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Bose Corporation

Bose Corporation
Type

Private

Industry

Consumer electronics

Founded

1964

Headquarters Framingham, Massachusetts, U.S.


Key people

Amar Bose, Founder and Chairman


Bob Maresca, President

Products

Loudspeakers, headphones, audio equipment, car audio

Revenue
Website

[1]

US$2 billion
bose.com

[2]

Bose Corporation (pronounced /boz/) is a privately held organization, based in Framingham, Massachusetts, that
specializes in audio equipment.[3] Founded in 1964 by Amar G. Bose, the company operates 5 plants, 151 retail
stores (as of October 20, 2006) and an automotive subsidiary at Stow, Massachusetts. With respect to sales in the
U.S. for home audio retail and portable audio retail sales, Bose was ranked third for the period of November 2008 to
April 2009.[4] Bose is known for the 901 speaker series.

Background
Bose Corporation develops and manufactures audio devices (including speakers, amplifiers, headphones, automotive
sound systems [5] for luxury cars), [6] [7] automotive suspension systems, and performs some general research (such
as debunking cold fusion.)[8] [9] [10] The company was founded in 1964 by Amar G. Bose, a professor of electrical
engineering (who retired in 2005) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Bose has contracts with the U.S.
military (Navy,[11] Air Force[12] and Army[13] ) and NASA.[14] He is still the Chairman and primary stockholder, and
also holds the title of Technical Director.[15]

History of Bose Corporation presidents


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

William (Bill) Zackowitz (196466)


Charles "Chuck" Hieken (196669)
Frank E. Ferguson (196976)
Amar G. Bose (197680)
Sherwin Greenblatt (19802000)[16]
John Coleman (20002005)
Bob Maresca (Since 2005)

The company dedicates a 6,500 square meter (70,000 square feet) building in Framingham for research,
development, and engineering (RD&E) purposes with a minimum annual RD&E budget of $100 million.[17] In 2004,
Bose purchased an additional site from HP in Stow, Massachusetts, to house growing automotive and marketing
divisions.[18]

Bose Corporation

Early years
In 1956, while a graduate student at MIT, Amar Bose purchased a high end stereo system and was disappointed
when it failed to meet his expectations.[19] He later began extensive research aimed at clarifying factors that he saw
as fundamental weaknesses plaguing high-end audio systems. The principal weaknesses, in Bose's view, were that
the overall design of the electronics and speaker failed to account for the spatial properties of the radiated sound in
typical listening spaces (homes and apartments) and the implications of spatiality for psychoacoustics, i.e. the
listener's head as a sonic diffraction object as part of the system. Eight years later, he started the company, charging
it with a mission to achieve "Better Sound Through Research", now the company slogan.

Research history
During the company's first year in business, Bose Corporation engaged in sponsored research. Its first loudspeaker
product, the model 2201,[16] dispersed 22 small mid-range speakers over an eighth of a sphere. It was designed to fit
in the corner of a room, reflecting the speaker's sound as a mirror would for light in a corner cube and giving rise to
an acoustical image of a sphere in a vastly larger room. Amar Bose used an electronic equalizer to adjust the
acoustical output for flat total radiated power.
Although these speaker systems accurately emulated the characteristics of a simulated, massless, ideal, spherical
membrane, the results of listening tests were disappointing[16] (some of the reasons for this are detailed in a later
publication[20] from Bose's research department). This led Bose to conduct further research into psychoacoustics that
eventually clarified the importance of a dominance of reflected sound arriving at the head of the listener, a listening
condition that is characteristic of live performances. This finding led to a revised speaker design in which eight of
nine identical small mid-range drivers (with electronic equalization) were aimed at the wall behind the speaker while
one driver was aimed forward, thus ensuring a dominance of reflected over direct sound in home listening spaces,
replicating the dominant reflected sound fields listeners experience in live performances.
Before hearing his new design for the first time, although confident that his new design would produce a dominance
of reflected sound arriving at the ear of the listener, faithfully replicating that aspect of a "live" listening experience,
Amar Bose was unsure as to whether his new "direct/reflected" design would be a small audible improvement or a
large one over his earlier design and the best commercially available loudspeakers. The new pentagonal design,
named the Model 901, was a very unconventional design for speakers at the time (which were generally either
full-size floorstanding units or bookshelf type speakers). The Model 901 premiered in 1968 and was an immediate
commercial success, and the Bose Corporation grew rapidly during the 1970s.
Amar Bose believes that imperfect knowledge of psychoacoustics limits the ability to adequately characterize
quantitatively any two arbitrary sounds that are perceived differently, and to adequately characterize and quantify all
aspects of perceived quality. He believes, for example, that distortion is much over-rated as a factor in perceived
quality in the complex sounds that comprise music, noting that a sine wave and a square wave (a hugely distorted
sine wave) are audibly indistinguishable above 7 kHz. Similarly, he does not find measurable relevance to perceived
quality in other easily measured parameters of loudspeakers and electronics, and therefore does not publish those
specifications for Bose products. The ultimate test, Bose insists, is the listener's perception of audible quality (or lack
of it) and his or her own preferences.[21]
Unlike other audio product manufacturers, Bose does not publish specifications relating to the measured electrical
and objective acoustic performance of its products.[22] [23] This reluctance to publish information links back to the
classic Amar Bose paper presented in 1968 to the Audio Engineering Society: "On the Design, Measurement and
Evaluation of Loudspeakers". In the paper, Bose rejects these measurements in favor of "more meaningful
measurement and evaluation procedures",[21] and defines himself as a subjectivist, not an objectivist, in terms of
audiophile beliefs; he considers the human experience the best measure of performance.[21]
Following the logic in this paper, Bose Corporation has endeavored to strike an economic balance between cost and
performance to provide high quality as judged by the average listener whose criteria of quality include faithful

Bose Corporation

reproduction of the listener's experience in a live performance, which according to Bose requires a dominance of the
reverberant sound field in the listening space (a typical home environment).
Additionally, the company researches portable audio within the fields of circumaural and supra-aural headphones,
centering within the lines of acoustic noise cancellation (see Bose Headphone Family).

Cold fusion research


In 1991 Bose Corporation began research into cold fusion.[8] [10] Company engineers built a precision calorimeter,[9]
began replicating prior experiments, and concluded that there was no net energy gain.

Bose stores
In 1993 Bose opened its first store in
Kittery, Maine. Since then Bose has opened
160 stores in the U.S. and numerous
locations worldwide. In Britain there are
eight Bose stores, including one on Regent
Street. Bose stores feature a 15- to 25-seat
theater which has a short film that
demonstrates
a
Lifestyle
Home
[24] [25] [26] [27]
Entertainment System.
Stores
located in factory outlets discount prices on
some products and sell both new and factory
renewed (retested open-box) products.[27]

Trademarked technologies

Tri-Port Earcup Drivers


Acoustic Noise Cancellation
Acoustimass Technology
Acoustic Waveguide Technology
Direct/Reflecting Technology
Psychoacoustic Equalization
TrueSpace Technology
Electromagnetic Suspension System for Automobiles

Bose retail store in Century City

Bose Corporation

Lines of specialized products


Car audio
Bose produces a range of speakers and audio products
for automotive use. Different Bose audio systems are
available in vehicles with most GM labels (including
Buick, Holden, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, Hummer,
Pontiac and Saab),[28] as well as in some European
models from Alfa Romeo, Audi, Ferrari, Lancia,
Maserati, Maybach, Mercedes-Benz, Porsche and
Renault,[28] and also in some Japanese production cars,
like Nissan, Infiniti and Mazda.[28] Bose currently does
not offer its car audio products on an aftermarket basis
in order to ensure proper integration and appropriate
in-cabin acoustic adaptation.[28]
Bose Car Audio

At the 2007 auto show in Geneva, Switzerland Bose


launched a new media systemincorporating stereo, navigation, and hands free callingwith the Ferrari 612
Scaglietti.[29] [30] [31] [32] In 2007 the Bose media system won the International Telematics Award for the "Best
Storage Solution for In-Car Environment".[33]

Automotive suspension system


Another area of research and development at Bose Corporation is two-state, non-linear power processing and
conditioning. Several early patents were awarded to Amar Bose and other Bose engineers and this technology is one
of the key elements in an innovative project that the company disclosed in 2004 after more than 20 years of
research,[34] an automobile suspension system that uses electromagnetic principles instead of the hydraulics that are
common today. This system uses electromagnetic linear motors to raise or lower the wheels of an automobile in
response to uneven bumps or potholes on the road.[35] The wheels are raised when approaching a bump, or extended
into a pothole, within milliseconds, thus keeping the vehicle steady. This technology is another application of Bose's
active noise reduction technology for speakers and earphones. The unevenness of the road is sensed, and processed
much like a sound wave. A canceling wave is generated, which is applied to the wheels through the linear motors.[15]
Bose expected the system to be available commercially on high-end luxury cars by 2009.[36] In a French interview
Bose even shows off the car jumping over an obstacle.[37] Bose says that the system is "high cost" and heavy, even
after nearly three decades, and $100 million, of development.[38]

Noise cancelling headphones


Bose makes noise-cancelling headphones that have been lauded for their performance,[39] though they have been
criticized by Anthony Kershaw of Audiophilia as costing "at least 50% too much for the musical value of the
experience... however, if you're a frequent flyer, these are a no brainer".[40] Bose makes noise-canceling aviation
headsets which have been used in the Space Shuttle, where the noise cancellation feature helps prevent astronaut
hearing damage.[41] The headsets are also connected to a special communications system on the International Space
Station so that astronauts can make phone calls to their families at home.[41] [42]

Bose Corporation

Commercial Systems
Bose's Professional Systems Division designs and provides audio systems for use in commercial settings such as
auditoriums, retail spaces, hotels, offices, restaurants, and stadiums.[43] Though Bose commercial audio equipment
has not been approved for use in studios or movie theaters that carry THX certification,[44] the division accounts for
about 60% of Bose's annual revenue.[45] In 1988, Bose became the first company to be named official Olympics
sound system supplier, providing audio equipment for the Winter Olympics in Calgary, and again four years later in
Albertville, France, the latter installed and maintained by company subsidiary Bose France.[46] [47] Bose sound
systems have also been installed at the Staples Center sports arena in Los Angeles, the Sistine Chapel in Rome and
the Masjid al-Haram mosque in Mecca. For each of these reverberant spaces, proposed sound designs were tested
using the Bose Auditioner program to predict the results before installation.[41] [48]

Personalized Amplification System


Sound amplification for performing musicians has been an area of research and product development at Bose
Corporation since the early 1970s. The most recent Bose system for musicians is an individualized amplification
product in the form of a vertical pole mounted atop a bass module.[49] This system, designated the L1, is a portable,
inline speaker array with broad forward-dispersion of the sound.
On October 15, 2003, Bose Corporation began selling the L1 family of products through its internal sales division
and selected dealers. Bose maintains an active Musicians Community Message Board for support, and there is an
owner maintained Unofficial Wiki and FAQ.

Electroforce
In 2004 Bose acquired company assets related to the development, manufacture and sales of materials testing
equipment, founding the ElectroForce Systems Group,[50] which provides materials testing and durability simulation
instruments to research institutions, universities, medical device companies and engineering organizations
worldwide.

Lines of home audio products


Multimedia systems
Bose digital music systems
Bose computer speakers
Bose headphones

Speaker systems
Bose wave systems
Bose stereo speakers

Home entertainment systems


Bose Lifestyle Home Entertainment Systems
Bose 3-2-1 Home Entertainment Systems
Bose Acoustimass Home Entertainment Systems

Bose Corporation

Opinions about Bose


Discussion of the quality of Bose products can sometimes elicit strong and polarized opinions. There are two major
camps: those who see Bose as a maker of high-end market equipment, and others who see Bose as a company that
uses marketing to make extravagant claims for otherwise ordinary products.
In some non-audio related publications, Bose has been cited as a producer of "high-end audio" products.[30] [31] [32]
[51] [3] [52] [53] [54] [55] [56]
Commenting on Bose's "high-end" market positioning among audiophiles (people
concerned with the best possible sound), a PC Magazine product reviewer stated "not only is Bose equipment's
sound quality not up to audiophile standards, but one could buy something that does meet these stringent
requirements for the same price or, often, for less." [57] Bose has not been certified by THX for its home
entertainment products.[58]
A market study published in March 2006 by the independent market research firm Forrester Research reported that
Bose's brand name was among the three computer and electronics brands most trusted by US consumers.[59]
Bose's flagship 901 speaker system was criticized by Stereophile magazine in 1979.[60] In a review of the 901
system, stating that in the magazine's opinion, the system was unexceptional and unlikely to appeal to perfectionists
with a developed taste in precise imaging, detail, and timbre; and that these shortcomings were an excessive price to
pay for the improvement in impact and ambiance generated by the large proportion of reflected sound [to on-axis
sound]. However, the author also stated that the system produced a more realistic resemblance of natural ambiance
than any other speaker system.

Legal action
In 1981 Bose unsuccessfully sued the magazine Consumer Reports for libel. Consumer Reports reported in a review
that the sound from the system that they reviewed "tended to wander about the room." Initially, the Federal District
Court found that Consumer Reports "had published the false statement with knowledge that it was false or with
reckless disregard of its truth or falsity" when it changed what the original reviewer wrote about the speakers in his
pre-publication draft, that the sound tended to wander "along the wall." The Court of Appeals then reversed the trial
court's ruling on liability, and the United States Supreme Court affirmed in a 63 vote in the case Bose Corp. v.
Consumers Union of United States, Inc., finding that the statement was made without actual malice, and therefore
there was no libel.[61] [62] [63]

References
[1] "Spotlight: Amar Bose, the guru of sound design" (http:/ / www. iht. com/ articles/ 2007/ 05/ 11/ business/ wbspot12. php), International
Herald Tribune, May 11, 2007
[2] http:/ / www. bose. com/
[3] The Register "Bose SoundDock iPod speakers" (http:/ / www. theregister. co. uk/ 2005/ 02/ 18/ review_bose_sounddock/ )
[4] Twice.com PoS article (http:/ / www. twice. com/ article/ 307509-Market_Share_Reports_By_Category. php?rssid=20328)
[5] Bose Automotive Site (http:/ / www. bose. com/ controller?event=VIEW_STATIC_PAGE_EVENT& url=/ automotive/ index. jsp& ck=0)
[6] Forbes article stating the automobiles Bose installs its systems in a high-end automobiles (http:/ / www. forbes. com/ lists/ 2006/ 54/
biz_06rich400_Amar-Gopal-Bose_BVDT. html)
[7] link to Bose automotive giving a list of the high-end automobiles that Bose will fit their systems to (http:/ / www. bose. co. uk/ GB/ en/
automotive-systems/ index. jsp)
[8] Discover Magazine Interview with Amar Bose "Cold Fusion Research" (http:/ / discovermagazine. com/ 2004/ oct/ discover-dialogue/
article_view?b_start:int=1& -C=)
[9] William M. Bulkeley, The Wall Street Journal, 31st December 1996 (http:/ / www. signallake. com/ innovation/
BosePacksConcertAcousticsIntoHomeSpeakerSystem123196. pdf)
[10] Article about suspension which mentions the Cold Fusion research towards the end (http:/ / www. msnbc. msn. com/ id/ 10217088/ )
[11] Bose Headsets used by Sonar Operators (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20060830100250/ http:/ / www. headsets. in/ bose-headset. htm)
[12] Aerospace News (http:/ / www. aerospacenews. com/ content/ view/ 257/ 66/ )
[13] Bose Crewman Headphones used by the US military (http:/ / www. bose. com/ controller?event=VIEW_STATIC_PAGE_EVENT& url=/
professional/ military/ crewman. jsp& ck=0)

Bose Corporation
[14] Forbes Magazine Biography of Amar Bose (http:/ / www. forbes. com/ lists/ 2006/ 10/ BVDT. html)
[15] MSNBC "A car that can jump over obstacles" (http:/ / www. msnbc. msn. com/ id/ 10217088/ )
[16] University of Massachusetts: Pioneers of Innovation Sherwin Greenblatt Conversation (http:/ / www. massachusetts. edu/
uncommonleadership/ greenblatt_conversation. html)
[17] Satellite view of Bose Headquarters (http:/ / www. satellite-sightseer. com/ id/ 7386/ United_States/ Massachusetts/ Framingham/
Bose_Headquarters)
[18] bizjournals.com Bose nixes N.Y. expansion, chooses Stow instead (http:/ / boston. bizjournals. com/ boston/ stories/ 2005/ 09/ 19/ story4.
html)
[19] Amar Bose Interview (http:/ / discovermagazine. com/ 2004/ oct/ discover-dialogue)
[20] Bose Panaray MA12 technical papers (http:/ / pro. bose. com/ pdf/ pro/ technical_papers/ tp_panaray_ma12. pdf)
[21] "On The Design, Measurement, and Evaluation of Loudspeakers" (http:/ / www. aes. org/ e-lib/ browse. cfm?elib=1390). AES. 1968. .
Retrieved 2010-07-23.
[22] Hilmar-at-Bose (July 5, 2006). "What Do You Think of This New Approach?" (http:/ / bose. infopop. cc/ eve/ forums/ a/ tpc/ f/
1506041054/ m/ 9991008053) Discussion thread at Bose Musicians Forum. "...it's very difficult to express this through a specification with
only a few numbers. That's one of the reasons why are very reluctant to publish specification: More often then not they are interpreted
incorrectly and people draw the wrong conclusions."
[23] Gadget Guy Review of the Bose Wave Music System (http:/ / www. gadgetguy. com. au/ reviews/ 15/
bose-wave-music-system-mp3-audio-and-video-players)
[24] AMEinfo - New Bose outlet for Dubai Mall (http:/ / www. ameinfo. com/ 182834. html)
[25] Manilla Bulletin - BOSE opens its first concept store in Greenbelt 5 Makati (http:/ / www. mb. com. ph/ articles/ 219590/
bose-opens-its-first-concept-store-greenbelt-5-makati)
[26] The Philippine Star - Bose showrooms get a sound facelift (http:/ / www. philstar. com/ Article. aspx?articleId=513225&
publicationSubCategoryId=71)
[27] Bose stores (http:/ / www. bose. com/ controller?url=/ locator/ bose_stores/ index. jsp)
[28] Bose Automotive Systems Division (http:/ / www. bose. com/ controller?url=/ automotive/ index. jsp)
[29] Frank Filipponio (2007-03-08). "Bose Media System debuts in Ferrari 612 Scaglietti" (http:/ / www. autoblog. com/ 2007/ 03/ 08/
bose-media-system-debuts-in-ferrari-612-scaglietti/ ). . Retrieved 2007-06-07.
[30] motortrend - Bose seeks to offer Media System premium stereo in more cars (http:/ / wot. motortrend. com/ 6244229/ technology/
bose-seeks-to-offer-media-system-premium-stereo-in-more-cars/ index. html)
[31] bose media system (http:/ / technabob. com/ blog/ 2007/ 03/ 09/ bose-media-system-sophisticated-car-audio/ ) sophisticated car audio
"Audio gear maker Bose is showing off their latest in car audio systems, the high-end Bose Media System."
[32] edmunds - 2008 Ferrari 612 Scaglietti Review (http:/ / www. edmunds. com/ ferrari/ 612scaglietti/ 2008/ review. html)
[33] World News: Finalists revealed for the 2007 Telematics Awards (http:/ / www. telematicsupdate. com/ print. asp?news=55420)
[34] Auto Tech "Better Living Through Curiosity" (http:/ / www. popsci. com/ popsci/ bown/ 2004/ autotech/ article/ 0,22221,750663,00. html)
[35] Bose bumps (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=sjojsrI5Gco) at YouTube
[36] Inside Line "Bose Suspension" (http:/ / www. edmunds. com/ insideline/ do/ Features/ articleId=103183)
[37] French Interview "Suspension BOSE" (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=Lyf4rfT7bHU& NR) at YouTube Go 3 minutes and 20
seconds into it to view the Car jumping with Bose Suspension
[38] Shuldiner, Herb (November 30, 2007). "Bose Says Suspension Drawing Interest From OEMs" (http:/ / www. wardsauto. com/ electronics/
bose_suspension_oems/ index. html). WardsAuto.com. . Retrieved July 31, 2010.
[39] Carnoy, David (October 3, 2008). "Do Denon's new noise-canceling headphones beat Bose's Quiet Comfort models?" (http:/ / news. cnet.
com/ 8301-17938_105-10057629-1. html). Crave. CNET.com. . Retrieved July 29, 2010.
[40] Kershaw, Anthony (September 18, 2009). "Bose QuietComfort 3 Acoustic Noise Canceling Headphones" (http:/ / www. audiophilia. com/
wp/ ?p=2711). Audiophilia. . Retrieved July 29, 2010.
[41] MIT "Inventor of the Week Archive" (http:/ / web. mit. edu/ invent/ iow/ bose. html)
[42] Cisco NASA Publication (http:/ / www. cisco. com/ warp/ public/ cc/ so/ neso/ vvda/ avvid/ nasa1_cp. pdf)
[43] "Case Stories Bose Professional Products" (http:/ / pro. bose. com/ ProController?url=/ pro/ success/ index. jsp). Pro.bose.com. . Retrieved
2009-09-18.
[44] "Approved Equipment Lists" (http:/ / www. thx. com/ professional/ sound-engineer/ approved-equipment-lists/ ). Sound Engineer. THX. .
Retrieved July 23, 2010.
[45] Plunkett's Entertainment and Media Industry Almanac 2009 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=wxeZaGcqdLUC& pg=PT216)
[46] "olympic"&dq=Bose+"olympic" The Film journal (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=l3HsAAAAMAAJ& q=Bose+ ) Volume 93,
Issues 7-12 "At the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary. Canada. Bose was the first company ever to be named official sound system supplier.
This designation indicates that a company's products have been selected for purchase or lease by the Olympics" "Olympic Suppliers Bose
Corporation was named official professional sound system supplier for the XVI Winter Olympic Games, to be held in Albertville. France in
1992"
[47] Bose Corporation -- Company History (http:/ / www. fundinguniverse. com/ company-histories/ Bose-Corporation-Company-History. html)
[48] Popular Science (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=fwAAAAAAMBAJ& pg=PA65) Dec 2004 (pg 65)
[49] Bose.com web site for L1 systems (http:/ / www. bose. com/ musicians/ index. jsp)

Bose Corporation
[50] ElectroForce Systems Group (http:/ / www. bose-electroforce. com/ home. cfm)
[51] C|Net "Classy compacts: high-end CD radios" (http:/ / reviews. cnet. com/ 4520-7866_7-6218554-1. html)
[52] Forbes Magazine Amar Bose, The world's richest people (http:/ / www. forbes. com/ lists/ 2006/ 10/ BVDT. html)
[53] PCMag.com - High-End, Affordable and Adaptable (http:/ / www. pcmag. com/ article2/ 0,1895,1764153,00. asp)
[54] Ignited (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=50V2ag7KtPYC& pg=PA178): managers! light up your company and career for more power
By Vince Thompson (pg 178) "Bose Corporation, the maker of high-end audio equipment"
[55] International business (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=xbm8BUKGu7MC& pg=PA470): theory and practice By Riad A. Ajami,
Karel Cool, G. Jason Goddard (pg 470) "In 2002, Loewe established its distribution in the United States. The distribution was set up in
cooperation with another high-end manufacturer, Bose, a U.S. sound specialist."
[56] Popular Mechanics (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=5tIDAAAAMBAJ& pg=PA38) Aug 2002 (pg38) "Bose electronics, known for
its tiny yet powerful Lifestyle home theater speaker and other high-end audio equipment"
[57] Gideon, Tim, Bose Companion 5 Multimedia Speaker System (http:/ / www. pcmag. com/ article2/ 0,2817,2097317,00. asp), PC
Magazine.com,
[58] "List of THX certified home entertainment products" (http:/ / www. thx. com/ consumer/ home-entertainment/ thx-certified-products/ ).
Consumer. . Retrieved July 23, 2010.
[59] Forrester Research "The 2005 Technology Brand Scorecard" (http:/ / www. forrester. com/ Research/ Document/ 0,7211,38694,00. html)
[60] Stereophile Review (http:/ / www. stereophile. com/ historical/ 425/ index3. html)
[61] Commentary on libel cases in general giving a specific example of Bose Corp. v. Consumer's Union of United States. (http:/ / www. mobar.
org/ fecee336-a405-41e8-9647-fe5deb9cba1d. aspx)
[62] Opinion of the United States Supreme Court (http:/ / supreme. justia. com/ us/ 466/ 485/ case. html)
[63] NY Times editorial on the Supreme Court's ruling (http:/ / select. nytimes. com/ gst/ abstract.
html?res=F40812FC3B5C0C718CDDAC0894DC484D81& n=Top/ Reference/ Times Topics/ Organizations/ C/ Consumers Union)

External links
The official Bose website (http://global.bose.com) with links to various international sites.
History of Bose Corporation (http://www.bose.com/controller?event=VIEW_STATIC_PAGE_EVENT&url=/
about/history/index.jsp)

Article Sources and Contributors

Article Sources and Contributors


Bose Corporation Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=411942891 Contributors: -ST-, A. Carty, ASH1977LAW, Aaronmz, Aikclaes, Alansohn, Aleph-4, Alexburke, Allenelm,
Andrewferrier, Andrewpmk, Andrewwski, Andy, Antonio.napoli, Arnavj, AscendedAnathema, Asulca593, Auntof6, BeBoldInEdits, BenFrantzDale, Bestpay, Binksternet, Bose Ganguly,
Brequinda, Brianyoumans, BurnDownBabylon, Cab88, Canihaveacookie, Chadloder, Changster308, ChazHS, ChicosBailBonds, Chowbok, Coastergeekperson04, Codyfinke8005882300,
Compdude512, Connormah, CosineKitty, Cotdt, Crossmr, Cybercobra, DKqwerty, Daniel Christensen, Dd nvidia, Deathawk, Defsac, Delekhan, Deltabeignet, Dermann69, Discospinster,
Dragomiloff, Dreaded Walrus, Duce Staley, Dxk3355, Dylanomahony, E0steven, Ecadoret, Eckhart Wrner, Ed g2s, Edcolins, Edsmedia1, El C, Elikser, Erik-the-red, Esmith512, Extransit,
Fastily, Fetald, FitzTheMariner, Flowanda, Frankatca, Furrykef, Garagefloor, Gobonobo, Gogo Dodo, GoldDragon, Greenshed, Greglocock, Gzuckier, Hooperbloob, Indefatigable, Izzycat,
Jacotto, Janet13, Jared Hunt, Jedgeco, Johnkarp, Jsc83, JzG, Keecheril, Klamsd, Kny3twalker, Kwamikagami, Kylemcinnes, L Kensington, Lambo freak, Landon1980,
LegitimateAndEvenCompelling, Lewisdg2000, Lights, Linkspamremover, Lmcelhiney, MER-C, Marek69, Mark Kim, Markles, Mattnad, Mechanical digger, Milliam, Mkoyle, Mulad,
NameIsRon, Nautikal, Nclh77, Nsaa, Ohthelameness, Omegatron, Otrfan, PPBlais, PS2pcGAMER, Pateditwiki, PaulHanson, Phoenix79, ProhibitOnions, Qwyrxian, R'n'B, RJFJR, Rajrajmarley,
Raul654, Rbarsenal2, Rchandra, Reflex Reaction, ReignMan, Reswobslc, Rich Farmbrough, Richardp09, Riotgear, Ripe, Rivertorch, Rjwilmsi, Robertgreer, RockMFR, RodC, SVI, Saturn star,
Scm83x, Sfoskett, Shadowjams, Shamwatch, Shred-69, Sidonuke, Sig0, Siliconwafer, SixSix, SkiBumMSP, Sleeping123, Soetermans, SteinbDJ, Stupidone0, Sundevilesq, Tad Lincoln,
Tempshill, The Anome, The undertow, TheBlinger, Tiktokbykesha, Tinton5, Tpb, TrustTruth, Typ932, Unknown9528, Uttam h, VMlemon, Vargklo, Vedit2122, Vegaswikian, VoxLuna, Vrghs
jacob, WLU, WODUP, Wanger 323, WarthogDemon, Waulfgang, Welsh, Wikipediatastic, Withnail68, YDK500, Yavrey, Zambaccian, 545 anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


Image:Bose logo.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bose_logo.svg License: Trademarked Contributors: Original uploader was Vargklo at en.wikipedia
File:Increase2.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Increase2.svg License: unknown Contributors: Sarang
Image:Bose Store.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bose_Store.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:UKPhoenix79
Image:Bose Car Hifi.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bose_Car_Hifi.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: D0c

License
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported
http:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/