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K 12 Grade 11 PRACTICAL RESEARCH

Second Semester

80 hours/sem

K 12 Grade 11 PRACTICAL RESEARCH Second Semester 80 hours/sem
K 12 Grade 11 PRACTICAL RESEARCH Second Semester 80 hours/sem
K 12 Grade 11 PRACTICAL RESEARCH Second Semester 80 hours/sem

Research Skills

*Reading

*Observing

*Listening

*Watching

*Choosing

*Questioning

*Summarizing

*Organizing

*Writing

*Presenting/

communicating

*Summarizing *Organizing *Writing *Presenting/ communicating  For each of the skills, give yourself a grade on

For each of the skills, give yourself a grade on a scale of 1(low) to 10

(high).

Which skills do you

consider yourself to be

best at?

What is research?  Searching for a theory, for testing theory for problem solving 
What is research?  Searching for a theory, for testing theory for problem solving 
What is research?  Searching for a theory, for testing theory for problem solving 
What is research?  Searching for a theory, for testing theory for problem solving 

What is research?

Searching for a theory, for testing theory for problem solving

It means a problem was identified and it needs solution or improvement

A systematic controlled, empirical, and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomenon (Kerlinger, 1973)

Systematic collection and interpretation of data to illuminate, describe or explain new facts and relationships (Treece, 2002)

collection and interpretation of data to illuminate, describe or explain new facts and relationships (Treece, 2002)
collection and interpretation of data to illuminate, describe or explain new facts and relationships (Treece, 2002)
Why conduct research? (Importance of research in daily life) 1. Efficiency and Effectiveness in the
Why conduct research? (Importance of research in daily life) 1. Efficiency and Effectiveness in the
Why conduct research? (Importance of research in daily life) 1. Efficiency and Effectiveness in the
Why conduct research? (Importance of research in daily life) 1. Efficiency and Effectiveness in the

Why conduct research?

(Importance of research in daily life)

1. Efficiency and Effectiveness in the profession

The primary reason for conducting research is to foster optimum care for life. The scientific profession exists to provide service to society based on accurate knowledge. The scientific method is conceived to be the most objective, systematic way of obtaining these knowledge.

knowledge. The scientific method is conceived to be the most objective, systematic way of obtaining these
knowledge. The scientific method is conceived to be the most objective, systematic way of obtaining these

2. Worth and Value of Research to Education/Profession and to Society/Life

Scientific knowledge is indispensable to man’s survival, Research helps professionals

deliver quality education services. It provides proofs or evidences to validate and justify the professional existence in the society.

education services. It provides proofs or evidences to validate and justify the professional existence in the

3. Identifying, Implementing and Evaluating Effective Decisions and actions in Life

Scientific researches assess individuals or groups plan of actions as basis for accurate inventions and decisions in life.

Scientific researches assess individuals or groups plan of actions as basis for accurate inventions and decisions
Scientific researches assess individuals or groups plan of actions as basis for accurate inventions and decisions
Scientific researches assess individuals or groups plan of actions as basis for accurate inventions and decisions
4. Research, has the Potential for providing Quality life. It is concerned with the following

4. Research, has the Potential for providing Quality

life. It is concerned with the following tasks:

a. The systematic study of problems or

phenomena, using the scientific process of

assessing, planning, implementing and evaluating life.

b. Appropriateness of Technology use

c. Identifying interventions that can help individuals respond to change

d. The initiation and assessment of change as a result of new knowledge or technology

application.

respond to change d. The initiation and assessment of change as a result of new knowledge
respond to change d. The initiation and assessment of change as a result of new knowledge
respond to change d. The initiation and assessment of change as a result of new knowledge

Reasons for Conducting Research

1. Gathers data or information on life situations or conditions about which little knowledge is available.

Identify research gap in different areas

on life situations or conditions about which little knowledge is available. Identify research gap in different
on life situations or conditions about which little knowledge is available. Identify research gap in different
on life situations or conditions about which little knowledge is available. Identify research gap in different

2. Provides scientific knowledge from which theories emerge and develop.

Consequently, theories derived from research findings serves as bases and guide to scientific practice and future researches.

3. Helps correct, clarify and validate perceptions.

Knowledge is never absolute, its value is either diminishing or increasing depending on the extent of its use. However, this knowledge must be continuously tested and validated through research.

depending on the extent of its use. However, this knowledge must be continuously tested and validated

4. Provides theoretical and scientific basis for scientific practice.

Research helps improve science and technology practice, firms up the credibility of ones profession; defines the

accountability of scientific practice, and documents the cost

effectiveness of science and technology.

5. Defines the parameters of research and identifies its boundaries.

Research helps expand knowledge and use of the technology process in life situations. This consists of assessment, planning actions or intervention, evaluation and documentation of life situations.

6. Documents the social relevance and efficacy of scientific practices to people and environment Research

6. Documents the social relevance and efficacy of scientific practices to people and environment

Research enables men to verify the strengths and weaknesses of certain modalities of education and their implications in the process of meeting the needs and problems of people;

7. Describes the characteristics of the

phenomenon/situation about which little knowledge is

known.

More issues and concerns about technology, climate change, and food security, and health care arise as technology advances.

8. Predicts probable outcomes of scientific decisions in relation to life comfort and well being.

8. Predicts probable outcomes of scientific decisions in relation to life comfort and well being.

Research makes it easy for professionals to forecast the effects or consequences of certain actions and helps anticipate shortfalls.

9. Provides knowledge for purposes of problem solving and decision making.

Knowledge that relate to social, economic, political, cultural and technological phenomena may have serious implications to life and social practice as it is used in deciding better ways of solving problems.

10. Develops and evaluates theories and concepts, and practices these for clarity and validity of scientific actions.

Research helps knowledge grow and develop, determines its significance in order to modify or develop new ones, and or revise these knowledge, based on current research findings.

11. Prevents undesirable human reactions.

Research predicts outcome and potential problems, hence it requires the balancing of phenomena that will generate positive results and control undesirable outcome; and

12. Develops a considerable degree of confidence.

Professional undertakings are intended to achieve desired men

behaviors. Adequate knowledge sustains self-confidence that

makes work easier and lighter, unburdened with uncertainties and doubtful consequences of actions intended to restore men’s

comfort and makes life easier.

with uncertainties and doubtful consequences of actions intended to restore men’s comfort and makes life easier.

General and Specific Purposes of Research

Specifically, research aims to do the following tasks:

Description Research describes phenomenon.

Example:

care. Refers to services rendered by professional and non- professional nursing personnel to respond to the health needs and problems of individuals, families, groups, and communities, intended to bring comfort and ease to clients.

2. Exploration Research explores the phenomenon.

Examples:

“What factors influence, affect or relate to the adjustment of salary increase among teachers?”

3. Explanation Research seeks clarification of a prevailing

situation to answer questions that ask “why” a phenomenon occurred.

situation to answer questions that ask “why” a phenomenon occurred. Examples: “Why does climate change occur
situation to answer questions that ask “why” a phenomenon occurred. Examples: “Why does climate change occur
situation to answer questions that ask “why” a phenomenon occurred. Examples: “Why does climate change occur

Examples:

“Why does climate change occur ?”

4. Prediction and Control Research anticipates

possible psychology and physiological reactions to nursing interventions.

Example:

“Incidence of low performance in math in young learners is expected to increase with the millennium age”

Example: “Incidence of low performance in math in young learners is expected to increase with the
Example: “Incidence of low performance in math in young learners is expected to increase with the
Example: “Incidence of low performance in math in young learners is expected to increase with the
Criteria for Choice of Research Problems * Significance of the Problem *Problem Research ability *Feasibility
Criteria for Choice of Research Problems * Significance of the Problem *Problem Research ability *Feasibility
Criteria for Choice of Research Problems * Significance of the Problem *Problem Research ability *Feasibility
Criteria for Choice of Research Problems * Significance of the Problem *Problem Research ability *Feasibility
Criteria for Choice of Research Problems * Significance of the Problem *Problem Research ability *Feasibility

Criteria for Choice of Research Problems

* Significance of the Problem *Problem Research ability

*Feasibility of the problem

*Potentials of the Researchers

* Significance of the Problem *Problem Research ability *Feasibility of the problem *Potentials of the Researchers
* Significance of the Problem *Problem Research ability *Feasibility of the problem *Potentials of the Researchers
* Significance of the Problem *Problem Research ability *Feasibility of the problem *Potentials of the Researchers
Ethical Principles and Guidelines for Researchers 1. Informed Consent The participants must be fully informed

Ethical Principles and Guidelines for

Researchers

1. Informed Consent

The participants must be fully informed about the nature of research, its purposes and potential risk and benefits.

2. Beneficence and Nonmaleficence

This is a fundamental ethical principle in research, which means, “to do good” and “to do no harm” to study participants.

3. Respect for Human Dignity The rights of the study participants must be well protected

3. Respect for Human Dignity

The rights of the study participants must be well protected and respected.

4. Justice and Fairness

Study participants deserve fair and equitable treatment before, during and after the study period. The researcher should provide equal chances in the selection process, must comply with agreements in regard to procedures, techniques or benefits due to participants.

5. Intellectual honesty and respect

Giving acknowledgment/recognition or due respect to the original/previous work of art.

INTRODUCTION (Background of the Study)

It is a brief statement of the origin of the problem. It is an account describing the circumstances which suggested the research. It may include a justification of the selection of the study. It gives brief origin of the problem.

Parts lead paragraph, body, rationale

Parts of the Body:

Effect 1

Effect 2

Effect 3

Core Problem
Core Problem
paragraph, body, rationale Parts of the Body: Effect 1 Effect 2 Effect 3 Core Problem Cause
Cause 3
Cause 3
Cause 3

Cause 3

Cause 1

Cause 2

Cause 1a

THE COCONUT INDUSTRY OF LAGUNA

Coconut is one of the most important crops in Laguna covering 45% of the cultivated land. Aside from producing 60% of country’s coconut oil requirement, the coconut industry also provides direct or indirect employment to almost one third of the country’s population (Bustos, 2002).

Despite the importance of the sector to the country’s economy, modernization of the coconut industry has not taken place. Over the years, coconut production continues to decline resulting to decreasing income of coconut farmers and reduction in the local supply of fresh coconut and coconut oils. Recently, export of coconut products were also disrupted.

The decline in yield is primarily due to failure of farmers to replace aging and unproductive stand of palms with new varieties of coconut palms (Marcelo, 2010). These can be attributed to farmer’s low access to needed inputs as well as their lack of technical skills in applying new varieties and farm inputs. The low market price of coconut further tends to discourage farmers to plant new coconut palms.

The present situation is further aggravated by the presence of a viral disease called “cadang- cadang” or yellow mottle, which kills millions of coconut trees each year. Majority of these affected coconuts are traditional varieties as they are less resistant to the virus. Moreover, farmers rarely apply plant protection measures.

Considering the potential of the coconut farming to fuel industry, the Philippine Coconut Authority has proposed for a loan to International Bank to improve the performance of the industry.

Problem Analysis presented in the Introduction

(Coconut Industry of Pangasinan)

Declining income of coconut farmers

Industry of Pangasinan) Declining income of coconut farmers Export of coconut product were disrupted Reduction of

Export of coconut product were disrupted

of coconut farmers Export of coconut product were disrupted Reduction of fresh coconut & oil DECLINING

Reduction of fresh coconut & oil

product were disrupted Reduction of fresh coconut & oil DECLINING COCONUT PRODUCTION Farmers do not plant
product were disrupted Reduction of fresh coconut & oil DECLINING COCONUT PRODUCTION Farmers do not plant
product were disrupted Reduction of fresh coconut & oil DECLINING COCONUT PRODUCTION Farmers do not plant

DECLINING COCONUT PRODUCTION

of fresh coconut & oil DECLINING COCONUT PRODUCTION Farmers do not plant new coconut Cococnut increasingly
of fresh coconut & oil DECLINING COCONUT PRODUCTION Farmers do not plant new coconut Cococnut increasingly

Farmers do not plant new coconut

Cococnut increasingly affected by virus/disease

Farmers

rarely

apply

plant

protection

by virus/disease Farmers rarely apply plant protection Farmers lack technical skills Farmers have low access to
by virus/disease Farmers rarely apply plant protection Farmers lack technical skills Farmers have low access to

Farmers

lack

technical

skills

Farmers

have low

access to

needed

inputs

Market

prices

Farmers lack technical skills Farmers have low access to needed inputs Market prices are not attractive

are not

attractive

to

farmers

CORRELATES OF SMOKING

It is for these reasons that the researchers would like to relate the factors that may trigger smoking. The researchers would also like to arrest the onset of smoking to help the parents at home and teachers in school identify young smokers so as to prevent smoking at a specific age bracket. Thus, this correlates of smoking.

Hurlock (1998) implied that young students often result to smoking when they are not busy and preoccupied. Often times students experiment on new adventures. They experiment and experience the sensual effects of smoking cigarette. Fifty percent of the young smokers reported that they enjoyed smoking at the beginning. However, when they realized the bad effects of smoking in their bodies it is already difficult to evade in the system.

In the school students find their friends or peers. Some are good and some are bad. Peer pressure is one factor that enhances vices among young students. It is also noted that peer pressure could encourage smoking among young students (Enriquez, 1999).

Getting hooked to smoking is a problem to most parents

and teachers. Young students are still ignorant of the effects

of smoking to their health. Students feel happy when they smoke with their friends however, sensitivity to smoke becomes an allergy to the smoke. Burger’s disease is one of

the diseases caused by smoking aside from lung cancer and

eighty percent of the smokers are reported that they suffer

from sore throat (Lim, 2005)

Smoking is generated as one of the deadliest vices that can cause many kinds of diseases. An article from the Daily

Inquirer (May 2, 2009) reported that 60% of the young

students in high school who are smokers usually have low

memory and performance in academic subjects. And day by

day there is an increasing trend of young smokers aged 14-

PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT and MANGO INDUSTRY OF REGION 1

Mango is one of the most important crops in Pangasinan covering 45% of the cultivated land. Aside from producing 60% of

country’s mango requirement, the mango industry also provides direct or indirect employment to almost one third of

the country’s population (Bustos, 2002; Mercado,2009).

Despite the importance of the sector to the country’s economy, modernization of the mango industry has not taken place.

Over the years, mango production continues to decline resulting to decreasing income of mango farmers and reduction in the local supply of fresh mango and mango products. Recently, export of mango products were also

disrupted (Aquino, 2013, de Vera, 2013) and low production of its by products.

The decline in yield (TV Patrol May 23, 2013) is primarily due to failure of farmers to replace aging and unproductive

mango trees with new varieties of mango (Marcelo, 2010). These can be attributed to farmer’s low access to needed

inputs as well as their lack of technical skills in applying new varieties, farm inputs and development of products. The low market price of mango and its varieties further tends to discourage farmers to plant new mango trees.

The present situation is further aggravated by the presence of a viral disease and pests (Marcelo, 2010), which decrease mango yield each year. Majority of these affected carabao and indian mango trees are traditional varieties as they

are less resistant to the virus and pests. Moreover, farmers rarely apply plant protection measures and develop

products from indian mangoes.

Considering the potential of the mango industry, the Pangasinan State University has proposed a project to improve the

performance of the industry particularly on the development of its products. It is this purpose that this study was conducted to improve product development of indian mango industry in Region 1.

It is this purpose that this study was conducted to improve product development of indian mango
Problem Analysis presented in the Introduction Export of mango product were disrupted Reduction of fresh

Problem Analysis presented in the Introduction

Export of mango product were disrupted

in the Introduction Export of mango product were disrupted Reduction of fresh mango Declining income of

Reduction of fresh mango

Declining income of mango farmers

Reduction of fresh mango Declining income of mango farmers DECLINING MANGO PRODUCTION Mango increasingly affected by

DECLINING MANGO PRODUCTION

Declining income of mango farmers DECLINING MANGO PRODUCTION Mango increasingly affected by pest, virus/disease Farmers

Mango increasingly affected by pest, virus/disease

Farmers rarely apply plant protection

Farmers do not plant new mango stand

apply plant protection Farmers do not plant new mango stand Farmers lack technical skills Farmers rarely

Farmers

lack

technical

skills

Farmers rarely apply plant protection

Market prices are not attractive to farmers

Water is an essential resource and is a free commodity which unknowingly is setting its price. Water quality is an urgent issue even in developed nations of the world. The study determined the microbiological qualities of water supply from twenty deep wells of selected public elementary schools of the third congressional district of Pangasinan 1. The descriptive research design was used and employed the use of standard laboratory procedure. Statistical used are frequency counts, percentages, Kruskal Wallis, Mann Whitney U test, t-test and Pearson Correlation. Findings revealed that total bacterial counts is higher during dry season than during wet season. There is a moderately positive correlation between total bacterial counts and taste. During wet season water with a taste of slightly bitter has a higher number of total bacterial counts than that of slightly fishy or tasteless. E. coli is not detected in the microbiological analyses during wet and dry season. Based on laboratory analysis , all the twenty deep well water samples did not pass the standard for drinking water as per standard methods of detection and values for microbiological quality during dry season. Ten out of the twenty deep well water samples passed the standard for drinking water during wet season.

The Research Process

Data Collection
Data Collection
The Research Process Data Collection
The Research Process Data Collection
The Research Process Data Collection
The Research Process Data Collection

Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research

Quantitative research

*Associated with tradition (there is reality out there that can be studied and known)

* Gathers numerical values as its data

* Investigates concepts, constructs and variables

*Uses deductive reasoning

*Uses control (imposing condition so that biases are minimized and validity and precision are maximized)

*Gathers empirical evidence (from objective reality collected through senses)

*Takes place both in natural as well as in laboratory setting

Qualitative research

*Associated with Naturalistic inquiry ( reality is not a fixed entity but rather a construction of individual participating in research)

* Gathers narrative description as its data

*Investigates phenomena, and concepts

*Use subjectivity that enriches the analytical insights

*Gather information, insights that lead to search for further evidence (subjective)

*Takes place in the field

Types of Quantitative Research

*Descriptive research Objective is accurate

depiction of the characteristics of a person, situation or groups and or frequency with

which certain phenomenon occurs.

*Correlational research-Express the interrelationship among variables of interest without any active intervention by the researcher

*Quasi-experimental research- conducted to determine the effects of treatment or independent variables on the dependent or outcome variables. It lacks the control of the design, sample or setting.

*Experimental research- it examines the cause and effect relationship between independent and dependent variables under highly controlled conditions

Types of Qualitative Research

*Phenomenological research- concerned with

lived experience of human. It is an approach

to thinking about what life experiences of people are like and what they mean.

*Grounded theory research- seeks to describe and understand the key social psychological and structural processes that occur a social

setting. A major component is the discovery of

a core variable that is central in explaining what is going on in that social scene.

*Ethnographical research- the primary

research tradition within anthropology, which provides a framework for studying the

meanings, patterns, and experiences of a

defined cultural group in a holistic fashion.

*Historical research- narrative description or

analysis of events that occurred in the remote

or recent past.

*Case studies- in Depth examination and analysis of people or group of people in relation to nursing issues or problems that are important to the client and the researcher.

*Field studies- natural investigations done in the community, such as in nursing home,

housing projects and clinical wards.

Other types of research according to purpose

Applied Research

Basic Research

*To widen the knowledge base

*Formulation or refinement of theory

*For discovery of general principles

*To finding solutions for existing problems

*Focuses on factors which can be changed by intervention to achieve a desired goal

*For solving problems

existing problems *Focuses on factors which can be changed by intervention to achieve a desired goal

Exploratory Research

*Begins with phenomenon of interest then investigates the full nature of the phenomenon, the manner in which it is manifested and the other factors to which it is related.

Explanatory Research

*The goal is to understand the underpinnings of specific natural phenomena and to explains systematic relationships among phenomena

is to understand the underpinnings of specific natural phenomena and to explains systematic relationships among phenomena
is to understand the underpinnings of specific natural phenomena and to explains systematic relationships among phenomena
is to understand the underpinnings of specific natural phenomena and to explains systematic relationships among phenomena
is to understand the underpinnings of specific natural phenomena and to explains systematic relationships among phenomena
is to understand the underpinnings of specific natural phenomena and to explains systematic relationships among phenomena
is to understand the underpinnings of specific natural phenomena and to explains systematic relationships among phenomena

Suggested topics ANY RESEARCH GAP YOU MAY IDENTIFY FROM PREVIOUS STUDIES CONDUCTED THAT YOU MAY READ

*information about the quality of HEIs, schools, review centers as source for improved student/parent choice. *the information system of schools to reach out to their students

*organizational capabilities of an institution *tracer studies, employment experience of graduates *profiling and typology of (schools, HEIs) in the following *socio-economic profile of students in the public schools, vendors, profile of labor force in different barangays (learn to use secondary data from NSO, NEDA) any competent agencies *evaluation of projects conducted in the school or any agency *partnership between institutions and industries or agencies in the community.

* Food security

* poverty alleviation

*effect of global warming on education sector *Gender studies

*improving schooling for language minorities

**Multilingual language instruction in the classroom

* Multicultural classroom

* Mapping of reading programs of different schools,

* evaluation of schools materials that may encourage

reading or any cognitive development

*Multi language teaching

*Children’s language development in a multi language or

multicultural environment

*association of Reading, language and play

* children’s language development

* educating children with special needs in speech or

and play * children’s language development * educating children with special needs in speech or language

language difficulties.

*Trends in computer games, TV shows its effects on reading and English communication *development of standardized English test or

English proficiency test for First Year, 2nd, 3rd,

4th year. *employment status of ABE graduates 20

*Effectiveness of mother tongue language users

in their English communication

*Culture in the farming community in

*Culture of drivers (or groups)

tongue language users in their English communication *Culture in the farming community in *Culture of drivers

*Income and Expenditure pattern of employees *Profile of vendors in Bayambang *Business opportunities in Bayambang *Problems affecting socio economic progress *Factors behind the socio- economic growth of jobless people *Commodity flow for priority products in *Reluctance of local entrepreneurs to tap the export market

*Determining the competitiveness of recreational facilities in Pangasinan

*Values and attitudes of

students towards

entrepreneurship

*Energy conservation measures in

*Assessment of policy implementation of RA

management)

(solid waste

entrepreneurship *Energy conservation measures in *Assessment of policy implementation of RA management) (solid waste

*Role of community organizations in the developmental

progress *Educational institution and business partnership in

*Manpower and instructional capabilities of PSU or (any SUC or private higher education institution) *Assessment of impact of government projects

job generation *Effectiveness of law enforcement of traffic rules in Bayambang *Barangay budgetary allocations on basic social services *Training needs analysis of different sectors in Bayambang

to

*Barangay budgetary allocations on basic social services *Training needs analysis of different sectors in Bayambang to

Research is best learned by doing it, not copying it.

Remember:

you have not done anything in research unless you have written and

communicated it.

in research unless you have written and communicated it. The future of the world is in

The future of the world is in our hands.

Research improves the

quality of life.

THANK YOU