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Gum Gel Banana alloy rod with a PGA (polyglycolic acid) as a Raw Material Operations

absorbable Sewing Thread

ABSTRACT

At the time the technology has not evolved and still lack medicines circulating mills, old people
choose to use objects or materials around to help her, not to mention the banana trees. It is said
that the parents using banana tree sap to heal wounds. There is an assumption banana tree sap is
cold and can quickly relieve pain from injuries, even injuries could also closed. At this time,
suturing wounds are a common way to close the wound. This research was conducted in order to
try to develop the manufacture of suture that can be absorbed by the body (absorbable). Some
materials include banana gum gel obtained by squeezing a banana stems mixed with glycolic
acid, polyvinyl alcohol, and ZnO nano homogeneously and molded into a thin layer (edible
film). Tests on samples treated mechanical properties of thin layers. Tensile test using a curve
autograph shows a comparison between stress and strain, calculation produces the value of
Young's modulus of 2.386 GPa. FT-IR test also treated to a film to determine the functional
groups and the intensity level of the bond that is formed from the mixture. Solubility test on PBS
solution proves that a thin layer formed slowly soluble to dissolve completely within 10 days.
Results from this study will be followed allowing to optimize the mechanical properties and
physical properties of the resulting material so it can produce the absorbable suture with better
characteristics and meet the requirements.

Keywords: suture, absorbable, banana gum, glycolic acid, ZnO nano

PRELIMINARY
Suturing wounds are a common way to close the wound. Sewing thread conventionally used a
suture that can not be absorbed (non-absorbable) by the human body. In fact, the true suture is a
foreign object implanted in the body tissue which can not be planted permanently, and should be
removed after a few weeks or a few months of operation. Scientists are trying to develop the
manufacture of suture that can be absorbed by the body (absorbable). But unfortunately,
expensive materials, processing complex, and still at least those who produce absorbable suture
which makes Indonesia still have to import the sewing thread from abroad. At the time the
technology has not evolved and still lack medicines circulating mills, old people choose to use
objects or materials around to help her, not to mention the banana trees. It is said that the parents
using banana tree sap to heal wounds. There is an assumption banana tree sap is cold and can

quickly relieve pain from injuries, even injuries could also closed. To make a sewing thread, will
require a polymer material as the constituent material. Poliglikolik acid is also called fiber-based
polymers polyglycolide is simple but durable. Poly glycolic acid is a polymer that can be
absorbed or absobable polymer. One of the characteristics required in the manufacture of sewing
thread operations are antimicrobial, among materials in nature that have these properties one of
which is zinc oxide. ZnO nano-sized particles have a better antimicrobial activity than large
particles, due to the small size (less than 100 nm) and a surface area of nanoparticles allows
better interaction with the bacteria. Recent studies show that ZnO nanoparticles toxicity in
bacteria, can treat minor injuries, reducing inflammation, and anti-microbial (Walton and
Torabinejad, 1998). In the process of research there are constraints and time constraints in the
procurement of materials poly glycolic acid, then as an alternative to use of polyvinyl alcohol
because it is equaled poly glycolic acid, among others, soluble in water, has the ability to form a
good fiber, biocompatible, has a chemical resistance, and biodegradable. Without prejudice to the
purposes of this study, the glycolic acid is still used because it has the properties of regeneration
of dead skin cells and help accelerate wound healing. Starting from the problems and the data
obtained above, and therefore the author wants to combine the properties of banana stem sap that
has wound healing properties with the strength properties of glycolic acid and polyvinyl alcohol
as the building blocks that absorbable suture.

MATERIALS AND METHODS


1. Raw materials used in this study are: banana gum, distilled water, glycolic acid, polyvinyl
alcohol, ZnO nano, citric acid, and a solution of PBS.

2. Method Trunk (midrib) bananas are cut and cleaned and then inserted in the wringer so that
the stem sap squeezed out. Ingredients include: banana gum, glycolic acid, polyvinyl alcohol,
ZnO nano, citric acid, and distilled water was prepared and weighed according to a
predetermined amount. Polyvinyl alcohol 4 grams dissolved in 25 ml of distilled water. ZnO
nano dissolved in a solution of citric acid to form a solution of 0.25% ZnO nano. 70% glycolic
acid solution was diluted to 6%. All the ingredients are dissolved, then mixed in a glass beaker
and stirred homogeneously over magnettic stirrer. Homogeneous solution was poured on the
mold / plate glass as thin as possible. The dough is formed allowed to stand until dry in a clean
room and sterile.

3. Characterization of samples that form sliced into small and elongated to be characterized.
Tensile test, FT-IR test, and solubility test conducted on samples separately. Tensile test using a

autograph. Test FT-IR uses infrared spectrophotometer Brucker. Whereas the solubility test using
immersion in a solution of PBS (Posphate Buffer Saline). Results of each test were analyzed.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


1. Results
The test results of samples showed that the sample obtained from a composite (merging) some
materials include: banana gum, glycolic acid, polyvinyl alcohol, and ZnO nano shows the
mechanical properties quite good, can be seen from the tensile test conducted on samples
obtained value Modulus Young amounted to 2,386 GPa.

(Figure charts)
(Figure charts)

If seen from the test results of FT-IR, it seems some of the functional groups of mixing
ingredients in a particular wave number. Carbonyl group (C = O) is formed in the range of wave
number 17.00173 million cm-1, group alkane (CC) is formed in the range of wave number 11001300 cm-1, the hydroxyl group (OH) is formed in the range of wave numbers 32.0036 million
cm-1, and The latter is the bond between Zn and O at wave number 729 cm-1.
(Image Graphics Test Result FT-IR)
While the solubility test, it seems evident that the samples formed capable dissolved in PBS
solution within 10 days.

2. Discussion
Raw materials are absorbable surgery thread obtained within four months of research we have
done, with the composition and manufacturing process that has been mentioned above, the
results obtained in the form of a thin layer (edible
film). On this thin layer, some tests, the tensile test, FT-IR test, and solubility test. Several kinds
of tests was conducted to determine the mechanical properties of the sample we generate as well
as compared to the existing references. Suture ideal has characteristics include: sterile, materials
that can be used in surgical procedures, minimize the negative reaction from the network
(nonelectrolytic, noncapillary, nonallergenic, noncarcinogenic), easy handling, proven safe, has

high tensile strength, and resistance to infection. Tensile test carried out using the autograph to
meet the requirements of sewing thread are required to have high tensile strength. The sample
used in this test is a thin layer of our research results measuring 3x7 cm. Samples were initially
measuring 3x7 cm withdrawn as much as possible so that the sample can not be stretched again
(past the elastic limit), until the sample is disconnected. Data obtained from the tensile test of
value applied force (force) and elongation (L). The calculation is performed to obtain the value
of Young's modulus. The results of the tensile test are relatively similar to commercial sewing
threads that have been there before, amounting to 2,386 GPa, whereas the commercial operation
of sewing thread that existed before has a Young's modulus of 2.3 GPa. Banana gum containing
ascorbic acid, which acts as co-factors and antioxidants to prevent the oxidation of iron, thus
avoiding the enzymes that are not inactivated (Junien et al., Sit, Lima et al., 2009). Topical
administration of banana juice causes ascorbic acid diffuses through the keratin layer and
stimulates the proliferation of fibroblasts in the underlying tissue (Phillips et al., Sit, Lima et al.,
2009). To prove the presence of ascorbic acid in the mixture then used FT-IR test. FT-IR test
aims also to determine the intensity level of the sample bond is formed, because the bond that is
formed will also affect the mechanical properties of materials. Results of the test of FT-IR
(Figure 2) shows that the composite has been formed and the materials used purely visible from a
relatively sharp absorption peaks and easily observed. Absorbable suture which contributes
temporarily until the wound can be healed quite well and able to withstand normal stress.
Absorption occurs through enzymatic degradation of natural materials and by hydrolysis in
synthetic materials. Hydrolysis causes less tissue reaction from enzymatic degradation. The latter
test is the test of solubility. Solubility test aims to determine how much time it takes the sample
to dissolve completely in the PBS solution. The use of PBS solution as a solvent constituted by
reason of PBS solution composition similar to the composition of body fluids. In general, the
greater the pressure that passes through the wound, the length of yarn to be used. As a guideline,
on the face, stitches should diremove after 5-7 days; on the neck after 7 days; on the scalp after
10 days, the body and upper extremity after 10-14 days; and on the wound with a greater
pressure takes longer remove. Stitches sink, performed with absorbable thread diremove
therefore not soluble in tissue results from solubility test showed the time it takes the sample to
dissolve in a solution of PBS assumed to be equal to the time required that absorbable suture to
dissolve in body tissues. Based on the solubility test we do, it can be seen that the sample
dissolve completely within 10 days. Sample dissolution process does not happen immediately,
but slowly dissolve.

(Figure 3. Test solubility, (A) PBS solution, (B) Samples Soaked, (C) Samples were dissolved
almost perfect on day 8, (D) samples were dissolved on the 10th day)

Starting from the original sample in the form of a thin layer, gently sample looks to be getting
flabby and over time be dissolved little by little until completely dissolved.
CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
1. Conclusion

Alloy banana gum gel with glycolic acid and polyvinyl alcohol can be used as a raw material that
is absorbable suture, based on the value of Young's modulus of 2.386 GPa and able to dissolve
completely in the PBS solution within 10 days.
2. Suggestions

The need for the government's role as regulators in the country to maximize the potential of the
domestic nature and directed at the right things and is able to minimize the import activity. The
relationship between government, researchers, and entrepreneurs also need to be synchronized in
order to cooperate effectively produce in this is suture that absorbable raw material from banana
stem sap Indonesian nature itself given the medical needs increasing, while on the other hand the
high purchase price due high customs duties on imported goods.

BIBLIOGRAPHY