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1.

BUSINESS VISITOR: person whose main purpose for a tourism trip corresponds to the business and
professional category.
2. COUNTRY OF REFERENCE: Country for which a measurement is done.
3. COUNTRY OF RESIDENCE: Country where the center of predominant economic interest of its
members is.
4. DESTINATION OF A TRIP: The place visited that is central to the decision to take the trip.
5. DOMESTIC TOURISM: Comprises the activities of a resident visitor within the country of reference. It
can be domestic or outbound.
6.

EXCURSIONIST: A visitor (domestic, inbound or outbound), classified as a same-day visitor, whose


his/her trip does not include an overnight stay.

7. INBOUND TOURISM: Comprises the activities of a non-resident visitor within the country of
reference.
8. INTERNAL TOURISM: Comprises domestic tourism plus inbound tourism, that is to say, the activities
of resident and non-resident visitors within the country of reference as part of domestic or international
tourism trips.
9. INTERNATIONAL TOURISM: Comprises inbound tourism plus outbound tourism, that is to say, the
activities of resident visitors outside the country of reference, either as part of domestic or outbound
tourism trips and the activities of non-resident visitors within the country of reference on inbound
tourism trips.
10. NATIONAL TOURISM: Comprises domestic tourism plus outbound tourism, that is to say, the activities
of resident visitors within and outside the country of reference, either as part of domestic or outbound
tourism trips.
11. OUTBOUND TOURISM: Comprises the activities of a resident visitor outside the country of reference.
It can be outbound or domestic.
12. TOURISM EXPENDITURE: The amount paid for the acquisition of consumption goods and services,
as well as valuables, for own use or to give away, for and during tourism trips.
13. TOURISM SECTOR: The cluster of production units in different industries that provide consumption
goods and services demanded by visitors. Visitor acquisition represents such a significant share of their
supply that, in the absence of visitors, their production of these would cease to exist in meaningful
quantity.

14. TOURIST: A visitor (domestic, inbound or outbound) classified as an overnight visitor, whose his/her
trip includes an overnight stay.
15. TRAVEL PARTY: Visitors travelling together on a trip and whose expenditures are pooled.
16. TRIP: The travel by a person from the time of departure from his/her usual residence until he/she
returns.
17. USUAL ENVIRONMENT: The geographical area (though not necessarily a contiguous one) within
which an individual conducts his/her regular life routines.
18. VISIT: a stay in a place visited during a tourism trip.
19. VISITOR: Traveller taking a trip to a main destination outside his/her usual environment, for less than a
year, for any main purpose (business, leisure or other personal purpose) other than to be employed by a
resident entity in the country or place visited.
20. TOURISM: Traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one
consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes.

INTRODUCTION TO TOURISM
DEFINITION: Tourism is the temporary short-term movement of people to destinations outside the places
where they normally live and work, as well as their activities during their stay at these destinations.
All tourism should have some travel, but not all travel is tourism.
OTHER DEFINITIONS
1. The temporary movement of people to destinations outside their normal places of work and residence,
the activities undertaken during their stay in those destinations, and the facilities created to cater to their
needs. (Mathieson and Wall,1982)
2. Tourism is a collection of activities, services and industries that delivers a travel experience, including
transportation, accommodations, eating and drinking establishments, retail shops, entertainment
businesses, activity facilities and other hospitality services provided for individuals or groups traveling
away from home. (Northern Arizona University, Parks & Recreation Mgmt. Introduction - Online
Lesson http://www.prm.nau.edu/prm300)
3. The sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the interaction of tourists, business suppliers,
host governments and host communities in the process of attracting and hosting these tourists and other
visitors. (Macintosh and Goeldner, 1986).
THE WORLD TOURISM ORGANIZATION (UNWTO): is the United Nations specialized agency mandated
with the promotion of responsible, sustainable and universally accessible tourism.
WTO DEFINES TOURISM AS: People "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for
not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes"
IMPORTANCE OF TOURISM
1. An important factor to promote mutual understanding among people & expand social, economic,
2.
3.
4.
5.

cultural and scientific cooperation.


A vital source of income for many countries through
The consumption of goods and services by tourists
The taxes levied on businesses in the tourism industry
The opportunity for employment in the service industries associated with tourism.

TOURISM STUDIES

INTEGRATED DISCIPLINARY MODEL OF TOURISM STUDIES

Source: Integrated Disciplinary Model (adopted from Jafari, Jafar, Ritchie, J.R. Brent, Towards a Framework
for Tourism Education: Problems and Prospects, Annals of Tourism Research, 1981, VIII.
INTEGRATED MODEL OF TOURISM

Adapted from: Cook, Roy A., Yale, Laura J., Marqua, Joseph J., Tourism The Business of Travel, 2nd ed.,
Prentice Hall, 2001, p.6-8
KEY ELEMENTS OF THE IMT
1. TRAVELLERS: are at the center of the model where all tourism activities are focused. Radiating from
the center are three large bands containing several interdependent groups of tourism participants and
organizations.
2. TOURISM PROMOTERS: are in the first layer, in close contact with the travellers. Organizations in
this layer include tourism boards, direct marketing companies, meeting planners, travel agents and tour
operators. The tourism boards and direct marketing companies provide information and marketing
services to travelers whereas travel agencies, tour operators and meeting planners provide services such
as making travel arrangements and giving professional advice on tourism related matters. All these
organizations usually deal directly with individual travellers.
3. TOURISM SERVICE SUPPLIERS: such as airline companies, bus operators, railway corporations,
cruise ship operators, hotels and car rental companies, etc. usually provide services to travellers
independently. The service suppliers may also collaborate to provide tour packages for travellers by

combining the various services such as accommodation, air transportation, theme park entrance ticket,
etc.
4. EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT: All of the participants, either individually or as a group, are constantly
responding to a variety of societal/cultural, political, environmental, economic and technological forces.
It is the interaction of these forces that determine how closely the individuals and organizations work
together.
DEMAND: is elastic and sensitive. It depends on the time, its influenced by the season, its focused on
specific places, and it depends on the size of income.
FACTORS INFLUENCING DEMANDS ARE: Revenue, Price, Quality, Political relations between countries,
Economic relations between countries, Socio-cultural relations between countries, Changes in weather or
climate, Factors holidays, Government regulations, Foreign exchange restriction and Transportation technology.
TOURISM STATISTICS ARE: International Tourist Arrivals, International Tourism receipts, Tourism
expenditure, Tourism results by region, Top tourism destinations, outbound tourism by generating region,
Tourism evolution, Tourism market trends and Tourism development forecasts.
FACTS & FIGURES

THEORETICAL PHASES IN TOURISM


1. PREPARADIGMATIC: theoretical analisis of tourism, Fuster (1971), Burkart and Medlik (1974), Jafari
and Ritchie (1981)
2. SYSTEM OF TOURISM: general systems theory., Cuervo (1967), Leiper (1979) Krippendorf (1985,
1989), Molina (2003)
3. NEW APPROACHES: diversified and innovative analysis., Urry (1996), Tribe (1997), Trigo (1998,
2003), Nechar (2005)

ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, CULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF TOURISM


1. ECONOMIC IMPACT: Effects and results of the management of the resources of a community, country,
region, etc. related to its productivity or earnings due to tourism.
POSITIVE: Increases Incomes, Generates foreign exchange, Increases GNP, Higher revenue for the
government,

Employment

opportunities,

Multiplier

effect,

Diversification

of

the

economy,

Current Infrastructure usage, Compatible with other economic activities, Promote local commerce and industry,
Intensifies Development, Local products and resources.
NEGATIVE: Destinations are more exposed to political and economic changes, Cost increases for the locals
(real estate, food, etc.), Leakage is high, Inflation, Unbalanced economic development, Surplus of demand,
Seasonality crisis.
2. SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACT: Repercussion in the value system, behavior, lifestyle, and way of
thinking of a society and/or culture in a direct or indirect way threatening their identity.
POSITIVE: Boost a global community, Encourages peace and international understanding, Build or adapt
tourist and recreational facilities that can be now used by the locals, Better quality of life because of improved
income and standards of living, Expands horizons for education and culture, Preserves traditions and folklore,
Fades sociocultural, language, class, political, racial and religious barriers, Creates job opportunities for
musicians, artists, and other performing artists, promoting cultural heritage, Improves the international image of
a destination
NEGATIVE: Commercializes culture, arts and religion, Generates differences between visitors and residents,
Produces conflicts in the host society, Creates social problems (prostitution, addiction, theft), Transculturation
(influence in tradition, habit, fashion, etc.), Threatens family structure, Conduces to an increase of diseases,
Leads to transportation issues.
3. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT: Alteration of the environmental baseline. It is the consequence of the
human activities over the environment
POSITIVE: Promotes eco-conscience, Contributes to new jobs and income for locals, Strengthens heritage and
environmental preservation and improvement, Helps visitors to learn about environmental education, Raises
funds to improve or obtain protected or natural areas for future promotion, Conservation of wildlife and natural
resources.
NEGATIVE: Flora and fauna extinction, Reduction and pollution of water and/or land resources, Natural
disasters and climate changes, Traffic emissions, Littering, Noise, Depletion of the Ozone Layer, Acid Rain,
Global Warming, Constructions effect.

TOURISM CONSUMER BEHAVIOR


(Understanding tourist as a consumer and Tourism motivation conceptual approaches)
INDIVIDUAL DECISION MAKING
No two individuals are alike and differences in attitudes, perceptions, images and motivation have an important
influence on travel decisions. It is important to note that:
1. ATTITUDES: depend on an individuals perception of the world;
2. PERCEPTIONS: are mental impressions of, say, a destination or travel company;
3. TRAVEL MOTIVATORS: explain why people want to travel and they are the inner urges that
initiate travel demand; and
4. IMAGES: are sets of beliefs, ideas and impressions relating to products and destinations.
WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT?
It is important for tourism managers to research and understand the way in which tourism consumers make
decisions and act in relation to the consumption of tourism products.
We need to study a tourists consumer behavior to be aware of:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The needs, purchase motives and decision process associated with the consumption of tourism;
The impact of the different effects of various promotional tactics;
The possible perception of risk for tourism purchases, including the impact of terrorist incidents;
The different market segments based upon purchase behavior; and
How managers can improve their chance of marketing success.

INFLUENCES OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR


Consumer decision-making framework

ELEMENTS OF CONSUMER DECISIONS

We can view the tourism consumer decision process as a system made up of four basic elements:
1. ENERGIZERS OF DEMAND: the forces of motivation that lead a tourist to decide to visit an attraction
or go on a holiday.
2. EFFECTORS OF DEMAND: the consumer will have developed ideas of a destination, product or
organization by a process of learning, attitudes and associations from promotional messages and
information. This will affect the consumers image and knowledge of a tourism product thus serving to
heighten or dampen the various energizers that lead to consumer action.
3. ROLES AND THE DECISION - MAKING PROCESS: here, the important role is that of the family
member who is normally involved in the different stages of the purchase process and the final resolution
of decisions about when, where and how the group will consume the tourism product.
4. DETERMINANTS OF DEMAND: In addition, the consumer decision-making process for tourism is
underpinned by the determinants of demand.
MOTIVATION: is defined as causing a person to act in a certain way.
APPROACHES TO MOTIVATION:
1. PLOGS MODEL: In 1974, Stanley Plog developed a theory which allows classifying people into a
series of interrelated psychographic types. These types range from two extremes:
a) THE PSYCHOCENTRIC TYPE: is derived from 'psyche' or 'self-centered' where an
individual centers thoughts or concerns on the small problem areas of life. These individuals
tend to be conservative in their travel patterns, preferring safe destinations and often taking
many return trips. For this latter reason, market research in the tour-operating sector labels
this group as 'repeaters'.
b) THE ALLOCENTRIC TYPE: derives from the root allo meaning varied in form. These
individuals are adventurous and motivated to travel/discover new destinations. They rarely
return to the same place twice, hence their market research label 'wanderers'.

PLOGS MODEL (1974)

2. MCINTOSH, GOELDNER AND RITCHIE (1995)


1) PHYSICAL MOTIVATORS: Body and mind, health purpose, sport and pleasure
2) CULTURAL MOTIVATORS: Know more about other cultures; find out the natives of a country,
their life style, music, art, folklore, dance, etc.
3) INTERPERSONAL MOTIVATORS: to meet new people, visit friends or relatives, and to seek
new and different experiences.
4) STATUS AND PRESTIGE MOTIVATORS: Personal development, ego enhancement and
sensual indulgence. For recognition and attention from others, in order to boost the personal ego.
MOTIVATION SUMMARY
We can see that the dimensions of the concept of motivation in the context of travel are difficult to map.
IN SUMMARY THEY CAN BE SEEN TO INCLUDE:
1) THE IDEA: that travel is initially need-related and that this manifests itself in terms of wants and the
strength of motivation or push, as the energizer of action;
2) MOTIVATION: is grounded in sociological and psychological aspects of acquired norms, attitudes,
culture, perceptions, etc., leading to person-specific forms of motivation; and
3) THE IMAGE OF A DESTINATION: created through various communication channels will influence
motivation and subsequently affect the type of travel undertaken.
ROLES AND DECISION MAKING
1) TYPOLOGIES/ROLES: can be designed to classify tourists in terms of their roles in decision making
2) COHENS APPROACH: is based upon motivation
3) FAMILY INFLUENCE: is also important

3. COHENS TYPOLOGY (1972)

THE
IMPORTANCE OF IMAGE
There are various kinds of definitions adopted to describe the word image in different fields.
FOR EXAMPLE, THE WTO DEFINES IMAGE AS FOLLOWS:
1) The artificial imitation of the apparent form of an object;
2) Form resemblance, identity (e.g. art and design);
3) Ideas, conceptions held individually or collectively of the destination.
WE CAN IDENTIFY FOUR STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND ESTABLISHMENT OF A HOLIDAY
IMAGE:
1) A vague, fantasy type of image is created from advertising, education and word of mouth and is formed
before the subject has thought seriously about taking a holiday.
2) A decision is made to take a holiday and then choices must be made regarding time, destination and type
of holiday. This is when the holiday image is modified, clarified and extended.
3) The holiday experience itself, which modifies, corrects or removes elements of the image that prove to
be invalid and reinforces those that are found to be correct.
4) The after-image, the recollection of the holiday which may induce feelings of nostalgia, regret or
fantasy. This is the stage that will mould an individuals holiday concepts and attitudes and will promote
a new sequence of holiday images influencing future holiday decisions.

THE BUYING DECISION PROCESS IN TOURISM


The stages of the decision:

4. ENGEL, BLACKWELL AND MINIARD (1986) - MODELLING THE PROCESS


CLASSIFIED MODELS ACCORDING TO THE DEGREE OF SEARCH OR PROBLEM-SOLVING
BEHAVIOR BY THE CONSUMER:
1) LIMITED PROBLEM-SOLVING MODELS (LPS MODELS): are applicable to repeat or mundane
purchases with a low level of consumer involvement. Apart from short trips near to home these are not
applicable to tourism.
2) EXTENDED PROBLEM-SOLVING MODELS (EPS MODELS): apply to purchases associated with
high levels of perceived risk and involvement, and where the information search and evaluation of
alternatives plays an important part in the purchasing decision.
MODELLING THE PROCESS