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77018

CURVED PANELS IN SHEAR. POST-BUCKLING ANALYSIS


1.

NOTATION

Af , As

cross-sectional area of frame and stiffener respectively


(excluding any contribution from plate)

m2

in2

A fe

cross-sectional area of frame and associated plate

m2

in2

A se

cross-sectional area of stiffener and associated plate

m2

in2

distance between frames

in

circumferential spacing of stiffeners at radius R

in

modulus of elasticity of material

N/m2

lbf/in2

maximum tensile stress in plate

N/m2

lbf/in2

ff , fs

uniform direct compressive stress acting in frames and


stiffeners respectively (see Section 4)

N/m2

lbf/in2

diagonal tension factor

nominal shear stress in plate

N/m2

lbf/in2

qb

shear stress at which plate first buckles

N/m2

lbf/in2

radius of curvature of plate

in

tangent of angle between direction of diagonal tensile stress


and a generator of cylinder of which plate forms a part

tangent of angle between direction of f and a generator of


cylinder of which plate forms a part

plate thickness

in

Ws

total inward radial loading acting on stiffener

lbf

ws

uniform inward radial loading per unit length acting on central


portion of stiffener (see Section 4)

N/m

lbf/in

wf

uniform inward radial loading per unit length of circumference


acting on frame

N/m

lbf/in

Both SI and British units are quoted but any coherent system of units may be used.

Issued October 1977


With Amendment A
1


2.

77018
INTRODUCTION
This Item provides data for the analysis of curved panels carrying shear loads in which the plate has buckled.
A panel is defined as a thin plate, or sheet, reinforced by a system of circumferential frames and straight
stiffeners, as shown in Sketch 2.1.

Sketch 2.1
The data provided have been derived on the assumption that the panels are uniformly loaded in pure shear.
It has been assumed that a significant system of buckles is developed which is contained between the
stiffeners and frames. The data are semi-empirical and apply to cases where a is at least twice b.
The general method of analysis applies only in the elastic range, although some of the other Items referred
to herein include data on the effects of going beyond the elastic range. It has been assumed that the stiffeners
and frames are manufactured from materials having the same values of the modulus of elasticity as the
plate. In the event of significantly differing moduli appropriate adjustments should be made. (For example,
see Section 7.6.1 of Item No. 77014 Flat panels in shear. Post-buckling analysis.)


3.

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THE DIAGONAL TENSION FIELD
A curved panel buckled in shear deforms into a set of inclined waves and carries a tensile stress,
approximately parallel to the waves, together with a small compressive stress across them. These stresses
result in loadings on the panel edge members. Furthermore, the tensile stress reduces the plate curvature
and leads to inward radial loading on the frames and stiffeners. The proportion of the total shear reacted
by diagonal tension is termed the diagonal tension factor, k, and Figure 1 provides curves of k plotted
against q/qb for various values of t/R. Values of qb may be obtained from Item No. Struct. 02.03.18*. When
using that Item frames that are not attached to the plate should be ignored. The tangent of the angle of the
diagonal tensile stress, T , is given by Figures 2 to 6 inclusive: it should be noted that this is not the angle
of the buckle waves, due primarily to the influence of the plate corners. In practice the value of T may
vary slightly from the value given by Figures 2 to 6 as a result of detail design factors, such as rivet pitch,
stiffener/frame overlap design, et cetera. Thus, the values of stresses and loads that are dependent upon
T should be treated as estimates only.

4.

FRAME AND STIFFENER STRESSES


The uniform direct compressive stresses acting in the frames and stiffeners, respectively, are

and

kqtaT
f f = ------------------A fe

(4.1)

kqtb
f s = --------------- .
A se T

(4.2)

Experiment indicates that reasonable values of Afe and Ase are given by

and

A fe = A f + 0.5 ( 1 k )at
A se = A s + 0.5 ( 1 k )bt .

(4.3)
(4.4)

Note that in the case where the frames are not attached directly to the skin Afe = Af .
In addition to its direct action the diagonal tension field tends to flatten the plates and thereby exerts an
inward radial loading on the frames and stiffeners. This loading is uniform over the central portion of the
stiffeners at
kqtbT
w s = ------------------- .
R

(4.5)

Owing to the proximity of the frames this loading is reduced towards the ends of the stiffeners. Figure 7
gives the total inward radial load acting on the stiffener, Ws , in terms of WsR/(kqtba) plotted against T
for various values of a/b. Note that the line for a/b = corresponds to Ws = wsa. The inward radial loading
on the frames, in addition to the stiffener support loads Ws , is uniform at the value of
kqtb
w f = ----------- .
2R
*

(4.6)

Item No. Struct. 02.03.18 Buckling stress coefficients for curved plates in shear. (Axial length exceeding circumferential length, edges
simply-supported).

77018
Values of Ws , ws and wf have been derived for panels having equally spaced stiffeners on the assumptions
that the plate surface takes the form given by a series of straight lines connecting the boundary members
at the angle given by T to the generator of the cylinder. The values given by Equations (4.5) and (4.6)
and Figure 7 are therefore conservative upper limit values.

5.

PLATE STRESS
Figure 8 gives the maximum tensile stress in the plate, f, in terms of T and k. The stress f is the result of
the tension field combined with that portion, (1 k), of the loading reacted in pure shear. Bending stresses
in the plate due to the buckles have been neglected. The tangent of the angle of the maximum tensile stress,
T , is given by Figure 9.

6.

7.

DERIVATION

1.

KUHN, P.
PETERSON, J.P.
LEVIN, L.R.

A summary of diagonal tension. Part I - Method of analysis. Technical


Note No. NACA-TN-2661, National Advisory Committee on
Aeronautics, Langley Field, Va, USA, October 1951.

2.

KUHN, P.
PETERSON, J.P.
LEVIN, L.R.

A summary of diagonal tension. Part II - Experimental evidence.


Technical Note No. NACA-TN-2662, National Advisory Committee on
Aeronautics, Langley Field, Va, USA, January 1952.

3.

GRAYLEY, M.E.

Radial loads on frames and stiffeners of buckled circular cylinders.


ESDU Memorandum No. 24, September 1977.

EXAMPLE
A panel of the type shown in Sketch 2.1 is subjected to a shear stress of 200 MN/m2. The plate, frames
and stiffeners are all manufactured from a material for which E = 68 500 MN/m2. The major dimensions
are t = 1.6 mm, R = 1700 mm, a = 500 mm and b = 150 mm. The areas of the boundary members of the
panels are As = 174 mm2 and Af = 178 mm2.

7.1

Plate Buckling Stress


This is calculated using Item No. Struct. 02.03.18 and, in the notation of that Item,
500
150
a
b
--- = --------- = 3.33 and ---------- = ------------------------------- = 2.88
150
b
1700 1.6
Rt
so that, from the figure,
K = 6.2 .
Thus,

q b = KE ( t/b )

= 6.2 68 500 10
Hence,

( 1.6 10

q/q b = 200 /48.3 = 4.14.

/150 10

3 2

) N/m2 or 48.3 MN/m2.


7.2

77018
Diagonal Tension Factor k and Tangent of Angle of Tension Field T
From Figure 1, at
10 3 --t- = 10 3

R
and

1.6
------------ = 0.94
1700

q/q b = 4.14 , interpolation gives k = 0.58.

From Figures 2 to 6 with


A s / ( bt ) = 174 / ( 150 1.6 ) = 0.725 ,
A f / ( at ) = 178 / ( 500 1.6 ) = 0.223,
2

and
7.3

6
3
68 500 10 150 10
E b 2
--- --= --------------------------------- ------------------------------- = 2.66
6
3
q R
200 10 1700 10
k = 0.58 , interpolation gives T = 0.90 .

Maximum Plate Stress


From Figure 8 at k = 0.58 and T = 0.90, f /q = 1.58.
Thus,

f = 1.58 200 10 N/m2 or f = 316 MN/m2.

Similarly, from Figure 9, T = 0.93 .


7.4

Stiffener Loads and Stresses


The direct compressive stress is calculated using Equations (4.4) and (4.2).
A se = A s + 0.5 ( 1 k )bt = 174 + 0.5 ( 1 0.58 ) 150 1.6 = 224 mm2.
6

0.58 200 10 1.6 10 150 10


kqtb
f s = --------------- = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6
A se T
224 10 0.9
3

186 10 150 10
6
f s = ------------------------------------------------------------- = 138 10 N/m2 or f s = 138 MN/m2.
6
224 10 0.9
The inward radial loading acting over the central portion of the stiffener is given by Equation (4.5).
3
3
kqtbT
186 10 150 10 0.9
w s = ------------------- = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- = 14 800 N/m or w s = 14.8 kN/m.
3
R
1700 10

Other loadings acting on the stiffener should be suitably combined with fs and ws . When checking stiffener
stability it is suggested that ws should be taken to act along the entire length of the stiffener since the
reduction of loading towards the ends of the stiffener is unlikely to influence its stability significantly.


7.5

77018
Frame Loads and Stresses
The direct compressive stress is calculated using Equations (4.3) and (4.1).
A fe = A f + 0.5 ( 1 k )at = 178 + 0.5 ( 1 0.58 ) 500 1.6 = 346 mm2.
3
3
kqtaT
186 10 500 10 0.9
6
---------------------------------------------------------------------------- = 242 10 N/m2 or f f = 242 MN/m2.
-----------------=
=
ff
6
A fe
346 10

The inward radial loading, wf , is calculated using Equation (4.6).


3

186 10 150 10
kqtb
w f = ----------- = ------------------------------------------------------------- = 8200 N/m or w f = 8.2 kN/m.
3
2R
2 1700 10
The stiffener support loads Ws are obtained from Figure 7. At T = 0.9
and

500
a
--- = --------- = 3.33
150
b
WsR
--------------- = 0.75
kqtba
3

giving

0.75 186 10 500 10 150 10


W s = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- = 6150 N or W s = 6.15 kN.
3
1700 10

Other loadings acting on the frame should be suitably combined with ff , wf and Ws .

77018

t
3
10 x R
5
4
3
2.5
2

1.0

0.9

1.5
1.25

0.8

1.0
0.9
0.8
0.75
0.7
0.6
0.5

0.7

0.4
0.6

0.3

0.2
0.1
0.05
0

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0
0

5
q
qb

FIGURE 1
7

10

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2.00

As
bt

=0

Af
at

1.75

2.0
1.0

1.50

0.5
0.25

1.25

0.1
0

1.00
As
bt

2.0
1.0
0.5

= 0.25

0.25

1.25
1.00

0.1
0

0.75
0.50
1.25

As
bt

= 0.5
2.0
1.0
0.5
0.25

1.00
T

0.1

0.75

0.50
As
bt

= 1.0

1.25
2.0
1.0
0.5
0.25
0.1
0

1.00
0.75

0.50

2.0
1.0
0.5
0.25

1.00
0.75
0.50
0.0

As
bt

= 2.0

0.1
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

FIGURE 2

b
E
---- ---- = 0
q R

1.0

77018


2.00

As
bt

=0
Af
at

1.75

2.0
1.0

1.50

0.5
0.25

1.25

0.1
0

1.00
0.75

2.0
1.0
0.5
0.25

1.25
1.00

0.1

As
bt

= 0.25

0.75
0.50

1.25

As
bt

= 0.5
2.0
1.0
0.5
0.25

1.00
T

0.1

0.75

0.50
As
bt

= 1.0

1.25
2.0
1.0
0.5
0.25
0.1
0

1.00
0.75
0.50

1.00
0.75
0.50
0.0

As
bt

2.0
1.0
0.5
0.25
0.1
0

= 2.0

0.2

0.4

0.6
k

E b 2
FIGURE 3 ---- ---- = 10
q R

0.8

1.0

77018


2.00
Af
at

As = 0
bt

1.75

2.0
1.0
0.5
5
0.2

1.50
1.25

0.1
0

1.00
0.75
0.50

2.0
1.0
0.5

As = 0.25
bt

0.25
0.1
0

1.25
1.00
T
0.75
0.50

1.25 A = 0.5
s
bt

2.0
1.0
0.5

1.00
T

0.25
0.1
0

0.75
0.50

2.0
1.0
0.5

As = 1.0
bt

0.25
0.1
0

As = 2.0
1.00 bt

2.0
1.0
0.5

0.75

1.00
0.75
0.50

0.25
0.1
0

0.50
0.25

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6
k

E b 2
FIGURE 4 ---- ---- = 25
q R
10

0.8

1.0

77018


2.00
1.75

Af
at

As = 0
bt

2.0
1.0
0.5

1.50
1.25

0.2
0.1

1.00

0.75
0.50
2.0
1.0
0.5
0.25

As = 0.25
bt

1.25
1.00

0.1
0

T
0.75
0.50

T
1.00

2.0
1.0
0.5
0.25

As = 0.5
bt

0.1
0

0.75
0.50

2.0
1.0
0.5
0.25

As = 1.0
bt

0.1
0

1.00
0.75

1.00
0.75
0.50

2.0
1.0
0.5

As = 2.0
bt

0.50

0.25
0.1
0

0.25

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6
k

E b 2
FIGURE 5 ---- ---- = 50
q R

11

0.8

1.0

77018


2.00

As = 0
bt

Af
at

1.75

2.0
1.0
0.5
0.25

1.50
1.25

0.1

1.00

0.75
0.50

2.0
1.0
0.5
0.25

As = 0.25
bt

0.1
0

1.00
T
0.75
0.50

T
1.00

2.0
1.0
0.5
0.25
0.1

As = 0.5
bt

0.75
0

0.50

2.0
1.0
0.5
0.25
0.1

As = 1.0
bt

1.00
0.75

0.50
0.75

2.0
1.0
0.5

As = 2.0
bt

0.50

0.25
0.1
0

0.25

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

FIGURE 6

12

b
E
---- ---- = 100
q R

1.0

77018

2.0

1.8

a
b

1.6

8
4
3
2.5
2

1.4

1.2
WsR
kqtba
1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2
0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2
T

FIGURE 7

13

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

77018

k
1.0

2.5

0.9
0.8
2.0

0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4

1.5

0.3
0.2

f
q

0.1
0

1.0

0.5

0.0
0.50

0.75

1.00

1.25
T

FIGURE 8

14

1.50

1.75

2.00

77018


2.50

2.25

k
1.0

2.00

0.9
0.8

1.75

0.7
0.6
1.50
0.5
0.4

0.3

1.25
T
1.00

0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4

0.2
0.1
0
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0

0.75

0.50

0.25

0.00
0.50

0.75

1.00

1.25
T

FIGURE 9

15

1.50

1.75

2.00

77018
THE PREPARATION OF THIS DATA ITEM
The work on this particular Item, which supersedes Items Nos Struct. 02.03.20, 21, 22, 25 and 26, was
monitored and guided by the Aerospace Structures Committee which has the following constitution:

Chairman
Mr K.H. Griffin

Cranfield Institute of Technology

Vice-Chairman
Mr I.C. Taig

British Aircraft Corporation Ltd, Preston

Members
Mr H.L. Cox
Dr T.W. Coombe
Mr R.S. Dabbs
Dr G.Z. Harris
Prof. W.S. Hemp
Dr W. Lansing*
Mr K.R. Obee
Mr J.G. ten Asbroek
Mr F. Tyson
Mr K. van Katwijk*
*

Independent
British Aircraft Corporation Ltd, Filton
Hawker Siddeley Aviation Ltd, Kingston
Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough
University of Oxford
Grumman Aerospace Corp., Bethpage, NY, USA

Hawker Siddeley Dynamics Ltd, Hatfield


Fokker-VFW N.V., Schiphol-Oost, The Netherlands
Scottish Aviation Ltd
European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands.

Corresponding Member

The work on the this Item was carried out in the Strength Analysis Group. The member of staff who
undertook the technical work involved in the initial assessment of the available information and the
construction and subsequent development of the Item was
Mr M.E. Grayley

Group Head.

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