3.6 km. New deck
25 m wide in each direction, including 5 lanes and a light railway. Side of the bridge there
are wide and 4.8 M sidewalk, taking into account the 1500 year return period earthquake.
Final implementation plan Self-anchored suspension bridge system with a main span of
385 m, side 180 m.
General prevailing notion that, at such a high intensity earthquake area, bridge-tower
should be. In this way, the beams of the tower under earthquake to earthquake energy
consumed can form a plastic hinge, making vertical pylon remains elastic. Thus, single
tower was considered unsuitable for the main unit of the bridge, as it is not a statically
indeterminate structure.
During the preliminary design, the gantry tower and a single tower with different types
of studies were carried out (Fig. 4.24). According to the calculation a single tower can be
meet current seismic design requirements, but the towers is not a statically indeterminate
structure, once the plastic deformation will be lead to destruction, so that this type is not
appropriate. However, despite these concerns, still the appearance of single tower

Fig. 4.24 Gate bridge tower scheme selection.

Designers draw bridge towers and research how to make it look more like a single
tower. Move closer to the two towers, beam will be cut short; after beam cut short, just not
in bending yield but caved in under the cut. Designers and ask, why not just make it just
under the shear yield? If it doesnt look like the usual tower bends bend, but the shear
yield how? If multiple towers closer together, the tower look like a single tower structure
(Fig. 4.25).

Fig. 4.25 Twin tower column in shear connection bridge.

Thus, an innovative single-tower scheme surfaced water surface. Results indicate that
this structure under earthquake action loaded with good performance, as shown in Fig.
4.26. In facts it is more excellent than conventional gantry tower on, for now we can
according to the different needs between the two towers position increased shear, which
can significantly increase number of statically indeterminate jiaqiaota (Fig. 4.27).
Final design of the bridge tower 160 m tower made up of 4 columns, along the high
shear joints, tower of steel box-section column 3 m interval of diaphragms as shear
connection. Not across the anchor at the top of the main cable saddles on. Cap 6.5 m
support 13 diameter 2.5 m. On 5 m of steel pipe piles, pile filled in pouring concrete, pileNET, 20 m, embedded in rock.

Fig. 4.26 Earthquake-resistant tower concept

Fig. 4.27 Tower column shear (size unit: mm).

In addition to the pylon design, the other components of the bridge also has many
unique features.
Cable diameter of main channel bridge of two 0.78 m, East (385 m), anchoring the
east pier of beam, wire saddles for bridge box girders, and designed to be removable, to
balance out the two main cable of cable is bad. West (180 m), surrounded by two separate
saddles of the main cable in the west on the pier, both saddle fixed on the west pier, west
pier design a pre-stressed cap beam, its quality can be balanced bridge span asymmetry of
dead load forces on the west pier, also used to bear the west pier and two main cables at
the time of operation and earthquake loads them different saddle stress.
Superstructure for two with orthotropic deck plate of steel box girder and suspenders
on the load distribution in the box girder, box girder with wide 10 m, 2.5 m, 30 m interval
of the transom connection, the 72 m cross beams bear suspender transverse load, ensuring
two box loads, is the overall effect of wind and earthquake loads. Hanger rod located at
the outside of the two boxes to form two spatial cable plane.

4.2.3 Chongqing New Shibanpo Bridge of Steel-concrete

Composite Beams
Design: Design this a world record span box girder bridge, by introducing 108 m steel box
girder in the middle of the main span steel box beam segment implements technical and
economic possibilities. Steel box girder is 1000 m and raw materials produced by the
Department of Wuhan in Chongqing. It has been designed to barge in the form through the
three Gorges dam was towed to Chongqing from Wuhan, placed in the main cross raised
into position below.
Old shibanpo bridge was built-in 1981, the new bridge parallel to the old bridge is
located in the upper reaches of the old bridge. Two bridge-centerline distance between 25
m, old bridge the bridge width is 21 m, Shinbashi bridge width is 19 m. Spacing between
the two bridge deck is 5 m. After extensive research, shipping sector must be removed
between two main piers, the main span of 330 m, as shown in Fig. 4.28.

1. Design Philosophy
Taking into account the advantages of concrete and steel is light weight, ultimately chose

the hybrid structurethe main span of the bridge in the middle used steel box girder and
the rest using conventional concrete. 800 mm thick concrete slab under pressure, C60 is
approximately equal to 100 mm thickness and yield stress of steel plates for 345 MPa
compression capability, the latter is the most commonly used steel in China. However,
thick concrete slabs construction easier than plates. Therefore, close to the pier girder
using concrete makes more sense. The middle part of the main span steel, steel can be
thinner, reducing weight and thus reduce the mid-span bending moments, more valuable.
Light mix concrete weigh about 60% of conventional concrete. Used across the middle
weight about conventional concrete box girder of steel box girder of 30%.
If using span definition, equivalent to all the ordinary concrete beam, and at the end
have the same moment of consolidation the needed span. Reduced weight for intermediate
beam, calculations show that when they span the middle one-third with steel box beam,
330 m hybrid girder span is equivalent of 269 m.

Fig. 4.28 Span layout of the the old and the new Shibanpo bridge (size: m)
Select steel box beam segment length the second consideration is the recommended
construction method design, entire segments of steel box girders on factory production, to
barge onto the scene, integral hoisting, such operations are limited. In addition, the factory
is located in the three Gorges dam downstream, dam ship lock length limits the size of
steel box girder. After careful study, decided to adopt the middle length of the steel box
girder 103 m. Total length of steel box beam segment also includes 2 at each end. 5 m
transition section, total length is 108 m, weighing about 1400t.
Ultimate new shibanpo bridge as shown in Fig. 4.29. In addition to the main span steel
box beam segment in the Middle, and the remaining parts are made of conventional

Fig. 4.29 Composition of the hybrid girder.

Bridge District the highest water levels can be higher than the minimum water level of
Yangtze River 38 m, so high water flow may be imposed on the pier is great lateral forces.

Although Foundation located in solid rock, in order to increase the ability to resist lateral
loads, set 2.5 m and 2.0 m short pile of pile diameter Dig-hole pile is necessary.
Standard cross-section of the bridge to direct Web box girder sections. Bottom width 9
m, total width of the roof is 19 m, each flanking margin-width 5 m (Fig. 4.30).
Inside the box girder of main span of 330 m, installed a 4 section 27 units of externally
pre-stressed steel stranded wire. If necessary, by adjusting these steels twisted deformation
of steel box girders of the stress correction.

2. Steel Box Beam Transport and Hoisting

Steel box girder is 1000 m and raw materials produced by the Department of Wuhan in
Chongqing. It was designed as a form of barge, two temporarily closed. Through the three
Gorges dam was towed to Chongqing from Wuhan (Fig. 4.31). And then turn 90, below
crane placed in the main cross-promotion in place.
First to be hoisting the transition part, hoisting one at a time. Lifting these 2.5 m not
very long beam interferes with voyage. Lifting 103 m of box girder sections must be
completed at 12 h in order to minimise interference with shipping on the Yangtze River
(Fig. 4.32). Actually lifting only had less than 5 h, but after segmental box girder erection
in place and fixed with more time.

Fig. 4.30 Concrete box girder and steel box girder of cross-section (unit: mm).

Fig. 4.31 Steel box girder as a barge to transport.

Fig. 4.32 Transition and hoisting of steel box girder.

4.2.4 Hangzhou Jiubao Bridge, Composite Arch Bridge

Design: Hangzhou jiubao bridge is 1855 m, is an all composite construction of large
bridges crossing the river. Non-channel and main channel bridge approach respectively,
using a combination of large-span continuous arch bridges and composite continuous boxgirder bridge, arch bridge with box beam using multi-point synchronising incremental
launching construction. When incremental launching construction of bridge approach, 85
m-span without a temporary Pier; incremental launching construction of the main bridge,
210 m span and only 1 temporary pier.

1. Bridge Type Design

Main channel bridge 3 210 m of continuous composite arch bridge main span, covering
the entire scope of grooved swing and be able to less than 1000 DWT river-trade vessel
navigable depth requirements. Using V-shape piers of main bridge piers, piers contour line
along the main arched the line, in order to achieve better visual effects, V-shaped piers and
girders are actually separated, set bearing (Fig. 4.33). The upper structure using beam-arch
composite system, consists of a steel-concrete composite structure bridge deck and steel
arch structure for supporting long-span 188 m + 22 m + 188 m + 22 m + 188 m of
continuous structures. Main Pier Foundation of bored piles in a 16 diameter of 2 m. Map
of main bridge of Fig. 4.34 bridge steel girder segment diagram.

Fig. 4.33 The rendering of main bridge.

Fig. 4.34 Schematic drawing of main bridge deck girder segment.

In order to reduce the impact on river hydrology, requiring non-waterway bridge rate
increased span and reduce the Foundation block water as much as possible. Although
using long-span PC continuous box girder of 85 m, DUN sub-division scheme, can meet
the requirements, but within this span composite box girder is not only economic
competitiveness, and the whole structure form of continuous composite box girder,
combining substructure, base size the decrease, you can be minimise the effects of the
bridge on the river. In addition, the composite box girder by incremental launching
construction of steel girders, without need to set temporary piers in the River, compared
with conventional cantilever casting of PC box girder structure, symmetry of traditional

structures and construction method, create the conditions for improving project quality
and reduced impact on the environment.

2. Push Technology and Equipment

Main channel bridge construction in accordance with the general programmes, and the
erection in the water a lot of brackets, deck and the arch structure installation. So violently
on the tidal bore of Qiantang River and Riverbed region, is not only costly but large
workloads, high safety and quality risks. Based on careful analysis of environmental and
structural characteristics of the construction and judgement, design innovation by
incremental launching construction method. This design idea construction is now in
construction on the water to the shore, not only from the river in a large number of
temporary piers and supports, reduce construction and shipping on the environment
interference, also avoids the high risks and difficulties in assembling the arch rib on the
water, in addition, all steel construction on shore, in order to improve project quality
creating optimum conditions.
Non-channel and main channel bridge incremental launching construction of bridge, as
opposed to domestic common or dragging the slip on the beam at the point of method of
conventional beam methods often need to be strengthened to meet the pusher and stability
requirements of local, this will be result in costs far higher than for steel beam
strengthened by increased costs for new launching technology and equipment. For this
reason, design and raise sound tow equipment and technology, as well as synchronise and
balance control technology, mechanical safety assurance structure reliable, make
incremental launching construction which can be implemented without the steel beams
were strengthened. It aims to promote the progress of construction technology of
thrusting, and groups composite structure bridges the total cost of the most economical;
current progress indicates that not only meets the expectations, as well as incremental
launching construction technology technology and equipment is a key technology of
composite box-girder bridge with access to sound economic one.
Main channel bridge construction in general can be divided into two parts of steel
structures and bridge decks. Includes deck girder and steel arch of steel structures, beam
using multi-point synchronising incremental launching construction. When pushing
scattered in various piers (including the temporary pier) device the lifting, advance, apart
from the bridge and bridge piers, but each across 3 main span 1 temporary piers, set 3
temporary pier at the collector. When pushing in the between deck girder and Arch ribs
with provisional pole in order to push joint force. Completed per assembly 1 hole top 1
hole until all 3 holes pushing into place, as shown in Fig. 4.35 and 4.36. Decking prefabricated, cross-wise into 3 pieces, a small beam for segmentation and vertical 4.25 m
distance between steel beam section. Steel push is complete, according to the design the
prescribed order, stretching booms and removing temporary arch bars, the laying of prefabricated bridge deck poured joint concrete, completed construction.

Fig. 4.35 First hole of main thrusting.

Fig. 4.36 Third hole of main thrusting.

Incremental launching construction of arch bridge and 210 m span and only 1
temporary pier, is a new attempt. Composite arch bridge removal after the deck, load
capacity compared to its weight of steel structure with a larger available space. By steel
arch rib of steel vertical between temporary bars, can effectively play an overall carrying
capacity of steel structures, both technical and economic features the advantage and

4.2.5 Uses of High Performance Steel and Concrete

Composite Beam Bridge
Design Ideas: High-strength steels and ultra high performance fibre reinforced concrete
slab design of new beams. using S460, S690 grade of steel can reduce the weight of the
superstructure, steel weight decreased to 40%, reducing the total weight of the
superstructure about 25%.
Bridges composed of three 95 m + 130 m + 95 m, a bridge deck total width 21.5 m,
the four-lane design. Main span span is France to construct the maximum span composite

1. Structure with a Partial S690

Table 4.1 shows the distribution of steel bridge structures. Support near and Central main
span uses steel grade S690, because decks will be fully used to provide cross sectional
resistance. Panels in both vertical and horizontal prestressed, appear to resist the
serviceability limit state consumer pressure condition.
Table 4.1 Steel girder structure distribution.
Support positions

Segment length












Top flange
thickness (mm):












Bottom flange
thickness (mm)












Lower flange of
steel grade

S460 S460 S690 S460 S460 S690 S460 S460 S690 S460 S460

Web thickness
(mm): S460












2. The Ultra-high Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC)

Board material is used in ultra high performance fibre reinforced concrete. This content of
high strength steel fiber concrete 200 kg/m3, 20 mm long, 0.3 mm thick no need to
configure bar, under pressure of 150 MPa. This concrete slab inspired by France national
project of MIKTI ribbed plate 1 (Fig. 4.37). In this project, 12 m wide, for ease of
transport transmission and divide it into 2.5 m wide units. Vertical and horizontal ribs
Center spacing is 0.6 m. Deck plate total thickness 0.38 m, by 0.33 m rib height and 0.05
m plate high mix. Ribbed bottom width of 0.07 m, ribbed top plate width of 0.10 m.

Fig. 4.37 France MIKTI Engineering (LCPC in laboratory tests).

In this project, due to the four-lane design, board width is very large. Deck width is
21.5 m, located on each side of the bridge 2. The 0% cross slope. Main beam distance 14.3
m, deck cantilever on each side long 3.6 m. Pre-fabricated section 21.5 m, width 2.5 m.
MIKTI bridge panels meet these constraints by increasing the height of the ribs. MIKTI
total 0 from the symmetry axis. 615 m line changes to free edges 0.4 m contains 0.05 m
high tickness. Other dimensions: ribs at the bottom width of 0.07 m tension stranded wire
is necessary, ribbed top width of 0.10 m, thickness 0.05 m, these have been local frictional
MIKTI project laboratory test for success. Bridge deck cross section as shown in Fig.
4.38, and Fig. 4.39 shows the main beam dimension detail.

Fig. 4.38 Bridge deck cross-section (size: m).

Fig. 4.39 High-performance fiber-reinforced concrete for main girder of transverse

profiles (size: m).
In order to resist lateral bending moment throughout each deck width set 5 rib T15S
internal pre-stressed steel twisted pair (Fig. 4.38 and 4.39), which has two steel stranded
wire is not pulled to the outside cantilever sections (Fig. 4.38). In the longitudinal
direction, set 30 12T15S steel beams and supports 1.2 m high tension, provided in the
board 14.3 MPa forever compressive stress. In under serviceability limit state at any time,
can resist pressure suppression effect.

3. The Construction Phase

Similar to the bridge construction and pre-fabricated units, and appropriate modifications
based on longitudinal pre-stressing requirements. Construction stages: installation of steel
girders, 2.5 m, 21.5 m wide deck plate element installed, vertical tensioning of prestressed,
concrete slabs and steel-bonded frame connection (through the hinged joints of concrete
slab has been poured coupling), internal support tension, eventually installed nonstructural facilities. It is worth note that surface layer thickness of 60 mm and normal
strength concrete slab to prevent cracking at the supports have to be located 110 mm.

4. Weight and Cost Comparison

Actual price list according to steel structures, structural steel for weight savings of 40%,
equivalent to 25% cost reduced. In contrast, for in the bridge deck, and more expensive
than traditional high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete slabs. Taking into account the
cost of the entire structure, such as fruit prices for high performance deck template be
borne jointly by several bridges, high performance bridge will be a very competitive
Use of high performance materials such as high strength S460 steels and S690, as well
as high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete in this area out of steel and for optimal
performance of the concrete structure. European norm is likely to lead to more use of
combined beam bridge design. In this emphasis state awareness times, vigorously promote
material savings, particularly for steel piers, concrete savings of foundation. This concrete
slab context, contains more high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete cement, with
regard to the environment is more harmonious. High Performance Concrete slab (HPC), is

available as an option in the future will require further study.


Landscape in a way that is also a functional requirement in modern cities, a bridge in
addition to the opening of the meeting, pedestrians and shipping requirements, but should
be also meet the requirements of viewing, giving the viewer a pleasant effect, giving the
viewer with beautiful enjoyment. Landscape of bridges, both historical, cultural and
geographical influences the viewers subjective requirements also have an aesthetic
method then, consistent with the environmental condition of objective requirements.
Programme is to meet the requirements of landscape bridges both organically together in
order to structure and shape in response to these requests.

4.3.1 Tsing Ma Bridge in Hong Kong

Design thinking: Through the competition and technology, beautiful selection of judges
the judges, elected by chic, the iconic round chimney type pylons, steel box beams and
concrete mixing split-beam cable-stayed bridge scheme.
Stonecutters Bridge Hong Kong Nineth main part of the route between Tsing Yi and
Cheung Sha Wan, bridge across the 900 m wide with heavy traffic rambler in the Kwai
Chung container terminal, main span will be more than 1000 m. Bridge is the most
prominent part of the whole project, and will be become a major landmark of a metropolis
like Hong Kong. To this end, the Hong Kong S.A.R. the Highways Department for the
first time hosted a international design competitions, for the Stonecutters Bridge, the
landmark bridge provides concept design.
This two-stage bridge design contest in November 1999, formally opens, the
Highways Department through the application of bridge design teams and units prepare
participants to maximise design record and the teams experience of bridge engineers and
architects, the examining choose the 16 design teams, inviting them to participate in the
first phase of the competition. 16 teams by a total of 64 separate companies and the
designers, and the teams governing body came from mainland China, Finland, and
France, and Germany, China, Hong Kong S.A.R., Japan the, Norway and the United
Kingdom and the United States.
In the first stage of the game, there are 21 design team submitted two proposals, there
are 5 teams to submit a programme for a total of 27 design schemes. Of which: 22 for
cable-stayed bridges, 2 suspension bridge and 3 collaboration system for cable-stayed and
suspension bridge.
Participation in the first stage of the programme, in terms of both concept and focus
there is a big difference. Cable-stayed bridges programme, traditional inverted y-shape,
such as A-and H-shaped towers, there is also a new chimney, Y-, X-, or horn-shaped and so
on. Cable aspects also vary, from single to four. Steel box beams have adopted a more
traditional single-box design, also has adopted a more innovative dual box design and
central slot of box girders, avoided the traditional h-bridge tower of suspension bridge
design-to take a special a-shaped or Y-shaped bridge towers, cable arrangement is also

very special, cable-stayed and suspension system programme mixed the two newer
concepts of design, and the self-form of anchor, but so is more complicated (see Fig.

Fig. 4.40 Collection of various forms of bridge tower.

Two review committees in accordance with a pre-determined rating criteria were
assessed. First by the technical evaluation committee scores, the programme must reaches
a certain level and then to the beautiful Review Committee score. After two review
committees to phase one design scoring the Highways Department has selected five
outstanding programmes, and programme arrangements participants optimise and submit
more detailed information on the second-order games paragraphs.
Five into the second phase of design for cable-stayed bridge scheme with a main span
from 1000 m to 1019 m, full-bridge with a total length 1600 m, the five designs are
distinctive (Fig. 4.41).

Fig. 4.41 Five renderings (a) Programme a; (b) Second plan; (c) Scenario three; (d)
Programme IV; (e) Programme five.
Option one is a a-pylon cable-stayed bridge, a main span of 1017 m, 292 m and 321
m, respectively, with a total length 1630 m. Cable layout as a semi-scalloped, stiffening
girder side span and near the main span of the bridge tower 52 m part is a concrete box
girders, parts for double-box steel box girders. Top of the tower is a steel core surrounded
by stainless steel cladding. Overall, the programme in the on the design and construction
is a traditional programme.
Scenario two is an inverted Y-shaped towers of cable-stayed bridge. Its main span is
1000 m, TRANS-300 m, full-bridge a total length of 1600 m. Cable distribution and
connect as a semi-scalloped girders on either side, each pair of cables in the middle by a
deflector cable banded into a anchored to a tower. Girders and pylons in recent 100 m part
of the tower as a single entity. Stiffening girder side span in concrete box girder in main
span 800 m is a steel box girders of the central authorities. In addition to the arrangement
of the cables out, which is a traditional design.
Scenario three is a funnel-shaped pylon of cable-stayed bridge, upper part of the
bridge tower 112. 5 m is a steel structure under the portion is this concrete slab Bridges
main span is 1018 m, TRANS-298 m, respectively. Full-bridge has a total length of 1, 616
m, cable with half a pie cable layout as a semi-scalloped, stiffening girder side span and
near the main span of the bridge tower 24 m part is a concrete box girders, with box-beam,

double-box steel beam by beam together. Overall, the programme both in design and
construction for a new beam scheme scenario four is a h-pylon cable-stayed bridge, tower
when stiffening girder above cross-bar with no. The main span of the bridge is 1001 m,
full-bridge has a total length of 3001 m, cable with half a pie cable distribution as a semiscalloped in two vertical planes. Full-bridge are made of steel box girders, joined in a steel
box girders of side span in concrete to increase the dead load weight to balance the main
span. Due to the tower from the bridge extra high without beams, both in design and
construction of the programme seems to be rather special.
Option one is a a-pylon cable-stayed bridge, a main span of 1019 m, 280 m and 321
m, respectively, with a total length 307 m, the bridge has a total length of 1616 m for cable
distribution in a fan-shaped manner, on the anchorage of steel anchor box in the tower the
upper set, add beam supported by pylons in the vertical and lateral directions. Stiffening
girder side span and near Tower Bridge main span portion of the 89 m and 95 m are
concrete box girder and the rest for steel box girder of main span, as a whole, this
programme in terms of design and construction is a traditional beam.
Scheme judges voted the Championship programme as the number three,
Championship consists of the Halcrow Group Ltd (United Kingdom), Flint and neill
Partnership (United Kingdom), Dissing + Weitling (Denmark) and the Shanghai municipal
engineering design and Research Institute (China), consisting of design team submissions.
Second place for plan v, third place for scenario four, while option one and option two is
named honorable mention.

4.3.2 Shanghai Lupu Bridge

Design ideas: As last crossed the Huangpu river of Shanghai Lupu bridge, Nanpu bridge
and Yangpu bridge built two oblique after laqiao, the all-welded steel structure deck box
arch bridge in programmes in cable-stayed bridges, suspension bridges, and many scheme
selection of the successful bidder, such as this becomes especially landmark buildings of
the Expo in Shanghai.
On the Huangpu river of Shanghai Lupu bridge. Span 550 m, across the river. Lupu
bridge is not only a means of transport, it should be not only embody the cultural
landscape, and reflect modern achievements of science and technology. Possible schemes
for cable-stayed bridge, suspension bridge, arch. In 1999, Shanghai Lupu bridge was open
for bidding, Arch programmes successful.
For the arch bridge, and at domestic level: 420 m span of the Wanxian Changjiang
River Bridge was built-in 1997, concrete arch bridge (Fig. 4.42). Thrust was too large but
concrete arch bridge, it should not be built on soft soil foundation in Shanghai.

Fig. 4.42 Yiling Yangtze River Bridge.

At the international level: are trussed arch 500 m arch bridge forms in the past, the rod
and much smaller. Built-in 1977 United States new River Gorge Bridge with a main span
of 518 m (Fig. 4.43). Completed in 1932, Australia Sydney Cove bridge with a main span
of 503 m (Fig. 4.44).

Fig. 4.43 New River Gorge Bridge.

Truss arch bridges originated in the 1930, of the 20th century, is lifting capacity
constrained components lighter and more.
In recent years, lifting capacity upto 500t, rapid development of field welding of steel
structures, designed to adapt to the trends Widget perfecting of welded box structure
design, component makes a great little steel indicators-economic, fast construction, clean
Decisions adopted and welded steel box arch bridge of Lupu, modeling simple, span of
550 m, the worlds largest span arch bridge, is one of the landmark buildings of the Expo
in Shanghai. To increase lateral stability, simplified structure, Lupu bridge main arch are
basket type spatial structure form (Fig. 4.45).

Fig. 4.44 The Bay of Sydney bridge.

Fig. 4.45 Shanghai Lupu Bridge.

Lupu bridge structure span of 550 m, the ratio of height to span 1 : 5.5, arching cross
section width 5 m, Arch cross-section height of 6~9 m, vertical clearance high 46 m.
Through tied arch bridge of the Lupu bridge, on both sides of the main span between end
cross beam arrangement of 16 horizontal cables to balance across the arch of nearly
200,000 kN of thrust. Horizontal cables upto 761 m, dangenlasuo upto 110T (4.46).

Fig. 4.46 Structure system.

In order to ensure the structural safety of each steel beam can be replaced for
operational maneuverability, including 8 within the box girder, 8 piece set on the deck.
Even on the deck 8 was accidentally damaged, box 8 roots can keep the structure in the
limit State and doesnt collapse, easy to repair (Fig. 4.47).

Fig. 4.47 Shanghai Lupu bridge cross-section.

Integrated construction technology of rigid-frame bridges and cable-stayed and
suspension bridge construction of this bridge.
1. Based on construction technique of rigid frame bridge with form a triangular system
(Fig. 4.48).
2. Construction method of cable-stayed bridges, installing main arch (Fig. 4.48).
3. The introduction of cat the Tao to install extra long, heavy levels of suspension
bridge cables, 16 levels of cable for preformed parallel wire strands, long 761 m,
110t, cable diameter is 18 cm (4.49).
4. Combined with the characteristics of Lupu bridge structure, the construction units
responsible for the research and design of bridge girder erecting equipment with
independent intellectual property rights: a main arch deck crane of crane and Arch
(Fig. 4.49).
5. The successful implementation of field welding quality control of steel structure.

6. The closure measures: end bolting an end weld, closure temperature of 20C, cooling
closure supplemented with small amounts of incremental launching method of
external forces. Fig. 4.50 shows the hanging and closing main arch bridge
construction photos.

Fig. 4.48 Triangular systems and installing main arch construction photos.

Fig. 4.49 Installing the horizontal rope and arch crane construction photos.

Fig. 4.50 Shows the hanging and closing main arch bridge construction photos.

4.3.3 Chongqing Caiyuanba Bridge

Design ideas: Want to build a beautiful arch bridge, according to the double-layer traffic,
navigation, appearance and other general requirements, combined with the shape
landforms was studied for deck, middle deck and lower deck arch bridge, and concludes
with a Y-shaped rigid-frame structure and tied-arch composite box-shaped arch bridge, the
arch of a new system.
When beginning the design of caiyuanba bridge, we have a wish: I hope that this new
bridge is an arch bridge, a special drift light arch bridge.
Caiyuanba bridge is located in yuzhong peninsula south of caiyuanba connected

yuzhong and South Bank. Bridge is a two-tier structure, upper deck has 6 traffic lanes and
two-sided sidewalk, the lower level consists of a two-line light rail lanes. In order to
satisfy clearance requirements of light rail track, height of the beam 11 m. Due to the
requirements for navigation on the Yangtze river, the span of the bridge was identified as
420 m.
First of all, designers think girder truss structure should be to make light rail
passengers can enjoy the scenery of Yangtze river. While if the box girder of 11 m, that
appears to be very bulky, and the use of truss structures do not need to think about the
ventilation of the lower deck design.
Arch bridges can be divided into thrust and thrust two. True arch was thrust, caiyuanba
bridge location, geology condition good, can withstand greater thrust. But if directly by
the foundation under horizontal thrust arch had to be very low, unable to meet the
requirements of navigation.
Thrust free arch bridge is a tied arch. It could be a deck, middle deck and lower deck.
Navigation requirements are met before side note, deck-type arch of the bridge will be
squished, force structure requirements are not met. Through-arch bridge, since all deck
arch it looks so heavy, unable to meet aesthetic requirements. So choose a deck arch
bridge. In this place, the main span southern tip of home bias, high and low water levels
vary greatly. In order to avoid rib struck by ships, designers had to arch slightly improved
on, using pre-stressed concrete sub-structure, to achieve high impact resistant capacity.
Arch is the main backbone of arch, arch main is the bar, must take into account the
vertical and lateral stability.
In terms of vertical, due to lower deformation of light rail has more stringent
requirements on bridge structure must be very strong, as limits distortion. Fortunately,
light rail length is shorter, only partially affected. Girder is a 11 m high trusses, stiffness,
this arch stiffness requirements can be reduced. In bridge design, because the hangers at
different elongation under load is limited, and inspection when you calculate the stability
of arch bridge with vertical, can broadly be superimposing the rigidity of beam and arch
stiffness. So, if the beam stiffness large arch stiffness can be small.
Because the arch is mainly influenced by pressure bars, box-section truss work. In
terms of appearance, if the main beams and arches are truss bridge shape look too heavy,
not enough light, Chongqing Yangtze river scenery and pretty disturbed. Chongqing is a
city beautiful mountain city, her beauty lies in her pretty face. So, between the steel box
arch and steel pipe truss arch, chose the more slender, 2 m wide and 4 m high steel box
arch (Figs. 4.51 and 4.52).
Lateral stability of arch must rely on horizontal poles to ensure its stability. However,
for aesthetic reasons, struts must be slender, passers-by looked without any sense of clutter
and closed, according to the local stability of arch rib request, decided to use 6 transverse
bracing and for overall coordination, these transverse braces are box section.
Eventually introduced the steel-concrete composite rigid frame structure and tied-arch
bridge, a new bridge structure of main bridge of Chongqing caiyuanba Yangtze river
Bridge structural system. Bridge across 420 m and 112 m and 88 m in a symmetrical
distribution of side span and side spans. The main bridge with a total length 800 m (Fig.

In the main bearing structure design of prestressed concrete Y shaped steel box tied
arch bridge of rigid frame with basket combinations to improve the main structure
spanning ability. On this basis, additional vertical side pier bowstring-cable, main body of
the bridge (rigid frames and the main arch) forces and lines adjustment and control of
configuration space (Fig. 4.54).

Fig. 4.51 Steel box arch vision effect.

Fig. 4.52 Steel pipe truss arch vision effect.

Fig. 4.53 Caiyuanba Yangtze River Bridge photos.

Fig. 4.54 A symmetrical pair of pre-stressed concrete continuous rigid frame + tie bar
Orthotropic deck truss beam integral node of the design has evolved and matured, the
basis of high-strength bolts and thick plate welding technique above, in the first
manufactured using festive design, large, hanging festive carriage, large sections of the
design idea, aimed at quality and construction units to provide more space for duration of
protection (Fig. 4.55).

Fig. 4.55 Segmentation and segment plates hanging on the deck gestured.
Orthotropic bridge decks in combination with steel truss beam efficiency of increasing
combination truss suare, hang the level of increased fertiliser speed, better ensuring the
construction quality. But also design, manufacture, construction, poses new challenges and
problems. At the level of designing new issues need to be addressed include: orthotropic
bridge deck joint role with the truss top chord; truss top chord decking and decking
construction details of the connection of the primary and secondary beams; derrickcomposite-bottom chord truss beam-tilt hanging rod-lower design and construction of
track beam design.
Making programmatic and technological design problems more, which mainly
include: modular truss beams cross-decking of the opposite sex basic unit of blockmaking; composite truss beams decking manufacturing base unit connection types of the
opposite sex; composite truss beams deck deformation control technique of the opposite
sex; composite truss beam monolithic gusset for a variety of manufacturing processes
combined large segments of truss beam overall assembly solutions and precision control


Records of the bridge span, because of their construction methods and equipment
problems to be solved, design theory and innovative structural problems and a series of
problem, which is an enormous challenge for bridge engineers and technicians in order to
bridge technology and contribute to the development of global attention.
With the development of transportation and technology, record bridge span and
constantly being refreshed.
First of all, span breakthroughs must be necessary and reasonable. Such as shipping
requirements, topographic and geologic conditions and the depth of need when large-span,
is necessary and reasonable, such a large span matches the height of layout and navigation,
coordinated with the terrain, which is economically reasonable, on the landscape is
beautiful. Conversely, blind pursuit of long-span breakthrough, will be only lead to the
construction of wind insurance and investment wasted. As the navigation requirements are
not high, and bridge spans golden times wider than the waterway NET, causing the span
high bridge disproportionately so that both investment and reflects the landscape.
Bridge design of six principles did not require the designer to pursue breakthroughs of
the span and number of first and most. Despite all the bridges now span the span of
the record have yet to reach a viable limit, but we cannot only for the pursuit of span first
without regard to economic principles. Therefore, bridge engineer must put their creativity
into innovation, quality and aesthetics three aspects, while also attaches great importance
to economic indicators, and strive to build a high quality, durable and beautiful bridges, to
benefit the people.
Secondly, there must be a breakthrough in the span of its scientific and technical
soundness. Span to break, there is bound to run into problems not encountered bridge,
however, whether these issues have a clear understanding of whether there is a clear
solution, it is related to this breakthrough is feasible, whether scientific, whether
conservative issues. Such as the main Japanese Tatara Bridge cross because of topography,
geology and navigation conditions set for 890 m, then Japan has been completed and the
name of the Hong Kong Central Bridge 590 m, the French 856 m Normandy Bridge began
construction on this basis, in order to grasp the main span from original level increased to
500~600 m after 890 m of cable-stayed bridge structural properties (e.g., member forces
and natural frequency, etc.), how much change, and this change is the size and span linear
or non-linear relationship, specifically on the 500 m, 890 m, 1400 m and 2000 m four
kinds of main hole span studied compared.
Thirdly, a span of breakthrough of technical progress and technical innovation is a real
world record, that is, with the development of new technologies, record refresh, it has its
indelible in the history of bridges historical status. If just span development, the size of
the cross breakthroughs do not have or lack of skill gold content, its hard to become the
technical level of world record.
Quoting Mr. Man-Chung Tang Record spans (Civil Engineering, March 2010) as
described in the article view points: construction of record-breaking bridge not only builtin a record-breaking, additional costs it takes to break the record must be able to bring
value, if it is not, we are wasting taxpayers money.

Of course, competition is that people are born with the designed bridge record warmth
is not declining. However, in our efforts to before you record, be sure to carefully consider
the cost of the project and the resulting value. We must also take into account that records
will be maintained how long. Today, due to the bridge span records regularly being
broken, so its best to spend our energies and creativity on the construction quality better
rather than bigger bridges with long span. Though several years after the Golden Gate
bridge would lose record-holder status, but there is still like to visit it because it is the rare
beauty of the structure.

4.4.1 Denmark Great Belt Bridge

Design ideas: Feasibility phase proposed main span cable stayed bridge with a main span
of 1204 m and 916 m, and a main span of 1448 m and 1688 m programme of suspension
bridges, and through surveys of shipping conditions and shipping analog, found that the
superstructure of small-span bridge cost savings far sub-structure and underwater
protection measures cost little. Finally decided to adopt the main span is 1624 m
suspension bridge, bridge design incorporates a mix concrete spandrel frame light anchor,
using buffer to reduce dynamic displacements of girder of suspension bridge, the new
design ideas.
Denmarks Great Belt suspension bridge links the is land of Zealand and the
Philippines because of the Great Belt East Bridge Road project, the project includes 8 km
tunnel, 6.8 km East Bridge and Highway 6.6 km west parallel road and rail bridge.
In 1987, when you do design scenario, East bridge has made of cable-stayed and
suspension bridge scheme 1416 m and 780 m. It is clear that 780 m main span cablestayed bridge with large span cable-stayed bridges are built or under construction were
many (In 1986, Canada built 465 m Annacis bridge), and the main span is 1416 m
suspension bridge was built-in 1981, by United Kingdom Permanent Bill (Humber) River
Bridge, 6 m, be first in the world, and technology across more secure. In 1989, however,
shipping conditions of survey research shows that 780 m of span is not enough.
Feasibility and design stage, presented four different spans of programmes, namely,
the main span cable-stayed bridge with a main span of 1204 m and 916 m, suspension
bridge with a main span of 1448 m and 1688 m programme.
When the construction of cable-stayed bridge, the greatest difficulties were
encountered during the construction phase. Cantilever length of cable-stayed main span of
1200 m free 600 m, to meet the phase stability of the cantilever bridge widened to 6 m. In
addition, through the shipping conditions of further investigations, in particular by
shipping simulation found that costs of superstructure of small-span bridge substructure
and underwater protection measures for savings is far more cost.
Therefore, Dong finally decided to adopt the main span of the bridge is 1624 m, and
sides of three-span suspension bridge scheme over 535 m (Fig. 4.56).
The anchorage of the bridge design incorporates a new shape form, because commonly
used desktop gravity bridge anchorage of suspension bridge with a great body product,

this suspension bridge and the rest of the incongruous contrast to the slender member. So
in the design of this bridge anchorage, after careful research and decided to anchor is
designed by concrete spandrel frame of main cable in anchorage and a bearing vertical
piers of the bridge (Fig. 4.57).

Fig. 4.56 Denmark big bear-suspension bridge scheme (size: m).

Anchoring in 10 m deep built in relatively shallow water, noted in the bidding plan,
these vital water component can be used in the sea by doing construction or after a
temporary cofferdam construction on the wharf. In order to prevent the ship collision,
anchoring two artificial islands built on both sides.

Fig. 4.57 Big bear special triangles anchorage of suspension bridge (size: m).
Bridges in anchorage and 2 parallel hydraulic buffers installed between beam limiting
device, as shown in Fig. 4.58, which is the driving force locked and static limit of two
functional combination of devices. Power lock function Master Liang Zongqiao by car,
wind-induced vibration the impact movement, adjust lock speed control value at 0.01~2
mm/s range, power lock power 5 mn of each device; static limit functionality limits the
main beam does not meet the temperature slowly displacement displacement occurs,
whose value is controlled within 900 mm and regulation section 200 mm, satisfy the
range of 1 000 mm expansion joints, 15 mm static limit, if there is no vertical limit
device, beam displacement will be 1800 mm.
The buffer by Italy FIP Industriale s.p. In 1995~1997 year for design and production,
in autumn 1997 to install.

Fig. 4.58 Hydraulic damping device.

4.4.2 Japan Akashi Kaikyo Bridge

Design ideas: Studies to fit them into the four foundations, particularly the 3P Pier (the
main pier of the Awaji side) design criteria very tough. 1900 m, 1950 m, 2000 m, 2050 m,
2100 m, corresponding to the different main span superstructure fine contrast. In order to
ensure the edges, across more than 0.5 m and each side span at 25 m intervals. For
comparison with a focus on the wind resistance, vibration characteristics, stability,
duration and cost, and difficulty of construction.
Japan Honshu Shikoku contact line Akashi Kaikyo Bridge KobeNaruto online,
bridges total length for 960 m + 1991 m + 960 m = 3911 m bridge 110 m the deepest
waters, the maximum velocity is 4.5 m/s Akashi Kaikyo Bridges steel consumption is:
stiffening truss sections 90000t of 60000t of steel for cable, Tower of steel consumption
50000 t, full bridge amounted to 200000t, substructure concrete approximately 1250000
The construction of the bridge from May 1988 to May 1998.

1. Selection of Bridge
In 1967, Japan Society of Civil Engineers (JSCE) featured vertical rock-water line as the
choice of Honshu-Shikoku bridges route. In this design, was selected as the piers two
shallow: one extending from the side of Kobes Takaiso another is 40 m depth of ocean
elevations Gazitajo, as shown in Fig. 4.59. Distance between the two sides since this
line exceeds 5 km, so the main span of the bridge will be set upto 1500 m in both sides of
the main span and two side spans of about 700 m.
In 1970, Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority (HSBA) was established, found that
before the two main Pier Takaiso and Gazitajo the geographical condition is flawed.
In addition, including wind tunnel testing of a large number of studies have confirmed that
suspension limitation span of the bridge is about 1800 m. Study Maiko-Matsuho these
facts led directly to the start line in this scenario, the main bridge across 4 km apart on
both sides of the Akashi Straits narrowest width. Proposed road-rail combined bridge
span arrangement for 890 m + 1780 m + 890 m, it sets the main pier at the depth of 40~50
m on the ground.

Fig. 4.59 Selection of bridge.

2. Highway Bridge
In June 1981, due to the deterioration of financial and political influence on Japan national
railways re-structuring impact HSBA bridge study programme in place of a highwayrailway dual-purpose bridge. HSBA conducted a number of studies, including design,
construction, price estimates, the construction period and the feasibility of collecting tolls
and so on. Raised road bridge (890 m + 1780 m + 890 m) combined bridge the economic
feasibility of the same. Programme of highway-railway dual-purpose bridge construction
costs are relatively high, although the railway bridge section to only 41% of the cost, on
the other hand, its bridge section has to bear the full cost (Fig. 4.60).
In August 1985, the building and land Bureau, Transport Department has concluded
from the report: Akashi Kaikyo Bridge Highway should be used.

3. Study on Optimal Span

Alone, when the highway bridge program was established, compared with the combined
bridge, which have greater freedom in the design. Combined bridge design, the 3 P Pier
(Awaji side Pier) is extremely difficult, the trick is by 1800 m may limit the span for sure,
this problem can also be solved by increasing the span. For optimal span arrangement,
conducted the following research.

(a) Based on Location (Fig. 4.60)

Before selection of combined bridge piers based on studies to fit them into the four

Fig. 4.60 Planning and development programmes overall layout (size: m).
1A: If the bridge is not set up on the shore, the depth will increase sharply after the
more than 7 m, so changes of the mooring dolphins will be subject to limit. If 1 A
fallback, its range at best no more than 110 m, so as not to affect the 2nd route and
Maiko Park.
2P: the original terrain is perfectly flat, Akashi strata of geographical conditions and
no significant change. But beyond this point. In the Harbour a sudden drop observed.
If the superstructure of 2 P backward will be increase the cost of 2 P in both
directions therefore changes are unfavourable. Back through the coast of Awaji side
if location, depth and tidal flow rates will be eased, and bearing layer, stratum in
Kobe become slightly lighter. In addition, piers and navigation the hole edge distance
would increase, this will be increase navigation safety at construction and
completion. Thus to proper conclusion can be drawn: 3 P position back.
4A: because more close to the coast of Awaji, 4 A supporting layer of granite to go
lighter, 4 As design and construction Much easier, especially when 280 m is moved
from a previous location. However, moving above 300 m would be undesirable,
because the Mainland would be affected. So, in conclusion: upto 4 a backward 300

(b) The Upper Structure

1900 m, 1950 m, 2000 m, 2050 m, 2100 m, corresponding to the different main span
superstructure ratio. In order to ensure the edges, across more than 0.5, and each side span
at 25 m intervals. For comparison with a focus on the wind resistance, vibration
characteristics, stability, duration and cost, and difficulty of construction. Some of these
conclusions are as follows.
Compared with previous programmes Span I, 780 m, deformation and vibration is
not much changed.
In the span, you can use the width is 14.0 to 35 m. The truss stiffening girder of 5 m
to ensure that it will have sufficient wind stability.
Three parts, from the perspective of project cost and duration, optimal span should be

2000 m.

4. Final Scheme
Side span to main span ratio of 1 : 2, primarily on the basis: (a) by comparing different
span Division, when the ratio was used, the package, (b) includes upper and lower total
project cost structure, the most economic and second least impact on navigation, (c) for
the design and construction of large-span cantilever bridges has accumulated sufficient
The Main Cable: Allowable stress of previous suspension bridge cable 1600 MPa tensile
strength divided by 2.5, a safety factor equal to 640 MPa newly developed 1800 MPa
strength of steel wire cable tension due to live load is only quarter of cable tension 8%, the
safety factor is 2.2, the allowable stress of upto 820 MPa. Due to the improvement of
strength of steel cables, towers, making out stone bridge tower height reduced to 30 m.
The Steel Pylon and Foundation: Tower high above the sea level is about 300 m, given
the tower during construction or during operation due to wind effects may cause vibration,
wind tunnel tests were carried out. After wind tunnel testing by selected section shape of
the tower. In addition, by at the top sets the attenuation of vibration damping device, tower
wind stability is greatly improved.
Pylon foundations of circular caisson of diameter of 80 m, high 65 m. Choose the
caisson is mainly adapted to ocean climate conditions under, But also can be prevent the
current impacts and erosion. First in a factory making steel caisson foundation, launched
by a shipyard, and shipped to the construction site, and then anchor position, sink, pouring
concrete. From the tower to the base of the largest vertical force to 125000t (Fig. 4.61).

Fig. 4.61 Pylon foundations (left), and the tower of general plan (right) (size: m) Note: the
3P in the underlying data.
Stiffened Truss: The choice of stiffening truss section to, respectively, of the modern
United Kingdom genre of box a streamlined cross-section and classical truss sections are
analyzed and compared. Design standards, self-excited vibration critical wind speed for 73
m/s above. Wind tunnel test knowledge box girder section self-excited vibration critical
wind speed of about 60 m/s. In the other hand, the select the main beam as shown in Fig.
4.62 section wind-resistant stability to meet the above conditions, trussed girder is
economical, convenient construction and so on.

Fig. 4.62 Stiffening truss (size: m).

Anchorage: Akashi Kaikyo Bridge line force of about 1200000 kN, because suspension
bridges on both sides of topographical and geological conditions are so Kobe side 1A (Fig.
4.63) and Awaji side 4 two anchor the shape and size of a completely different.

Fig. 4.63 Anchorage (1A) (size: m).

Fig. 4.64 Three-span suspension bridge scheme (size: m).

4.4.3 Luo River Bridge

Design idea: According to technical reserves and engineering experience in suspension
bridges and cable-stayed bridge scheme selection made after the 890 m cross cable-stayed
bridge scheme; design further research of the hybrid girder cable-stayed bridge with side
elastic connection between the cross-ratio, cable-stayed bridge in taliang problems using
large lifting steel beams and tower construction method.
Japan Mr bridge at the Honshu Shikoku contact bridge OnomichiJzs line, it is a
connected Islands and ruins island Sea 4-lane bridges. 1973 the planned programme of the
bridge was built as a traditional-style steel truss stiffening girder-Three-span suspension
bridge, long-span 300 m + 890 m + 300 m (Fig. 4.64). Beginning in 1987, the above plan
was re-assessed. As in the 1980, of the 20th century, Japan has been through the
construction of a large number of steel cable-stayed bridge (such as a primary port west
across the 405 m bridge, 420 m Black Stone Island Bridge and Rock Island Bridge, East
of 460 m Yokohama Bay Bridge, 485 m bridge, 510 m Tsurumi channel bridge in Kobe, as
well as 590 m of Meiko Central bridge, and so on), of large-span cable-stayed bridges
have accumulated certain experience, plus France 856 m main span of Normandy began
construction of the bridge, in order to capture maximum of long-span cable-stayed bridges
in the world title, it decided in 1990, to change the design, such as 270 m + 890 m + 320
m three-span steel cable-stayed bridge as shown in Figs. 4.65 & 4.66 main girder section.

Fig. 4.65 Three-span steel-concrete composite cable-stayed bridge (size: m).

Compared with the original proposal under the now programme, instead of cablestayed bridges can be also avoid programmes island shore main cables of suspension
bridges anchor large excavation and the damage to the original natural environment, windresistant and have certain cost advantages.

Fig. 4.66 The main beam section (size: m).

The bridge across the main span due to topography, geology and navigation bar such
relationships as 890 m. But in order to master the main span from the original 500~600 m
levels increased to 890 m, on cable-stayed bridge of knots frame properties (such as stress
and natural frequency components, etc.) how much big changes, and this change is linear
with the span size closed systems will also be non-linear relationships, so the 500 m, 890
m, 1400 m and 2000 m studies comparing the four-hole span. Research shows that the
main spans of 890 m structure characteristics generally similar to the 500 m found no
divergence of non-linear phenomena.
Due to the topography of this bridge the two side spans respectively disposed in 270 m
(Island side) and 320 m (the junior side of the island), due to this ratio of side and main
span of 270/890 = 1/3, 320/890 = 1/2.8. Both ratios were relatively too far small
consequence on dead load bottom pivot negative reaction and pylon moments are too
large. To that end, by calculating the comparison study additional auxiliary piers and side
spans between the end point to the secondary pier counterweight additional options, as
shown in Table 4.2. Based on the results settings to the auxiliary piers and balanced
programme on structural characteristics are improved considerably. And 1.1 and 2.1 and
2.2 compared to span mode is basically the same, so this bridge eventually decide on the
island uses the 1.1 schema, junior island side 2.1 schema.
Table 4.2 Side layout.








Fig. 4.67 Tower at the high-performance rubber bearing.

Has studied and compared four kinds of support plans: (a) suspensions department of,
(b) elastic fixed to the twin towers, (c) is completely seated in the twin towers about, (d)
fixed to one end of the beam. Suspension system in vertical wind turbines will greatly
increase the bottom under bending moment, and beam the nodal displacements 10.18 m
high, thus first are discarded. Secondly, give up programme is completely fixed to the twin
towers, because this programme is warming girder longitudinal forces caused by the most,
higher than those of other programmes about one-third. Fixed on one end of the main
beam programmes generally are with elastic fixation to the twin towers program similar,
but the former is rendered to a non-while the latter is superior to the former in this respect,
and therefore programme of tower elastic fixation (Fig. 4.67). Fig. 4.68 shows
construction and installation are shown in the photos.

Fig. 4.68 Construction photos (a) Talianglian; (b) Using fixed jib type cranes in the tower
to install pylons; (c) Balancing assemble the main beam; (d) Through a direct method of
the girder for the increase Extension Assembly.

4.4.4 Su Tong Yangtze River Bridge

Design idea: According to the broad river bridge located in 8 km, a 50,000 ton container

ship bi-directional navigation and overlay thickness 300 m condition research on cablestayed bridge, suspension bridges and cable-stayed suspension system and other
programmes, finalization of the main span is 1088 m cable-stayed bridge. Study on design
of bridge pile foundation stability, nonlinear effects, for large span cable-stayed bridge
cable vibration, wind-resistant stability and taliang connected system and a series of
technical problems.
Control of Su Tong Changjiang bridge and the main factors affecting the main channel
bridge of long-span has the following several points.
1. The Su Tong bridge navigable river and seagoing vessels, vessel density, is the
busiest waterway of Yangtze river. Navigation of the Khumbu reset should be deep
water, shallow water shallow and porous navigation principle, setting up a two side
navigation, main navigation span, a special pass air holes and a flood channel. Main
navigation channel press the single-hole bi-directional navigation standard for design,
navigation the clearance width of not less than 891 m main navigation span both side
edges of holes according to the single-hole single navigation standard for design,
navigation the clearance width of not less than 220 m.
2. According to the evolution of river bed and river regime analysis reports, deep main
channel at the location of the bridge is 300~350 m the swing range and cross-path
selection and arrangement should take into account the deep history and possible
future of the varied sites to fit the bridge waterways may have been a fan wall swing
needs, provide greater adjustment for the channel space.
3. By 2~3 km formed in the upper reaches of the Yangtze river on a bridge axis curve,
the channel also set it, so span should be selected to navigation there is a course
adjustment of surplus, for the safe navigation of ships, piers, collision avoidance
4. Bridge site at 20 m isobath width 1000 m, 10 m isobath width 2000 m, the main
channel of the bridge should be covered by deep water, provide better conditions for
navigation, and to minimise the number of deep water pier, in order to reduce the
difficulty of construction.
5. Structure from the channel farther collision probability is small, the ship impact force
is smaller. Therefore, there is a navigation NET paused in order to reduce the
probability of main structure of ship impact to ensure structural safety.
6. The main tower base side must exist within the flow area, range about 50~70 m and
flow velocity variations in the district difference gradient is large, once the ship
enters orbit around the flow velocity, hit the pier accident-prone, for navigation and
the safety of navigation is not lee and the voyage should be avoided. Therefore, the
main span of the selection should ensure clear width than unilateral navigable surplus
of about 50~70 m, in order to avoid the area around the stream.
Under the control and influence factors of main channel bridge of Su Tong
bridge main span should at least meet the following requirements:
(a) Navigation clear width requirements: not less than 891 m;
(b) The tower base and facilities against dash size: according to the design plan,
flanked by a total of 55~85 m;

(c) Navigation clear width Fully considered of main importance, in order to ensure
its better navigation conditions under any circumstances, taking into account the
cable tower foundation flow around a sphere of influence on the side size:
unilateral 50~70 m gauge, flanked by a total of 100~140 m.
Comprehensive consideration of, main span of span fetch 1088 m.
For construction of Su Tong Yangtze River Bridge conditions, combined with the
current level of actual bridge construction at home and abroad, research and proposes four
main bridge type scheme (Fig. 4.69).

Fig. 4.69 Chart of main bridge layout (size unit: cm).

1. A main span of 1088 m tower cable-stayed bridge scheme, side spans two auxiliary
piers, span arrangement for: 100 m + 100 m + 278 m + 1088 m + 278 m + 100 m +
100 m = 2044 m.
2. Main span cable-stayed bridge with three towers of 650 m programmes, set up an
auxiliary piers, span arrangement as follows: 96 m + 164 m + 2 650 m + 164 m +
96 m = 1820 m.
3. Suspension bridge with a main span of 1510 m of the twin towers three-span
suspension programmes span arrangement as follows: 453 m + 1510 m + 453 m =
2416 m.
4. A main span of 1510 m cable-stayed-suspension bridges programme, span
arrangement as follows: 120 m + 188 m + 1510 m + 188 m + 120 m = 2126 m Rough

layout of main bridge type is shown in Fig. 4.69.

Main span suspension bridge has been completed and the maximum span at 1385 m
and 1991 m, building 1510 m suspension bridge, its mature superstructure design and
construction experience, adaptability of the navigation better. But because of Su Tong
Yangtze River Bridge, the river width wide, deeply buried basement bearing layer of soft,
so anchor foundation not only can put in the water, and the scale is huge, a number of deep
water foundation leads construction difficulties, long duration, higher construction cost,
South anchor foundation on the local river still needs further research. In addition, its poor
wind resistance capacity and wind-resistant safety. Investment estimation shows that
suspension bridge with a main span of 1510 m project cost than main span 1088 m hightower cable-stayed bridge scheme of about 900 million dollars.
For main span of 1510 m cable-stayed-suspension bridges program study showed that
large-span cable-stayed-suspension bridges building is technically possible, but now spans
more than 500 m there is no engineering, due to the complex can take design and
construction experience, the technology is immature. Compare with comparable
suspension bridges, due to poor geological conditions at the bridge, anchor Ikari is still
quite large and put into construction equipment and its technical superiority not obvious.
Because the main span cable-stayed bridge with three towers of 650 m scheme in
Sham Shui Po to set up more large structure, adaptability to shipping and poor ability to
prevent ships extremely prejudicial impact, impact on the river as well. And it spans the
size of three towers cable-stayed bridge is also first in the world, also has a great deal of
difficulty in their technology.
Tower cable-stayed bridge, Japan in 1999, opened the Tatara bridge span had reached
890 m, main span built in 1995, was more than 856 m of France in Normandy bridge, a
main span in the world at that time-span the largest cable-stayed bridge, construction of a
cable stayed bridge with a main span of 1000 m international technology matures. Su
Tong bridge main span of 1088 m tower cable-stayed bridge scheme, because of the
relatively few large structures in Sham Shui Po, had met with main span two-way channel
width summation the main channel the possible range of oscillation, influence on the river
is relatively small, project cost is reasonable.
After workers stage a bridge program and the study on key technology of bridge,
consolidate the views of the experts, you can come to the conclusion that:
According to the requirements and characteristics of building of Su Tong bridge, a
main span of 1088 m tower cable-stayed bridge scheme, although the deposit certain
technical difficulties, there are lots of research on the key technologies needed to be
deepened, but according to the current level of bridges and the practice, by deepening the
study and the necessary scientific experiments and absorbing international advanced
technology, in the design, construction, materials, equipment, management of works are
feasible, technical problems can be solved.


International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE) since 2000 to
establish Outstanding Structure Award in recognition of the most significant (remarkable),
the most innovative, one of the most creative or both wise and exciting (stimulating) the
new structure, but does not pursue maximum span or height. Outstanding structure award
by the awards from application projects for the year, the Committee selected one to three
bridges or structures in the outstanding works of the project, from 2000 to 2009 in 10
years, has comments on 20 projects have been selected, including 11 in structural
engineering and 9 in bridge engineering 2008 Shanghai lupu as the first Chinese project
won the outstanding structure award.
Bridge conceptual design below introduces one of 4 bridges.

4.5.1 Switzerland Sunniberg Bridge

1. Special Conditions of Bridge Design
More than 20 years ago, Switzerland the Government envisaged building a highway in the
Alps regions, because the line would will have an impact on the environment and
encountered strong opposition, more consideration of environmental factors on the basis
of the number of the original design was amendments, thereby making lines most of the
tunnels. In 1993, a new way to through the town of Klosters has finally been decided, is
the most important structure in the channel length is Gotschna tunnel of 4.5 km, directly
connected with the tunnel is the shengniboge bridge, the bridge and flowing in between
Rand Kuat River Valley obstacle clearance height is about 50~60 m. Shengnibo Geqiao is
the most notable building of the Davos channel, bridge conceptual design mainly depends
on three conditions, namely, bridge structure shall be must meet high aesthetic
requirements as well as integration of the scenery at the bridge site, caused by the adverse
weather conditions are not normal maintenance high durability requirements, must attach
great importance to the protection of natural environment factors during the construction
of the bridge.

2. Integration Into the Landscape Design-led Concept

Shengniboge bridge is located in the town of Klosters, is Switzerland Alps area one of the
largest bridges. Taking into account the bridge-building capacity at that time, even though
the bridge difficult topographic and geological conditions and is located on a curve
segment, two hard questions, and build a bridge of this size will not be much difficulty.
However, the bridge is in a highly visible, bridge integrates with the surrounding
landscape is the biggest design challenge. In the valley in the open countryside,
shengnibogeqiao was the only man-made structures. From a distance, this bridge is
prominent, it is in Klosters resort around the landmark building. Although the height of
the bridge with striking across the valley, but it was not overwhelming dominate the
landscape of the valley. Taking into account the situation on the ground, the bridge must
be designed with this rich rustic fusion in silence, maintaining beautiful bridge building

itself. Meanwhile, tourists arriving through the railway or highway, the bridge for their
show should be bridge technology with unique architectural landscape.
In view of the aesthetic design of the bridge was unusual, so select a cable-stayed
bridge design (Fig. 4.70). The programmes that bridge has four towers, three-span larger
main span and side spans of two smaller spans (Fig. 4.71). Considering this bridge is flat
curved bridge, at both ends of the main beam not set abutment and main beam joints but
overall continuous structure.

Fig. 4.70 Landscape design.

Fig. 4.71 Facade layout (size: mm) (a) Elevations; (b) Plans; (c) Cuts; (d) P2 Pier.
Such structure allows the main beam in longitudinal and lateral movement of the piers
is constrained, and by acting on the main beam in bridge piers load bending moment
caused by decreased from pier to pier bottom line.
Pier sizes reflect the variation of the bending moment in the pier. Taking into account
the bending sections of bridge deck clearance requirements, bridge tower slightly outward
tilt. Due to the continuous change of vehicles crossing a bridge on both sides of the
landscape, the cable is vertical routing style choices as simple as possible harp
arrangement. Deck consists of a panel, on both sides of the plate edges have a relatively
long rigid components design schemes. Cost about 14% higher than traditional cantilevers
programme costing at least. But considering the plan design enable this striking bridges
located in the sensitive landscapes of unusual beauty, is well worth the additional
investment was considered.

3. Technical Design Overview

(a) Pier
Along the vertical piers of the bridge showed a parabolic cone, its width is also changed.
The horizontal width of the pier the bottom 8.8 m to the main beam at the 13.4 m.
Therefore a solid cup-shaped piers of the silhouette. Towers, were like partitions and high
deck 15 m. Along the bridge longitudinal plate on the main girder of bridge tower from
the local effect of vehicle load caused by the bending moment. Because the line is curved
in the horizontal plane, on both sides of the cable forces of cable-stayed in different.
Horizontally, the towers on both sides due to large transverse bending moment of tension
arising from the different. Anchorage in built-in central pylon of cable-stayed steel plate.
Bridge tower tighten to get main beam set a huge beam on the lower surface, passing on
two great transverse bending moments in the tower, making the two pillars of the pier
shaft different pillars bear some 60% on the inside of the curve, approximately the outer
side of the pillars bear the 40%.

(b) Master Girder

Width of main girder section contains 12.1 m plate and two side beams. Bridge transversal
thickness 0.40~0.32 m. Lateral beam setting removable inclined cable anchorage points.
For static reasons, thickness along a bridge longitudinally to the pier increased. Due to the
method of construction, formed entirely of boundary beams using tensioned pre-stressed
components. In the main beam part due to compensate because of the tension force of
cable-stayed main welded connction axial force arising from falling, the department
imposed vertical pre-stressing increases.

(c) The Cable

Cables are wrapped with polyethylene, rigid sets of parallel wire strands form. Each cable
consists of 125~160 diameter 7 mm structure of galvanized steel wire, wire rope use stress
to meet the. p,adm = 0.50 ftk. Because each of these is a separate anchorage of cablestayed, so it can be free to adjust cable-length. Cable anchorage has been specially
designed so that it can be a great deal of variation of load.

(d) Process
The bridges construction started in July 1996, to the end of October 1998. Nearly 2.5-year
construction period need to fine planning of the construction process. Using the balanced
cantilever construction method of bridge, the first phase of the No. 0 block, 13 m, after
continuous construction of beam length is 6 m, use a pair of specially constructed traveler
for main girder erection. At every stage of construction only current segmental beams of
concrete and pouring of concrete on the veneer of a segment. Hanging basket prior to the
move, cable-stayed cable-hanging cable and anchoring. Construction of four main towers
on both sides of the suspension arms are made of 7~9.6 m length of main girder segment

Fig. 4.72 Bridge photo.

The bridge won the 2001, international bridge and structural engineering drive
association outstanding structure award, first won the outstanding structure award the
bridge project, and is considered to be sensitive scenic areas a refined structure of the arts
initiative, the bridge is shown in Fig. 4.72 after the completion of the photo.

4.5.2 The Miho Museum Bridge

1. Special Conditions of Bridge Design
Miho Museum in Japan state Midwest Shigaraki mountains in a remote, wooded valley.
The wood has been used in the valley near NARA temple building. Now, the area has
become a nature reserve, therefore, the construction very strict regulations in the area of
control. Miho Museum entrywayMiho Museum bridge, is a need bridge of the
harmonious combination of aesthetics and technology. Local beautiful mountain views of
the bridge and transition between galleries, visitors will concrete will pass through a
tunnel and across a canyon to get to the museum.

2. The Concept of Harmony between Aesthetics and Technology Leading

Miho Museum bridge and other parts (a reception pavilion, gardens, two tunnels, and an
Art Museum) together form a complex. Designers expected visitors to walk over the
bridge to art galleries, but the bridge was still being asked designed to withstand the total
wheel weight two-lane loading of 12 kN. The bridge even allow occasional higher rounds
of heavy loads, such as dignitary guests use when visiting armed vehicles. Most visitors
car park in the reception pavilion is located in the bottom of the steep slopes, the
department also the bus get off point for tourists. Visitors before entering the tunnel need
to be started by the walk along winding Canyon road, out of the tunnel once located on
Miho Museum bridge, visitors at first glance at this time the entrance to the museum (Fig.

Fig. 4.73 Arch and tunnel portal.

Out of consideration for seriousness and spectacular, the appearance of the bridge and
structure was carefully studied. The bridge spans the valley without using intermediate
supports, makes ecological impacts to the minimum. The main steel truss girder height of
2 m, post tension cable in concrete tunnel to dangling roots. While the design and
construction of the bridge forms the transition between architectural and structural design.
Bridge. Structural engineer mainly responsible for bridge basic design tasks, and design
consultants who are evaluating the bridge was raised by many of the lean fine views.

3. Technical Design Overview

(a) Structure System
Bridge design respectively in the post-tensioning pre-stressed bridges, cable-stayed bridge
with cantilever bridges and other innovative design ideas in the system, so that the a
visually beautiful and efficient structure of the bridge. Figs. 4.74 and 4.75 respectively in
four main parts: tunnel exit, ring of steel truss girder, and post-tensioned cable-system.
Because the bedrock is of better quality, so choose the tunnel as a cantilever span valley
roots. The space at the bottom of the tunnel of axial pressure in truss rod and bolted to the
top of the tunnel portal of post-tensioning cable the axial torque caused by bringing the
main beam to the cantilever effect. Space truss with the bottom surface of the tunnel
structure is continuous, cables interconnected with post-tensioning tendons in the tunnel
wall. Therefore, gravity and lateral forces acting on the bridge together use the tunnels is
mainly influenced by bending rather than pulling.

(b) Space Truss

Because bridge restricted the traffic bridge on the aesthetic perception of conditions and
light permeability is better than thick concrete structure, to select a steel. In may cases,
studios and pre-fabricated tunnel within the range allowed by the steel members. Bridge 2
m only the height of the space of main girder steel truss. Most of steel pipe truss bar and
cross-sectional triangle truss structure made in 7.5 m width of the driveway within the
distribution of the three top chord, as well as a bottom rod (Fig. 4.76). Horizontal, vertical
and inclined plane of truss consisting of diagonal supports the complete section. Best truss
rods diameter is 267 mm. Rod direct size was selected to represent the poles distribution
levels; rod diameter at specific levels remain unchanged, while the wall thickness of steel,
with the load performance changes. Members generally use financial penetration welds

between tubes and tube connections. Bridge cover, flange bolting method suitable for site

Fig. 4.74 Facade layout (size: m).

Fig. 4.75 Truss floor plan (size: m).

The top chord of the bridge between the cable and screw anchor, the castings of the
truss and screw set are interconnected. These castings to simplify connection detail of
highly exposed and easily adapted to cable angle at each connection point.
Museum-side 6 m at the bridgehead of high gravity type bridge pier. Restraint systems
are installed at the bridge to live load resistance by cross-bridge girders ends upwards. The
gravity type bridge pier of the restraint system is installed, constrains the beam under three
piers direction of rotation, but allowed the main longitudinal elongation and shortening,
while also allowing seismic beam under the action of lateral and torsional movement.

Fig. 4.76 The main beam section (size: m).

(c) The Cable

One end of the cable and laid in the tunnel wall of post-tensioned pre-stressing steel cross
anchor, through and at the mouth of the tunnel is a skew arch. The arch feature class
similar to the vertical pier in the cable-stayed bridge. Cable by inclined arches was spread
out to hanging truss girder per 2 m setting on a connection point has been to cross in the
girder. Using these cables in post-tensioned beams to provide upward support force, in

order to balance live loads on the bridge. Post tension jacks when only in deck anchor
homework and arch and the anchor end of the tunnel. Another set of cable systems and
steel truss girder beam set attached to the pillars of the free ones (Fig. 4.76). These posttensioned cable-provided upward force and deflection control of both functions and
arrangement of curved pre-stressed reinforcement in post-tensioned beams are alike. Beam
setting you can adjust the screw fittings of the pillars in order to increase its length,
vertical jacks mounted on pillars of cables can be done later. Backbone cables and two sets
of cable-arch of the bridge-tunnel cable reduces the bending moment of steel beams
together, making the bridge with the same compared to the non-prestressed bridge span,
you can use smaller height of the girder and pipe diameters.
Space of cable wound on the surface of galvanised spiral, diameter 22.4~60 mm a total
of 6 different diameter steel wire rope structure composition. From arch-to-arch cable
diameter, wire diameter also increased, resulting in a very high structural efficiency and
beautiful style. In addition to these aesthetic considerations, wire diameter is not
controlled by the structural strength, stiffness and more by can control.

(d) About Arch

Arch tunnel side of the bridge can be significantly reduce the cable diameter, axial
pressure of the main beam. In a horizontal direction began, arch between the plane and the
tunnel portal of the deviation angle of 45. Along the direction of the longitudinal axis of
the bridge, by combination of steel box section arch shape consisting of a smooth
parabola. Arch cross-section changes with the curve, this curve takes into account the
structural and aesthetic requirements, high efficiency of arch ring structure, visual
perception the United States. Skew and rotation is not constrained by spherical bearing
pin. By post-tensioning cable stress caused by fixing the arch on the spherical bearing.
Miho Museum bridge on both aesthetic and functional balance benefits to reflect
grandeur and symbolism of the Museum. For several years, it design of novel structures
and forward-looking as visitors to Miho Museum provides a sturdy and attractive entrance
(Fig. 4.77).
The bridge won the 2002, international bridge and structural engineering outstanding
structure award, considered to be built lightweight transparent structure highlights build
beautiful and artistic charm and perfect protection of the landscape under the bridge.

Fig. 4.77 Bridge photo.

4.5.3 United Kingdom Gateshead Millennium Bridge

1. Special Conditions of Bridge Design
In the United Kingdom, Central District of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Gateshead there six
bridges have been built over the river, three of them with important history and drive
meaning respectively, built-in 1849, by Robert Stephenson designed double-decker
highway-railway dual-purpose bridge, completed in 1876, armstrong designed rotating
bridge-bascule bridge opened in 1928, and designed by David Anderson looks like the
Sydney Harbour Bridge two-hinged steel arch bridges, the three bridges represent the
latest technological achievements and outstanding engineering innovations. In the mid1990s, gateshead City Hall puts on the redevelopment of the river and the nearby
abandoned zones and with the Tyne Newcastle terminal connection plan, launched a
collection spanning the Tyne bridge design contest, the contest attracted of the 47 teams
from around the world to participate in, in which 6 teams passed the qualification
examination and were invited to submit designs.
Major design conditions of the bridge is to be a landmark structure in the city, and
ensures 25 m high vertical clearance empty and terminal junctions around just a scant 4~5

2. Open Innovation-led Concept Design

In order to not only ensure navigation 25 m clearance and meet the requirements of
terminals only high out of the water around 4~5 m, the only selection optional is the
bascule bridge. From the bascule bridge has built, mainly by four forms, namely, vertical
rotation, horizontal rotation, horizontal movement and vertical promotion, as shown in
Fig. 4.78. After a full consideration of these traditional ways of opening, Gateshead
Millennium Bridge was created to give a new open format, that is, in the direction
perpendicular to the vertical planethe so-called fifth-degree rotation space, rotation of
the fifth dimension concept design is shown in Fig. 4.79.
The bridge program is an innovative and adventurous design, it is a reversible form of
bridge, consists of a pair of slalom composed of steel arch Hat elastic Fulcrum turns on.
The opening of the bridge can be compared to a motorcycle helmet helmet goes up, or is
man the eyelids open. Gross weight bridge 800t can rotate and open, making ships pass
under the bridge, and in this regard it is the unique and convenient. Open systems is the
use of hydraulic jacks pushing plate below the fulcrum, so as to achieve overall the
purpose of rotating bridge. Pontic opened position, play a connecting role slings are
horizontal, these slings will be tight this steel arch associated with key.

Fig. 4.78 Open schematic drawing (a) Vertical rotation; (b) Horizontal rotation; (c) Move
horizontally; (d) The vertical Ascension; (e) Fifth-dimensional rotation.

3. Technical Design Overview

(a) Arch Rib
Parabolic steel arches by tapered in plan and elevation of kite-shape composition (Fig.
4.80), which is mainly composed of thick 35 mm plate assembly, and internal use of the
longitudinal and transverse stiffening, anchor arch box toward cable-stayed plane. Outside
of the arch, steel wire cable is used to connect the traditional opening of the fork-shaped
tank, connections on a rib handle installed in the dome-shaped alcove with arch in the
clapboard and stiffeners connected. 18 cable made up of galvanized steel wire, in junction
with deck has an adjustable anchor, cable through an internal cylindrical cavity embedded
anchor plate.

Fig. 4.79 Fifth-dimensional rotating concept design.

Fig. 4.80 Rib section.

(b) Deck
Deck elevation for parabolic, plane is curved, it illustrates one of the most complex
geometric shapes. Steel box junction frame is the main unit from the graphic point of
view, from the quayside to the river center, steel box gradually narrowed. Box profile for
anchorage of cable-stayed for space and anchor bolt from the bottom surface of the arch
into the oval concave interior, steel box the size of the cable from its current location to
restore the complex stress. Steel box on the surface to be coated non-slip epoxy coat.
Horizontal steel beams suspended from a steel box about 3 m pitch and along a curve
outward, which supports lightweight aluminum deck plate as bike lanes. Along the long
bridge to the bike path constant width and 300 mm lower than the nearby sidewalk, which
has different demands a high level of pedestrian fence and guardrail adjustment of a

uniform height on the same section (Fig. 4.81).

Fig. 4.81 The main beam section (size: m).

(c) Machinery
The bridge needs a system that can be open the bridge, which could push pull, because in
the process of opening the main center will be through fulcrum. Sufficient to operate the
wind conditions, the process engine loads from 10000 kN thrust into 4500 kN pull of the
bridge which set out clearly in the system fails to run or, conversely, under the condition
of different emergency response procedures and requirements. River bank mechanical
systems with synchronisation to ensure the structure is reversed reversing and control
equipment to maintain distance between the two sites do not exceed 25 mm is extremely

(d) Decoration
Aside from the strong visual impact of the bridge outside the general form, become
bridges decorated with most direct contact part. Bike path is a series of connections of
aluminium alloy section bars. Aluminum has excellent service diagram surface provides
bike good grip, but it is also a light structure, which as the main cantilever part of its
outermost is very important. With its lightness, a bridge deck also has a certain degree of
transparency, when bridge tilt opening, soffit when fully opened, the bridge is particularly
spectacular. Sidewalk bridge formed by the epoxy aggregate paving.
At different heights one-by-one between sidewalks and bike paths and benches of
metal barriers. Benches are available for people to stop down to rest and finish the bridge,
enjoy the surrounding scenery than internally by the welding on the frame consisting of
perforated stainless steel sheet fence in windy environments, can provide some degree of
protection designer. Set up a series of doors on both ends of the bridge in order to ship
crowd control when ship navigation. Two stretch into the river next to the bridge flow,
concrete structure with a glass shell, one is charged room, and another prepared as
favourites in the future exhibition purposes.
The bridge won the 2005, international bridge and structural engineering drive
association outstanding structure award, considered to be a two arch ribs using a unique
way connecting footbridge in a graceful curve and by rotating the opening to be able to
satisfy the navigation requirements (Fig. 4.82).

Fig. 4.82 Bridge photo.

4.5.4 France Darius Milhaud Bridge

1. Special Conditions of Bridge Design
Darius Milhaud is a main bridge in Viaduct is on the A-75 motorway, connecting Northern
Europe and Spain East. Milhaud city is located in the confluence of the Tarn and Dourbie
rivers, two rivers in the ancient Massif central plateau is formed on two deep canyons. By
the viaduct must be from the North Highlands across the broad valley of the 600 m 720 m
of the Larzac plateau to the South, road route is not an easy task, not to mention but the
Foundation due to instability caused by the clay in the soil.
Follow the principles of bridge length choose bridge location, based on 601 m high in
the North and South of 675 m even in a straight line, this line of about 2.5 km, straight line
from bottom of the Tarn river, about 275 m (4.83), apparently high pier is a big challenge,
the design of the bridge condition can be simply expressed as length of 2.46 km and high
275 m valley features a multi-span slim beautiful bridges, and adopt appropriate
construction methods.

Fig. 4.83 The main beam section (size: m).

2. The Concept of Reasonable Hole Leading Design

First of all takes more than 200 m across the Tarn river span larger pier height and span
the lower adjacent bridge across the size and pier height is also quite closely, had little to
do but others span and high pier of bridge. In the pursuit of architectural effect you should
first think span bridges, and most traditional equal spans and high-pier continuous rigid
frame bridge is generally continuous rigid-frame bridge spans 150~200 m, even the largest
342 m of long-span continuous rigid-frame also needs to set up 9 per cent of the high pier.
In order to minimise the number of piers, bridges span must be increased, and will be span
breakthrough 300 m must stay or suspension structures, this is in 1990, Michel Virlogeux
first 7 Ta 8-span cable-stayed bridge scheme of basic ideas (Fig. 4.84).

Fig. 4.84 Bridge photo.

And span bridge is established, must also take into account local conditions and
construction methods. Traditional methods of construction of cable-stayed bridges are on
cantilever construction method, which means about the bridge to proceed concurrently or
successively in the 8 towers face 16 and 9 closure points of complex construction, so
many separate construction sites, construction quality control. Adhering to the French
romantic nature, stiffening of beam with a tower and part of the cable and the intermediate
provisional pier reduce the span from both ends toward the middle of incremental
launching construction method (Figs. 4.85 and 4.86), and creatively solve construction
problems of adjusting measures to local conditions.

3. Technical Design Overview

(a) Bridge Section
Milhaud viaduct length of 2460 m long, formed by 6-span 342 m-stayed structure, two
side spans of 204 m. Main beam orthotropic steel box girder section for concise line
triangle (Fig. 4.87), the middle two webs is in incremental launching construction
specifically set. Includes wind up deck full width is 32.05 m, located four lanes wide and
two 3 m wide emergency parking strip. Emergency parking area outside on the wind up,
specially designed to reduce lateral wind speed wind barriers in order to improve air traffic

Fig. 4.85 Incremental launching construction from both ends.

Fig. 4.86 Pushing system.

Fig. 4.87 Bridge section (size: m).

Fig. 4.88 Pre-cast towers (unit: m).

(b) Pier
Pier design must be take into account cross-asymmetric live loads caused by the
longitudinal unbalanced forces and temperature at different heights on the box influence of
cross section. In order to resist the bending moment due to extreme high, piers on the
broad power of box-section, but on the most ends vertically into two forks in the 90 m

range (Fig. 4.89). Vertical pre-stressing of the deck using two pinned to the pier on fork
bearings, then tack down the inverted v-shaped tower. Under extreme asymmetric live
loads, each bearing can withstand 100 MN vertical loads.
Two top high piers of 245 m and 223 m respectively, with tower cranes, you can reach
275 m heights. Because this is necessary for construction of tower cranes in every step,
fixed to the piers. Each bridge pier foundation consists of four 4 in diameter consisting of
open caisson of the deep ~5 m, 9~16 m.

(c) Pushing System

Steel box girder deck push-starting from both ends, at the crossing of the Tarn river
closure in the middle of the pier on both sides. In order to reduce the span, in addition to
closure across the Tarn river in addition to temporary Pier in the middle of the set consists
of a steel tube truss structure (Fig. 4.86). In order to control the largest cantilever length
does not exceed 150 m, staging two piers spanning 12 m fulcrum. Push jobs each cycle is
equivalent to 171 m, take 5d time under favourable weather conditions. When the weather
forecast when wind speed is greater than 37 km/h, you must stop pushing homework.

(d) Bridge Tower

On May 18, 2004 after the Tarn river span from factory pre-fabricated bridge components
were transported to the tower each tower position (Fig. 4.89), fixed rear suspension
installed and tensioned cables, the finished construction.
The bridge won the outstanding structure award of 2006, International Association for
bridge and structural engineering, and is considered to be a fly in even the two deep
beautiful slender bridge Canyon heights, creative technology of incremental launching
construction of bridge construction has been driven into advance.

Fig. 4.89 Typical pier (size: m).

1. Taking into account the bridges you listed the main factors taken into consideration
when planning, and one to two factors to explain illustrate?
2. Invite you to four selection scheme of Hong Kong Ting Kau Bridge and the final
programme review them one by one.
3. Please you the five finalists in the first round of Stonecutters Bridge in Hong Kong
voted for the one you think is the first name in the programme, and from bridges and
the beautiful point of reason.
4. Amount of force structure, materials, construction methods and beautiful, whats your
view of box arch bridge and truss arch bridge.
5. Please talk about characteristics of bridge foundation construction conditions, these
conditions are combine, bridge foundations designed should have philosophy.

[1] The sea-sails. Conceptual Design of Large-span Bridge Problems//proceedings of
the 16th National Conference on Bridges. Beijing: China Communications Press,
[2] Ocean Sail. Chinese and Foreign Comparison of Technological Innovation in the
New Bridges//proceedings of the 17th National Conference on Bridges. Beijing:
People China Communications Press, 2006.
[3] Yan Guomin. The Modern Cable-stayed Bridge. Chengdu: Southwest Jiaotong
University Press, 1996.
[4] Lin Yuanpei. Cable-stayed Bridge. Beijing: Peoples Communications Press, 2004.
[5] Shao Changyu. Domestic and International Development Prospect of Composite
Structure Bridges. The Bridge, 2009 (3).
[6] Shao Changyu.Hangzhou Jiubao Bridge Composite Bridge Concept, Technology
and Innovation. The Bridge, 2009 (4).
[7] Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority. The Akashi-Kaikyo bridgeDesign and
Construction of the Worlds Longest Bridge. October,1998, Japan.
[8] Man-Chung Tang,Dr. Record Spans. Civil Engineering, March 2010.
[9] Aude Petel, Eng. ,etc. Design of an Innovative Road Bridge with Advanced Steel
and Concrete. Structural Engineering International, 2010,20(2).
[10] Jose M Simon-Talero,etc. Launching the Vicario Viaduct: Andalucia, Spain.
Structural Engineering International,2009,19(4).
[11] Yan Guomin. Bid on Design and Construction of the Oresund Bridge. Bridges
Abroad, 1999 (3).
[12] Yang Yidong, Hu Dingcheng. The Detailed Design of the Oresund Bridge. Bridges
Abroad, 1999 (3).
[13] Lin Yuanpei. Cable-stayed Bridge. Beijing: Peoples Communications Press, 2002.
[14] The Lei Junqing, Zheng Mingzhu, Xu Gongyi. Suspension Bridge Design. Beijing:
Peoples Communications Press, 2002.
[15] Dr Lau Ching-kwong, et al. Hong Kong Bridge Design and Project Management.
Beijing: Tsinghua University Press, 2008.
[16] Wu Guoji, Huang Heng Zhi, Xu Zhihao, Huang Jianbo. Route Nineth Stonecutters
Bridge Design Competition//14th National Bridge Beam Academic Conference
Proceedings, 2000.
[17] Wang Yingliang, Gao Zongyu. Bridge Design in Europe and America. Beijing:
China Railway Publishing House, 2008.
[18] Yin Delan. Deng, and bridgeChina article. Beijing: Tsinghua University Press,

[19] The Yellow Melt.Design and Construction of the Cross-Sea Bridge Donghai
Bridge. Beijing: Peoples Communications Press, 2009.
[20] In highway planning and Design Institute, et al. Preliminary Design of Suzhou
Nantong Yangtze River Bridge Project Across the River. 2002.11.
[21] In Highway Planning and Design Institute, et al. Preliminary Design of SuzhouNantong Yangtze River Bridge Project Across the River. 2007-3).



The design of concept is the early stage of project design, relying on the thorough study of
the natural conditions of the bridge site, bridge function and the surrounding landscape
and a series of basic data, concept creation and selection of work reflect the designers
unique understanding of design objects, design tasks, the specific control and overall grasp
of design goals. Meanwhile, conceptual design must be follow a few basic principles, such
as early 3E principles abroad, namely, efficiency, economy and elegance, the early utility,
economy, where possible care for beauty construction principles, Chinas current safe,
suitable, economical, beautiful principle, the 21st century international bridge safe,
suitable, economical, beautiful, durable and environmentally friendly six principles.
With the rapid economic development of society, the bridge built by ever-larger,
systems become more complex with more and more functions, internationally known as
superstructure (super infrastructure). Common characteristics of these projects are: huge
investment, technologically complicated, severe environmental impacts, with increased
probability of disaster (including heavy winds, earthquakes, tsunami, boat crash, terrorist
attacks, etc.), and maintenance, repair and reinforcement are very difficult. Being confined
to structural features, single level seeking structural safety, as used to be, is not enough, it
must also be aimed at disaster prevention design of bridge structure and durability design
set. From the 1970s, on the basis of lessons learned at home and abroad, in addition to
continued emphasis on the structural design and construction safety durability, reliability,
component interchangeability of different bridges structure and analysis of the disaster
grade, level of risk, proposed the prevention design and durability design of new concepts.
In real terms, disaster prevention design of structures and structural durability design to
solve the problem is the economy, reasonable working life issues, namely, structural
lifetime issue.
Bridge structural durability and disaster prevention design in conceptual design has
three main objectives: first, to learn about damages disasters may impose on the bridge, as
well as the durability of bridge structures shown on the main issues so that at conceptual
design stage fully estimate the severity of these disasters and problems; secondly, master
the design of bridge structures to resist various disasters and durability basic principles of
design, methods and effective means in conceptual design phase has prepared structural
disaster prevention and durable plan and measures; third, to introduce the bridge structural
durability design of prevention and advanced concepts, practices, and successful
experience of pioneering economic, rational, comprehensive and innovative prevention
and durability of design ideas.
This chapters bridge structure disaster prevention focused mainly on wind-resistant,
anti-ship collision with bridge and bridge aspect, coupled with resistance of bridges
durability, and consists of four parts, focusing on bridge conceptual design stage of design
concepts and methods in these four areas, in hope that bridge engineers can, from concept

design, fully and seriously deal with prevention and durability problems bridge structure


For bridge structures, particularly large-span bridges, flexible structure, in addition to the
necessary design and static analysis, you must also be carry out wind-resistant analysis
and design. Design and analysis of wind-resistant behaviour of long span bridges include
theory analysis and wind tunnel test and numerical simulation and field test, but in bridge
conceptual design stage, generally technology, time and money do not allow refinement of
the design and analysis of wind-resistant, so wind-resistant design of the bridge is
especially important. In order to establish a wind-resistant design of bridges, first of all,
one must master the mean and fluctuating wind characteristics and wind resistance bridges
of the basic principles, which will be introduced in the first part of the wind resistance of
bridge; secondly, you need to understand the concept of wind resistant design in reducing
wind loads of bridge, part II, mainly from the point of view of bridge structure component
main girder and arch ribs, pylons and piers, main cables and so onintroduces briefly
reducing wind load practices set forth, and one still needs to understand the concept of
wind resistant design in reducing wind-induced vibration of bridges, the third part is about
flutter from the main beam, and galloping, vortex-induced vibration of main beam and
arch ribs, rain-wind induced vibration of stay cable, a brief introduction of engineering
practice of reducing vibration hazard and experience and methods. Finally, one also needs
to know when the wind-resistant properties of the bridge structure itself cannot meet wind
resistance requirements, which can be used to control measures applied to improve wind
resistance performance, part four introduces flutter control of main beam and main beam
or arch ribs of vortex-induced vibration control of cables wind and rain vibration control
of aerodynamic measures.

5.1.1 Wind and Bridge Wind-Resistance

Wind is a natural phenomenon on the surface of the Earth, human societys history of
quantitative estimation of wind-induced effects began with the first civil engineer John
Smeaton in 1759, who published the famous paper on mean wind load calculations; 120
years later, in 1879, when the worlds longest railway bridgethe 84-well United
Kingdom Firth of Taywere destroyed by strong winds the event advanced the wind load
calculations to new era that fluctuating wind loads or wind loads must be considered;
more than 60 years later, in the autumn of 1940, in the United States, Washingtons second
large-span suspension bridge in the worldTacoma bridge which was completed just over
4 months ago, under the action of force of winds underwent strong vibrations and
collapsed completely. This event ended the era when human simple considering the static
effect of wind load times. Modern wind engineering started from investigation of wind
destroyed the Tacoma bridge accident, and has, over more than 60 years, especially in the
past 30 years, made great progress, forming principles and norms of bridge and structural
wind-resistant design.

1. The Wind Characteristics

Human settlements are surrounded by a layer of the atmosphere as thick as 1000 km on
Earth, the orbit around the Earths atmosphere from the top to the next can be divided into

hot layer, a middle layer, the stratosphere and the troposphere. Among them, the
troposphere is about 10 km above Earths surface, within the atmosphere that human
activities carried out mainly in the troposphere, such as airline flight in nearly 10,000
metres up in the sky, the Earths tallest mountainthe height of Mount Everest is 8848 m.
Due to the uneven distribution of solar radiation at the Earths surface and the Earth
inhomogeneity of the surface land and water distribution, the level of distribution as well
as the rotation of the Earth result in the Suns uneven heating of the surface of the Earth,
both temporal and spacial and the uniformity of tropospheric air temperature distribution
in space and time, resulting in horizontal and vertical convection of air flow and thus the
wind. Simply put, the wind is the movement of air relative to the Earths surface, mostly
because of the spatio-temporal heterogeneity of heating of air by the Sun. When the air
cools, its weight will be increase to sink when air gets hot its weight is reduced, it moves
up. Hot air rises, cold air flows around to fill vacancies and thus forms wind.
Air flow forms wind, due to the Earths surface topography and the impact of various
obstacles, the flow of wind near the surface of the Earth (referred to as close to the wind)
dislays disorders. From the anemometer records it has been found that wind velocity timehistory curve in the package contains two components: one is the period is greater than 10
min the long-period average wind components, general description in terms of random
variables; the other is a period of only a few seconds or less short-period pulsating wind
component, in accordance with the general stochastic processes to deal with them. The
average size of the wind is usually divided into 0~12 or a total of 13 grades according to
the English Beaufort grading, it is based on objects on land, sea and fishing boats and
wind speed the height of 10 m above the sea level, wind detailed registration is seen in
Table 5.1.
Table 5.1 Beaufort scale of wind.
At a considerable Land surface Sea and fishing Probably sea
height from the
wave height (m)
Wind Name ground 10 m wind characteristic
speed (m/s)
Range Median
General Highest
Quiet, smoke Calm sea


Light air


Cigarette can
show the wind
direction, wind
tale-tell does
not turn

Mini-waves as
scaly, no surf, on
fishing ship on
feels subtle
movement, and
can actually use
the rudder





People feel
there is wind,
wind tale-tell

Wavelets, short
wavelength, but
shows clear




shape of wave;
fishing boat can
sail 1~2n mile
with sails raised



Leaves and
twigs are
moved flags
open up

increases, crests
begin to rupture;
fishing boat can
sail 3~4n mile
with sails raised





Dust and paper

on the ground
are moved,
tree branches

Small waves,
white waves
appear; fishing
boat can make
the hull sideways
with full sail





Small trees
with leaves
sway inland
water shows
small waves

Medium waves,
with more
significant wave
shape; fishing
vessels have to
reef part of sail






Big trees are

electric lines
sound and
difficult to
hold umbrella

Mild waves
begin to form;
fishing boats reef
most of the sail






Entire tree
shakes, headwind prevents
walking feel

Light waves, surf

into foam strips
along the wind
direction; fishing
is no longer out
of port






snapped, one
feels strong
facing the

Moderate big
waves, longer
wavelengths and
all sea fishing
boat stay in port






suffer small

Wild waves,
along wind strips



damage, roof
tiles being
lifted, big

of foam is thick
difficult to sail





Trees blow
down, ordinary

Wild waves, are

long and rolled;
motor boat
sailing with







Trees blown
over, ordinary

waves; visibility
affected motor
junks in extreme





Hurricane rare
on land,
power is

waves, the sea
has turned
white, visibility
severely affected



2. Wind Induced Disasters

Storm is one of the most frequent and severe natural disasters, year after year, it has
brought to our society great loss of life and property and caused a lot of structural damage
and destruction, serious impact on our economic and social activities. Cyclone has
characteristics of high frequency, secondary disasters (such as rain, waves, storm surges,
floods, mudslides, etc.), duration, etc. In the second half of the 20th century statistical
results showed that among the top ten worldwide natural disasters storms occurred most
frequently, accounting for 51% of the total number of disasters; death toll caused by the
storm, about 41%; economic loss caused by the storm, about 40%. Among 2005, World
top ten natural disasters are two storms, of which the United States Katrina Hurricane
caused damaged houses, collapsed bridges and inundated city, traffic disruption, leading to
direct economic losses of about 2000 people were killed and economic loss upto more
than $ 200 billions.
China is one of the worlds handful countries worst affected by the cyclone. Our
country is located in the West Coast of the Pacific North-west, the whole world. Most
severe tropical cyclones typhoons are mostly generated in the Pacific North-west, and
North-west or West along the path, had direct hit Chinas Guangxi, Guangdong, Hainan,
Taiwan, Fujian, Zhejiang, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Shandong, Tianjin, Liaoning, more than 10
coastal provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions, and that hurricane frequency
high average annual Typhoon that landed in Chinas coastal areas is 7, 6 Severe storm
surge causing disasters. In 20054 of the top ten natural disasters in China are storms,

causing a direct economic loss of 55.1 billion Yuan, accounting for about ten two-thirds
total losses from natural disasters. According to the World Meteorological Organization
(WMO), the Typhoon Committee 1985~1997 annual report, Chinas average economic
loss caused by a hurricane is 7.3 times that of Japan, 10.2 times of Philippines, 12.3 times
Korea, 22.3 times Viet Nam; the average total number of casualties and missing due to the
Typhoon is 7.6 times that of the Philippines 19.3 times of Vietnam, 42 times of Japan.
On 7 November, 1940, the United States main span of 853 m completed in just over 4
months, Washington (then the worlds second largest span) the Tacoma Narrow Bridge
was vibrated in gale with wind speed less than 20 m/s wind-induced vibration, the bridge
has experienced increasing amplitude 70 min of torsional vibration, and ultimately result
in broken bridge structure fell into the Gorge frame as shown in Fig. 5.1. The terrible
accident of winds destroying the bridge of Tacoma strongly shocked bridge engineering
and air mechanical industry, and opened a comprehensive study on wind-induced
vibration of long span bridge and Aero-elastic theoretical exercise. However, accident
investigation gather historical information about bridge wind destroyed for reasons, people
are surprised to find, from 1818 onwards, there have been at least 11 bridges destroyed by
strong winds, and witnesses described scenes of wind damage can be clearly felt that
much of the cause of the accident was caused by a wind strong vibration, although the
mechanism of wind-induced vibration was unknown.

Fig. 5.1 Tacoma Narrow Bridge destroyed by strong winds (a) Wind induced torsion
vibration; (b) Deck break fall.

3. Wind-resistance Principles
When the wind encounters structures it converts some of its kinetic energy to external
forces acting on the structures of power, this force is so-called wind loads. When the wind
around generally non-streamlined (bluff) section of the bridge structure, generates vortices
and flow separation, forming the complex of the air force. When the bridge span is small
(200 m), when the stiffness, the structure is insured stationary, air acts as only the force of
static, or static wind load, which includes average wind and pulsing wind load; and when
the larger span of bridge structures (200 m), the less the stiffness makes it easier for
structural vibration excited, this static characteristics of species not only has the effect of
wind and dynamic characteristics, or dynamic wind loads.
Wind dynamics inspires bridge vibration, the vibration of the bridge, in turn, affect the
flow of air, change air force formation of wind-structure interaction mechanism. When the
vibration caused by air force small, air force as a force, leading to finite amplitude forced

vibration of bridge structures, including vortex-induced vibration of bridge buffeting and

bridge when air force under the influence of strong vibration, the air force subject to
vibration feedback structure is characterised by a self-excited force, resulting in
divergence of self-excited vibration of bridge structures, including flutter and vortex
resonance. Effects of wind loads of bridge structure and its classification can be
represented by Fig. 5.2. In addition, the cables of the cable-stayed bridge in the wind or
rain occurs in different forms under the action of vibration, vortex-induced vibration of
stay cable for example, parameters such as vibration, the vibration of wake galloping and

Fig. 5.2 Effects of wind loads of bridge structure and its classification.
According to the code for wind-resistant design of highway bridge (JTG/T D60012004), and wind-resistant design of bridge structure compliance with the following
principles: may be appear in the bridges design life of maximum wind speed, structure
should not ruin a divergent self-excited vibration in the most adverse design wind load
combinations together with the other functions, should have the required strength and
stiffness of structures and static instability should not occur; non-destructive wind-induced
vibration of amplitude of the structure should meet safely, driving comfort and fatigue
strength requirements of structural wind-resistance by aerodynamic measures, structural
measures and measures to improve it.
Wind-resistant design principles in order to carry out, in conceptual design of bridge
structure while there is no need for a wind tunnel test method or simulation evaluation of
wind-resistance performance test results and overall, but still can be arranged through the
structure and components of fully embody the idea of wind-resistant design, chief among
them included decrease static wind loads and wind-induced vibration and additional
control measures.

5.1.2 Reduce the Static Wind Load

Any object immersed in flow are affected by airflow, airflow to bypass the usually nonstreamlined or bluff-body section bridge structure, generates static wind load of the three
components, as shown in Fig. 5.3, the FD or static wind load resistance components FH
and the static wind load lift component FN or FL MT and static wind load lifting moment
components, it can be expressed as follows:

In the formula:
= air mass density, 1.225 kg/m3;
u = design wind speed (m/s) average wind load average wind speed, gust
loads calculated using gusts;
B, H = vertical and lateral projection width (m);
CL, CD = lift and drag co-efficients in the axial direction;
CN, CH = lift and drag co-efficients body in the axial direction;
CM = lift moment co-efficient.
Structure defined by the above three formulas three components of the static wind
load, and design wind speed, cross-sections and dimensions of the three factors. Design
basic wind speed, wind speed is determined by site conditions such as roughness and the
height from the ground. In order to reduce the static wind load, bridge site should be an
area with small base wind speed; under the same basic wind speed, the greater the surface
roughness, smaller average wind speed, wind speed/gusts greater average wind speed
increases with height above ground, but wind speed decrease with increasing height off
the ground. Section types and dimensions of static wind loads according to the main
beams and arches ribs, piers and towers, main cables and cables and other components
were also be discussed.

Fig. 5.3 Wind and body axes coordinates under static wind load.

1. The Main Girder and Arch Ribs

Section size and structure of main girder and arch ribs have large effects on static wind
load . From a general point of view, section close to streamline smaller the static wind
load and vice-versa section which is similar to a bluff body, greater the static wind load.
Effect of static wind load set out the main structural dimensions are width and height of
the main beam or arch rib section, the aspect ratio is greater, smaller the static wind load,
on the contrary, width and height smaller than static wind load greater.

Fig. 5.4 Pouring of concrete box girder.

Figure 5.4 shows the six commonly used concrete girder, in which, as in Fig. 5.4(a)
minimum static wind load in the form, as shown in Fig. 5.4(f) Secondly, since the aspect
ratio is a large, close to streamline; as in Fig. 5.4(b) maximum static wind load in the
form, as shown in Fig. 5.4(c) second, because the small ratio of width to height, near bluff.
Figure 5.5 shows the six solid web steel girder, among them, 5.5(a), (b), (c) and (e)
forms of static wind load, as in the latter vertical webs close to the bluff body; 5.5(d), (f)
form of static wind loads small, streamlined skew web better.

Fig. 5.5 Solid Web steel girder.

Figure 5.6 shows four types of steel box girder, in which 5.6(b) form of static wind
load minimum maximum height-width ratio.
Figure 5.6(a), (c) forms of static wind load followed, both are similar, because the
beam is large, but you have set the long wind up, which although not set the wind up, but
small beam; 5.6(d) form of split-type steel box girder and static wind load is slightly
greater than the above three forms, but wind-induced flutter stability of performance is

Fig. 5.6 The main beam section (size: m).

Arch typically have two or more than two tablets of arch rib, rib-section section
compared with the width is much smaller. Role in each arch can be ignored as the static
wind load on components of lift moment, leaving the drag and lift components depends
primarily on the most lateral arch and its high profile, and each piece of the arch rib of the
drag and lift forces is not the same. Reduce the static wind load is mainly increase lateral
arch outline consisting of aspect ratio, or the use of arch rib section angle measure
application of section to streamline.

2. The Piers and the Bridge Tower

Piers and the bridge tower are usually vertical components: on the one hand, this kind of
vertical component along the vertical section change of wind speed size is changed, so
static wind load along the height variation is more complex on the other, this kind of
vertical cross-section of the aspect ratio compared with the main beam is small, lift and
the lift moment components can generally be ignored, so the static weight resistance to
wind loads considering only a relatively simple as that. Piers and towers of static wind
loads generally refers to a high component of wind resistance, simple geometric shape
section of bridge pier and Tower of wind drag co-efficient can refer to Table 5.2.
Table 5.2 Pier and Tower resistance co-efficient.


Bridge pier or pylon of height-width ratio
































1. 4















When piers or height of the bridge towers static, wind load will be very large,
sometimes you have to take into account the pier or pylon section of buildings-shape and
static wind load. Chinas largest suspension bridge spansShanxi Hou men bridge main
span of 1650 m boat, bridge tower section once several rounds of selection of pneumatic,
which on commonly used pair of rectangular cross-section in the first round, compared the
three chamfer forms that is, outside the circle, concave circle and rectangle, as shown in
Fig. 5.7. Four different forms of chamfers of tower column cross-section of transverse
wind resistance co-efficient static wind resistance co-efficient Cy, Cx and obey directions
as shown in Table 5.3, the maximum transverse direction to the outside wind resistance
co-efficient cabochon heshun bridge angle less chamfer of about one-fourth; concave
circular and concave rectangle two chamfers differ can also reduce some 30% of wind
drag co-efficient. Therefore, on the premise of meeting the structural requirements, should
be combined with building design, consider a rectangle chamfer cross-section as
appropriate to reduce the static wind load.

Fig. 5.7 Four different forms of chamfers of Tower column cross-section (size: m).
Table 5.3 Towers column section four different Chamfer wind drag co-efficient of static

Coefficient Angle Simple rectangle Convex round Concave circular
Anterior Posterior Anterior Posterior Anterior Posterior Anterior Posterior
column column column column column column column column
Cross the
Along the



























The largest span in the world1088 m Suzhou-Nantong Yangtze River Bridge main
span cable-stayed bridges, bridge tower section has also be conducted the aerodynamic
shape comparison, Fig. 5.8 shows the cross-section of the four forms. Table 5.4 shows the
different sections of the static wind resistance co-efficient, cut surface form and section IV
is wind resistance co-efficient 20% per cent difference in the transverse direction, along
the bridge over 30% the difference, which is 300 m high bridge towers, the static wind
load is considerable.
Table 5.4 Four different forms of Chamfers of Tower column cross-section of transverse
wind resistance co-efficient.

Section I Section II Section III Section IV

Transverse direction





Along direction





Fig. 5.8 Four types of tower column cross-section form (a) sections I and (b) section II (c)
section III (d) section IV.

3. The Main Cable and Cable

Of suspension bridge main cables and slings and cables in cable-stayed bridge, although
generally possess a streamlined circular section, but they are still affected by static wind
load effect, as with piers and towers, has only resistance component need to be considered.
Modern parallel wire strands of long span suspension bridge main cables are generally
made from steel wire, wire harness unit consisting of (strand), and consists of several
beam unit into a main cable. With preformed parallel wire beam unit method (PPWS)
beams tend to follow a regular hexagon line, common types of steel wire unit number 61,
91, 127, 169, composed of hexagons of shape stability. This arrangement can be facilitate
beyond construction, you can also minimise the beam unit with the beam between the
strands of the void, aim to reduce the cross-section diameter of the rope. Wind resistance
co-efficient of main cables of suspension bridges in general constant, single main cable
can take the value 0.7, so the outer diameter is smaller, static wind-resistance the smaller,
proportional relation between them.

Fig. 5.9 The main types of cable-stayed bridge (a) steel cable; (b) parallel wire strands; (c)
strand clue; (d) single strand.
Is used in cable-stayed bridge cable general cables must be made with high strength
reinforcing bars, steel wire or strand. Main cable type high-strength steel cables, parallel
wire rope, PC strand thread, single strand, as shown in Fig. 5.9. At present, in large-span
cable-stayed bridge parallel wire strands, and are most commonly used in steel strand
leads two parallel wire strands of smaller voids, so the outer diameter of the same intensity
less wind-resistance is relatively small; conversely, strand leads voids larger, so the large
outer diameter, wind resistance is relatively large. Due to the influence of Reynolds
number effect and cable than static wind-resistance co-efficient of main cables of
suspension bridges, and general range of 0.8~1.0.

5.1.3 Reduce Wind-induced Vibration

Bridge structure due to different bridge, span and materials, and produces various forms of
wind-induced vibration of its main components, large-span girders of cable-stayed and
suspension bridge would be flutter, galloping, buffeting, vortex-induced vibration and
wind-induced vibrations, long-span arch bridge arch rib of a bluff body truncated vortexinduced vibration is raised, steel pylons for cable-supported bridges may be easily lead to
galloping and vortex-induced vibration and long wind-induced vibration of cables of
cable-stayed bridges and weather exciting possibilities, suspension bridges and wind
vibration of arch bridge suspenders also has problems.
Above wind-induced vibration and flutter, galloping is self-excited vibration of two
divergent, according to wind-resistant design principles must be completely avoided, and
vortex-induced vibration is a large amplitude vibrations, both a self-excited vibration and
forced vibration characteristics of bridge wind-resistance design principle calls for
stiffness requirements; rain-wind induced vibration of cables is a self-induced vibrations
of large amplitude, it should meet certain strength and stiffness requirement; else buffeting
and vibration is non-destructive forced vibration of finite amplitude, will not cause the
bridge broken bad, as long as the traffic safety and driving comfort and fatigue strength.
Bridge conceptual design stage, in order to improve wind-resistance performance
implement the concept of reduction of wind-induced vibration, mostly on the main beam
or beams flutter, galloping, vortex-induced vibration of arch ribs, cables, such as rain-wind
induced vibration of divergent or self-excited vibrations of large amplitude, and other
limited vibration non-destructive forced-vibration sites can be taken into account in the
subsequent design stages.

1. Main Beams Flutter and Galloping

Flutter is a destructive torsion or bending and torsional coupling divergent self-excited
vibration when it reaches a critical wind velocity, vibration girders moving by air feedback
continue to absorb energy to overcome structure damping results in increase of amplitude
gradually until the structure destruction, flutter can occur in almost any form of girder, just
flutter critical wind velocity of different sizes. Galloping is a destructive horizontal
divergence of self-excited vibration of the bending in the wind, was mainly caused by the
lift curve slope, galloping occur in non-circular side-length ratio is less than 4 blunt body
similar to the rectangular components, seldom in the long-span bridges this height-width
ratio of the main beam.
Judge flutter instability of bridge, or the standard is whether bridge flutter testing wind
speed is greater than the critical wind speed of flutter, which is design basis multiplied by
the correction factor of wind speed wind speed and safety factor of a standard, the latter
generally use segment models or full bridge model wind tunnel test and theoretical
calculation method to determine flutter. Bridge conceptual design phase typically can be
used code for design of highway bridge wind (JTG/T D60-01-2004), the estimation
formula of critical wind speed of flutter of a preliminary the evaluation, which also
contribute to the analysis of main factors affecting the critical wind speed of flutter.

In the formula:
b = half-bridge width, b = B/2;
ft = bridge torsional vibration frequency (Hz);
m, Im = bridge of equivalent mass (kg/m) and the mass moment of inertia (kg
s, = section shape co-efficient, effect co-efficient and angle of attack, and
can refer to the values in Table 5.5.

Table 5.5 Girder shape coefficient and angle of attack effect co-efficient.
Section types

Shape co-efficients

Angle co-efficient a


Damping ratio
0.005 0.01






With cantilever





With cantilever





With wind mouth













With splitter plates

Open panel beam

Estimation formula of critical wind speed of flutter (5-4) showed that flutter critical
wind speed effect of section shape factors (including the damping ratio), angle of effect
factor, main beam and mass moment of inertia and torsional frequency, and so on. Among
them, the damping is relatively large, streamlined good section, has a higher flutter critical
wind speed; 3 or +3 attack angle flutter critical wind speed of less than 0 angle of
attack increases main beam equivalent mass or mass moment of inertia can be help
improve flutter critical wind speed, but the effect is limited, just a relationship of onefourth power increase reversed the fundamental frequency of bridge, flutter critical wind
speed can improve.
Bridge conceptual design phase, in addition to judging by these four factors or
improving flutter stability of bridges, you can also use bridge has been completed and the
performance of dynamic characteristics and chatter, a simple comparison to design bridges

or contrast. Tables 5.6 and 5.7 respectively 10 has built structural properties of a typical
cable-stayed and suspension bridge the natural frequency and vibration critical wind speed
of flutter, concept design for long-span bridges.
Table 5.6 Typical characteristics of cable-stayed bridge structure and fundamental
frequency of vibration and flutter critical wind speed

Bridge name

1. Donghai Bridge stars

Pearl Hill Bridge

Span Girder
(m) material


332 Composite II

The critical
frequency (Hz)
wind speed
Vertical Reverse
0.3381 0.5287

2. Hainan century bridge 340 Concrete






3. Shanghai nanpu

423 Concrete





4. Jingzhou Changjiang

500 Concrete





5. Shanghai nanpu

602 Composite II




6. Minjiang bridge in

605 Composite II




7. Nanjing Yangtze

628 Steel





8. Nanjing Yangtze
River third Bridge

648 Steel


9. Shanghai Yangtze
River Bridge

730 Steel




> 100.0

10. Su Tong Changjiang


1088 Steel





Table 5.7 Typical characteristics of cable-stayed bridge structure and fundamental

frequency of vibration and flutter critical wind speed.

Bridge name

1. Guangxi Red Bridge

Span Girder Girder

(m) material section

380 Steel

Steel II

The critical
frequency (Hz)
wind speed
Vertical Reverse
0.1915 0.3591

2. Xiamen haicang

690 Steel box Single


3. Humen bridge in
Guangdong Province

888 Steel box Single

girder of girder

4. Xiling Changjiang

900 Steel box Single


5. Yichang in Hubei

960 Steel box Single

girder of girder



88. 0




6. Wuhan yangluo bridge 1280 Steel box Single

7. Tsing Ma bridge in
Hong Kong

1377 Steel truss Single



8. Jiangyin Changjiang

1385 Steel box Single





9. Runyang bridge

1490 Steel box Single





10. Zhoushan Xi Hou men 1650 Steel box- Single

bridge in Shanxi




2. The Primary Beam or Arch Ribs of Vortex-induced Vibration

Airflow typically blunt body when sections of bridge structural members, separation and
re-attachment flow formation of vortex shedding occurs, resulting in alternating the vortex
force, when the vortex shedding frequency is close to or equal to order natural frequencies
of a structure, it will be bring out the structure of the vortex vibration, called vortexinduced vibration. Vortex-induced vibration will not cause the entire structure like a
flutter, galloping on divergent vibration, resulting in dynamic power failure, but when the
vortex-induced vibration frequency is close to the natural frequency, also appears larger
amplitude, formation of vortex-excited resonance, this combination of characteristics of
self-excited and forced vibration comfort and driving problems caused by light, severe
cases may be cause deformation of the structure is too large, even strength.
Vortex-induced vibration in lower wind speed range of limited amplitude. When wind
speed is low, frequency of vortex-induced vibration less affected by vortex frequency and
flow velocity has a simple linear relationship between as the wind speed increases, vortex
frequencies and amplitudes step-by-step increases when the vortex frequency is close to
the natural frequency, amplitude, reach the vortex-excited resonance states, at this
moment, vibrational state, in turn, controls the frequency of vortex makes a range of wind
speeds change cannot change the vortex frequency, which is characteristic of vortexinduced vibration the frequency of locked, the corresponding wind speed range, called
vortex-induced vibration lock the wind speed.

Evaluation of vortex-excited resonance occurs there are three main indicators: first, the
vortex-induced vibration lock the wind speed, the vortex-induced vibration velocity only
if vortex-induced vibration lock the wind speed is less than the required design wind speed
into account vortex-induced vibration problem for large-span cable-supported bridges,
vortex-induced vibration locked wind speeds generally between 5~20 m/s; maximum
amplitude of vortex vibration, which corresponds to a maximum amplitude of first order
modal, highway wind-resistant design code of bridge (JTG/T D60-01-2004), vortexexcited resonance amplitude estimation formula is given, but it is recommended to
segment model wind tunnel test as the standard, specification of vortex-excited resonance
amplitudes are presented simultaneously allowed values, must-ensure that the maximum
amplitude is less than the acceptable third, vortex-induced vibration frequency, which is
associated with the economic indicators, theoretically speaking, if the vortex-induced
vibration lock the wind speed less than design basic wind speed, and vortex-induced
vibration of maximum amplitude is greater than the allowed value, it is necessary to
consider the vortex-induced vibration control measures, but considering use of vortexinduced vibration control measures have to pay the economic price, recent advances show
that can happen based on the vortex-induced vibration frequency analysis on bridge design
reference period first vortex-induced vibration frequency and the cumulative time in
vortex-induced vibration of two indicators to determine the need for vortex-induced
vibration of control measures.
According to the main girder of cable-supported bridges and latest progress of the
study on vortex-induced vibration of long-span arch, based on theoretical analysis and
model test and field measurements have been found to have varying degrees of vortexinduced vibration of famous bridges: Denmark Sea Bridge suspension bridge, Stonecutters
Bridge in Hong Kong stayed Shanxi Hou bridge suspension bridge, boat, Shanghai Lupu
arch bridge, and so on.

3. Cable Rain-wind-induced Vibration

Long cables in cable-stayed bridges under wind and rain conditions vibration that occurs,
called rain-wind induced vibration of stay cable, causing the vibration main cause is rain
on the cable surface forming a line or the rain or rain up and down line. At present, the
specification is still not on this type of vibration clear provisions on the issue. Cable
section model wind tunnel test results show that the cables in the wind and rain conditions
vibrations than the dry wind (no rain) under the condition of vibration is much more
According to the latest research advances, influence of rain-wind-induced vibration
has three main factors: first, the cable orientation may generally be represented by
inclination and declination, although in 25~45 inclination and declination of amplitudes
have some differences, but all have been, and this inclination and declination range cannot
be avoided by the vast majority of cable-stayed bridges and, second, size of cable, which
includes diameter and length, wind tunnel tests showed 80 mm diam, 200 m rain-wind
induced vibration can occur above the length of the cable, the range of diameters and
lengths are the vast majority of large-span cable-stayed bridges (400 m span) must be face
the third, vibration of wind and rain conditions generally been represented by strong winds
and rain, wind tunnel test results show that the wind speeds and rainfall intensity of 5~15

m/s and 5~60 mm/h caused by rain-wind induced vibration of cables, the wind speed and
rainfall intensities are also often occur in the majority of rainfall. Therefore, large long
rain-wind induced vibration of cables of long-span cable-stayed bridges problem is a
common bridge designers have to face wind resistance performance problems conceptual
design phase should be considered as early as possible counter measures.

5.1.4 Additional Control Measures

According to the code for wind resistant design of highway bridge (JTG/T D60-01-2004),
and wind-resistant design of bridge structure requirements of structural wind resistance by
aerodynamic measures, structural measures and measures to improve it. Aerodynamic
measures mentioned here mainly refers to change components of cross section shape or
attach can alter air flow pattern around the appendages, such as stable plates, deflectors,
skirt, wind nozzles, slots, because this method of structural change is small, lower
economic costs, commonly known as the first choice for additional control measures; knot
frame measures mainly refers to the increased rigidity of the structure or the quality and
structure of external or internal constraints such as approach, which generally require pay
a larger price, in conjunction with structural changes when considering the overall
programme; mechanical measures refers to adding damping includes passive dampers and
active damper and semi-active dampers, such as main beam of vortex-induced vibration
and wind-induced vibration control of bridge tower passive dampers, lasuofeng TMD
vibration control of semi-active damper, internal or external cable rain-wind-induced
vibration control of magnetorheological fluid dynamic dampers. Will focus on the
following main beam flutter control of main girder of aerodynamic measures, or arch ribs
of aerodynamic measures and vortex-induced vibration control of cables vibration control
of aerodynamic measures.

1. The Flutter Control of Main Girder of Aerodynamic Measures

To illustrate the necessity of flutter control of main girder, presented in Table 5.8 currently
has completed 10 of the worlds largest cross-suspension bridge, 5 of bridge flutter or a
vortex-induced vibration problem has arisen. According to recent study on wind-resistance
of long-span bridge and building established practice, irrespective of streamlined steel box
girder is steel truss beam with good ventilation, the traditional ceiling flutter stability of
long span suspension bridges about 1500 m, when even close to this limit is exceeded,
designers must consider used flutter control measures improved aerodynamic stability;
Flutter control of aerodynamic measures stiffening girder of suspension bridge main
central stable boards, slotted or split box girder, stabilising plate and slotted combined,
these measures can be guarantee suspension bridge main span of 5000 m flutter critical
wind speed is high enough to meet the world wind in areas prone to wind-resistance
Table 5.8 The top 10 largest span suspension bridge in the world.
of span

Bridge name

Main Girder
span forms



Country Year



Japans Akashi

Shanxi Hou Gate



Denmark Sea





Girder Chatter





Girder Vortex


Denmark 1998

Yangtze River


Girder Chatter



The Humber


Girder No





Girder No




Hong Kong
Tsing Ma Bridge


Girder Chatter











The Golden Gate









Yangluo Yangtze
River Bridge


Girder No





Figure 5.10 depicts the central stabilising plate application in runyang Yangtze River
Bridge, split in Shanxi Hou men bridge box-girder in a boat application, Italy Messina
Strait Bridge to be used is split three-box girder scheme and 5000 m the stability of
suspension bridges and open web portfolio.

Fig. 5.10 Flutter control of main girder efficient aerodynamic measures (size: m) (a)
Stable Central Board application in runyang bridge; (b) Split in Shanxi Hou men bridge
box-girder in a boat; (c) Three box girder bridge over the Strait of Messina split plan; (d)
5000 m stability of the suspension plate and slot combinations.

2. The Flutter Control of Main Girder of Aerodynamic Measures

With the increase in recent years of large-span bridge span, in addition to the main beams
flutter problems, main beam or arch of vortex-induced vibration problem more and more,
previously mentioned in the vortex-induced vibration problem of several famous bridges
in the world. In fact, the typical bridge vortex-induced vibration reasonable solutions to
their problems, and eventually settled on pneumatic control measures in the future has a
good model of vortex-induced vibration control of long-span bridges used. For this reason,
Fig. 5.11 depicts several bridges the vortex-induced vibration of pneumatic control
measures, for example, Denmark Sea Bridge and Hong Kong stonecutters Bridge is using
principles similar to the spoiler, Zhou Hou men bridge deck wind barrier measures have
been adopted in Shanxi, Shanghai Lupu bridge baffle wall plate is used.

Fig. 5.11 Flutter control of main girder efficient aerodynamic measures (size: m) (a)
Denmark sea bridge plate; (b) of Stonecutters Bridge in Hong Kong guide plate (c) Shanxi
Hou men bridge deck boat windbreaks; d) isolation of Shanghai Lupu bridge plate.

3. Vibration Control of Aerodynamic Measures

As the main cause of rain-wind-induced vibration of stay cable is cable surface form the
rain line, thus changing the cables was originally non-streamlined circular section, so rainwind induced vibration of cables of the most effective methods of control should be the
formation of rain can damage the surface line measures. After a great deal of wind tunnel
test and field test, mainly through pneumatic controls there are two, that is wrapped on the
cable surface around the Helix (5.12A) or engraving irregular pits (5.12B), these two
methods can effectively reduces the amplitude to allowed values (L/1700) range.

Fig. 5.12 Vibration control of aerodynamic measures. (a) Winding spiral; (b) Engraving
irregular pits.
In addition to rain-wind induced vibration of cables using aerodynamic measures of
control, auxiliary cable for cable measures can effectively reduce rain-induced vibration
and other vibrations, such as the Normandy bridge, but the measures are rarely used,
mainly because the secondary cables and cable connections difficulties. In addition, if you
can improve the cable damping can achieve the purpose of vibration control, increase the
lasuozu can be used based on different mechanisms for damper, oil damper and viscous

shear damper and friction damper, high damping rubber damper and electricity, magnetic


As with wind-resistant design of bridges, bridges including theoretical analysis, seismic
design and analysis and shaking table test and numerical simulation of earthquake damage
investigation, but at the concept design stage, generally does not allow for refinement of
the seismic design and analysis, so build bridges located meter idea is particularly
important. In order to implement the concept of seismic design of bridges, first, I had to
learn the basic characteristics of earthquake ground motionsMagnitude and intensity,
Bridge Seismic damage and aseismic design method, which will be introduced in the first
part of the earthquake and seismic; Secondly, the need to be familiar with a variety of
bridge seismic design principles, part II briefly introduces four beam bridges, arch bridges,
cable-stayed bridge, a suspension bridge kind type of structure dynamic characteristic and
seismic response characteristic and aseismic design principle, and requires an
understanding of domestic and international bridges case studies in order to draw them in
the conceptual design, and application and development of, and the third part focuses on
the structure, load-bearing structures and foundation case; and, finally, two vibration
reduction measures to understand the commondampers and bearings, part IV including
damper and vibration reduction, locking device and buffer supports.

5.2.1 Earthquake and Anti-seismic

Earthquakes are the results of crustal rocks sudden rupture due to tectonic stress
concentration accumulated in the Earths crust, earthquakes can be graded with magnitude
of intensity and size. Earthquake particularly strong results for bridge damage is
enormous, which generally included on earthquake damage to structures, support and
ancillary facilities such as earthquake damage and earthquake damage to structures in the
lower part. Learn bridge seismic design code for various types of bridge seismic design
principles, mastering various types of bridge seismic analysis results and on the basis of
experience, can help us in read design, clear requirements for fortification, on
consideration of seismic performance of more focused conceptual design.

1. Earthquake
Earthquakes are a natural phenomenon caused by the Earths internal structure movement.
In strata movement, more dramatic break bad sport, can cause tremors, on above-ground
or underground buildings in different levels of earthquake damage, and led to loss of life
and damage to property.
Size of seismic vibration can be described by two indicators, namely, their magnitude
and intensity. The former is a measure of earthquake size indicators, usually with the
maximum amplitude (Table 5.9) or source release of strain energy (Table 5.10) to
represent, whereas the latter is used to indicate seismic degree of impact on surface and
building, it not only with the release of seismic energy, depth and distance from the
epicentre, and engineering geological condition and seismic wave propagation
characteristics of a building and so on, the rules of the seismic design of highway bridges
(JTG/TB02-01-2008) provides seismic fortification intensity of relations and horizontal
design Basic acceleration of ground motion as shown in Table 5.11.

Table 5.9 Earthquake magnitude according to the defined maximum amplitude (m = 1gA).
Large earthquakes

Shock level M
M 7
Tiny earthquakes

Shock Level M
3 > M 1

Medium Earthquakes

7 > M 5

1 > M

Small earthquakes

5 > M 3

Ultra-tiny earthquakes

Note: A indicates the maximum amplitude.

Table 5.10 The earthquake magnitude and strain energy released.

Energy (erg)


Energy (erg)

2.00 1013

6.31 1020

6.31 1014

2.00 1022

2.00 1016

6.31 1023

6.31 1017

3.55 1024

2.00 1019


1.41 1025

Note: 1 erg = 107 J.

Table 5.11 Seismic fortification intensity and horizontal design Basic acceleration of
ground motion.
Seismic intensity

Acceleration peak

0.05 g

0.10 (0.15)g

0.20 (0.30)g


2. Earthquake Disasters
Earthquake disasters have been recorded in history as early as there is a record of strong
earthquakes often cause surface changes, such as topography, and landslides and
liquefaction facility damage and fires, floods, pollution, disease and other secondary
disasters caused by human or animal casualties and socio-economic loss.
Bridges without the reasonable seismic design will be lead to serious damage in the
quake. Turns out, both at home and abroad because of the number of bridge structural
damage caused by the earthquake, far more than by storms, ship collision damage caused
by other reasons such as. For example, in China in the 1975, haicheng earthquake in
China, 618 bridges in earthquake regions in the 193-seat suffered varying degrees of
damage, accounting for about 31% in the 1976 Tangshan earthquake, suffered earthquake

damage of railway bridges accounted for 39%, Tangshan earthquake disaster of highway
bridge 62%, earthquake damage to highway bridge in Tianjin 21%; in the 2008 Wenchuan
earthquake, there are 6 different types of bridge-more than 6000 square beam structure
subjected to earthquake disaster, about 10% of them were badly damaged or collapsed,
needs to rebuild after demolition. According to bridges disaster investigation, seismic
damage of main bridge structure is reflected in various parts of the structure, and can
follow the structure from top to bottom is divided into earthquake damage to structures,
support and ancillary facilities such as earthquake damage and earthquake damage to
structures in the lower part. Earthquake damage to superstructure, bridge or arch bridge
upper structure subjected to earthquake damage and destroyed rare, often by other parts of
the bridge structure damage caused by breakage of the girder and arch, such as caused by
adjacent girders colliding beam end and deck structural damage in the vicinity of the
department, and so on. When sliding displacement of earthquake damage beyond the pier
when the bearing surface, it would have been serious the falling beams (Fig. 5.13).
The earthquake, bearing of Bridge Seismic damage is extremely popular and has long
been considered a weakness on the seismic performance of bridge. Damage was mainly
for pot bearing anchoring bolts were pulled out, cut or shear failure of the bearing itself,
plate bearing is pushed out, cut or cut-out damage (Fig. 5.14). In addition, bridge ancillary
facilities block masonry shear or cut-tension-bending damage joints horizontal shear
failure occurs, vertical or horizontal tension and compression shear failure damaged
railings can also occur lateral deformation, deformation and failure of the vertical or
horizontal tensile failure, and so on.
Substructure or the serious damage of bridge pier and abutment is mainly due to soil
liquefaction, ground subsidence and slope slip or break causing, the main earthquake
damage included bridge abutment pier cracks, cracks, joints cracked, serious results in pier
collapse (Fig. 5.15).

Fig. 5.13 Miao Zi ping whole spans of minjiang River Bridge in Wenchuan earthquake in
Wenchuan earthquake, Luo Liang Tu.

Fig. 5.14 Rubber cut-out damage.

Fig. 5.15 Bridge in Wenchuan earthquake cracked and collapsed.

3. Bridge Aseismatic Design Method

The seismic design of highway bridges regulations (JTG/T B02-01-2008) earthquake
provisions according to the various types of bridges categories and their corresponding
target for fortification, as shown in Table 5.12. The bridge seismic design category in the
table are as follows: type a, 150 m extra large bridge with single span; Class b is a singlespan span no more than 150 m on the highway, highway bridges span no more than 150 m
of single span bridge on secondary roads, bridges; Class c is a secondary Highway in the
bridge, bridge, single span diameter not exceeding 150 m of category IV road, bridge,
bridge; d Category is the category IV Bridge, the bridge on the highway.
Table 5.12 Various types of Bridge anti-seismic fortification goal .
Fortification goal
antiE1 earthquake effect
E2 earthquake effect
Class A Generally can continue Local minor damage may occur, do not need to fix or
using without damage simple fix may continue to use
or repair,
Class B

Is not damaged or does Assurances of no collapse or serious structural

not need repair can
damage, after temporary reinforcement may be usedcontinue using
emergency communications

Class C

Without damage or
repair, can continue to

Assurance against collapse or serious structural

damage, after temporary reinforcement may be used
emergency communications

Class D

Without damage or
repair may continue to

Set forth in the rules for the seismic design of highway bridges using the principle of
two levels of fortification, two-stage design. The first phase anti-seismic designs, the
elastic seismic design; the second phase of the seismic design ductility seismic design
methods, and capable of protecting designs principle. Through the first phase of the
seismic design, which correspond to E1 earthquake seismic design can achieve similar
levels and original specifications earthquake fortification level. Through the second phase
of the earthquake-resistant design of the corresponding E2 earthquake seismic design to
ensure the structure adequate ductility capacity, by checking to ensure structural ductility
capacity is greater than the ductility demand. Design by introducing the ability to protect
the original then, ensure that the plastic hinge in the selected location appear, and there is
no shear damage failure modes. By aseismic measures set meter, ensure that the
displacement of the structure with sufficient capacity.
The seismic design of highway bridges rules according to the complexity of dynamic
response under earthquake excitation, bridge structural dynamic response calculation of
bridge structures subjected to earthquake-resistant design and verification will be divided
into two broad categories, namely, rules bridge rules and non-bridge. Among them, the
rules of bridge beam is the largest single span is less than or equal to 90 m, and Pier height
is less than or equal to 30 m bridge, bridge seismic rules must in strict accordance with the
rules in addition to all the other bridges, including do not satisfy the conditions of beam
bridges, arch bridges, cable-stayed bridges, hanging bridges and other bridges are nonrules, rules only irregular bridge seismic design principles are given, including seismic
concept design provisions.

5.2.2 Bridge Anti-Seismic Principles

While bridge because of its span, scantlings and based in a different form, exhibit different
seismic response, however, the same type of bridge exist in dynamic characteristics and
seismic response of some rules to understand these rules and characteristics, it helps in
conceptual design by doing some basic judgement. In addition, knowledge of bridge
seismic design principle, during the conceptual design phase is also very important.

1. The Beam Bridge

Bridges can be divided into irregular bridges and bridge rules, but no matter what kind of
dynamic characteristics and seismic response of bridges are familiar with the. Seismic
design concerned may be refer to the rules for the seismic design of highway bridges,
among them, the most important thing is should try to use a symmetrical structure,
connections between superstructure and substructure construction be as symmetrical as

2. Arch Bridge
Arch bridge is a compression arch rib of componentas a major component of the bridge,
and so determine the span cannot be very large, structure stiffness is very small. Structure
dynamic characteristics and seismic responses in the light of the rules for the seismic
design of highway bridges are analysed. The most important anti-seismic design principles
are important: built in areas of seismic fortification intensity 8 or 9 degrees of long-span
arch bridge, the torsional strength of main arch ring should be used good stiffness, the
overall cross-section; when using reinforced concrete arch, and must strengthen horizontal
links in the lower deck and arch wind support should be set, and the beam rigidity should
be strengthened.

3. Cable-stayed Bridge
Frequency and vibration mode characteristics of cable-stayed bridge and its rigidity and
quality-related, such as closed-box girder with vertical deflection frequency of open crosssection height. The others under the same conditions, of harp-type cable arrangement of
vertical deflection frequency will be lower for radial arrangement. Large span cable-stayed
bridge is a long-period structure, its first modefloating vertical vibration on seismic
response of main tower along the bridge to the tribute offering an absolute advantage.
Floating structural system of cable-stayed bridge in the largest contribution to the
transverse seismic response of the tower is the main tower vibration modes (transverse
vibrations of transverse vibration of symmetric and anti-symmetric).
From the seismic requirements, wish to structure flexible. Vibration of flexible
structures because long seismic response of a smaller, but the displacement reactions great
and should be attract attention. Built on the seismic fortification intensity 8 or 9 degrees of
cable-stayed bridge should be a priority in the area of floating system; floating system
resulted in large beam the nodal displacements, we should use the tower, elastic or
damping constraint system.

4. Suspension Bridge
Due to the suspension, bridge is a flexible structure, with floating structural system of
cable-stayed bridge as the basic cycle is very long and is thus subject to earthquake load
control can be small. However, the vertical earthquake component on stiffening girder,
effects of bending moment of beam main tower, tower, the effects of axial force of piles
shall be pay attention to. Relative displacements between the girders and beams is another
characteristic of flexible structures. Ensure the role of expansion joints, located reset the
block, damping bearing, are better measures for reducing relative displacement, to prevent
falling beams. Main load-bearing structure, the towers should be choices helps to improve
the structure and volume of ductile deformation capacity and avoid the occurrence of
brittle failure.

5.2.3 Anti-seismic Design Success Stories

In areas of high seismic intensity and seismic response factors that tend to control the

design of the structure, so, in concept design, the overall vision of the structure, structural
system, forms the basis of planning must take into account its seismic behaviour and
seismic system, easy access to good structural performance; on the contrary, is not
conducive to seismic system, in order to meet the seismic loading carrying capacity,
sometimes takes a huge price. Therefore, the conceptual design is of course due to the
earthquake on seismic performance of structures needed innovation plays an important
role in the concept.

1. Select the Seismic Favourable Structural System

Most of the mass is concentrated in the upper part of the structure of the bridge, and
seismic inertial forces are also concentrated in the upper structure. The upper structure of
seismic inertial force through connections between superstructure and substructure
construction (support) to the pier, and then passed by the pier to the base foundation. For
example, three-span continuous girder bridge with large span, under normal
circumstances, a pier supporting system, able to cope with temperature degree, required
for normal use such as vehicle loading and deformation, however, seismic response,
massive beams of the seismic data stress transfer to the pier and foundation of a pier
appears unreasonable and uneconomical in bear, from conceptual design ideas would like
to have such a system: normal use is a pier supporting system for when the earthquake
struck, four piers shared beams seismic reaction forces. This similar concept of problems
will require design-time to think and find a solution.
Example 5.1 Greece Rion-Antirion Bridge: reinforced earth base isolation.
Design: vertical and transverse floating cable-stayed bridge system.
The bridge (Fig. 5.16) connecting Greece Mainland and Peloponnese peninsula,
between the Gulf of Corinth. Bridge is located in bedrock depth ultra 500 m, 2000 year
return period earthquake with maximum peak acceleration of 1. 2 g, and the peninsula of
8~11 mm, the rate float away land and seismic safety is the most important controlling

Fig. 5.16 Rion-antirion Bridge (size: m).

In order to avoid displacement of great earthquakes and Taki, selects five of the bridge
span continuous floating structural system of cable-stayed bridges, superstructures for
girder bridge, between the pier and beam transverse directions how to connect? If you like
float system cable-stayed bridge, between the transverse taliang replaced by wind-resistant
connection, Towers Foundation during the earthquake forced to fail. If this connection is
released, main beams and the top horizontal displacement, cable tower base forces were
too large. Finally, the taliang transverse direction is set between five additional mechanical
device when an earthquake occurs allowing the middle insurance limit device in a certain
damage under earthquake loads, and the remaining four dampers will be play the role of
damping to protect the bridge tower security and main beam lateral seismic displacement

constraint. Usually, side-wind effects, insurance limit device to ensure that horizontal and
pylon of the bridge-solid will be connected together (similar to the wind resistant
bearings), guarantee that no master Liang Hengqiao rock. Beam installed adaptive main
beam vertical limit of displacement, lateral damping devices installation schematic in Fig.
Example 5.2 Main channel bridge of Su Tong bridge.
Design: integrated static, wind and seismic analysis results, eventually adopted dampers
(wind time) connection.
Su Tong bridge on the damping limit restriction system, a hydraulic buffer (power
locked) limiting constraint system and the elastic system static and seismic response
analysis of results, and compare responses of floating system, as shown in Table 5.13
below. Table of seismic response of two number values are: North beam (Tower)/ Liang
Dynasty (Tower). Can be obtained from Table 5.13 to the following conclusions:
longitudinal seismic damping constrained systems reaction is slightly larger than the lock
binding system, much less than the float system, floating system of 40%; in the system of
four structural damping constraint system of longitudinal shear force and bending moment
at the end of minimum locking restraint system the largest damping constrained system of
vertical bottom shear is a floating system of 86%, locking constraint 68%; damping
constrained system of longitudinal tadi moments is a floating system of 76%, lock 66%
restraint system (average of the North and South towers).

Fig. 5.17 Tower-beam cross-linked and attach the beam layout.

Table 5.13 Comprehensive comparison of three kind of restraint system and float system.
Constraint name

Damp limit

A tower connection restraint C =15 000 =0.

system parameters
4 750 mm

Lock limiting


locking 750
mm limited

stiffness 50


displacement of
beam (m)


0.483/0.470 0.690/0.673

The top


0.637/0.625 0.820/0.818


Tugend shear





Tugend bending 2280/1.740



2740/2500 2790/2490

Device trip (m)


0.421/0.439 0.683/0.673

Device binding




Note: C is the damping co-efficient, measured in kN/(m/s)0.4, index for speed.

Synthesis comparison of seismic response analysis results mentioned above,
longitudinal talianglian with rigid limiters with rated travel and power device for damping
composite systems.

2. Improving the Load-bearing Structure Seismic Performance

As the main load-bearing structure of the tower, piers and arches can be designed with
ductile deformation capacity of structures, resulting in earthquake energy dissipation
through component under, such as sacrifice part of its detailed structure, achieve the goal
of avoiding brittle failure.
Example 5.3. United States San Francisco new Bay Bridge.
Design idea: The seismic ductility design of Tower column.
San Francisco Bay Bridge East of the original bridge damaged in the 1989, earthquake
in Montenegro, the Municipal Government decided to build a tower to meet seismic
requirements of the new bridge. Self-anchored suspension bridge system with a main
span of 385 m, tower height 180 m. Current concepts general prevailing notion that, at
such a high intensity earthquake area, bridge-tower should be. In this way, the beams of
the tower under earthquake to earthquake energy consumed can form a plastic hinge,
making vertical pylon remains elastic.
During the preliminary design, the gantry tower and a single tower with different types
of studies were carried out (Fig. 4.24). According to the calculation a single tower can
meet current seismic design requirements, but the towers is not a statically indeterminate
structure, once the plastic deformation will be lead to destruction, so that this type is not
appropriate. However, despite these concerns, still the appearance of single tower
therefore, studying how gantry tower looks more like a single tower. Move closer to the
two towers, beam will be cut short, beam cut short, it not in bending yield but caved in
under the cut. We asked ourselves, why not make it just under the shear yield? Such as
make it just under the shear yield? If it doesnt look like the usual tower bends bend, but
the shear yield the tower look like a single tower structure

Fig. 5.18 Tower anti-seismic conceptual.

Thus, an innovative single-tower scheme surfaced, as shown in Fig. 5.19. Results
indicate that this structure under earthquake action loaded with good performance, as
shown in Fig. 4.26. In fact it is more excellent than conventional gantry tower, because
now we can as needed in the two tower set between different positions more shear, thereby
significantly increasing the frequency of bridge tower of statically indeterminate.

Fig. 5.19 Towers-shear keys.

3. The Design Earthquake Benefit of Bridge Foundation

First is passed from the base to the entire structure of the earthquake, so, for high intensity
area, designed in line with geological conditions meets the water conditions, in line with
the upper structure needs, in line with the basis for the construction equipment is not
enough, it must also be based isolation capacity, keep a good shock, shock absorbing the
first hurdle. Different forms, exhibit different reactions, how to enable the foundation to
seismic responses of weakened or separated, sometimes addressing earthquake issues
would be more effective in the superstructure, economy is more obvious.
Example 5.4 Greece Rion-Antirion Bridge: reinforced earth base isolation.
Design: Reinforced earth, base isolation.
In order to avoid strong earthquake forces, Greece Rion-Antirion selection five-span

continuous bridge full of floating structural system of cable-stayed bridge and high 65 m,
Pier and base diameter upto 90 m at the end of circular bridge piers in f 2 m diameter,
depth 25~30 m steel pipe piles with solid and topped with 3 m thick mat composed of
sand, gravel and crushed stone layer, formed relative sliding of reinforced earth base
isolation (reinforced soil Foundation), which is the Foundation of an innovative form,
which is based on isolation as shown in Fig. 5.20.

Fig. 5.20 Greece Rion-Antirion Bridge: reinforced earth base isolation.

5.2.4 Common Seismic Mitigation and Isolation Measures

On the whole, considering the conceptual design of seismic resistance requirements and
performance, in relation to meet seismic requirements must be have better performance,
but, in many cases, the security situation and structural characteristics of, you also need to
consider some of the needle anti-seismic measures relating to seismic response to some
general or localised weaknesses, improve the conceptual design. Should be presented in
conceptual design targeted measures and programmes.

1. Dampers, Locking Device and Buffer

Structure or additional damping ductility of earthquake energy consumed, in order to
reduce the loss of the main structure of the bridge. This form of shock-absorbing
technology ever used in Su-Tong Yangtze River Bridge, in Greece the Rion-Antirion
bridge has a similar device. Damping device of many types, from the relation of the output
damping force and displacement curves are generally divided into viscous damping,
friction resistance nepal, elasto-plastic damper and visco-elastic damping four, heres more
application of viscous damping devices in recent years.
Figure 5.21 shows the United States Taylor produced the viscous damping device

Fig. 5.21 Viscous damping devices.

1piston rod; 2cylinder; 3 and 4compressible silicone oil; 5accumulator tank; 6

seal rings; 7polyvinyl resins; 8room A; 9damping hole live plugs and 10room B;
11control valve.
The output equation for viscous damping devices:
In the formula: F = damping force;
C = damping coefficient;
= speed index: for the bridge project, 0.4~0.5 for low intensity
earthquake area, -2; to resist the wind-induced vibration of bridges,
Ideally this damping devices damping ratios range from 10% ~45%, damp from the
0.5~80 MN, the journey from 25~1500 mm.
Locking device is a special damping devices, its locking force and velocity equations
with damping devices similar to the device lock rated locking force is defined as the
output of the transmission speed, and its value is less than the structure due to earthquakes,
caused by wind-induced vibration velocity, speed is greater than the thermal displacement
induced by locking speed mm/sec magnitude.
To lock the device in Fig. 5.22 comparison of damping and damping device output
force-response curve, abscissa speed (in/s), ordinate for the output damping force (103lb)
and locking device locks the output equation: F = 40 106v, when v = 0.005 in/s, rated
locking force, damping force equation is: F = 45730 v0.4, v = 40 in/s, rated damping
force as can be seen in the similarities between.
(Note: 1 in = 25.4 mm,1 lb = 4.448 2 N).
Here when the two constraints of the single particle vibration displacement curve
description locking devices from conceptual difference and damper, Fig. 5.23 for the
damping ratio is 32.6% single particle vibration displacement time history curve, Fig. 5.24
for the single particle under the effect of damping, lock set the pace for 30 mm/s of
displacement time history curve. It can be seen that locking device for structure acts as a
quick stop role of dampers for structural movements play a role in energy consumption
and vibration attenuation.

Fig. 5.22 Dampers and locking device output response curves in.

Fig. 5.23 Single mass-damping vibration displacement time history curve.

2. A Variety of Seismic Isolation Bearings

(a) Laminated Rubber Bearing
Laminated rubber bearing by alternating with thin steel plate and sheet rubber, and binding
steel plate on lateral deformation of the rubber sheet, increased vertical stiffness of rubber,
because of a hierarchical set of reasons, deformation of laminated rubber bearing level can
greatly increase added system flexibility, improve cycle, but its rubber materials for
special preparation, increase material viscosity, which absorbed energy and achieve the
aim of cushioning. In the 1980s~90s, in the construction of small-span continuous beam
bridge, laminated rubber bearings were widely used commonly, but with the increase of
age, aging of the rubber bearings in the natural environment of restriction of its bridge

(b) Lead Rubber Bearing

Around the middle or center of rubber bearings vertically into the purity of 99.9% lead-on
the formation of lead rubber bearing (Fig. 5.25). Support poured into the lead rods can be
improve the bearing at the center of the early stiffness, to control the wind and against the
foundations micro-vibrations favour. The other hand, due to the lower yield strength of
lead rods and elastic-plastic deformation conditions with good fatigue resistance the
performance, which has a strong energy dissipation capacity. Although lead-bearing
combines the characteristics of laminated rubber bearing with lead damper, seismic
excitation has a lower level of stiffness and damping characteristics of the larger, but quite
a number of applications showed that low frequency characteristics small amplitude
excitation may be cause the amplification of the seismic response of lead-bearing system.
Bridges with more flexible piers, its isolation effect is not very good.

Fig. 5.24 Single-particle damping lock displacement time graph.

Fig. 5.25 Lead-rubber bearing.

In China there are already using lead rubber bearing isolation buildings and bridges.
But in the LRBs works application, the current design of indicators and parameters are
reference architecture specification, while the actual application of bridge engineering
environment structural harsh lead rubber bearing in bridge structure are often in a very
hostile environment, such as high temperature, low temperature, large temperature
changes, poor atmospheric corrosion, erosion and the long-term repeated creep
deformation, shock and vibration, and so on. Because of this, their poor fatigue and
limited carrying capacity, durability is insufficient to meet todays bridge of long-span and
heavy loads and long life requirement.

(c) Steel Energy Dissipation System

Steel consuming bearing consists of a series of circular arrangement of the C-shaped (or
E-shaped) steel units of energy (Fig. 5.26). Transverse force under the action, through C(or-E) deflection of steel itself to provide movement and damping. Its design should be
pay attention to all section face in the same direction of movement stress, was able to
achieve a good effect energy consumption, design and processing is very difficult. Also,
this class bearing belongs to the material energy system, it shall ensure that energyconsuming materials in elastic and plastic deformation zone has a good set of fatigue,
which has high elongation and low hardenability and that is connected with the energy
unit, and supports key components (such as PIN) is better with higher strength and fatigue

Fig. 5.26 Energy of C-shaped steel supports connection (size unit: mm).

(d) Black Elastic Sliding Bearing

Elastic sliding bearings consist of a group of overlapping and slide against each other by
placing perforated PTFE sheet rubber, and a Supporting Articulated material central core,
a number of satellite rubber core. This friction slider isolator is a rubber core provides a

link to the equilibrium position of the restoring force, while controlling oversized on the
displacement and friction between layers of rubber and PTFE sheet Chrome plated steel
spherical to burn off energy. Adjustment between PTFE the co-efficient of friction the
diameter of the central rubber nucleus can be achieve good isolation properties. But this
isolation bearing structure is more complex, because of its reasons for using rubber, there
are aging, poor durability.

Fig. 5.27 Friction pendulum bearings.

(e) Friction Pendulum Bearings

Friction pendulum bearing (Fig. 5.27) works like a pendulum: middle-tier sliding block
formed by pressure resistance of high-strength materials, the sliding surface of the slider
below when seismic displacement structure, due to the gravity of the superstructure and
circular-arc the bottom sliding surface design, can be always point to the equilibrium
position of the reply force, but throughout the course of the earthquake by friction between
the slider and sliding surfaces dissipation of energy. On the other hand, due to the rotation
of the slider on the surface and cover closed contact upper structure always remains
horizontal. This support meaning is clear and concise design, simplicity, durability and
with self-recovery capability, in the United States, and Canada and other countries of the
bridges and isolation to the epicenter has been widely applied and achieved good
economic efficiency lean and very good damping effect.

(f) Structure and Work Principle of Double Spherical Aseismic Bearing

Mainly consists of double spherical aseismic bearing seat plate, plate, bottom plate,
spherical stainless steel spherical under skateboarding, stainless steel PTFE under PTFE
on skateboards, skateboarding, skateboards, shear pins, secure the screws and sealing
device consists of several parts, of which four fluorine PTFE under skateboards and
skateboards using fragmented mosaic of filled PTFE composite laminated skateboards.
Bearing structure as shown in Fig. 5.28.

Fig. 5.28 Sketch of structure of double spherical aseismic bearing under 1seat board; 2
guide plate; 3shear pin 4security screw; 5seat plate; 6dust seal unit 7sphere
stainless steel skate board; 8PTFE skateboards; 9seat board.

Double spherical aseismic bearing is based on general ball-bearings developed,

through the use of large-diameter spherical friction takes a common ball-type bearing flat
friction pair, and limit restraints designed F (x) (Shear) a new bearing. The bearing using a
pendulum KP mechanism to extend the natural vibration period of bridge can be provided
through the deck weight reset capabilities needed to help x (Relative displacement) bridge
superstructure to its original position.
Of double spherical aseismic bearing isolation works: when an earthquake occurs and
horizontal lateral force exceeds a predetermined value, limited the shear pins and safety
device cutting off screws, bearing the transverse limit restriction was lifted, large-diameter
spherical transverse of friction slide freely through friction gradually consumes energy.
Thus, prolong the earthquake cycle, achieve the effect of damping and earthquake; after
the earthquake, structural weight and re-silience can be formed so that bearing reset.
Bearings hysteresis curve is shown in Fig. 5.29.

Fig. 5.29 Sketch of structure of double spherical aseismic bearing.


Due to cruise ship-bridge collision accidents often occur of bridges and caused great
damage to life and property and, therefore, from the bridge beam concept design phase
begins to take control of ship collision design has gradually developed a consensus among
members, and engineers in the span of the bridge layout stage of economic comparison of
navigation requirements and span selection problem in a new light. In order to carry out
the protection of ship collision design idea, the first, you must have fortification standard
and design principles of the protection of ship collision, it will be told in the first part of
the fortification level and design principles.
Conceptual design on the ship collision-resistant function of structures considering the
ship collision prevention concept and the fortification level, bridge and bridge axis
selection examination considering the factors of ship collision, conceptual design to
structural considerations, conceptual design of ship collision-resistant function of ship
collision-proof measures of four bars contents.
Conceptual design for structure of ship collision prevention performance
considerations, conceptual design work is an important group in multiple areas of
expertise assembly.

5.3.1 Fortification Standard and Design Principles

Ship or Driftwood collided with the bridge structure is very complicated, when
environmental factors (waves, climate, waters and so on), ships characteristics (type of
ship, vessel size, speed, loading, and the bow, the strength of the hull and deck and the
newly and so on), bridges (bridge component sizes, shapes, materials, quality and
resistance characteristics) and the drivers reaction time factors is very big, therefore,
accurate determination of ship or Driftwood-bridge interaction is very difficult.
According to the characteristics of the navigable waterway and traffic characteristics
of a ship, that need to be taken into account of ship-bridge interaction inland waterway
and prevailing sea river divided into two broad categories. On behalf of the former mainly
for river cargo barges, one to seven levels inland waterway tonnage, respectively,
corresponding to the 3000t, 2000t, 1000t and 500t and 300t, 100t, 50t. Prevailing sea
channel with seagoing vessels as representing ones. Collision with the bridge structure of
the two mechanisms differ results are also quite different.

1. Ship-colliding Fortification Level

Bridges should be used according to their function is divided into A, B, C three ship class.
Among them, the class a refers to the Bay, Grade on the approaches to the bridge;
Category B refers to the II~IV on the approaches to the bridge; Category C refers to the V
on the approaches to the bridge. General Bridges shall be determined according to Table
5.14 ship security performance objectives.
Table 5-14 Bridge vessle bumping performance requirements.

Fortification Fortification Performance


Bridge state

of failure


Bridge can produce mechanical Slight

properties do not affect the
structural integrity of local
damage, normal traffic will not
be affected the whole structure in
the elastic state minor



Can be easily repaired injury



Bridge can produce mechanical Slight

properties do not affect the
structural integrity of local
damage, normal traffic will not
be affected the whole structure in
the elastic state minor



May have a more serious injury, Serious

but not serious collapse


Injury medium may occur but

can be easily repaired



May have a more serious injury, Serious

but not serious collapse



Note: The ship hits the fortification level L1 is a 100-year return period, L2 1000 return

2. Prevention of Ship Collision Design Principles

Combining bridge vessle bumping fortification level and performance goals, according to
the navigable levels and tons of ships, must be adhere to the following three control ship
collision design principles. First is avoidance or isolated concept, bridge or conditional
increase of particular importance for long-span bridge (added span economy were better
than the increased span and setting the anti-collision facilities), or ships tonnage is greater
than 50000 DWT fairways, avoiding or isolation of the pier and the ship concept; the
second is the collision idea, not increased-span bridges (increasing the span of economic
deterioration in does not increase the span setting the anti-collision facilities), or tonnage
of the vessel is greater than 3000 DWT, less than 50000 DWT fairway collision energy
dissipation measures and pier-resistant combination of ideas; the third is: resistant concept,
for long-span bridge, or tonnage of the vessel is less than 3000 DWT waterway,
crashworthiness and anti-collision measures as a supplement to Piers philosophy.
Figure 5.30 is analysis on anti-collision concept conceptual design schematic diagram,
x-axis is abscissa navigable spans of the bridge, y-axis is investment tendered for the
bridge construction, curve j bridges (excluding requirements of ship collision prevention

facilities and substructure of ship collision force) construction investment and long-span
relation, curve i is included in ship collision proof requirements for facilities and
infrastructure effect of ship collision with bridge investment. It can be seen that for most
of the big long-span bridges, AB intervals span substructure design included influence of
ship collision force and rarely hardly increased lower investments, also may be subject to
large ships impact the pier, according to piers own ability to withstand impact, the
location and appearance of the pier, flow rate, water level and speed of navigation
collision of ship types, and factors for bridge crash (energy) infrastructure design.
Therefore, the collision idea, its structural safety, crash risk and Economics is acceptable

Fig. 5.30 Analysis on anti-collision concept conceptual design schematic.

For large-span bridge, interval greater than b in the figure, due to the high class of
waterway, ship impact force and design of bridge substructure ship collision force
controlled ship combination may be much greater than other load combinations, and will
be lead to the bridge construction investment has increased substantially. This needs to
count collision effects in a relatively small span with increased span, avoid collision or
substantially reduce the risk of collision scenarios economic comparison chart, invest the
same points C and D, but the span increased a lot. Same points C and E span, by taking
into ship collision force and facilities against dash, investments increased significantly. In
the context of DE, we can access increase the span of avoiding ship collision or drop
optimal scheme of low ship collision risk.
Due to bridge technical restrictions (limitation span of cable-stayed and suspension
bridge, deep foundations, etc.), cannot be obtained by increasing the span economy better
programmes, only a substantial increase in collision avoidance measures (such as
independent impact structure separate from the bridge collision hit protective structures,
Pier regardless of ship impact force), or piers considering the huge ship change the force
of the impact Foundation, increased base quantities, then in case of ship collision with
energy dissipation devices and other measures. These two programmes will be eventually
lead to a substantial increase in total investments.
For the average span bridges when the span is smaller (less than 100 m), horizontal
impact force resistance of the structure itself is bad, need to increase the amount of bottom
structure and foundation engineering to satisfy the anti-ship force requirements, which
will be lead to increasing bridge investment, as shown in Fig. F point and the G spot, the
same span structures considering greater investment in shipping after the force of the

impact. Therefore, increasing general bridges (such as non-navigable spans of the bridge
beam) span, increasing the impact resistance of the structure itself, can achieve good
economic efficiency, and reduce the risk of ship collision accidents.

5.3.2 Rational Selection of Bridge Site and Bridge Axis

Axis of the bridge and the bridge site should be selected taking into account navigational
safety, and meet the following requirements:
1. Bridge upstream and downstream waterways and ports development and planning, as
well as utilisation of the shoreline.
2. The bridge should be selected in channel straight River, deep grooves and the
riverbed or seabed stability, water depth and flow condition on the good leg, bridge
water bed (seabed) scour and modest.
3. Bridge should avoid the bends, branch road, Rapids, segregation and concentration
port anchorage, port operation area, such as, the distance should be able to guarantee
safe navigation of ships.
4. The bridge axis should be perpendicular to the current trend and orthogonal design
routes if possible, water flow and bridge axis normal angle should not exceed 5.
In fact, route straight bridge is the case, or drifters crashing head-on with the bridge of
the ship will be very small, more oblique collision of bridge piers and abutments. Oblique
impact angle of less than 45. When the skew bridge and waterway, the regular to oblique
impact of piers and abutments are possible. Moreover, when the axis of the bridge have a
greater angle between the normal and mainstream, will produce to impede the safety of
navigation of bad water. As the flow angle and bridge axis normal to not meet the
requirements, you should consider increasing across the span of the bridge to ensure the
safe navigation of the ship.

5.3.3 Anti-ship Collision Design Success Stories

Bridge conceptual design of ship collision-resistant function of bridge structure
considering, in structure, consider the ship collision and economic basis on this, the type
of the macro issues such as piers, span arrangement, the water research, conceptual design
ideas, to ensure the knot construction safety, marine safety, and economic goals. To this
end, the following gives some anti-ship collision design success at home and abroad cases,
including fully meet the requirements for navigation, select the appropriate type of bridge
piers and span arrangement, set up in the water sample, for reference.

1. Fully Satisfy the Navigation Requirements

From maritime safety and ship protection impact perspective, bigger the better bridge
span, bridge away from the ship, but here it may be to increase long-span bridge and
waterway isolation and meet the channel setting collision under the conditions of facilities
both economic analysis and comparison.

In general, appropriate to increase the span to make the piers on shore or away from
the Sham Shui Po District are a more economical option, which is the concept of
avoidance. In contrast, to make the piers out of the water and multiplied spans is not
When there are no conditions across the river, for high level route, ship impact force is
huge, bridge structures and separation of ship method is also commonly used and
available, which is the concept of isolation. Isolation concept common measures through
the artificial islands and independent impact structure to stop the ship from the force of the
impact to the bridge structure.
Example 5.5 Denmark Sea Bridge.
Design: Select the bridge span by shipping studies, on the channel axis alignment
adjustment, the structure of the selected ship can withstand impact anchorages and piers
used artificial islands protected, establishing vessel traffic management system.
The bridge a total length of 6.8 km, across the sea strait between Zealand and
sibolaogendao to the East. During the initial design phase, had considered the channel
span down to 780 m, which according to the results of study of ship collision, and the
bridge program and comprehensive study on span, coupled with adjustments to channel
axis alignment finally chosen as the main span 1624 m. This alignment adjustment the
sailing angle relative to the axis of the bridge changed from 68 to 78, so that the axis of
the bridge on both sides of the fairway bending distance of 2300 m. Fairway center line
vertical clearance of 65 m width of the channel is 750 m, all structures that are struck by
ships in accordance with established collision avoidance model designed to withstand the
impact of the selected ship, ship chosen by 2000 DWT 250000 DWT, which collided with
a pier of the maximum impact force of 673 MN. Anchorage and some foundations are
made of artificial islands protection, and establishing vessel traffic management system.
Example 5.6. France Normandy bridge.
Design idea: The South Tower Pier was built on the land and, after pier at about 25 m, the
north side of the pier was built in the North of the low embankment outside set and bull
Normandy bridge is used to create a world record of 856 m long-span cable-stayed
bridge, in 1995, opened to traffic, the bridge with four lane, across the river Seine in the
Bay area, the navigation clearance of 50 m, the original design of the bridge span as a 510
m, the north side of the pier close to the fairway, and there are four piers in the river. In the
early 1980, reports about ship collisions and related damage of many bridges, Influenced
the decision of adopting from the left bank of the river to the end of the North breakwater
of the pier are not required in programmes across the Nar, R., thus separating the north
side of the river and the marshes, on the South Tower Pier was built-in the land, at the
dock behind 25 m office, which would not have been in actual navigable ship collision,
the north side of the pier was built-in the North of the low embankment outside nearby,
this keeps the span without adding too much. However, the pier was built at this location
will be the basis of deadweight tonnage upto 130000 DWT ship slammed, so they decided
on this basis built around a special type of protection structure. The bridges main span
spans end up 856 m than in the design of cable-stayed bridge, whether its design or span

is a great leap forward (Fig. 5.31).

Example 5.7. United States Houston ship channel bridge.
Fulaiteha took off across the Houston ship channel Pullman (Fred Hartman) cablestayed bridge is a pair of steel-concrete composite deck, frame as shown in Fig. 384.6 m,
5.32. Navigation vessels can be upto 228 m (according to the statistics made by general
cargo ship, over 65,000 DWT). Double diamond side pylon arrangement on a man-made
island in the middle, to prevent the collision of ships on the other tower Pier Set on the
East Coast.

Fig. 5.31 France Normandy bridge.

Fig. 5.32 United States Houston ship channel bridge.

2. Select the Appropriate Type of Bridge and Span Arrangement

Bridge type selection, according to water depth and predictable water level change, fully
meet the channel width and headroom requirements avoid embezzlement waterway,
especially when selecting a deck and deck-type arch bridge, should pay special attention
to the ring of ship impact risk. If needed, may be appropriate to enlarge span, near the arch
ring of arch away from the waterway clearance.
Example 5.8. Sweden old Tjrn Bridge.
Sweden old Tjrn Bridge (Rong Qiao) across 278 m filled steel tubular rib arch bridge,

in January 1981, the thousands of tons of the Netherlands Freighter collision steel pipe
Arch of bridge base, resulting in steel tubular arch collapsed, collapse of the superstructure
in the sunken ship, killing more than 10 people, Fig. 5.33 new bridge design drawings,
Fig. 5.34 for ship collision accident photos, Fig. 5.35 for the new cable-stayed bridge.

Fig. 5.33 Sweden new Tjrn Bridge design drawings (size: m).

Fig. 5.34 Ship collision accident.

Fig. 5.35 A new cable-stayed bridge.

In most cases, due to the width of the water causes (such as Suzhou-Nantong Yangtze
river bridge the river width upto 8 km), the bridge cannot be implement a design of
crossing the river, and hydrology of river conditions, such as water depth, scour, elusive

DUN ship quarantined (artificial island or independent impact structure) programme, pier
must be able to resist the ship collision with power, and the use of ship collision with
energy dissipation devices, to protect bridges and ships, reducing the role of ship impact
Due to the bridge span and resistance to impact, waterways and ships there is some
inherent relationship between impact force and channel high level of ship impact force and
large-span bridges, pier and tower structure, and strong horizontal impact performance,
and vice-versa. This collision idea has economic rationality. Of course, it should be
removed from the two special cases: one is the huge ship, bridges difficult or costly to
bear; the other is due to various reasons the owner cannot accept any ship collision risk, to
be adopted take DUN ship quarantined.
Example 5.9. Ship collision prevention design of Su Tong bridge.
Su Tong bridge design-time consideration of ship impact force as shown in Table 5.15,
and energy dissipation were specially designed protective devices.
Table 5.15 The ship collision design with bridge piers foundation
Bridge pier


Main bridge main pylon pier

DesignTypical collision condition

force (MN)
50,000 ton 4m/s being hit,
2m/s side crash

Along the
bridge to




5,000 ton 3.5m/s is hit, a

10,000 ton 2.5m/s head on

Along the
bridge to


5,000 ton 2 m/s front hit



5,000 ton 1.5 m/s front hit



5,000 ton 1.5 m/s front hit



5,000 ton 1.5 m/s front hit



5,000 ton 1.5 m/s front hit



50,000 ton 4 m/s front hit,

1 m/s side crash


50,000 ton 4.1 m/s front

hit, 5 m/s side crash

Near of main auxiliary piers

Near of main auxiliary piers

The main bridge abutment

Main piers of auxiliary bridge

of continuous rigid-frame
Along the
bridge to

50,000 ton 1.5m/s is hit,

1m/s side crash

Crashworthy Structure Features:
1. The anti-collision facilities main function is, when designing a ship collision, to
facilities damage amount of dissipation; avoid ship protrusive parts direct impact
drilling pile and pier, tower structures reduce the damage length.
2. When serious collision occur, the anti-collision facilities through its own kinetic
energy of deformation and failure to fully absorb the shipping to reduce pier the force
of the collision, when relatively minor collision, the anti-collision facilities of
sufficient strength and resistance to deformation, use of facilities around the baffle
box energy absorber to protect the overall integrity of the structure of facilities
subject, while reducing the impact the ships damage.
3. Under normal conditions, the anti-collision facilities with full-floating ability,
flexible, easy to use water ballast makes the anti-collision facilities keep good
floatation; after being damaged due to collision, and can limit the extent of damage to
certain areas within the buoyancy of the anticollision facilities remains must be and
the necessary buoyancy without sinking, easy fix.
The anti-collision facilities primarily: facilities dimension is based on the actual
possibility of impact conditions, calculate the length of the damaged facilities, determine
the facility should have a width. Vulnerable to collisions between facilities on the side
width: 12 m, determined by the 50,000t 4 m/s was hit. Facilities side and rear width: 6 m,
determined by the 50,000t 3 m/s was hit. 50,000t ships draught depth 12.5 m, the first
vertex distance balls contains watermark, 7 m, in order to avoid the anti-collision facilities
was lifted by ball, facility draft is 8.2 m. Freeboard is 4.3 m making facilities have plenty
of buoyancy reserve, the anti-collision facilities were first ships pressed into the surface of
the ball, while facilities damaged cases have a reserve of buoyancy.

3. Reasonable in Setting Water Pier

Both navigable and non-navigable water pier, it is necessary from the point of structure to
increase impact resisting ability of piers and reduce ship collision risk. Especially the nonnavigable spans of the bridge pier, generally not considered or taken into account in the
design of a small ship in the event of ship collision accidents, often a severe loss of life
and property.

(a) To Minimise in-water Pier Number

In-water pier in particular DUN usually spans a smaller non-navigable waters, Piers
performance against horizontal force is low, it is sometimes necessary to and increase the
number of piles and cross connect two pieces of bridge sub-structure as a whole, against
ship collision, and this design in addition to ship against the wind insurance, a structural
design itself was also uneconomical. Therefore, appropriate more navigable and nonnavigable spans of the bridge span and river hong, navigation, road safety, but also
increase the crashworthiness of the pier.

(b) Under-water Pier Should be Placed in the Shallow Water as Permitted

According to the marine casualty investigation and analysis, impact the number of
incidents of non-navigable spans of about of main navigation span for impact twice as
long. Therefore, should be come via navigable bridge reasonable cross, to set the nonnavigable spans of the bridge piers in the water as much as possible in the shallow water,
but to avoid a large number of the anti-collision facilities of non-navigable spans of the
bridge. If the depth of non-navigable spans of bridges still can meet the general small
cargo ships sailing, its role in pier design must be taken into account when the ship
crashed into. When necessary, to take ship collision prevention measures such as the
floating block units.

(c) Piers Constructed in the Water should have a Certain Degree of

In water pier constructed forms have a certain degree of redundancy, avoid rapidly
collapses on impact. As a tri-pillar box after the pier a pier was hit, the remaining two
piers still constitute a vertical load-bearing system, avoiding the full-bridge collapse.
When you must be in single-column bridge piers, should properly enlarge pier crosssection dimension and strengthen its impact resistance.

(d) In-water Pier can Withstand Ship Impact Force

If the piers in waters without independent facilities against dash, ship collision load must
be considered in the design of piers, ship collision specification or identified through the
case studies. Even taking into account a certain amount of protective measures, such as
adhesion-type energy dissipator, box device which, although these facilities can be part of
the energy consumed, but also residual impact energy is absorbed by the pier and
foundation, and the facilities to carry energy of varying ability and generally not high, so
the pier and foundation must be considered in the design of ship impact force.
Example 5.10. Completion of Canada Federal bridge across the Northumberland Strait.
Design: Pier can afford to ship impact force, compulsory pilotage.
Confederation Bridge, 13 km, lies between Prince Edward Island and xinbulusiweike,
was opened in 1997. The bridge is double lane road bridge, the main bridge by 43 spans,
each 250 m, piers for pre-cast concrete pier, central part of the main bridge with a through
navigation, clear width of not less than 200 m, the clear height of not less than 49 m.
Specified in the initial performance requirements for engineering: both sides of the
channel close to the main pier and the pier artificial island facilities against dash should be
used to protect other neutral line on each side of the 500 m range piers island or piling the
anti-collision facilities should be used to protect it. The final design of the bridge did not
use artificial islands, or pile in your anti-virus facilities, but the design show: channel side
of the bridge must be able to withstand 37000 DWT ship within 4.2 m/s speed bump strike
force (37000 DWT ship impact force by United States Code, equivalent to 100 MN); two
adjacent piers with must be able to withstand a mean high 50 MN shock; all other piers
can withstand 8 MN shock.

5.3.4 A Variety of Ship Collision Prevention Measures

Bridge design engineer in addition to the bridge structure is designed to have a certain
amount of resistance to shock loading of ships outside, you should also consider the buffer
device and protection system, change the direction of ship impact load or reduce shock
loading of the pier, its destruction to minimise the extent and also reduce the loss of ships
and the destruction of the anti-collision facilities, namely, anti-collision design referred to
in the three is not bad principles. In accordance with the anti-collision facilities and
bridge relationships, passive collision avoidance system is divided into independent
collision avoidance systems, integrated impact cafe attached collision avoidance systems
in three categories. In addition, in accordance with the anti-collision facilities structure can
be divided into floating protective systems, gravity system, posts protection system, shield
protection system.

1. The Floating Protective System

Arrays, used to anchor the rope floating buoys and anchored to the fence and other
protection systems, drifting the prow of the vessel embedded cable NET or anchor buoys
suspended due to gravity anchor end of coastal towing. Floating protective system for the
protection of deep water bridge piers is a viable option (Fig. 5.36). The main advantage of
this protection method is: (a) can absorb a great deal of momentum; (b) ship injuries
limited; (c) the system can be installed in deep water and work. Main disadvantages are:
(a) it around Bridge take considerable space; (b) it withstand storms and ice floes in waters
which made durability a question; (c) major collision repair cost higher (d) long-term
maintenance cost obviously depends on the scope of anti-corrosion measures and results.

Fig. 5.36 The floating protective system (a) The bulbous bow cross brake system (b) The
bulbous bow may not cross brake system; (c) Tilt the bow may over braking system; (d)
Flat end of the bow may become more brake systems (e) Floating protective system
Another floating energy dissipating the anti-collision facilities by installed around the
main pier cofferdam or pontoon, using materials such as steel and rubber to achieve the
goal of energy dissipation. Energy dissipation steel structure main body of the
anticollision facilities of floating deck structure, platform, structure, floor structure,
vertical and horizontal bulkheads, inner walls, perimeter wall, horizontal truss elements,
such as, at the same time external wall form multiple watertight compartments and ballast
tanks, on the inner wall set the rubber parts of the anti-collision facilities can be improved
contact with the pier bearing platform can. Floating the anti-collision facilities under the

advantages of buoyancy along the pier move up and down so that it can adapt to the
change of water level, range of the protection pier; disadvantage is that complex, Pier and
pile cap shape required. Yellowstone bridge of floating the anti-collision facilities as
shown in Fig. 5.37.

Fig. 5.37 Floating energy dissipating the anticollision facilities in Huangshi Yangtze River
Bridge main piers.

2. The Floating Protective System

Piers in the water or gravity bridge protection pier protection. Protection pier by the lattice
into the steel sheet pile structure, fill in boxes with stone and concrete cover, protective
pier and recoverable using pre-cast concrete piles, protection pier by net quality low
energy barge towing collision resistance, but when high energy collisions, tends to the
rotation, deformation, thereby tends to impact damage. This method is suitable for low
and medium energy used in the ship collision incident, is more economical effective. The
main advantages of this system are: (a) it is an independent system, before the ship
reached Pier deflected or absorbed collisions energy it can be reasonable, cost effective
installation in medium-depth water; (b) aim at long-term maintenance costs are relatively
low. Main disadvantages are: (a) can absorb kinetic energy is limited to middle level; (b)
ships had significant injuries; (c) the high cost of repair after a major collision.
United States Sunshine Skyway Bridge main Pier and island protection, as shown in
Fig. 5.38. Main piers on each side of 5 pier-production build sand cofferdam with thin
shell protection, these side pier is after a risk analysis concluded that piers of most
vulnerable to ship collisions. Diameter size is 60 ft (1 ft = 0.3048 m) seal can withstand
loaded freighter or 8763000 DWT empty loading wheel 300 DWT.
Impact 54 ft diameter seal able to withstand 65000 DWT loaded barge or 70000 DWT
unloaded ships collision diameter impact 54 ft diameter seal able to withstand 65000
DWT loaded barge or 70000 DWT unloaded ships collision diameter Ship speed 10 kn (1
kn = 1.852 km/ h).

Fig. 5.38 United States gravity Sunshine Skyway Bridge protection system.

3. The Floating Protective System

Supporting pile protection systems including common primary stake some intricate
movements connected by rigid cap of pile with large diameter, the department EC can
make the boat collision force is completely separated from the pier, can also be supported
on piers. The main advantages of this system are: If you choose the right shield shapes can
make bias or floating vessel steering, only pier with moderate damage. Main
disadvantages are: (a) is not valid for high energy collisions; (b) building costs relatively
expensive; (c) valid only in medium-depth; (d) after a major collision repair costs are
relatively high.
Argentina Rosario Victoria 350 m main span of the bridge, using flexible anticollision
pier of the bridge protection form for pylon pier two and seven-side pier protection, as
shown in Fig. 5.39. By design, the anti-collision facilities of main piers can resist 100000
DWT ships in 4.64 m/s speed for impact.

4. The Shield Protection System

This system has been applied in a variety of forms in United States and Germany on
inland waterways Harbour estuary, most of the bridges and many marine knots on the
frame, they are a common form-oriented shield is to guide ships through the narrow little
plays an important role in this oriented or protective plate can only have a protective effect
on low-energy collisions, exert protective effects on high energy collisions, it is usually
the original based on the outside ends of sheet-pile-supported by bollards (Figs. 5.40 &

5.41). The main advantages of this system are: (a) shield configuration or to help
navigation of ships through the narrow route, thus helping to avoid collisions; (b) in the
construction of bridges, this system takes the proportioned cost; (c) piers supporting grid
configurations, it can float the boats go stray; (d) fire proof take friction surface. The main
disadvantage of this system are: (a) is not valid for medium or high energy collisions; (b)
after major crash repair costs are quite high; (c) aim at long-term maintenance costs, and
even very small ships bump after its logs should also be replaced.

Fig. 5.39 Argentina Rosario-Victoria-pile protection system.

Fig. 5.40 Germany Neckar River Bridge fender system.

Fig. 5.41 Germany shield Crown Prince Arch Bridge system.


From the 80s of the 20th century, Europe and the United States found that corrosion of
pre-stressed cables in cement pipes pulp of severe corrosion in the pipe, causing the
international bridge communitys attention, and raised the issue of durability. In 1989, the
international qiaoxie conference on the Lisbon structure durability as its theme, was
devoted to how attached to the structures durability during the design phase, so as to
avoid early deterioration due to pay high costs of maintenance and strengthening. In order
to implement the concept of durability design of bridges, first, we must clarify what is the
durability of bridges to ask questions, durability of concrete bridges and steel bridges
main problem is, this will be the first part of the structure durability of agency shaoxing;
second, you need to be familiar with existing principles of bridge durability design, part II
briefly involved in structural durability design detectable resistance, repairable and
replaceable nature, health, controllability and sustainability; then, you need to understand
durability analysis case studies in order to draw them in the conceptual design, and
application and development of, and the third part focuses on the structure, load-bearing
structures and durability, choose durable materials and durability design of main girder of
cases; and, finally, to understand the common structure durability assurance measures part
four introduces the sacrificial protection, detail design, interchangeable, easy maintenance
measures, inspection and conservation facilities.

5.4.1 Structural Durability

Refers to the bridge to resist natural weathering durability of bridge structures, chemical,
mechanical abrasion and other degradation processes of invasion capacity. A good steel or
concrete structure durability when exposed to normal conditions will be remain outside of
its original components quality and service features of form and structure. Our current
specifications, the bridge structure durability or life span of 100 years, but load bearing
actually there are often certain flaws, resulting in bridge structures within the prescribed
period had to be re-built, some bridges to demolition and reconstruction is required in the
expected half life. But the lack of durability of bridges, often in use during the first table
showed durability problems such as cracking, deformation, deflection, which, the cracking
of the concrete cable-stayed bridges, concrete girder bridges under torsion and orthogonal
different study on fatigue crack of steel bridge deck durability is the most common and
most issues need to be addressed.

1. Concrete Cable-stayed Bridge Cracks

Since 1975, construction of cable-stayed bridge in China, and to date has been built over
more than 200 cable-stayed bridge, over 80% production using pre-stressed or reinforced
concrete girders, concrete cable-stayed bridge.
In all large-span concrete cable-stayed bridge, about 20% of concrete beam crack
appeared, and crack like, its concrete cable-stayed bridge to encounter the most serious
durability problems. Numerous studies show that cracked concrete cable-stayed bridge
there are four typical forms, namely, roof cracks, cracks in floor, cracks and partition of
the Web. Table 5.16 lists 8 typical cracking concrete cable-stayed bridge, where the girder

webs and there has been a lot of cracks, the useful life of these bridges from 11 to 27
years, the average life span of 19 years, far less than the life expectancy of 100 years of
bridge structures.
Durability of concrete cable-stayed bridge cracking causes of problem generally boils
down to two major reasons: including design, construction, materials and subjective error
factors of cracks caused by construction and by including overload, temperature load,
shrinkage and creep of concrete and objective contact factors causing cracks. Although a
large number of field surveys and case studies, also used to explain the individual bridge
crack specific reasons, but still it is difficult to draw general conclusions of the crack of
concrete cable-stayed bridge. In the Jinan Yellow River Bridge cracks motor as an
example, longitudinal cracks in roof and partition of vertical cracks due to the absence of
transverse pre-stressing force and thermal stresses in roof and floor plate distribution
caused by cracks in a plate and webs due largely to frequent overloads and shrinkage and
creep of concrete.
Table 5.16 Part of cracking concrete cable-stayed bridge

Name of



Jinan Yellow
River Bridge






Yonghe Bridge

Layout the Built

Number of cracks
span (m) time (in Roof Floor Plate Separators
40 + 94 +
1982 1386 11
220 + 94 +
85 + 200 +



120 + 260
+ 120



Chongqing 200 + 230
Yangtze River






105 + 97




River Bridge


72 + 80 +
168 2 +
80 + 72




Chongqing 169 + 444

+ 169


Many Many Many


Panyu Bridge

Guangdong 70 + 91 +
380 + 91 +






Many 148


2. Concrete Girder Bridge Deflection

Concrete girder bridge in China is widely used in medium-or large-span bridges, mainly in
pre-stressed concrete continuous girder bridge and pre-stressed concrete continuous rigidframe bridge with two forms, both bridge types suitable for 100~300 m long-span bridges,
the latter being more bigger than the span of the former. China has nearly 60 long-span
pre-stressed concrete beam bridge of 200 m in span, although the Wuhan Yangtze River
Bridge main span of double-line bridge of up to 330 m, but it has a steel beam, which
belongs to the steel-concrete composite beam, maximum span concrete beam bridge
should be completed in 1997, Deputy channel bridge of Humen large bridge main span of
270 m.
For large-span pre-stressed concrete girder bridge, maximum durability problems is
excessive deflection of the main span, and this deformation causes of concrete beam
crack-related. Structure deflection will be cause cracking of box girder with floor more,
thereby lowering knot frame stiffness and eventually have greater deflection, creating a
vicious cycle. Table 5.17 shows 9 domestic and foreign large-span pre-stressed concrete
bridges, there are 3 of them and 6 abroad are produced across the deflection of
phenomenon. Under torsion, lasting from 3 to 28 years ranging from 11 years on average,
far less than the bridges design life of 100 years. Research results show that concrete
continuous beam bridge main spans and concrete continuous rigid frame bridge under
torsion is not China-specific issues, but the problem of universal from the structure design,
construction and maintenance point of view it is difficult to avoid the occurrence of
deflection, mainly to control the mode by setting the camber, for example, Norway
according to the span of 0.5% is the deflection; once scratched after is hard to take steps to
restore, for example, the United States had deflection occurs after the restoration of
strengthening construction of cause of the bridge collapse accident.
Table 5.17 Some deflection of pre-stressed concrete beam bridge



s =

1. Stolma






2. Humen






3. Yellowstone Bridge





4. KororBabeldaob







5. Stolma






6. Parrotts







7. Grand-Mere Canada





8. Kingston







Construction Deflection
Time of
time (years)
measurement (years)

9. Sanmenxia







3. The Fatigue Crack of Orthotropic Steel Deck

As compared with the heavy concrete beam bridge panel or orthotropic steel deck plate is
a lightweight construction system, so large-span suspension bridge and cable-stayed
bridge in China, orthotropic steel bridge deck pavement using more common, there have
been some fatigue cracks. Completed in 1997, the Humen bridge, the orthotropic steel
bridge deck asphalt pavement was found shortly after the opening question, by 2007, is
exposing stepped in at the plate and welded longitudinal ribs crack problem, seriously
affected the normal passage bridge, also in the Chinese bridge beam sector attracted great
attention. The bridge deck is an example of an orthotropic steel deck, steel box girders of
the total width is 35.6 m, beam depth is 3.0 m. As an orthotropic steel box girder roof
panel thickness of 12 mm, and the spacing is 620 mm, thickness 8 mm U-shaped rib for
stiffening. Currently found in the orthotropic steel bridge deck a lot of fatigue cracks, the
crack sewing can be divided from A to E, 5 types as shown in Fig. 5.42. Among them, A
crack appears on the roof, roof and weld of vertical U-shaped ribs; Type B cracks on webs
in the U-shaped ribs along the roof and vertical U-shaped rib connector, and much of that
in the U-shaped rib bending; Type C U-shaped ribs crack appeared in the seams between
segments; Type D cracks in U-shaped rib of webs, located in the welding at the foot of the
cross connection; E-type A cracks on the diaphragm, in the D U-shaped ribs connected to
welding B E at the foot of this cracks along the C diaphragm from the U-shaped box hole
water spread flat or inclined, or along a seam spreads.

Fig. 5.42 Observation of fatigue crack types.

Preliminary analysis shows that cracks in fatigue of orthotropic steel bridge decks
frequent overloading was the main reason, including vehicle density and axles two aspects
of weight. To this end, the first traffic statistics analysis of daily traffic increasing from
14928 vehicles in 1997 to 2008, 62439 vehicles, increased by growth factor of 4.2, which
in the past 11 years, the six-lane bridge has withstood the role of 1.55 billion unregistered
trips, the average per lane bear 2.58 million vehicles, far more than the fatigue strength.
Then the axle statistical analysis of the heavy, showing three axle load peaks, 50 kN, 150
kN and 400 kN, respectively, and bridge design is 200 kN, almost half of the axle load
exceeds design axle load. Final field surveys and experimental studies have found that
these cracks occur mainly in heavy trucks driving on both sides of the driveway, because

the trucks are overloaded and traffic density is high, steel deck plate with thin, after the
destruction caused by pavement roughness of asphalt paving, increasing impact, precisely
because of these combined factors led to the opening of the orthotropic steel bridge deck
in less than 12 hours because of repeated overload and produce severe fatigue cracks.

5.4.2 Durability Design Principles

Since the 1970s, on the basis of lessons learned at home and abroad, in addition to
continued emphasis on the structural design and construction safety, durability, reliability,
component interchangeability have been considered, and based on different bridges
structure analysis of the disaster grade and level of risk, prevention design and durability
design were proposed as new concepts. In essence, structural durability design to solve the
problem which is economical and reasonable service life problems, namely, structural
problem in life-cycle.
A large bridge to serve 100 years or even longer, for investing huge super long span
bridge or sea-crossing bridge, life period should be taken into account to 150~200 years,
taking into account the rapid development of modern science, the economy, and during the
life of the structure, in addition to knot outside the frame itself, the aging and decay of
internal, external factors change is big. For example, the usage requirements of the bridge
structure to be predicted years, developed various standards of design is hard to achieve.
However, the engineer should be able to make structures adapt to change, adopt with
various measures for the structure to provide additional stamina opportunities. In order
to achieve this goal, in design-time architecture must have six characteristics of checking
resistance, repairable and replaceable controllability nature, health, and sustainability.
Engineers must recognise that the overall structure of the lives and the various
components is not exactly the same, such as service life of rubber bearings for more than
20 years, cable sheathing tho life for 10~20 year life of up to 40 years, cable wires, steel
structure paints maximum life-span is 20 years, and so on. These parts whose life span is
below the design life of the structure components must be able to be tracked, repaired,
replaces, and can be strengthened. In external changes cases, the structural deformation in
structure of manageable, that during the operational phase for bridge maintenance and
reinforcement work, so as to ensure the durability of the structure.
In order to ensure the safety and durability of bridge engineering implementation of
the design concept, the first job was to develop the design, construction and maintenance
specifications, procedures, standards and guidelines. In fact, normative and standardsetting also reflects a countrys construction level. During the 1923-1963, year the
allowable stress method, and after 1963 to 2003, year of limit State method from 2003
since developed countries have committed to performance-based design specifications
(performance-based design code) designed to improve infrastructure especially major
infrastructure design and construction standards. Developed and compiled based on
durability requirements, whole life insurance design and sustainability of performancebased bridge engineering design codes and standards should become a 21st century bridge
engineering one of the most important tasks.

5.4.3 Structural Durability

How to bridge design began to study bridge, general layout, it introduces the idea of
durability, take fully into account the special the environmental conditions and other
factors, such as what kind of main girder form durability to meet specific environmental,
what kind of main girder form help maintenance, what kind of cable tower model need to
use steel, what kind of cable tower model available and high performance concrete and
component layout consider the need to not need to be replaced, can change, for example,
replacement must be set aside for replacing the space, these are bridges to ensure
durability initiatives, are major factors for durability, compared with other external
measures, they are more important for bridge life-cycle maintenance costs and durability
and play a decisive role.

1. Structural Redundancy Design

Structure using a redundant design helps us to better face the problems that might arise,
and that the increased costs of tend to be very small or even zero. For example, since the
Portsmouth Bridge designed in the early 1980, of the 20th century, it always has to take
into account in the design of cable-stayed bridge cable the possible broken truck collision.
Carefully designed cable configuration such accidents can be the bridge to withstand
shocks without interruption caused by traffic on the bridge.
Opposite example is the early tied arch bridge in China, and used boom suspension
crossmember, installed on the beam longitudinal decking suspended deck system design,
this kind of system, such as hangers by accident, fracture, will cause the beams and
decking to collapse significant fall occurred. 2001 Yibin in Sichuan province Xiao Nan
men bridge collapse was due to the boom of durability issues caused by suspended deck
system design make deck non-redundant design, boom broken, the bridge collapsed. This
system also needed to replace suspenders it is difficult to replace.

2. Construction and Durability

In many cases, construction method and arrangement of bridge-type are inextricably
linked. Therefore, concept design, according to environmental conditions, research of
bridge layout and materials durability requirements, and appropriate construction methods.

(a) Construction Determines the type of Bridge

Study on structure of main bridge of Suzhou-Nantong Yangtze River Bridge the early
research 110 m + 300 m + 1088 m + 300 m + 110 m five-span programmes, side 120 m
length of main beam using pre-stressed concrete box girder structure. Such an
arrangement, side effect, cable stiffness, helps to improve the main span rigidity. However,
the resulting problems must be taken into account, that is, concrete beam segment of Jiang
Shi work methods: pre-cast erection due to lifting weights is difficult to achieve, stent
placement, supports in the river in flood season and the usual anti-collision problem
resolved, more important is that supports in-situ concrete quality control in the river,
weighed, design group believes that the main structure of a durable must ensure, under
control. So, finally gave up, hybrid cable-stayed bridge scheme.

(b) Full Cross-section Integral Construction

Can cause severe corrosion of the environment of the region, such as bridge or cross-Sea
Bridge in coastal areas, such as, at the design stage, avoid violence show large type steel
structure of component surface area requires special maintenance structure, such as an
open-beam or steel tower; eliminates choice requires a lot in field (coastal or maritime),
pour concrete, making it difficult for concrete quality control and eventually structural
durability, such as on-site pouring piles and pre-stressed concrete box girders, etc., avoid
using partially prestressed b parts and component with cracks, affecting its durability, such
as continuous pre-stressed concrete beams and pre-stressed concrete bent cap; avoid using
a surname sewing and assembling, durability of the gel influences the durability of the
Composite beam section forms a lot, generally speaking, although the steel I-beams
with section advantages of simplicity, ease of construction, but box-shaped composite
beams is a combination I-Liang bi exposed steel surfaces, paint maintenance workload is
relatively large, box-shaped composite beams the outer surface is easy to maintain,
facilitate the use of dehumidification system inside the box, box at the durability of the
coating is guaranteed. Of steel and concrete composite technology, pre-cast concrete
panels, installation, wet joint pouring afters approach stresses of steel and concrete can be
full, however, used bridge deck durability of lap it is easy to become weak links, and first
concrete bridge deck on the steel girder segment, and then overall segment installation of
steel and concrete composite technology solves durability problem of steel-concrete
combined surface and, of course, the lack of technology affect the steel and concrete of the
two materials can give full play to their dominant performance, therefore, required under
the environment category and grade, choosing the right combined process. Figs. 5.43 and
5.44 are two kinds of process engineering.

(c) Pre-fabrication and Pre-casting of Segments

If water conditions permits, large crane to hoist girder is the excellent solution to beam
quality and installation, also is a preferred solution, however, when circumstances in depth
does not permit, such as beaches, only the use of movable frames, segmental processes of
segmental seams for durability issues need to be addressed.
Pile caps piers and pre-cast problems for a growing cross-Sea Bridge, Pier poured in
place concrete pile caps and Pier shafts will shadow casting quality and duration, pre-cast
method is a common method of choice, but how to avoid assembly joint impact durability
and problems, in addition to the adopting some good performance sealed materials, must
ensure the durability of these joints on the design details, such as the joints of pile caps
and pier concrete, pier over seams in the splash zone, and in a state of compression and so

Fig. 5.43 Composite beam segment technique of casting concrete (a) steel box beams of
Donghai bridge; (b) Greece combination girder of Rion-Antirion bridge.

Fig. 5.44 Pre-cast concrete combination girder construction.

Using rectangular hollow section of Donghai bridge, vertical prestressed with high
strength reinforcing rebar, concrete cross-section under design load does not arise under
tensile stress. Pre-cast the pier shaft the whole section. Seams of high pier located in the
splash zone or above, outside seal the deal on the inside cast in place concrete reinforcing
and improving structure durability. By closely matching method of pre-cast pier. Set new
concrete pier, to avoid assembled rubber joints, make sure that the connection parts
durability requirements. Pre-fabricated site arrangement in Shen Jia Wan, island of
300,000 m2 prefabricated field, which two pieces of pier precasting yard, a venue precast
pier of the 60 m span from venture floating crane for lifting installations. Another piece
of venue precast pier of the 70 m span, make them ourselves, erecting one barge lift
installation, as shown in Fig. 5.45.

Fig. 5.45 Donghai bridge installation of prefabricated bridge pier (a) venture floating
crane; (b) erecting one barge Pier installation vessels.

3. Preference for Durable Materials

According to environmental conditions, conceptual design to structural material properties

used by targeted requirements, and discusses their use of reason, material technical
characteristics and application purposes, as well as from the total life-cycle cost analysis
shows that the use of durable materials economy. Selection of durable materials are
conceptual design for structure durability of concrete is considered one of the most
important aspects.
Stonecutters Bridge design comes from the concept of a bridge design competition
winner works, its appearance is very beautiful, how can design features to be durable
without the need to take a very expensive maintenance costs is an important design
consideration. In Hong Kong, the bridge is designed to generally live for 120 years.
Environment for those who are taking a toll bridges, formulate a scientific, rational and
economic durability the case is definitely a major challenge.
The Stonecutters Bridge design competition award-winning design of the upper part of
the tower is a round steel, is of a design feature. The design add a modern element to this
bridge built-in 21st century. On optimisation of design process, in order to improve the
bridge aerodynamic performance and maintain the appearance of the bridge towers, the
upper half of the tower to a steel shell and inner wall of concrete composite structure. In
the concrete construction of the tower is not using the common method of pumping to
avoid early-age shrinkage cracking. And mixed with Silica fume (Micro-silica) as well as
the outermost layer of stainless steel reinforcement, reduced to chloride ion penetration,
increased corrosion of reinforcement, can be said that the maintenance of durability of
concrete towers and pay greater attention to service life of 120 years. Shell is not stainless
steel shell instead of ordinary carbon steel, to further improve the bridge tower design and
enhance the durability of metal finishes, without new surface coating for steel structure on
a regular basis.
Extending bridge main span and side spans of 49.75 m long section of steel box beam
structure, two girder beams together, in the main cross-section spacing is 18 m, and the
side spans part of the pitch was 15 m. Air humidity are controlled within the deck box,
provides relative humidity lower than 60% environment. This will-effectively prevent
inner corrosion in the steel box, thereby reducing the outer layer with precision anticorrosion measures needed. Dehumidification system operating in the deck are expected
to cost less than a new paint layer of costs.

4. The Durability Design of Main Girder

Our bridge engineering is increasingly concerned about the structure durability of concrete
cable-stayed bridge. Taking the Ningbo Yongjiang bridge as an example, the original
design of the bridge is a long-span concrete cable-stayed bridge of 468 m, [Fig. 5.46 (a)]
as shown in the tendons concrete bilateral main ribs. In the preliminary design review,
expert review committee does not support the bilateral section of the main rib bridge
programme, is a major reason why it existed had durability problems found. According to
experts recommendations of the CRIC, the design from the original concrete combination
deck to deck, that is, two steel box girder with prestressed concrete slab, as shown in Fig.
5.46(b) shown below. Obviously, mixed beams of concrete-filled steel box girder to
completely avoid cracks in the breast, abdomen and diaphragm, and prestressed concrete

bridge deck slabs for the roof though may crack, but it can be replaced in the future, this
greatly improves the durability of the structure.

5.4.4 Structural Durability Measures

Concept design should consider structural durability measures and the maintenance care
after bridge completion, take necessary steps against key parts of structures, and form the
basic ideas of the conservation scheme.

Fig. 5.46 Ningbo Yongjiang Main beam cross-section (size: m) (a) originally concrete
bilateral main rib section; (b) eventually steel box girder and concrete composite beams.

1. The Sacrificial Protection

For structural components (such as pile and foundation) in a periodic inspection and
maintenance inaccessible concerned, they add a layer to the sacrificial protection is a good
idea under certain circumstances, at the expense of the protective layer will persist a
certain time so that before the protective layer structure members do wear from external
Piles are a classic example. Most of the pile cant close inspection after the
construction is completed. We have concrete, the outer bread with a layer of expense of
the steel shell, Acosta Bridge, Florida (Acosta Bridge) is one such example. Similarly we
can also be coated with a layer of steel pile under environmental erosion protection layer
to withstand a certain period. In San Francisco, Oakland Bay Bridge eastern section , this
kind of sacrificial protection was used on the surface of steel pipe piles.
Currently steel pipe wall thickness epoxy powder coating is mostly used as anticorrosion measure to guarantee service life.

2. Design Details
Design details include:
1. high durability concrete, reinforced concrete compaction, increase their ability to
resist breakage;
2. strengthen the bridge surface drainage and waterproofing layer design, improving the
environmental condition of the bridge;
3. improvement design of bridge structures, including increasing the thickness of
concrete cover; strengthened structural reinforcement to prevent cracks;
4. corrosion protection of steel; black surface coating for steel structures have to be
reasonable, combining bridge environment suitable corrosion protection methods; 5.

for important structures with multi anti-corrosion measures and check them regularly,
as well as corrosion protection measures be adopted, surface anti-corrosion coating of
epoxy-coated reinforcing steel, concrete, corrosion-inhibiting admixtures, infiltration
of surface layer template, cathodic protection (corrosion protection of steel pipe piles
corrosion protection), etc.;
5. strictly for design and control of stress, cracks and other details.

3. Replacement Measures
Not every bridge structural unit of life and as long as the bridges design life. If we gave
every structural unit life expectancy and the bridges design life of the same, costs may be
very high. Design in general, as a matter of routine, in certain structural elements can be
replaced after a certain time. Supports, expansion joints and wearing course fall into this
category structure. It can be seen that structural unit of easy substitution becomes very
important. Any traffic would increase maintenance costs, although the costs and life-cycle
costs are not an order of magnitude. One takes far too long to maintain nearby commercial
projects often troubled by serious damage.

4. Ease of Maintenance Measures

Ease of maintenance is extremely important and accessible is the first step toward
maintainability. Caused by human behaviour, and hard to reach compare with invisible
part, accessible and visible parts can often be checked more frequently and more
thoroughly. Due to the need of maintenance surface is limited, small box girder beam or
truss is preferable. Box girder can be formed inside a closed space through machinery and
equipment to provide ventilation, controlled humidity and temperature.
Another way to help achieve the maintainability issues is to display a warning sign
before a problem actually occurs. For example, there are two types of cable-stayed bridge
cable methods of changing colour, either use a coloured thin layer over a black base layer
of double-layer PE pipe, or wrap on top of a black tube with a layer of colored PVF, in
many cases, the latter is better because wrapped taping for PE tube provides a layer of
coat, if there is damage, coats get stripped, attracting attention for maintenance and repair.

5. Inspection and Maintenance Facility

Tower conservation and repair lifts, ladders and simple platform setting, should be
available in cable tower, and equipped with lighting and fire setting device, towers should
be reserved for laying cables on embedded parts for repair, replace the corresponding
facilities, as necessary to reach the site and channel should be set ladder and guardrail
Closed flat streamlined steel box beam structure, stiffened a lot inside the box, if the
paint anti-corrosion, maintenance painting work and because of the steel box beam inside
a closed environment, difficult volatile solvents for paints and construction and
maintenance personnels working environment is very inferior. Corrosion of the steel box
girder internal layout dehumidifier light are commonly used as antiseptic and protection
system, internal requires steel box girder the humidity is less than 50%.

In order to facilitate the operational phase of the bridge maintenance and construction
of steel box girder of steel box girder of circular seam welding, large steel box girder
bridge beams are required to set the maintenance vehicle. Maintenance vehicle based on
the main girder structure, are commonly used as cantilever-mounted crane programme,
namely, driving through steel wheel poured into I-steel track, trusses are connected by a
door frame and drive mechanisms. Driving mechanism of general electric and manual.
Electric one requires sliding transmission line , its price is higher than a manual one.

1. Cross-channel titled construction of super long span cable-stayed bridge, suspension
bridge, proposed to deal with technologies such as wind, seismic and anti-ship
collision-resistant collar concept of the design field, through investigation both at
home and abroad have put forward new ideas, in relation to a concept of a field of
ones own design.
2. Aiming at the vessel bump bridge accident, from analysis of bridge engineering and
marine technology, how to prevent this type of accident and reduce the losses caused
by the accident.
3. Examples of bridge engineering in disaster prevention and new concepts in
durability, wind and earthquake-resistant, anti-ship separately and durability cited an
example in the field of technology.
4. Please give examples at present, China has built bridges in the durability
inadequacies, and problem-solving approaches.

[1] Xiang Haifan. Chinese and Foreign Comparison of Technological Innovation in the
New Bridges//proceedings of the 17th National Conference on Bridges. Beijing:
People China Communications Press, 2006.
[2] Xiang Haifan. The Durability of Bridges in China. The Bridge, 2009 (4).
[3] Deng Wenzhong. Observation of Bridge Durability. The Bridge, 2009 (4).
[4] Xiang Haifan, et al. Modern Bridge Theory and Practice of Wind Resistance.
Beijing: Peoples Communications Press, 2005.
[5] Fan Lichu, et al. Seismic Design of Long-span Bridges. Beijing: Peoples
Communications Press, 2001.
[6] Fan Lichu. Safety and Durability of Bridge EngineeringLooking into the Progress
of Design Concept. Shanghai Road, 2004 (1).
[7] Xu Zhihao, Huang Jianbo. Stonecutters Bridge, Durability, Maintenance, and
Safety//17th National Bridge Conference Papers, China Communications Press,
[8] Hu Renli. Seismic Design of Bridges. Beijing: China Railway Publishing House,
[9] Wang Junjie and Geng Bo. BridgeVessle Bumping Risk Assessment and
Measures. Beijing: Peoples Communications Press, 2010.
[10] Institute for Marine Steel Structure in Shanghai. Ship Collision with Bridge
Selected Papers. China Shipbuilding, 2000. 5.
[11] Chen Zhengqing. Bridge Wind Engineering. Beijing: Peoples Communications
Press, 2005.
[12] Ye Wenya, Li Guoping, Fan Lichu. Preliminary Analysis of Bridge Whole Life
Costs. Highway, 2006 (6).
[13] Xu Guoping, Liu Minghu, Geng Shuang. Method of Bridge Whole Life Design.
Highways, 2007 (10).
[14] Wang Rengui. Hangzhou Bay Cross-sea Bridge Structure Durability//proceedings
of the 2004 National Conference on Bridges. Beijing: People China
Communications Press, 2004.
[15] Zhang Jinping. Denmark Bridge Maintenance Philosophy. Bridges, 2008 (3).
[16] Huang Qiao. Study on Durability of Bridge Structures and Life-cycle Design.
Bridges, 2008 (3).
[17] The Peoples Republic of China Industry Standards. JTG/T B07-01-2006 Road
Engineering Technical Code for Anti-corrosion of Concrete Structures. China
Communications Press, 2006.
[18] The Peoples Republic of China Industry Standards. JTG D60-2004 General
Specification for Design of Highway Bridges and Culverts. Beijing: Peoples

Traffic Press, 2004.

[19] The Peoples Republic of China Industry Standards. JTG D62-2004 of Reinforced
Concrete and Pre-stressed Concrete Bridge Design Regulations. China
Communications Press, 2004.
[20] Peoples Republic of China Industry Standards. JTG D60-01 General Specification
for Design of Highway Bridges and Culverts. Beijing: Peoples Traffic Press, 2004.
[21] The Peoples Republic of China Industry Standards. JTG D02-01 General
Specification for Design of Highway Bridges and Culverts. Beijing: Peoples
Traffic Press, 2008.
[22] Liu Ziming, et al. and bridge maintenance and repair manuals. Beijing: Peoples
Communications Press, 2004.




6.1.1 Bridge Structure System and its Classification
Architecture is a structural unity of function, shape and stress pattern.
Structure and function of architecture is the first hierarchy, such as function of the
building structure is for the living space of the form must be primarily surrounding
structure; bridges function is for people to cross the obstacles and objects (rivers, valleys,
etc.), main span structure.
The second structure is a hierarchy system, according to the structure, the bridge
structure can be divided into four basic system: beam, arch-suspension bridges, cablestayed bridge system. Forms can also be further sub-divided under the same bridge, such
as the towers few cable-stayed bridges can be divided into single-tower cable-stayed
bridge, twin and multi-tower cable-stayed bridge with cable-stayed bridges and so on.
When among the various systems in combination with each other, but also derived the
cable-stayed suspension system, cable-stayed continuous rigid frame-continuous beam or
collaboration system.
Loading form is the third level of the structure system, stress patterns include delivery
of loads within the structure and its internal forces status on balance, it is the kernel of
structure. Even within the same form of bridge system structure loading remains very
diverse, its most influencing factors can be categorised into three areas: external
constraints on the structure, such as the structure is statically determinated the
temperature, support sink on the effects of structural systems; connections between main
load bearing structures (transfer) forms, such as the tower of cable-stayed bridges,
connection of beam, pier will be affect the structure transmission of loads; stress
distribution between the main components, such as the arch flexible beams, arches, rigid
beam and flexible arches divided into rigid beams.
From the above three levels to define the structure and system of bridges and other
structures can be distinguished, and systems to bridge the outline and basic mechanical
properties, but also lays the groundwork for systematic study of bridge structure system.
According to the above definition and hierarchical relationships, bridge structure
system of classification can be simply shown as shown in Table 6.1.
Table 6.1 Structure classification summary.

Second level

Third level



A threespan
A multiplespan

External constraints: The simple supported beam,

Continuous beam, Fixed end beam, Cantilever beams.
Internal connection: Continuous beams, t-shape
rigid frame, Rigid frame.
Stiffness distribution: Beams with even crosssections, Beams with variable cross-sections


Single loadbearing

External constraints: Hingeless arch, Three-hinged

arch, Single span arch, Continuous arch.
Internal connections: Double-hinged arch, Threehinged arches; Arch with fixed connection, Hinged
arches, Free arches.
Stiffness distribution: Rigid arch flexible beam,
Rigid arch rigid beam, Arch with even cross sections,
Arch with variable cross-section.

External constraints:Auto-anchored cable-stayed

bridge, Ground-anchored cable-stayed bridge, Partly
ground-anchored cable-stayed bridge.
Internal connection: Full-floating structural system,
Semi-float (supporting)) system, Tower-beam-Pier
consolidation system, Tower-beam conjugation,
Tower pier hinged system.
Stiffness distribution: General cable-stayed bridge,
Low pylon cable-stayed bridge.


Cablestayed bridge
Singletower cablestayed bridge

External constraints: The self-anchored suspension

bridge, Ground-anchored suspension bridge.
Internal connection: Two-span simple support
suspension bridge, Double-span continuous

Twin tower
Suspension suspension
Single pole
Twin pole
Three- pole
rigid frame
Girder and
Combined combination


suspension bridge, Three-span simple support

suspension bridge, Three-span continuous suspension
Stiffness distribution: Rigid Tower suspension
bridge, Flexible-tower suspension bridge.

Study of bridge structure system is to find out its mechanical properties in order to
carry out system of bridge structure and apply to practical engineering according to local

6.1.2 Evaluation Standards for Bridge System Quality

A certain bridge structural system corresponds to its unique mechanical properties. But the
same structure used in different occasions may be good, or it may be bad. Therefore, clear
criteria for judging quality of bridge structural system is particularly important.
First the reasonable structure span. Each bridge has its range of reasonable span,
simply-supported beam cannot exceed 100 meters, otherwise it is uneconomical or
impossible; vice-versa, unless for special requirements such as landscape, its hard to
imagine long-span suspension bridge system is used in bridge with a span of only dozens
of meters. Any approaches or exceeds the span record in the system will be require careful
assessment, a system beyond the record in general is more expensive and difficult to

implement in the short term.

Secondly, the system must adapt to the geological and hydrological conditions at the
location of the bridge. Force structure the first aspects to which it corresponds the outside
world structure system constraints. Such as: soft ground area should not be resist
horizontal force, hence the thrust arch is generally not reasonable options, foundation
bearing capacity under the condition of high in the mountains, have thrust arch tend to
also be the best programme.
Furthermore, the system internals transfer effectiveness is also important, it
corresponds to the force structure forms the second aspect of internal connection forms
between the components. For example, the large-span cable-stayed bridge in the form of
talianglian, hope floats under temperature effect to release the temperature stress, while in
vertical static wind load consolidation system wants to reduce tower loading, system
selection selection should be based on the situation at the bridge, and find out the principal
contradiction, can overcome the principal contradiction of the system, and for a variety of
spears shields are more prominent, main beam limiting device is used in the project, in the
context of a given can be freely modified, to displacement limits to become consolidation
system, a reasonable solution under a variety of loading force demand contradiction.
Also, the collocation rationality of rigidity of the system may reflect their strengths
and weaknesses. This corresponds to force form the third structures: stress distribution
between the components. In a good architecture system, not only all the structural
components share optimal stiffness distribution but also bear mechanical load in a
balanced manner, although it is impossible to reach the ideal state of equal strength, but at
least it should guarantee the mechanical safety components differ.
To sum up, no absolute standard for evaluation of bridge system. Determining bridge
system must be combine the requirements of integrated considered, and finally make the
best choice.
Following Tianjin guotai bridge design in the system of selecting, for example,
illustrate the applicability of bridge evaluation criteria mentioned above.
Guotai bridge, a bridge across the Haihe river in Tianjin, 4 internationally renowned
design firms compete, truss arch bridges (Fig. 6.1) standard, successful units with arch
system (Fig. 6.2), the study shows that key has the following problems:
1. For soft soil ground in Tianjin, and arch not only horizontal force on the basis of the
system, there is a large bending moment, seismic and long-term load effects were
negative, and this is the principal contradiction in the system and condition of
building the bridge;
2. In order to reduce the annual effect of temperature on the structure and need to set a
Corbel arch-beam, horizontal thrust long level pull cable under deck setting you want
multi-channel expansion joint, makes the structure of complex, and driving comfort;
3. The bridgehead buildings you pass arch winding tension, under complicated stress
and poor seismic performance of the system.

Fig. 6.1 Tianjin Guotai bridge.

Fig. 6.2 Fixed end arch architecture diagram (unit: mm).

Analysis and research on the basis of the programme, the principal contradiction is
grasped, determine the structure of the new system: the middle three-span thrust free archbeam composite system (Fig. 6.3). Fully preserves the original scheme of the systems
function and landscape modelling, by changing the connection mode of outside constraints
and internal components of the system, improve the behaviour of structure:

Fig. 6.3 Sketch of girder and arch combination structure system with three-span non thrust
design (unit: mm).
1. modification became hinged arch at the foot of solid, release the horizontal
constraint, based only on vertical and horizontal girders bear;
2. structures freely in the horizontal direction, so annual range of temperature has less
influence, arch-beam used in consolidation, deck without increasing expansion joints;
3. the bridgehead building separate from the main structure, landscape and ballast only,
system performance is much improved.
Two structure such as shown in Table 6.2, after optimisation, mechanical performance
will be significantly improved not only the structure and make the whole engineering cost
Table 6.2 Structure system comparison.
Comparison project

Solid duangong system

No thrust beam arch

Supporting constraint Arch fixed thrust

combination system
Hinged arch, no thrust

Force base

Vertical force + horizontal force +


Nearly vertical force


Force transmission path is not


Smooth power transmission

path clear

Horizontal thrust
balanced approach

Basic level of cable and tie beam in Tie beam itself bear

Deck system

The main impact of bridge

expansion joints driving comfort

No main bridge expansion


Bridge construction

Large projects shall be provided

with vertical pre-stressing

Engineering, without setting

vertical prestressing

Technical difficulty




There are security risks


Seismic performance Poor


6.1.3 Mechanical Properties of Various Systems

As mentioned earlier, bridges are classified as beam bridges, arch bridges, cable-stayed
bridge, a suspension bridge with four basic system, each system has its special some
mechanical characteristics.
Warping (Fig. 6.4) is a vertical structure of anhydrous rehabilitated under the action of
load, because the force is exerted and axis of the structure nearly perpendicular, so
compared with other structures of the same span, bridge bending moment within the
maximum usually takes tensile properties of materials used to build it.

Fig. 6.4 Beam bridge.

Arch bridge (Fig. 6.5) the main load-bearing structure is arch or arch. Traditional arch
bridge under the action of vertical loads, piers and bridges the horizontal thrust and piers
provide arch with a pair of horizontal force, the basic offset within the arch is composed of
horizontal force load moment, so arch is the main structure of stress. Compared with
equal-span beams, bending moment, shear force and deformation of arch a much smaller,
can take full advantage of good tensile properties and compressive properties of masonry
materials (stone, concrete, etc.). In addition, beam bridge differences before closing lower
because of failure to maintain balance and thus must rely on the support, in the
construction of arch bridge cable-stayed cable of auxiliary support measures. Thrust arch
built-in the ground conditions are not appropriate for cases, or you can build the horizontal
thrust of the horizontal bar withstand thrust free arch bridge [Fig. 6.5(d), (e)].
Cable-stayed bridges (Fig. 6.6) consists of the foundation, the main tower, girder and
cable composition. Main beam of inclined cable tension to provide more flexible support,
and passing girders bear the load to the main tower, and then spread to the base of the
tower. Tower is basically dominated by compression. Large master girder works like a
multi-point continuous beams with elastic supports. Because of the horizontal force of
cable-stayed, girder foundation the force character is eccentric, Yu Liang-type bridge,
girder size greatly reduced structural weight significantly reduced, greatly improves the
diagonal laqiaos crossing ability. In addition, towers, cables and main beams form a
stable triangle, greater structural rigidity of cable-stayed bridge.

Fig. 6.5 Arch bridge.

Fig. 6.6 Cable-stayed bridge.

Suspension bridge (Fig. 6.7) is a powerful main cables suspended between the towers
on either side as the main load-bearing structure. Vertical load on the bridge by Suspender
cables under a lot of tension, in anchorage in suspension bridge main cable at both ends.
In order to withstand the huge main cable pull anchorage structure is normally required to
do very big (gravity anchorage), or rely on the natural integrity of rock to withstand the
horizontal force (tunnel anchorage). Relative to the former system, suspension stiffness is
a flexible structure. Under external loads, the suspension bridge by larger variants in order
to achieve the balance of forces.
For a variety of system, its mechanical feature naturally inherited the basic mechanics
characteristics of systems. For example, cable-suspended collaboration systems in
different parts of the structure mechanics characteristics of cable-stayed and suspension
bridge, respectively. Combination systems are concentrating on is how to implement a
different system of seamless connectivity, that is, at the junction of different systems,
great properties for its change shall be monographic study and adopt structural measures
to solve related problems. For example, cable-stayed-suspension system side sling
struggles labour has attracted the attention of scholars, arch girder and arch combination

system of complex stress states shall take special countermeasures in the design.

Fig. 6.7 Suspension bridge.

6.1.4 System Innovation

Bridge structural system of innovation is fundamental to meet the specific conditions of
building the bridge structural system change, group, or its innovative work on change of
force patterns. Because of system innovation, there is a bridge between todays rich and
varied structure. Structural changes can radically change the structure of the system of
mechanical properties, so as to break through the bottleneck of the structure itself.
Because of its traditional arch bridge arch at the foot of horizontal force, it can hardly
be applied in soft soil foundation greatly hampered its development. In order to avoid the
influence of arch the thrust on the basis, developed part of thrust and thrust free arch
bridge (Fig. 6.8).
Selections below are to introduce several of bridge engineering system innovation
success stories.
Example 6.1. Beam bridge system double-line bridge of shibanpo Changjiang River
Bridge Chongqing.
Chongqing Shibanpo Yangtze River Bridge (Fig. 6.9), built-in 1981, with a hanging
beam of pre-stressed concrete T-shaped rigid frame bridge long combined span of 86.5 m
+ 4 138 m + 156 m + 174 m + 104.5 m. To meet the traffic demand in existing old
bridge build a new continuous rigid frame bridge of double-line bridge of Shibanpo
Changjiang River Bridge. By channel experts argues that the main span of the new bridge
will be 292 m waterway must clear width. Taking into account the new bridge and old
bridge pier locations corresponding to requirements, only the 156 m and get rid of 174 m
between the two main span piers, so the main span of the new bridge span to 330 m,
breaking the steel girder bridge span in the world record300 m, box-girder roof and
floor will be become thicker, creating difficult and economically reasonable; the new
bridge span also break concrete girder bridges span the world record 301 m, light weight
concrete must be used, but the aggregate imports economically unreasonable, domestic
conduct their own testing is expensive and time consuming.
Therefore, changing the material composition of the main beam, main span uses steel
girders replacing the lightweight concrete plan would eventually be adopted. By

calculation, 330 m adopt steel box girder for main span of one-third makes the top of pile
under negative bending moment decrease about one-third, which is about the domestic
implemented 270 m pier of long span concrete beam bridge bending moment, so at the
current level is suitable under some conditions for this scenario.

Fig. 6.8 Bridge diagrams (a) thrust system; (b) part of the thrust system; (c), three-span
continuous lift system; (d) simple support without thrust system.

Fig. 6.9 Double-line bridge of Shibanpo Changjiang River Bridge.

But this does not mean that the steel beams in the middle period of the longer the
better. In terms of cost, steel box girders is more expensive, their length, greater the

difference larger in terms of construction, hoping to integral lifting of steel box beam
segment, both in weight and has some limitations. After overall consideration, determine
cross-beams in a length of 103 m, plus the ends of the steel-concrete combined sections,
the whole cross-beams length is 108 m, weighs 1400t.
In addition, double-line bridge of Shibanpo Changjiang River Bridge a total length of
1103.5 m, as shown in Fig. 6.10. With Master Liang Gu knots side Pier will be bear too
much horizontal force for this system as middle using a combination of rigid frame, side
pier of continuous girder system.

Fig. 6.10 Double-line bridge of Shibanpo Changjiang River Bridge in general layout (size:
Double-line bridge of Shibanpo Changjiang River Bridge in the main span without use
of lightweight concrete, but breaking with steel beams instead a concrete beam, through
material changes in the composition of main girders, to vary the winner Liang Heng load
distribution, thus opening up the steel-pre-stressed concrete continuous rigid-frame bridge
this bridge, on economy, safety, durability and so on to meet the premise, solution
summary of continuous rigid frame bridge of long-span 300 m problems.
Example 6.2. Arch bridge system of Chongqing Caiyuanba Yangtze River Bridge.
Chongqing Caiyuanba Yangtze River Bridge is the first orbital dual-use of King Road,
city of steel and concrete composite rigid frame structure and tied-arch bridge (Figs. 6.11
& 6.12 ).

Fig. 6.11 Chongqing Caiyuanba bridge.

Fig. 6.12 Overall layout of Chongqing Caiyuanba bridge (size: m).

Because it is public rail-cum-road bridge, decide to beam must reach 11 m, rigid beam,
Liang Rou arch system is used. Before This, almost all of deck tied arch bridge in side

span all columns to support the weight of the beam [Fig. 6.13(b)]). But in the vegetable
garden dam bridge, rigidity and side spans only 102 m, so the primary beam can span the
entire side without column support, side span became very open, light weight of the bridge
presents its elegance.

Fig. 6.13 Comparison of supporting tied side arch span with or without pole sets (a)
Caiyuanba bridge across no pole; (b) common bridges across any vertical poles.
After removing the post, side spans of arch ribs no longer subjected to vertical loads,
and can be made into a straight bar, arch bridge structure can be used at the lower portion
of the Y-shaped the concrete structure, under the continual fluctuations in water level do
not require special conservation as well as steel. Three pole pieces large y-shaped structure
seems solid, steady, and increase impact resistance capacity.
In this way, in terms of structure, caiyuanba bridge consists of three elements: a Yshaped pre-stressed concrete rigid frame on each side and the steel box tied arch bridge in
the middle (Fig. 6.14), the calculation so as to allow the centre of bowstring arch span is
reduced from 420 m to 320 m and improves overall efficiency while reducing a key
substructure design more difficult.

Fig. 6.14 Y-shaped rigid-frame structure and tied-arch load path diagram.
Compatible with the three independent units, this bridge has also been used in the
design of vertical isolation system tie rod, vertical tie bar divided into cross-tie bar and
side span bow string, and anchor its independence. On this basis, and additional vertical
tie bar at side pier. Three sets of independent tie rod systems are available in the
implementation process of the main body of the bridge (rigid frames and the main arch)
force and the adjustment of the linear space control: under constant load by adjusting the
frame on each side of the tie rod and the tail end of the vertical cable, rigid rod bending
torque to reduce and regulate the bowstring cable force of arch in the middle, perfectly
balanced horizontal thrust, only vertical forces on both sides of the Y-shaped rigid
structure. At constant load under three separate, and consider this to achieve an optimal
stress. Since then, under the live load action, tied with other the longitudinal member

according to the level of stiffness distribution of force. But due to live load accounts for
only a fraction of the total load, there would be no essential impact on the system as a
In short, Caiyuanba bridge through structural innovation in the system, separate tie rod
using active control technology enhanced material efficiency rate, saving a lot of
permanent structural steel.
Example 6.3. Cable-stayed bridge systemGreece Rion-Antirion Bridge.
Rion-Antirion Bridge (Fig. 6.15) across Greece Corinth isthmus, composite girder
cable-stayed bridge of main bridge for more tower bridge continuous, using floating fivespan structure, span consists of 286 m + 3 560 m + 286 m (Fig. 6.16).

Fig. 6.15 Rion-Antirion Bridge.

Fig. 6.16 Overall layout of Rion-Antirion Bridge (size: m).

The bridge construction is very complex, requiring bridge can handle upto 2000 years
of seismic, the maximum peak ground acceleration 1.2 g the bridge can withstand
maximum 2 m of vertical and horizontal fault displacement, as well as 180,000 DWT
tankers to 8.2 m/s velocity of impact force and strong winds.
Apparently, the site conditions suitable for the construction of a suspension bridge, but
the geographic conditions eliminated the suspension bridge scheme in the conceptual
design phase. In order to make the bridge is feasible, and the overall cost can be received,
select bridge beam and gaps must limit the number of piers in the middle. Finally chose to
have 3 across all of 560 m, 2 side spans of 286 m cable-stayed bridge as designed.
Found great difficulty in the design of cable-stayed bridge pier foundation.
Foundations at depths greater than 60 m, while resisting a huge the seismic forces, where
bad scope 20 m deep sea bed soil mechanical properties, so you must take special bridge
pier foundation structure.
Main bridge tower foundations ultimate structure is shown in Fig. 6.17, using 90 m in
diameter of circular reinforced concrete raft foundation. To improve the performance of

soil, took 25~30 m, diameter 2 m steel pipe based on 7~8 m spacing, soil reinforcement,
each under a pier, there are about 250 steel piles. To allow sliding between the foundation
and the foundation laying on the pole 50 cm with filter sand, laying on the thick and 2 m
in diameter for 10~80 cm pebble layer, the top lay thick gravel layer 50 cm. In this way,
bridge foundations are put gravel on the total thickness of 3 m above, connections between
the foundation and the gravel is weak, may be produced when the earthquake up left and
right to move (But in the operational phase and small earthquakes without sliding), plays
the role of isolation, which formed the basis of an innovative for the sliding of the
reinforced earth base isolation (reinforced soil foundation).

Fig. 6.17 Rion-antirion isolation base diagram.

Fig. 6.18 Pier damping system layout diagram.

Due to seismic requirements, the bridge incorporates a five span continuous structure
of floating. Because the cable is not the main beam to provide effective lateral support, so
the floating system must exert some lateral restraint and reduced live load and lateral
displacement due to temperature. Final installation of an intermediate connector (fuse
restrainer) at each pylon to allow force 10 MN, can be adapted to the vertical displacement
of the bridge 1.6 m in transverse direction is almost not moving, so when the lateral load
does not exceed the design when the ability to hold the main beam and the lower structure

rigidly connected in transverse. Additional 4 sets of viscous damper, each allowing for
3,500 kN adaptable beam tower 1.3 m addendum modification. When the intermediate
connection piece under the action of earthquakes or storms after the failure, the main beam
in viscous resistance free swing under control, as shown in Fig. 6.18.
Rion-Antirion Bridge features a reinforced earth base isolation and transverse
dampers, couplings, has created for cable-stayed bridge a new system.
Example 6.4. Suspension bridges systemUnited States New San Francisco Oakland Bay
San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge is located in the United States in San Francisco,
East of main bridge for steel cantilever truss bridge in 1989, San Francisco decided to rebuild after the earthquake.
San Francisco Bay areas, poor geological conditions in the Bay area, the ground
surface with a soft, sticky thick layer of soil covering layer, the seismic stability of bridge
when you become the controlling factor of bridge design.
Under the current common sense, in the earthquake zone construction of suspension
bridge tower gantry structure should be. When the earthquake came, at Tower cross can
form a plastic hinge at the beam to change lateral stiffness of the structure, reducing the
seismic responses.
But over the Oakland Bay Bridge project discussions, bay area residents do not want
to build another bridge, the gate tower, and fond of single-column pylon of the
programme. Meanwhile, the owners also demand that the bridge could resume traffic
immediately after an earthquake, requiring bridge due quake damage at repair can go
without disrupting traffic. In the form of the then existing structure, this basic is unlikely
to meet requirements.
Engineers are under study, breaking the existing concepts, the concept of developing a
shear key. In fact, this idea is a variant of gantry tower. The principle was to have the
tower columns of two in a gate-tower closely placed together (Fig. 6.19). On the tower
beam is very short, becameunder the shear yield shear keys, instead of the usual tower
beams in bending yield. And because the two tower is placed within only a short distance,
shear key and doesnt have a problem with a few more, increase the redundancy of the
Tower, strengthening the security of bridges, and instead added more beauty.

Fig. 6.19 Changes of bridge tower form.

Fig. 6.20 Main tower section.

Meanwhile, further improvements, the tower is divided into four legs, and connected
them with shear key (Fig. 6.20), outside the tower appears to be single column tower (Fig.
6.21), but also have excellent seismic performance and design requirements. In fact, this
designs mechanical characteristics are superior to the gantry tower.
San Francisco New Oakland Bay Bridge Towers by changing the connections within
the form, with shear key structural measures effectively resolved seismic problems of the
single tower, its design is very innovative.
Example 6.5. System of partial cable-stayed bridge without backstaysKunshan summer
driving River Bridge.
Summer driving bridge (Fig. 6.22) is located in Kunshan development zone, planned
recreational area at the location of the bridge, so the bridge landscape demand is higher.

Fig. 6.21 New San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge.

Fig. 6.22 Kunshan summer driving River Bridge.

This bridge spans over the river of with the width of about 50 m, there is a certain
navigation requirements, and therefore determines the span of the bridge in 60 m. Bridge
types to choose from including girder and tied arch bridge, and so on. Main span simply
supported beam of 60 m goes beyond reasonable span; mains even across 60 m continued
beam to match the side spans of length 35 m, uneconomic; there is already more than a
dozen tied arch, landscape, and people are not welcome. Therefore cable-stayed bridge
without backstays could be considered.
The worlds first cable-stayed bridge without backstays are designed Alamillo bridge
by Santiago Calavtrava, (See Fig. 6.23).
Only single tower cable-stayed bridge without backstays lateral funiculus, if
mechanical analysis of bridge tower were taken separately, its mechanical performance of
cable force for cable and of a cantilever beam under the action of gravity, relying on body
weight the overturning moment of torque balance cable. Consolidation with tower, girder,
piers, main beams hinged at the other end, full-bridge for a statically indeterminate
Cable-stayed bridges without backstays overall balance as shown in the schematic is
shown in Fig. 6.24. Wt is the weight of main tower, lt the distance between tower gravity

center and tower-solid beam end , Wd weight of main girder of, ld the distance between
gravity and the end of tower-solid beam.

Fig. 6.23 Spain Alamillo bridge.

Fig. 6.24 Sketch of overall balance of cable-stayed bridge without backstays.

Cable main beam on the overturning moment of Ta Liang Gu node Md = Wd ld, Tower
weight resistance torque Mt = Wt lt, tugend under dead load, bending moment M = Mt Md
= Wt lt Wd ld, to ensure the pylon roots dead load in axial compression state, Wt lt = Wd
ld. In this case, only the main tower structure under live loads and load moments.
It is clear that conventional cable-stayed bridge without backstays often towers selfweight and stiffness are large. Weight is generally used for main girder light beam in order
to reduce the towers weight, but makes the whole bridge cost increases, is rarely used in
actual projects.
Summer sail a River Bridge with pre-stressed concrete girders, and by changing the
structure of the internal components of the force, without back-stays partial cable-stayed
bridge system, namely the main girder pre-stressing endured after the load is divided into
two parts: Wd = Wd1 + Wd2, Wd1 tower weight balance by stayed cable transmission to the
leaning tower; Wd2 borne by the main beam (Fig. 6.25). And greatly reduces the weight
requirements, tower light weight, ease of construction, and take full advantage of the main
beam of material, reducing the cost.

Fig. 6.25 Conventional cable-stayed bridge without backstays and sketch of loading at

non-backstay section.
Driving medium within the span of the bridge through the river in summer to adjust
the component of force distribution within the structure, using the pre-mix concrete
girders, with a leaning tower of auxiliary forces, while ensuring economic performance
good aesthetic effect is obtained.
Example 6.6. System of the new structure of super long span cable-supported bridges.
Traditional super long span cable-supported bridgesa cable-stayed bridge [Fig.
6.26(a)] and suspension bridge [Fig. 6.26(b)] two systems have emerged in recent years
cable-stayed-suspension system [Fig. 6.26(c)] and partly anchored cable-stayed bridge
[Fig. 6.26(d)]. By studying the above systems, one may conceive partly anchored cablestayed suspension system [Fig. 6.26(e)]. It is not difficult to imagine, the system will both
parts of main girder of cable-stayed bridge with reduced axial force and anchored cablestayed-suspension advantages of cooperative system spanning large and become a more
long-span van restricted bridge could be considered.

Fig. 6.26 Idea of cable-supported bridges system Tower system (a) cable-stayed bridge;
(b) suspension bridges; (c) cable-stayed-suspension system; (d) partially anchored cablestayed bridges; (e) partially anchored cable-stayed-suspension system.
Separately, there is already a multi-tower cable-stayed bridge [Fig. 6.27(a)] and
multiple-tower suspension bridge [Fig. 6.27(b)], can be conceived multi-tower cablestayed-suspension system [Fig. 6.27 (c)] based on total anchored suspension bridge [Fig.
6.28(a)] idea, conceived two series of common anchor system, one for combo system, as
shown in Fig. 6.28(b)and (d) shown in second for mutual combination system, as shown
in Fig. 6.29(a) and (c) as shown, and continues to expand. This structure for super long
span cable-supported bridge offers a variety of options and new ideas.

Fig. 6.27 Idea of cable-supported bridges system Multi-tower system (a) cable-stayed
bridge; (b) suspension bridges; (c) cable-stayed-suspension system.

Fig. 6.28 Of cable-supported bridges system ideasa anchorage-sharing system (a) winanchored suspension bridge; (b) a total of anchored cable-stayed bridge anchor in part; (c)
a total of anchored cable-stayed-suspension system; (d) total bolt partially anchored cablestayed-suspension system.

Fig. 6.29 Cable Supported Bridges mutual combination system conceivedTotal anchor
system (a) Total anchored suspension bridgepartly anchored cable-stayed bridge; b)
Total anchored suspension bridgestayedsuspension; (c) Co-anchored suspension
bridgepartly anchored cablestayed suspension system.
Through the above described can be seen: clear structures and contents, and lay the
foundations for bridge structural system; analysis of bridge structural system of force,
force transmission route, can be provide clear direction for rational selection of bridge
structure system, may also be looking for method of bridge structural system innovation;
system for optimising the force structure, reduction of construction investment,

construction convenient, reduced maintenance costs, and meet the needs of engineering,
extending the applicable conditions is very important meaning for the construction of the
bridge. And bridge system space is vast, systems change can bring new life into this
ancient engineering of the bridge.


6.2.1 Classification of Design Parameters of Bridge
Design parameters of bridge structure can be divided into general layout parameters and
system parameters. General layout parameters primarily deal with structures description,
the main span and side spans of cable-stayed bridges, high towers and the cross-ratio,
beam and cross-ratio and wide-span ratio is in the design of cable-stayed bridge indexes.
System parameters refer to the same type of bridge with different loading systems, such as
external constraints, internal connections, etc. Different bridge structures differ greatly in
structural design parameters. Bridge design parameters not only reflects the structure of
the bridge structure system external form, but also reflects the bridge structure under load
forces and their stress response. Table 6.3 shows the four basic types of the main structure
of the bridge design parameters.
Various parameters of bridge structures (General layout of system parameters and
parameters) interact with each other. Structure parameters determine the shape of the
structure, load, resistance and stress patterns. Meanwhile, adjust and optimise the
structural parameters, can be changed. Variable structure properties, the mechanical
properties of structural and economic performance status.
Table 6.3 Bridge structural parameters.
Bridge type
The overall


Beam bridge

Arch bridge

Cross-over the Span ratio
Cross-over the
Arch axis
Compared with coefficient
Tower height
the midspan
Rib (circle)
and mid-span
high span ratio ratio
Pier high and Rib (circle)
Compared with
mid-span ratio wide span ratio the mid-span
Boom or
rigid frame
column spacing Lasso dip
Wide span ratio
Cable distance

Suspension bridge

Beams, pier
connection form

Main cable
Tower, beams,
piers connection

Arch their

Tower, beams,
piers connection

Main cable span

Cross-over the
Tower height
and mid-span
Compared with
the mid-span
Beam width and
the cross- ratio
Hanger spacing
Component form

Beams, pier
stiffness ratio

Arch ,
beams form
Arch , beam

Tower beam

Pylons stiffness

6.2.2 Effects of Design Parameters on Structure Loading

1. General Layout Parameters Affect the Structure of
Parameter change form has different structural shapes, and affects the structure of the
force. Such as tower cable-stayed bridge to span ratio changes that will be affect the force
of cable-stayed bridges.
Example 6.7. A cable-stayed bridge with a main span of 1400 m programme, the towers
span ratio, respectively taken as 0.21 and 0.16, compared with its mechanical properties.
General layout as shown in Fig. 6.30.
Fig. 6.31 shows results of analysis of the main beam constant load axial force.
Main beam buckling under various load safety factors are shown in Table 6.4.
Tower height and span of the bridge (Tower) by 0. 21 to 0.16, the reasonable finished
dead state of cable has increased 26%, the bridge towers mounted on the main beam axis
increased by 34% (Fig. 6.31); live load tower under the action of horizontal displacement
21% and a main span of vertical displacement 22%, column, beam, cables internal force
increases in about 40%; tower height reduced, stability of pylons is clearly improved, but
the stability of main beam was significantly reduced (Table 6.4). Cross-ratio decreases and
cable angle decreases and cables on the main beam with elastic supports weakened,
resulting in the aforementioned force sensitivity reactions.

Fig. 6.30 General layout scheme of cable stayed bridge with a main span of 1400 m (size:

Fig. 6.31 Comparison of main beam constant axial force.

Table 6.4 Effect of column-span ratio on overall structural elastic and stability.
Load condition

Constant load

Constant load + live load

Dead load + live load +

lateral still wind

Elastic buckling
Bridge tower vertical

Tower span
ratio = 0.21

Tower span
ratio = 0.16

Main beam outsidesurface buckling



Main beam insidesurface buckling



Bridge tower vertical




Main beam outsidesurface buckling



Main beam insidesurface buckling



Bridge tower vertical




Main beam outsidesurface buckling



Main beam insidesurface buckling



This shows that the towers and the cross-ratio is one of the most important parameters of
cable-stayed bridge in cable-stayed bridge design should take a reasonable height ratio.

2. Effects of General Layout Parameters on Structure Loading

Similarly shaped structure by changing system parameters, will be produce different
patterns of force, from external constraints, internal company joint stiffness distribution of

these three aspects of the mechanical effect of system parameters on the structure.

(a) External Constraints

External constraints implemented through structural supports, different support forms of
influence on the behaviours of structures are different. [11] three supported forms of main
bridge of Chongqing chaotianmen Yangtze river provided a detailed comparative analysis
of results as shown in Table 6.5.
Table 6.5 Analysis and comparison of different support systems.

Main technical issues

(Advantages and

difficulty and


1. Clear bearing pattern

in upper and lower
structural system;
2. Does not form force
on the foundation thrust;
3. The temperature had
little effect on the
One side of 4. Even tie rod force;
main span 5. During the
arch is a
construction structures
fixed hinge may be subject to
bearing, the displacement adjustment
other side without affecting the
force structure;
6. The lower road surface
landscape effect is good;
7. The need to set up
heavy support base

1. Large support
has been used at
home and abroad
and existing
ability is
2. The relevant
authorities of the
mainland has
heavy support
research, design
ability and
3. Capacity of
designed heavyload jack has
reached 4,000t,
providing a

Clear System load, structure

loading reasonable,
mounting rack technology is
relatively mature and during
the construction loading has
no effect on structure force
bearing, easy to maintain
bridge shape and the stress
state. Integrated technology
indicator is better.

1. Clear bearing pattern

in upper and lower
structural system;
2. The structural stiffness
is better;
3. During the

1. Large support
has been used at
home and abroad
and existing
ability is

Has a Clear effect on System

load, installation technology
is relatively mature. The
construction requirement is
High, construction affects
the bridge line, horizontal

Both sides
of main
span arch
uses fixed

construction structures
may be subject to
displacement adjustment
does not affect the force,
but was unable to make
structural displacement
adjustment, effects of
construction error and
temperature on closure
are great;
4. Effects of temperature
stress on bearing
substructure are big;
5. Does not form force
on the foundation thrust;
6. Maximum main truss
rod force is stronger;
7. The need to set up
heavy support base.

1. The structural stiffness

is a little better;
2. During the
construction it is unable
to make displacement
adjustment to structures
and angle adjustments,
required full Cable
construction line, effects
Both sides of construction internal
forces on structure force
of main
span arch bearing force are big;
3. Effects of temperature
use fixed
main pier stress on bearing
substructure are big;
and the
main beam 4. The pivot rod end
conjugation bending moment of
consolidation is Large

cables have high tonnage and
2. The lower
large number, anchor
structure and
placement difficulties.
Foundation design
considerations of
live Load and
temperatureinduced force;
3. Constant load
thrust requires the
use of largetonnage level
cable for
balancing, anchor
4. The structural
closure is very
difficult, the need
reaming and hole
drilling of
components for
closure, bridging
shape is affected
by construction,
the precision of
the closure.
1. The lower
structure and
foundation design
considerations of
live load and
temperatureinduced force;
2. Constant load
thrust requires the
use of largetonnage level
cable for
balancing, anchor
3. Construction
process full of

The construction
requirement high
implementation difficult
cables have high tonnage and
large number, anchor
placement difficulties.

(52000 kN.m);
5. No need to set up
heavy support base.

cable bridge shall

ensure linear,
control is difficult;
4. The structural
closure is very
difficult, the need
reaming and hole
drilling forced

Can be found through analysis, changes of external constraints on the behaviour of

structure affects the chaotianmen Yangtze River Bridge end used across the arch of the
foot side of the fixed hinge, hinge side activity programmes.

2. The Components Connection

Internal connection of components is an important system parameters, it changes the same
mechanical form of bridge structure can be changed. Large span taliang cable-stayed
bridge currently exists between the following five connection types (Fig. 6.32).

Fig. 6.32 Large-span cable-stayed bridge with different forms of connection diagram.
The Su Tong Bridge main span of 1088 m, in the design process, the first four
talianglian forms are compared. and their stress response. Results are shown in Table 6.6.
Table 6.6 Results comparison between different structures under static conditions.

Structure response

Full Vertical Tower beam Horizontal

floating support consolidation elastic
Cable Towermain beam 5.5E4/ 1.6E4/ 7 800/

Live loads

bending moment

4.1E4 7.6E4 1.1E5


Bottom bending
moments (kN.m)

1.0E6/ 1.0E6/ 7.9E5/

2.8E5 2.8E5 3.2E5


Main span deflection




The top horizontal

displacement (m)


188/603 188/602

Bottom bending
moments (kNm)

braking force



3.82E5 3.82E5 4.93E6



Horizontal displacement 365

of beam end (m)




The top horizontal

displacement (m)






3 991


Cable Tower main beam 844.1

bending moment
Vertical wind

2170 /135

Horizontal displacement

of beam end (m)
366/395 367/394

Cable Tower main beam 755.4

bending moment
The overall
difference 30


Bottom bending
moments (kN.m)

8.62E5 8.62E5


Horizontal displacement 268

of beam end (mm)




The top horizontal

displacement (mm)





Cable Tower main beam 1 378

bending moment

1 499



Bottom bending
moments (kN.m)

5.58E5 5.58E5


Horizontal displacement 287

of beam end (mm)




The top horizontal

displacement (mm)





Comparison results can be seen from the Table 6.6: compared with float system, Ta

Liang Gu pairing in the primary beam vertical stiffness effect is large, but significantly
increased the longitudinal stiffness of the structure. Floating system frees up horizontal
forces caused by temperature, but longitudinal wind and steam tower of the vehicle
braking force bending moment at the end is 1.9 times and 4.8 times larger than the
consolidation system. Set a certain bridge tower vertical elastic constraints with certain
rigidity, on the one hand by live loads can be reduced, and vertical wind turbine and tower
of automobile braking force taliang and bending moment at the end of the horizontal
displacement. The other hand, compared with the consolidation system, released system
significantly effect of temperature stress on bottom bending moment.
Some of the more typical engineering tower cable-stayed bridge, the beam pattern is
shown in Table 6.7.
Arch system, connections within the structure of influence of loading form is very
obvious. Fig. 6.33 shows the same arch of reamless arch and single arch, two-hinged arch,
three-hinged arch under the same load bearing forms.

Fig. 6.33 Envelope diagrams of Arch structure bending moment: (a) hingeless arch; (b)
single hinged arched; (c) of two-hinged arch; (d) three-hinged arch.

3. The Stiffness Distribution

Component stiffness type also have an impact on the structure patterns of force. Through
simple support girder and arch combination system, for example, analysis showed that
uniform load acting on the flyover, vault, beam, Derricks stiffness on structural
mechanical behavior effects are as follows:
Table 6.7 The typical structure of large span cable-stayed bridge.
Bridge name Country Time Main Main
Structure system and main beam
(years) span girder
Stonecutters China
2007 1018 Hybrid Sarasota office is located hydraulic
girder cushioning restraint devices
Luo bridge




Hybrid Sarasota office is located rubber bearing

girder (vertical support, longitudinal elastic





Hybrid Tower pier beam consolidation


The second

Nanjing 2000







Hybrid Sarasota office is located rubber bearings,

girder unilateral pylon cable set level constraints





Hybrid Sarasota office is located 0 Faso, full

girder floating

Meiko in





Sarasota office is located longitudinally

strand restraint devices






Sarasota office is located stand, horizontal

cable restraint and propeller damper.

Sarasota office is located steel bearing

(vertical support, vertical sliding)

1. Alongwith increase in bending stiffness of arch rib, increased uniformity of

suspender force and suspenders to one-fourth across the nearby boom pulling force
reduction, small suspender force increased bending rigidity increase of arch ribs, arch
spans the central axis decreases, moment magnification, bending moment decrease
when Earch Iarch/(Earch Iarch) changing between 1~10 and structure changed a little, but
when Earch Iarch/(Earch Iarch) >10, arch rib axial forces significantly decreased, in
cross-bending moment increases sharply.
2. With the increase in bending stiffness, arch passes the load decreases, tie beams
transfer loads increased beam span moment magnification, and arch rib in the axial
force and bending moment decrease; when Earch Iarch/(Earch Iarch) at 0.1 to 10 when
the structure changes small, but when Earch Iarch/(Earch Iarch) >10. Trans-axial forces
significantly decreased, beams in bending moment increases sharply.
3. Boom axial stiffness on structural properties of available hanging suspenders
hanging stiffness parameter

to reflect beams, suspended when

in 1~1 000 changes, Derrick obviously rigidity, stiffness of the system

increase. Tie beams uniformly distributed load, trans-axial force increases, and arch
ribs and bending moment decrease when

after Derrick stiffness

decreases, can basically be ignored. When hanging EAhang , and trans-axial force
at max, arch and bending moments to a minimum. Local increases the side hangers
axial stiffness, can significantly improve the inhomogeneity of suspender force.
Therefore, a reasonable percentage change major component stiffness of structural
system and structural performance can be optimised.

6.2.3 Design Parameter Optimization and Adjustment

During the conceptual design phase, how to determine if bridges main structure
parameters and component size, or in determining the structure detected after an item
index not upto design requirements (including do not meet the requirements), how to
adjust parameters to improve indicators of concern are two very important questions.
Relationship between structural parameters of bridge and structural response is
complex and difficult to describe a specific function. Beginning of bridge design,
designers always seek to meet the conditions of the structure parameters and structure
parameters of a reasonable solution, but the not a direct, intuitive, but repeated, complex.
Is the search for reasonable design parameters of design parameters optimisation and
Primary goal is to make the design