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Table 4.1: The concentration of heavy metal
Heavy metal
Initial pH (pHi)

Concentration of heavy metal (mg/L)


Figure 4.1: The concentration value of Ferum (Fe)

Figure 4.2: Ferum (Fe) calibration curve

Figure 4.3: The concentration value of Zinc (Zn)

Figure 4.4: Zinc (Zn) calibration curve


The main purpose atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) is to

determine the concentration of ferum (fe) and zinc (Zn) in wastewater using
AAS as a common method of detection of heavy metals. AAS is used to
measure the concentration of gas-phase atoms with light absorbing
ultraviolet light or visible light that will excite an electron from a lower
energy level to a higher energy level. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer
(AAS) will be analysed all elements of the participant in this study will be
analyzed. Then, atomic absorption spectroscopy process involves two steps
atomized sample and absorbed radiation from a light source by free atoms.
At the first stage mechanism, the analyte atoms or ions must be burned in
the flame or specifically furnace graphics. The fire was marching in the light
of appropriate wavelength. Atom will undergo a transition from the ground
state to the first excited state because of the fire. When the atoms making
their transition, they will absorb some of the light from the beam.
In this experiment, the source of water sample is taken from the tank
provided in the lab. Generally, industrial section produced a lots of heavy
metals that can lead to environment pollution . Heavy metals are naturally
occurring elements that have a high atomic weight and a density at least 5
times greater than that of water. Their multiple industrial, domestic,
agricultural, medical and technological applications have led to their wide
distribution in the environment; raising concerns over their potential effects
on human health and the environment. Their toxicity depends on several
factors including the dose, route of exposure, and chemical species, as well
as the age, gender, genetics, and nutritional status of exposed individuals.
Because of their high degree of toxicity, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead,
and mercury rank among the priority metals that are of public health
significance. The report claims that metals such as cobalt (Co), copper (Cu),

chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), molybdenum

(Mo), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) are essential nutrients that are
required for various biochemical and physiological functions. However, it is
impossible to live in an environment free of heavy metals. There are many
ways by which these toxins can be introduced into the body such as
consumption of foods, beverages, skin exposure, inhaled air and skin

However, the use of AAS method is to identify the content of metal

present in wastewater. In wastewater treatment, the current methods that
have been used to treat heavy metal waste water include chemical
precipitation, ion-exchange, adsorption, membrane filtration, coagulationflocculation, flotation and electrochemical methods. It is evidence that ionexchange, adsorption and membrane filtration are the most frequently
studied for the treatment of heavy metal waste water. The concentration of
heavy metal zinc obtained is 1.453mg/L while for the ferum (Fe) is
4.065mg/L. The reading was taken 3 or 2 times in order to obtain the mean
value. The correlation coefficient for zinc is 0.882024 and for ferum is
0.964258. Then we plot the calibration curve for ferum and zinc. The value
obtain 0.09388 and 0.37009 respectively.
A calibration curve was used to determine the unknown concentration
of an element in a solution. The instrument was calibrated using several
solutions of known concentrations. The absorbance of each known solution
was measured and then a calibration curve of concentration vs. absorbance
was plotted. From the calibration graph obtained for both zinc (Zn) and lead
(Pb), a linear relationship formed.

The calibration curve is always

represented with the response of instrument on the vertical (y) and the
concentrations on the horizontal (x). The calibration curve is generally used
when there is a linear relationship between analytical signal (y) and
concentration (x), taking precautions to ensure that linearity in the

experimental response is maintained over a wide range of concentrations.

The initial pH of wastewater was measured which at pH of 7. So it can be
said that, the higher the pH, the lower the content of heavy metal in
wastewater sample.

As the conclusion, the objective of this experiment is to determine the concentration of
Pb and Zn in wastewater using AAS as common method of heavy metal detection. The result
obtained shows that there is no presence of Pb in sample since it shows negative value. The
highest concentration is ferum (Fe) from sample is 4.065 mg/L. It can be conclude that the
concentration of heavy metal will be higher as the pH value is higher. PH is one of key factor in
affecting the concentration of heavy metals in wastewater. All wastewater that have been treated
must comply with the parameter limit stated in the Environmental Quality (Industrial Effluent)
Regulations 2009.
There are a few recommendations in this experiment such as added more heavy metal
measurement in this experiment such as copper, aluminium and etc., so that it will be able to
compare which one the most critical parameter. In addition, besides using AAS, DR 2800 also
can be used to get more accuracy result.