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628 Ansichten34 SeitenThis is the solution to a University physics hw.

Nov 07, 2016

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This is the solution to a University physics hw.

© All Rights Reserved

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This is the solution to a University physics hw.

© All Rights Reserved

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Multiple-choice questions may continue on

the next column or page find all choices

before answering.

position (41 km, 41 km) ,

C

A truck travels up a hill with a 13 incline.

The truck has a constant speed of 17 m/s.

What is the horizontal component of the

trucks velocity?

Explanation:

Let :

v = 17 m/s

= 13 .

17

and

after these four legs of the hike? All angles

are measured in a counter-clockwise direction

from the positive x-axis.

/s

vy

13

vx

Explanation:

= 16.5643 m/s .

What is the vertical component of the trucks

velocity?

Let :

Explanation:

vy = v sin = (17 m/s) sin 13

= 3.82417 m/s .

003 10.0 points

A hiker makes four straight-line walks

A

B

C

D

27 km

33 km

25 km

23 km

at

at

at

at

277

75

164

234

ax

ay

bx

by

cx

cy

dx

dy

= (27 km) sin 277 = 26.7987 km ,

= (33 km) cos 75 = 8.54101 km ,

= (33 km) sin 75 = 31.8756 km ,

= (25 km) cos 164 = 24.0316 km ,

= (25 km) sin 164 = 6.8909 km ,

= (23 km) cos 234 = 13.519 km ,

= (23 km) sin 234 = 18.6074 km ,

15

151

A

7. 6

37

D

E

Correct answer: 13.7849 m.

Explanation:

x = ax + bx + cx + dx

= 3.29053 km + (8.54101 km)

+ (24.0316 km) + (13.519 km)

= 25.719 km and

y = ay + by + cy + dy

= 26.7987 km + (31.8756 km)

+ (6.8909 km) + (18.6074 km)

= 6.63969 km ,

~ = 15 m ,

Let : kAk

a = 37 ,

~ = 7.6 m ,

kBk

B = 151 .

Scale: 10 km =

and

B

so the resultant is

(x)2 + (y)2

E=

= 26.5623 km .

A particle undergoes three displacements.

The first has a magnitude of 15 m and makes

an angle of 37 with the positive x axis. The

second has a magnitude of 7.6 m and makes

an angle of 151 with the positive x axis. (see

the figure below).

After the third displacement the particle

returns to its initial position.

~ +B

~ +C

~ = 0,

A

so

~ = A

~ B

~

C

Cx = Ax Bx

= A cos A B cos b

= (15 m) cos 37 (7.6 m) cos 151

= 5.33242 m and

Cy = Ay Bx

= A sin A B sin b

= (15 m) sin 37 (7.6 m) sin 151

= 12.7118 m ,

~ is

so the magnitude of C

q

~

kCk = Cx2 + Cy2

q

= (5.33242 m)2 + (12.7118 m)2

Explanation:

Find the angle of the third displacement (measured from the positive x axis, with counterclockwise positive within the limits of 180

to +180 ).

The resultant is the diagonal of the parallelogram defined by the two displacements:

~ = 11 m ,

kAk

= 81 ,

~ = 9.8 m ,

kRk

= 139 .

Let :

and

= 13.7849 m .

Explanation:

tan C =

R

Cy

Cx

Cy

C = arctan

C

x

12.7118 m

= arctan

5.33242 m

~ =A

~ +B

~

R

~ =R

~ B

~ .

B

= 112.757 .

11 m

A particle undergoes two displacements, measured from the positive x-axis, with counterclockwise positive. The first has a magnitude

of 11 m and makes an angle of 81 with the

positive x axis. The resultant displacement

has a magnitude of 9.8 m directed at an angle

of 139 from the positive x axis.

9.

139

81

ment B

Bx = Rx Ax = R cos A cos

= (9.8 m) cos 139 (11 m) cos 81

= 9.11693 m and

By = Ry Ax = R sin A sin

= (9.8 m) sin 139 (11 m) sin 81

= 4.43519 m ,

~ is

so the magnitude of B

~ =

kBk

=

Bx2 + By2

(9.11693 m)2 + (4.43519 m)2

= 10.1385 m .

007 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points

Find the angle of the second displacement

(measured from the positive x axis, with counterclockwise positive and within the limits of

180 to +180 ).

Correct answer: 154.058 .

Explanation:

tan =

Explanation:

Let : ay = 8.5 m/s2 and

vyo = 3 m/s .

~vy = ~vyo + ~ay t

= (3 m/s) + (8.5 m/s2 ) (6.5 s)

By

Bx

= (52.25 m/s) .

By

B

x

4.43519 m

= arctan

9.11693 m

= arctan

= 154.058 .

What is the magnitude of the displacement

from the origin (x = 0 m, y = 0 m) after

6.5 s?

Correct answer: 182.277 m.

A particle moves in the xy plane with constant

acceleration. At time zero, the particle is

at x = 1.5 m, y = 5.5 m, and has velocity

~vo = (5 m/s) + (3 m/s) . The acceleration

is given by ~a = (2 m/s2 ) + (8.5 m/s2 ) .

What is the x component of velocity after

6.5 s?

Correct answer: 18 m/s.

Explanation:

Let :

ax = 2 m/s2 ,

vxo = 5 m/s , and

t = 6.5 s .

After 6.5 s,

~vx = ~vxo + ~ax t

= (5 m/s) + (2 m/s2 ) (6.5 s)

= (18 m/s) .

009 (part 2 of 3) 10.0 points

What is the y component of velocity after

6.5 s?

Explanation:

Let :

do = (1.5 m, 5.5 m) ,

vo = (5 m/s, 3 m/s) , and

a = (2 m/s2 , 8.5 m/s2 ) .

~d = ~do + ~vo t + 1 a t2

2

h

i

= (1.5 m) + (5.5 m)

i

1h

+ (2 m/s2 ) + (8.5 m/s2 ) (6.5 s)2

2

= (76.25 m) + (165.562 m) , so

|~d| =

=

d2x + d2y

(76.25 m)2 + (165.562 m)2

= 182.277 m .

011 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points

A particle has an initial horizontal velocity

of 2.5 m/s and an initial upward velocity of

vy

vx

2.68 m/s

= arctan

11.11 m/s

= 11.4287 m/s

4.7 m/s. It is then given a horizontal acceleration of 2.1 m/s2 and a downward acceleration

of 1.8 m/s2 .

What is its speed after 4.1 s?

= arctan

Explanation:

Basic Concepts:

The direction of the motion depends only

on the horizontal and vertical components of

the velocity at any moment.

Solution:

For the horizontal motion,

vx = v0x + ax t

= 2.5 m/s + 2.1 m/s2 (4.1 s)

= 11.11 m/s

For the vertical motion,

vy = v0y ay t

= 4.7 m/s 1.8 m/s2 (4.1 s)

= 2.68 m/s

A right triangle is formed by the components, so

q

v = vx2 + vy2

q

= (11.11 m/s)2 + (2.68 m/s)2

= 11.4287 m/s

What is the direction of its velocity at this

time with respect to the horizontal? Answer

between 180 and +180 .

Correct answer: 13.562 .

Explanation:

The vertical component vy is the side opposite the angle and the horizontal component

vx is the side adjacent to the angle, so

tan =

vy

vx

angle indicates upward motion while a negative angle indicates downward motion.

013 10.0 points

Assume: A 78 g basketball is launched at an

angle of 40.1 and a distance of 13.8 m from

the basketball goal. The ball is released at the

same height (ten feet) as the basketball goals

height.

A basketball player tries to make a long

jump-shot as described above.

The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .

What speed must the player give the ball?

Correct answer: 11.7151 m/s.

Explanation:

Basic concepts: Horizontally,

voh = v cos

vh = voh

d = voh t

Vertically,

vov = v sin

vv = vov g t

1 2

gt .

2

Solution: At the maximum range of the ball,

vf v = vov , so,

h = vov t

vov = vov g t

2 vov = g t

vov

.

t=2

g

The maximum distance covered is

d = voh t =

2 voh vov

g

d=

2 v cos v sin

g

v 2 (2 sin cos )

v 2 sin(2 )

d=

=

.

g

g

Thus the initial velocity is

s

dg

v=

sin[2 ]

s

(13.8 m) (9.8 m/s2 )

=

sin[2 (40.1 )]

= 11.7151 m/s .

014 10.0 points

A golf ball is hit at ground level. The ball is

observed to reach its maximum height above

ground level 7.9 s after being hit. 0.55 s after

reaching this maximum height, the ball is

observed to barely clear a fence that is 636 ft

from where it was hit.

The acceleration of gravity is 32 ft/s2 .

How high is the fence?

Correct answer: 993.72 ft.

Explanation:

Basic Concepts:

~v = ~v0 + ~a t

1

~s = ~s0 + ~v0 t + ~a t2

2

Solution

The golf ball reaches its maximum height

after t1 seconds, so

vy = 0 = vy0 g t1

vy0 = g t1

The ball barely clears the fence after t =

(t1 + t2 ) seconds, so

h = v0y t

1 2

gt

2

1

= (g t1 ) (t1 + t2 ) g (t1 + t2 )2

2

1

2

= g t1 + g t1 t2 g t21 + 2 t1 t2 + t22

2

= g t21 + g t1 t2

1 2

1

g t1 g t1 t2 g t22

2

2

1 2 1 2

gt gt

2 1 2 2

1

= g t21 t22

2

1

= (32 ft/s2 ) (7.9 s)2 (0.55 s)2

2

= 993.72 ft .

=

the ball to rise from the ground to the top

equals the time taken for the ball to fall from

the top to the ground. So the maximum

1

height is at y = h = g t21 . After reaching the

2

height h, the amount of the subsequent fall in

1

the time interval t2 is h = g t22 . So the y2

1

coordinate at t = t1 +t2 is hh = h g t22 .

2

015 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points

A car is parked on a cliff overlooking the

ocean on an incline that makes an angle of 16

below the horizontal. The negligent driver

leaves the car in neutral, and the emergency

brakes are defective. The car rolls from rest

down the incline with a constant acceleration

of 2.7 m/s2 and travels 43 m to the edge of

the cliff. The cliff is 34 m above the ocean.

How long is the car in the air? The acceleration of gravity is 9.81 m/s2 .

Correct answer: 2.23925 s.

Explanation:

Let :

= 16 ,

a = 2.7 m/s2 ,

d = 43 m ,

y = 34 m , and

g = 9.81 m/s2 .

2.7 m/s2 for a distance of 43 m, so

vb2 = vt2 + 2 a d

vb = 2 a d

q

= 2(2.7 m/s2 )(43 m) = 15.2381 m/s .

The car leaves the cliff at the same angle as

the road, so

vb,y = vb sin = (15.2381 m/s) sin(16 )

= 4.20019 m/s and

vb,x = vb cos = (15.2381 m/s) cos(16 )

= 14.6478 m/s .

The vertical motion defines the time:

1

y = g t2 vb,y t

2

0 = g t2 + 2 vb,y t + 2 y

q

2 8 y g

2 vb,y 4 vb,y

t=

2g

q

2 2 y g

vb,y + vb,y

=

.

g

Two men decide to use their cars to pull a

truck stuck in mud. They attach ropes and

one pulls with a force of 699 N at an angle

of 26 with respect to the direction in which

the truck is headed, while the other car pulls

with a force of 1186 N at an angle of 17 with

respect to the same direction.

N

699

26

17

1186

N

What is the net forward force exerted on

the truck in the direction it is headed?

Correct answer: 1762.43 N.

Explanation:

Let : F1

F2

1

2

Since

2

vb,y

2 y g = (4.20019 m/s)2

= 684.722 m2 /s2 ,

= 699 N ,

= 1186 N ,

= 26 , and

= 17 .

is

p

4.20019 m/s + 684.722 m2 /s2

t=

9.81 m/s2

= 2.23925 s .

F1f = F1 cos 1

= (699 N) cos 26

= 628.257 N .

Similarly, for the second vehicle,

What is the cars position relative to the base

of the cliff when the car lands in the ocean?

Correct answer: 32.8 m.

Explanation:

There is no acceleration in the horizontal

direction, so

F2f = F2 cos 2

= (1186 N) cos 17

= 1134.18 N .

Thus the net forward force on the truck is

Ff = F1f + F2f

= 628.257 N + 1134.18 N

= 1762.43 N .

= 32.8 m .

018

10.0 points

A 6.1 g bullet leaves the muzzle of a rifle with

a speed of 327.6 m/s.

What constant force is exerted on the bullet

while it is traveling down the 0.7 m length of

the barrel of the rifle?

Correct answer: 467.616 N.

Explanation:

Average acceleration can be found from

vf2 = vo2 + 2 a

Explanation:

Consider the free body diagram for the

avalanche:

0

=

Ff

os

c

g

M

=

N

in

gs

Mg

M

Since the slope is essentially frictionless, the

only force with a non-zero component parallel

to the surface is the weight, hence

Since vo = 0, we have

Fxnet = m g sin

v2

2

a=

Thus

v2

2

(6.1 g)(327.6 m/s)2 1 kg

=

2 (0.7 m)

1000 g

F = ma = m

= 467.616 N .

019 10.0 points

One of the great dangers to mountain climbers

is an avalanche, in which a large mass of snow

and ice breaks loose and goes on an essentially

frictionless ride down a mountainside on a

cushion of compressed air.

The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .

1 net

a=

F

= g sin = 5.67696 m/s2 .

m x

The avalance starts at zero initial speed. At

the above acceleration, it would take time

r

2s

= 12.0624 s .

t=

a

to cover distance s = 413 m.

020 10.0 points

Take the mass of the Earth to be 5.98

1024 kg.

If the Earths gravitational force causes a

falling 46 kg student to accelerate downward

at 9.8 m/s2 , determine the upward acceleration of the Earth during the students fall.

Correct answer: 7.53846 1023 m/s2 .

41

3m

a

av

e

ch

n

a

l

35.4

avalanche started 413 m up the slope, how

much time would you have to get out of the

way?

Correct answer: 12.0624 s.

Explanation:

By Newtons third law, the force Fse exerted on the student by the earth is equal in

magnitude and opposite in direction to the

force Fes exerted on the earth by the student.

Thus

Fes = Fse

me ae = ms g

ms g

ae =

me

(46 kg)(9.8 m/s2 )

=

5.98 1024 kg

= 7.53846 1023 m/s2

we have

021 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points

Consider the 659 N weight held by two cables

shown below. The left-hand cable had tension

T2 and makes an angle of 2 with the ceiling.

The right-hand cable had tension 400 N and

makes an angle of 35 with the ceiling.

The right-hand cable makes an angle of 35

with the ceiling and has a tension of 400 N .

x

Fnet

= F1x F2x = 0

= F1 cos 1 F2 cos 2 = 0

(1)

y

y

y

Fnet = F1 + F2 Wg = 0

= F1 sin 1 + F2 sin 2 Wg = 0 (2)

F2x = F1 cos 1

= (400 N) cos 35

= 327.661 N , and

(1)

F2y = F3 F1 sin 1

= 659 N (400 N) sin 35

= 659 N 229.431 N

= 429.569 N , so

(2)

35

T2

40

0N

659 N

a) What is the tension T2 in the left-hand

cable slanted at an angle of 2 with respect to

the wall?

F2 =

Correct answer: 540.27 N.

Explanation:

Observe the free-body diagram below.

F2

F1

(F2x )2 + (F2y )2

(327.661 N)2 + (429.569 N)2

= 540.27 N .

022 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points

b) What is the angle 2 which the left-hand

cable makes with respect to the ceiling?

Correct answer: 52.6649 .

Wg

y-components of F1 , F2 , and

Wg are equal to zero.

Given : Wg

F1

1

2

= 659 N ,

= 400 N ,

= 35 , and

= 90 .

Explanation:

Using Eq. 2, we have

F1y

2 = arctan

Fx

1

229.431 N

= arctan

327.661 N

= 52.6649 .

A block with a mass of 4.1 kg is held in

equilibrium on a frictionless incline of 33.0

~ , as shown.

by the horizontal force F

The acceleration of gravity is 9.81 m/s2 .

10

What is the magnitude of the normal force?

33

F

4. 1

kg

33

Explanation:

Basic Concepts:

Fy,net = Fn F sin Fg = 0

Correct answer: 26.1198 N.

Fg = m g cos

Explanation:

Solution:

Let :

m = 4.1 kg ,

g = 9.81 m/s2 ,

= 33 .

and

block

in

s

g

mg

os

gc

m

Basic Concepts:

Fn = F sin + m g cos

= (26.1198 N) sin 33

+ (4.1 kg) (9.81 m/s2 ) cos 33

= 47.958 N .

A mass of 2 kg lies on a frictionless table,

pulled by another mass of 3.3 kg under the

influence of Earths gravity.

The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .

2 kg

Fgk = m g sin = 0

Solution: Choose the coordinate axes with

x along the incline and y perpendicular to

the incline. In equilibrium, the acceleration is

zero. Hence from Newtons second law in the

x direction,

X

Fx = F cos m g sin = 0 .

Therefore

F cos = m g sin

m g sin

F =

cos

(4.1 kg) (9.81 m/s2 ) sin 33

F =

cos 33

= 26.1198 N .

3.3 kg

What is the magnitude of the acceleration

a of the two masses?

Correct answer: 6.10189 m/s2 .

Explanation:

Given : m1 = 2 kg and

m2 = 3.3 kg .

Basic Concept: Newtons Second Law

T

T

m1

N

11

m2

m1 g

F =Ma

m2 g

Let the direction of acceleration as indicated in the figure be positive. The net force

on the system is simply the weight of m2 .

Fnet = m2 g = 32.34 N .

From Newtons second law,

Fnet = m2 g = (m1 + m2 ) a .

Solving for a,

m2

a=

g

m1 + m2

3.3 kg

=

2 kg + 3.3 kg

= 6.10189 m/s2 .

026 10.0 points

Two blocks are arranged at the ends of a massless string as shown in the figure. The system

starts from rest. When the 3.09 kg mass has

fallen through 0.442 m, its downward speed is

1.35 m/s.

The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .

from the equation

v 2 v02 = 2 a (s s0 )

v 2 v02

2h

(1.35 m/s)2 (0 m/s)2

=

2 (0.442 m)

= 2.06165 m/s2 .

a=

masses

N

T

N

m2 g

m1 g

a

Because m1 and m2 are tied together with

string, they have same the speed and the same

acceleration, so the net force exerted on m2 is

4.54 kg

F2 = m2 a

3.09 kg

What is the frictional force between the

4.54 kg mass and the table?

Correct answer: 14.5516 N.

Explanation:

Given : m1

m2

v0

v

= 3.09 kg ,

= 4.54 kg ,

= 0 m/s , and

= 1.35 m/s .

that T = m1 g m1 a.

Thus

F2 = T fk ,

fk = T F2

= m1 g (m1 + m2 ) a

= (3.09 kg) (9.8 m/s2 )

(3.09 kg + 4.54 kg)

(2.06165 m/s2 )

= 14.5516 N .

12

(A considerable difference)

027 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points

A car is traveling at 35.9 mi/h on a horizontal

highway.

The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .

If the coefficient of friction between road

and tires on a rainy day is 0.12, what is the

minimum distance in which the car will stop?

(1 mi = 1.609)

A descent vehicle landing on the moon has

a vertical velocity toward the surface of the

moon of 29.9 m/s. At the same time, it has a

horizontal velocity of 55.7 m/s.

At what speed does the vehicle move along

its descent path?

Explanation:

Newtons second law in the direction of

motion gives

Explanation:

Let :

fk = k mg = ma

vv = 29.9 m/s ,

vh = 55.7 m/s .

and

Solving for a

a = k g

(1)

vh

following kinematics equation with vf = 0:

vv

v02

(2)

2x

Combining equations (1) and (2), we obtain

a=

v02

2x

= k g

or solving for x,

v02

2k g

xwet =

so

v=

=

x=

m/s)2

(16.0453

= 109.461 m

2(0.12) (9.8 m/s2 )

What is the stopping distance when the surface is dry and dry = 0.631?

Correct answer: 20.8167 m.

Explanation:

vh2 + vv2

(55.7 m/s)2 + (29.9 m/s)2

= 63.2179 m/s .

At what angle with the vertical is its path?

Correct answer: 61.7729 .

Explanation:

vh is the side opposite and vv is the side

adjacent to the angle, so

tan =

vh

vv

= arctan

xdry =

m/s)2

(16.0453

= 20.8167 m

2(0.631) (9.8 m/s2 )

vh

vv

= 61.7729 .

= arctan

55.7 m/s

29.9 m/s

031 (part 1 of 2) 0.0 points

A child rides a toboggan down a hill that

descends at an angle of 19.1 to the horizontal.

The hill is 20.4 m long.

What is the horizontal component of the

childs displacement?

Let :

d = 31.8 m

= 18.0 .

13

and

d

Explanation:

Let :

d = 20.4 m and

= 19.1 .

= 30.2436 m .

d

y

034 (part 2 of 2) 0.0 points

How far does it move vertically?

= 19.277 m .

Explanation:

y = d sin = (31.8 m) sin 18

What is the vertical component of the childs

displacement?

Correct answer: 6.67525 m.

Explanation:

y = d sin = (20.4 m) sin(19.1 )

= 6.67525 m .

033 (part 1 of 2) 0.0 points

A roller coaster travels 31.8 m at an angle of

18.0 above the horizontal.

How far does it move horizontally?

Correct answer: 30.2436 m.

Explanation:

= 9.82674 m .

035 0.0 points

When the Sun is directly overhead, a hawk

dives toward the ground at a speed of

4.92 m/s.

If the direction of his motion is at an angle

of 24.6 below the horizontal, calculate the

speed of his shadow along the ground.

Correct answer: 4.47344 m/s.

Explanation:

Let :

v = 4.92 m/s

= 24.6 .

and

ground will be equal to the horizontal projection of the velocity of the hawk:

14

Explanation:

u = v cos = (4.92 m/s) cos 24.6 = 4.47344 m/s .

= 12 and

a = 4.4 m/s2 .

Let :

036 0.0 points

Bob heads out into a lake at an angle of 29

with respect to the shore.

If his boat is capable of a speed of 2 m/s,

how far from land will he be in 4 min and

39 s ?

ax

ay

Explanation:

Let v be the rate at which the boat is moving away from the shore.

= 4.30385 m/s2 .

2m

/s

v

038 (part 2 of 2) 0.0 points

What is the vertical component of the skiers

acceleration?

29

moving away from the shore at less than

this speed. The boats speed vboat is the

hypotenuse of a right triangle with v the side

opposite the angle , so

sin =

Explanation:

ay = a sin = (4.4 m/s2 ) sin(12 )

= 0.914812 m/s2 .

vboat

v = vboat sin

and

(d = v t = vboat sin ) t

= (2 m/s)(sin 29 )(279 s)

= 270.524 m .

037 (part 1 of 2) 0.0 points

A skier squats low and races down a 12

ski slope. During a 7 s interval, the skier

accelerates at 4.4 m/s2 .

What is the horizontal component of the

skiers acceleration (perpendicular to the direction of free fall)?

2

Two airplanes leave an airport at the same

time. The velocity of the first airplane is

660 m/h at a heading of 56.5 . The velocity

of the second is 570 m/h at a heading of 139 .

How far apart are they after 2.2 h?

Correct answer: 1790.39 m.

Explanation:

Let :

v1

1

v2

2

= 660 m/h ,

= 56.5 ,

= 570 m/h ,

= 139 .

and

Under constant velocity, the displacement

for each plane in the time t is

Let :

d = v t.

These displacements form two sides of a triangle with the angle

= 2 1 = 82.5

A = 11.8 km ,

B = 28.7 km ,

= 71.7 .

15

and

SAS, so the distance between the planes is

q

d = d21 + d22 2 d1 d2 cos .

Since

= 4.75324 105 m2 , then

R2 = A2 + B 2 2 A B cos .

Since

2AB cos = 2 (11.8 km)(28.7 km) cos 108.3

= 212.674 km2 , then

q

R = (11.8 km)2 + (28.7 km)2 + 212.674 km2

= 34.2871 km .

d = (1452 m)2 + (1254 m)2

4.75324 105 m2

= 1790.39 m .

1/2

A car travels 11.8 km due north and then

28.7 km in a direction = 71.7 west of

north.

Calculate the direction of the cars resultant displacement, measured counterclockwise from the northerly direction.

Correct answer: 52.6285 .

Explanation:

Applying the Law of Sines,

N

W

sin

sin

=

B

R

B

28.7 km

sin =

sin =

sin 108.3

R

34.2871 km

= 0.794716

= arcsin 0.794716 = 52.6285 .

E

S

y

B

displacement.

A person walks 33 m East and then walks

37 m at an angle 45 North of East.

What is the magnitude of the total displacement?

Explanation:

Explanation:

Let :

Ra = 33 m ,

Rb = 37 m ,

= 45 .

and

the two displacements, so

Rx = Ra + Rb cos = 33 m + (37 m) cos 45

= 59.163 m and

Ry = Rb sin = (37 m) sin 45 = 26.1629 m .

~ has a magnitude of 12 and points

Vector A

~ has a

in the positive x-direction. Vector B

magnitude of 17 and makes an angle of 29

with the positive x-axis.

~ B?

~

What is the magnitude of A

Correct answer: 8.72669.

Explanation:

B

q

R = Rx2 + Ry2

q

= (59.163 m)2 + (26.1629 m)2

= 64.6897 m .

AB

A

~ along the x-axis

The component of vector B

Bx = B cos = 17 cos 29 = 14.8685

and the component along the y-axis is

By = B sin = 17 sin 29 = 8.24176 .

~ points in the x-direction, so it has

Vector A

no component along y-axis, so

Explanation:

~ = (2.3, 3.7) ,

A

~ = (3.4, 1.9) ,

B

A

AB

is

~ B,

~ and C

~ have the following

Three vectors A,

x and y components: Ax = 2.3, Ay = 3.7;

Bx = 3.4, By = 1.9; Cx = 1.6, Cy = 7.3.

~ +B

~ +C

~ ?

What is the magnitude of A

Given :

16

and

~ B)

~ x = Ax B x

(A

= 12 14.8685 = 2.86854 ,

~ = (1.6, 7.3) .

C

~ =A

~ +B

~ + C.

~ The x component o f

Let D

~

D is

Dx = Ax +Bx +Cx = 2.3+(3.4) +1.6 = 0.5

~ B)

~ y = Ay B y

(A

= 0 8.24176 = 8.24176 ,

and

~ is

and the y component of D

Dy = Ay + By + Cy = 3.7 + 1.9 + 7.3 = 5.5 .

~ +B

~ +C

~ is given by

Thus the magnitude of A

q

D = Dx2 + Dy2

p

= 0.52 + 5.52

= 5.52268 .

~ Bk

~ =

kA

(2.86854)2 + (8.24176)2

= 8.72669 .

A particle has ~r(0) = (4 m) and ~v (0) =

(2 m/s).

If its acceleration is constant and given by

~a = (2 m/s2 ) ( +), at what time t does the

particle first cross the x axis?

Correct answer: 2 s.

Explanation:

~r (t) = ~r (0) + ~v (0) t +

1 2

~a t ,

2

17

A particle travels horizontally between two

parallel walls separated by 18.4 m. It moves

toward the opposing wall at a constant rate

of 7.4 m/s. Also, it has an acceleration in the

direction parallel to the walls of 3.9 m/s2 .

so

~r (t) = (4 m) + (2 m/s) t

2

+(1 m/s ) ( + ) t

3.9 m/s2

+[4 m (1 m/s2 ) t2 ]

7.4 m/s

18.4 m

opposing wall?

4 m (1 m/s2 ) t2 = 0

(1 m/s2 ) t2 = 4 m

t= 2s .

Explanation:

046 (part 2 of 2) 0.0 points

At what time t is the particle moving parallel

to the y axis; that is, in the direction?

Let :

Correct answer: 1 s.

d = 18.4 m ,

vx = 7.4 m/s ,

a = 3.9 m/s2 .

Explanation:

vx

~v(t) =

d~r

= ~v (0) + ~a t ,

dt

vf

1 2

~a t

2

so

a

vy

= [(2 m/s) (2 m/s2 ) t]

(2 m/s ) t

2 m/s (2 m/s2 ) t = 0

t= 1s .

the y-axis.

d

The horizontal motion will carry the particle to the opposite wall, so

d = vx tf

18.4 m

d

=

= 2.48649 s

tf =

vx

7.4 m/s

is the time for the particle to reach the opposite wall.

Horizontally, the particle reaches the maximum parallel distance when it hits the oppod

site wall at the time of t =

, so the final

vx

parallel velocity vy is

vy = a t =

Explanation:

Let :

g = 9.8 m/s2 ,

vx0 = 0 , and

a = 1.8 m/s2 ,

= 36 .

ad

(3.9 m/s2 ) (18.4 m)

=

vx

7.4 m/s

= 9.6973 m/s .

other, so the resultant velocity is

q

vf = vx2 + vy2

q

= (7.4 m/s)2 + (9.6973 m/s)2

= 12.1983 m/s .

At what angle with the wall will the particle

strike?

18

and

vt

vyt

36

vxt

vyt = vy0 g t

and the horizontal velocity is

vxt = vy0 + a t = a t .

Explanation:

When the particle strikes the wall, the vertical component is the side adjacent and the

horizontal component is the side opposite the

angle, so

tan =

and the horizontal component the adjacent

side to the angle, so

vyt

vy g t

= 0

vxt

at

a t tan = vy0 g t

a t tan + g t = vy0

tan =

vx

vy

vx

= arctan

vy

7.4 m/s

= arctan

= 37.3472 .

9.6973 m/s

Initially (at time t = 0) a particle is moving vertically at 6.5 m/s and horizontally at

0 m/s. Its horizontal acceleration is 1.8 m/s2 .

At what time will the particle be traveling

at 36 with respect to the horizontal? The

acceleration due to gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .

t=

=

vy0

a tan + g

(1.8

m/s2 )

6.5 m/s

tan(36 ) + 9.8 m/s2

= 0.585176 s .

A cannon fires a 0.499 kg shell with initial

velocity vi = 9.5 m/s in the direction = 50

above the horizontal.

19

t.

9.

5m

/s

h

y

50

x

The shells trajectory curves downward because of gravity, so at the time t = 0.343 s

the shell is below the straight line by some

vertical distance h.

Find this distance h in the absence of

air resistance. The acceleration of gravity is

9.8 m/s2 .

Correct answer: 0.57648 m.

x

= t vi cos ,

y = t vi sin .

The gravity does not affect the x coordinate

of the shell, but it does pull its y coordinate

downware at a constant acceleration ay = g,

so

x = t vi cos ,

g t2

.

2

1

Thus, x = x

but y = y gt2 ; in other words,

2

the shell deviates from the straight-line path

by the vertical distance

h = y y =

During World War I, the Germans had a gun

called Big Bertha that was used to shell Paris.

The shell had an initial speed of 1.47 km/s at

an initial inclination of 65.1 to the horizontal.

The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .

How far away did the shell hit?

Correct answer: 168.417 km.

Explanation:

The range R is given by

v02

sin(2 0 )

g

(1470 m/s)2

sin 130.2

=

2

9.8 m/s

= 168.417 km .

R=

Explanation:

In the absence of gravity, the shell would fly

along the straight line at constant velocity:

y = t vi sin

g t2

2

(9.8 m/s2 ) (0.343 s)2

=

2

= 0.57648 m .

h =

g t2

.

2

Note: This result is completely independent of the initial velocity vi or angle of the

How long was it in the air?

Correct answer: 272.113 s.

Explanation:

The time in the air is

t=

R

v0x

R

v0 cos 0

1.68417 105 m

=

(1470 m/s) cos 65.1

= 272.113 s .

=

A 1.8 tall basketball player attempts a goal

13.1 from the basket that is 3.05 high.

20

v0

2

1

x

g

2

vi cos

g (x)2

41

= x tan

2 vi2 cos2

3.05 m

1.8 m

g (x)2

= x tan y

2 vi2 cos2

13.1 m

s

If he shoots the ball at a 41 angle, at what

g (x)2

v

=

i

initial speed must he throw the basketball so

2 (cos )2 (x tan y)

that it goes through the hoop without striking

the backboard? The acceleration of gravity is

Since

9.81 m/s2 .

x tan y

Correct answer: 12.0737 m/s.

= (13.1 m) tan 41 1.25 m

Explanation:

= 10.1377 m , then

Let :

x = 13.1 m ,

= 41 , and

g = 9.81 m/s2 .

1.8 m

3.05 m

13.1 m

The horizontal motion defines the time:

x = vi cos t

x

.

t =

vi cos

Then vertically,

1

y = vi sin t g (t)2

2

x

y = vi sin

vi cos

vi =

g (x)2

2 cos2 (x tan y)

(9.81 m/s2 ) (13.1 m)2

2 cos2 41 (10.1377 m)

= 12.0737 m/s .

054 0.0 points

To win the game, a place kicker must kick a

football from a point 15 m (16.404 yd) from

the goal, and the ball must clear the crossbar,

which is 3.05 m high. When kicked, the ball

leaves the ground with a speed of 14 m/s at

an angle of 56.9 from the horizontal.

The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .

By how much vertical distance does the ball

clear the crossbar?

Correct answer: 1.0985 m.

Explanation:

First, compute the components of the initial velocity.

vx = v cos

= (14 m/s) cos 56.9

= 7.64542 m/s ,

vy = v sin

= (14 m/s) sin 56.9

= 11.7281 m/s .

We can find the time required for the ball

to reach the position of the crossbar from

x = vx t as

t=

x

vx

15 m

7.64542 m/s

= 1.96196 s .

the ground is

1 2

gt

2

= (11.7281 m/s)(1.96196 s)

1

(9.8 m/s2 )(1.96196 s)2

2

= 4.1485 m .

y = vy t

Let :

21

F1 + F2 = 327 N and

F1 F2 = 130 N .

F1 + F2 = 327 N

F1 + F2 = 130 N

2 F2 = 457 N

457 N

F2 =

= 228.5 N .

2

056 (part 2 of 2) 0.0 points

What is the magnitude of the smaller of the

individual forces?

Correct answer: 98.5 N.

Explanation:

F1 = 327 N F2

y = 4.1485 m 3.05 m

= 1.0985 m .

055 (part 1 of 2) 0.0 points

Two lifeguards pull on ropes attached to a

raft. If they pull in the same direction, the raft

experiences a net external force of 327 N to

the right. If they pull in opposite directions,

the raft experiences a net external force of

130 N to the left.

Draw a free body diagram for each situation

and find the magnitude of the larger of the two

individual forces.

An elevator starts from rest with a constant

upward acceleration and moves 1 m in the first

1.7 s. A passenger in the elevator is holding a

3.7 kg bundle at the end of a vertical cord.

What is the tension in the cord as the elevator accelerates? The acceleration of gravity

is 9.8 m/s2 .

Correct answer: 38.8206 N.

Explanation:

h = 1 m,

t = 1.7 s ,

m = 3.7 kg ,

Explanation:

~ net = F

~1 + F

~2 ;

F

~ 2 must be applied to the left

the larger force F

in the second situation.

F1

F2

F2 F1

T

g

aelevator

mg

Let h be the distance traveled and a the

acceleration of the elevator. Since the initial

velocity is zero,

h = v0 t +

1 2 1 2

at = at

2

2

2h

.

t2

The equation describing the forces acting on

the bundle is

22

A 2.8 kg particle starts from rest and moves a

distance of 3 m in 2.4 s under the action of a

single, constant force.

Find the magnitude of the force.

a=

Explanation:

Basic Concept:

Fnet = m a = T m g

2h

T = m (g + a) = m g + 2

t

2 (1 m)

2

= (3.7 kg) 9.8 m/s +

(1.7 s)2

= 38.8206 N .

A 6.1 kg block initially at rest is pulled to the

right along a horizontal, frictionless surface

by a constant, horizontal force of 15.8 N.

Find the speed of the block after it has

moved 4.5 m.

Correct answer: 4.8282 m/s.

m = 6.1 kg ,

F = 15.8 N ,

x = 4.5 m .

and

F

15.8 N

a=

=

m

6.1 kg

= 2.59016 m/s2 .

Since the force is constant, the acceleration is

constant. We find the final speed of the block

using the equation

vf =

=

v02 + 2 a (xf x0 )

2 (2.59016 m/s2 ) (4.5 m)

= 4.8282 m/s .

vf2 = vi2 + 2 a x

Solution:

Since vi = 0,

vf 2 = 2 a x

a 2 t2 = 2 a x

a 2 t2 2 a x = 0

a(a t2 2 x) = 0

2x

a= 2

t

The solution a = 0 must be ignored.

From Newtons second law, the force on the

particle is

Explanation:

Let :

vf = vi + a t

F = ma

2mx

= 2

t

2 (2.8 kg) (3 m)

=

2.4 s2

= 2.91667 N

A 2.1 kg otter starts from rest at the top of a

muddy incline 96.7 cm long and slides down

to the bottom in 0.40 s.

What net external force acts on the otter

along the incline?

Correct answer: 25.3837 N.

Explanation:

Solution:

Basic Concepts:

~ net = F

~ = m~a

F

FT = ma + Fg

= ma + mg

= (4.5 kg) 3.6 m/s2

1

x = a(t)2

2

since vi = 0 m/s.

Given:

= 60.345 N

m = 2.1 kg

x = 96.7 cm = 0.97 m

t = 0.40 s

upward.

062 (part 1 of 3) 0.0 points

A 3 kg object is subjected to two forces, F~1 =

(1.8 N) + (1.6 N) and F~2 = (4.7 N) +

(11.6 N) . The object is at rest at the origin

at time t = 0.

What is the magnitude of the objects acceleration?

Solution:

2x

(t)2

2(0.967 m)

=

(0.4 s)2

= 12.0875 m/s2

a=

Fnet = (2.1 kg) 12.0875 m/s2

= 25.3837 N

Explanation:

Let :

A 4.5 kg bucket of water is raised from a well

by a rope.

The acceleration of gravity is 9.81 m/s2 .

If the upward acceleration of the bucket is

3.6 m/s2 , find the force exerted by the rope

on the bucket of water.

Correct answer: 60.345 N.

Explanation:

FT

23

3.6 m/s2

Fg

Note: Figure is not drawn to scale.

Basic Concept:

Fnet = ma = FT Fg

~ 1 = (1.8 N) + (1.6 N) ,

F

~ 2 = (4.7 N) + (11.6 N) ,

F

~vo = 0 m/s .

and

~ net = m~a = F

~1 + F

~ 2 , so

F

~ net

F

m

~

~2

F1 + F

=

m

(1.8 N + 4.7 N) + (1.6 N + (11.6 N))

=

3 kg

2

= 2.16667 m/s + 4.4 m/s2 .

~a =

k~ak =

= 4.90453 m/s2 .

Given:

m = 4.5 kg

a = 3.6 m/s2

g = 9.81 m/s2

What is the magnitude of the velocity at t =

3.2 s ?

Correct answer: 15.6945 m/s.

Explanation:

Let :

t = 3.2 s .

~v = ~vo + ~a t = ~a t

h

i

2

2

= 2.16667 m/s + 4.4 m/s (3.2 s)

= (6.93333 m/s) + (14.08 m/s) .

|~v | =

= 15.6945 m/s .

064 (part 3 of 3) 0.0 points

What is the magnitude of the objects position

at t = 3.2 s ?

24

Explanation:

Basic Concepts:

X

~ = m~a

F

~ = m~g

W

Solution: Since W = m g,

Fnet = ma = W f

f = W ma

a

=W 1

g

2.7 m/s2

= (0.9 kN) 1

9.8 m/s2

= 0.652041 kN .

066 (part 1 of 2) 0.0 points

A child holds a sled on a frictionless, snowcovered hill, inclined at an angle of 31 .

F

Explanation:

~vavg =

76

31

~v

~vo + ~v

=

2

2

~r = ~vavg t

1

= ~v t

2

i

1h

= (6.93333 m/s) + (14.08 m/s) (3.2 s)

2

= (11.0933 m) + (22.528 m) .

|~r | =

If the sled weighs 76 N, find the force exerted on the rope by the child.

Correct answer: 39.1429 N.

Explanation:

Given :

= 25.1112 m .

065 0.0 points

A person weighing 0.9 kN rides in an elevator

that has a downward acceleration of 2.7 m/s2 .

The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .

What is the magnitude of the force of the

elevator floor on the person?

and

block

F

m

Correct answer: 0.652041 kN.

W = 76 N

= 31 .

i

gs

n

W

os

gc

Fnet = T W sin = 0

62

48 N

for the sled: The weight of the sled has components W sin acting down the hill and W cos

acting straight into the hill.

The system is in equilibrium, so for forces

parallel to the hill,

5N

Explanation:

Observe the free-body diagram below.

59

X

X

Fnet =

Fout

Fin = 0

at an angle of 50 ?

.6

and consider the forces parallel to the hill,

X

X

Fnet =

Fup

Fdown = 0

25

40.2768 N

48 N

= T = W sin

= (76 N) sin 31

= 39.1429 N

40.2768 N

What force is exerted on the sled by the hill?

Correct answer: 65.1447 N.

Explanation:

For forces perpendicular to the hill,

Fnet = N W cos = 0

= N = W cos

= (76 N) cos 31

= 65.1447 N

068 (part 1 of 2) 0.0 points

Consider the 48 N weight held by two cables

shown below. The left-hand cable is horizontal.

50

48 N

Scale: 10 N

Note: The sum of the x- and

y-components of T1 , T2 , and

Wg are equal to zero.

Given : Wg = 48 N and

= 50 .

Basic Concept: Vertically, we have

Fy,net = F1 sin Wg = 0

Solution:

F1 (sin ) = Wg

Wg

F1 =

sin

48 N

=

sin 50

= 62.6595 N

50

069 (part 2 of 2) 0.0 points

b) What is the tension in the horizontal cable?

26

vectors are the components of the slanted

forces.

Explanation:

Basic Concept: Horizontally,

F2

F1

Fx,net = F1 cos F2 = 0

Solution:

X

Fx = F1x + F2x + F3x = 0

F2 = F1 cos

Wg cos

=

sin

(48 N) cos 50

=

sin 50

= 40.2768 N

F1x = F2 cos 2 0

= (5.1 N) cos 57

= 2.77766 N and

The 5.6 N weight is in equilibrium under the

influence of the three forces acting on it. The

F force acts from above on the left at an angle

of with the horizontal. The 5.1 N force acts

from above on the right at an angle of 57 with

the horizontal. The force 5.6 N acts straight

down.

57

5.6 N

What is the magnitude of the force F ?

Correct answer: 3.07655 N.

Explanation:

Standard angular measurements are from

the positive x-axis in a counter-clockwise direction.

Let :

F1y = F2 sin 2 F3

= (5.1 N) sin 57 (5.6 N)

= 1.32278 N , and

q

2 + F2

F1x

1y

q

= (2.77766 N)2 + (1.32278 N)2

F1 =

= 3.07655 N .

5. 1

F3

F1

F2

2

F3

=F,

= 5.1 N ,

= 57 , and

= 5.6 N .

What is the angle of the force F as shown

in the figure?

Correct answer: 25.4648 .

Explanation:

1 = arctan

= 154.535

F1y

F1x

= arctan

1.32278 N

2.77766 N

= 180 1 = 180 154.535

= 25.4648 .

072 (part 1 of 2) 0.0 points

An object in equilibrium has three forces exerted on it. A(n) 25 N force acts at 71.6 , and

a(n) 54 N force acts at 60.2 .

What is the direction of the third force?

(Consider all angles to be measured counterclockwise from the positive x-axis.)

Correct answer: 243.802.

Explanation:

Basic Concepts:

Choose a coordinate system with the positive x-axis representing 0 and the positive

y-axis representing 90 .

Any force F has an x-component of Fx =

F cos and a y-component of Fy = F sin

where is measured from the x-axis.

Solution:

Since F1 and F2 act up and to the right, the

force F must act down and to the left, so F

lies in the third quadrant.

ref

F1 sin 1 + F2 sin 2

F1 cos 1 + F2 cos 2

F1 cos 1 + F2 2

= arctan

F1 cos 1 + F2 cos 2

tan =

ref

quadrant, and

F1 sin 1 + F2 sin 2

= (25 N) sin 71.6 + (54 N) sin 60.2

= 70.5813 N

and

F2 cos 1 + F2 cos 2

= (25 N) cos 71.6 + (54 N) cos 60.2

= 34.7278 N , then

= 180 + ref

70.5813 N

= 180 + arctan

34.7278 N

= 78.6621 N

F1

1

27

F2

What is the magnitude of the third force?

FyN et = Fup Fdown = 0

F1y + F2y Fy = 0

F1 sin 1 + F2 sin 2 F sin = 0

F sin ref = F1 sin 1 + F2 sin 2

(1)

FxN et = Fright Flef t = 0

F1x + F2x Fx = 0

F1 cos 1 + F2 cos 2 F cos = 0

F cos ref = F1 cos 1 + F2 cos 2

Dividing (1) by (2), we have

F1 sin 1 + F2 sin 2

F sin

=

F cos

F1 cos 1 + F2 cos 2

(2)

Explanation:

From equation (1),

F1 cos 1 + F2 cos 2

F =

cos 2

(25 N) cos 71.6 + (54 N) cos 60.2

=

cos 2

= 243.802

Your car is stuck in a mud hole. You are alone,

but you have a long, strong rope. Having

studied physics, you tie the rope tautly to a

telephone pole and pull on it sideways at the

midpoint, as shown.

28

car when the angle is 3 and you are pulling

with a force of 392 N but the car does not

move.

On takeoff, the combined action of the engines

and wings of an airplane exerts a(n) 7210 N

force on the plane, directed upward at an

angle of 62.3 above the horizontal. The plane

rises with constant velocity in the vertical

direction while continuing to accelerate in the

horizontal direction.

The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .

What is the weight of the plane?

Explanation:

Explanation:

The plane moves with constant velocity in

the vertical direction, so the sum of the vertical components of the forces equal zero.

392 N 3

27 m

Let : F = 392 N ,

= 3 , and

= 27 m .

so

X

Fy = m ay ,

2 T sin F = 0

F

2 sin

kN

392 N

2 sin 3 1000 N

= 3.74504 kN .

T =

Wplane = F sin

= (7210 N) sin 62.3

= 6383.69 N.

077 (part 2 of 2) 0.0 points

What is its horizontal acceleration a?

Correct answer: 5.14511 m/s2 .

Explanation:

The mass of the plane is

m=

Wplane

g

075 (part 2 of 2) 0.0 points

How strong must the rope be if it takes a force

of 608 N to move the car when is 3.1 ?

a=

=

Explanation:

Let :

=

= 3.1 .

F

2 sin

kN

608 N

=

2 sin 3.1 1000 N

= 5.62143 kN .

T =

Fx

m

F cos

Wplane

g

F g cos

Wplane

6383.69 N

= 5.14511 m/s2 .

Three masses are connected by light strings

as shown in the figure.

29

so

m1 + m2 + m3

g

a=

m1 + m2 + m3

1.7 kg + 4.26 kg + 2.08 kg

=

1.7 kg + 4.26 kg + 2.08 kg

(9.8 m/s2 )

m2

= 5.65572 m/s2 .

m1

m3

The string connecting the m1 and the m2

passes over a light frictionless pulley.

Given m1 = 1.7 kg, m2 = 4.26 kg, m3 =

2.08 kg, and g = 9.8 m/s2 . The acceleration

of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .

Find the downward acceleration of m2

mass.

Correct answer: 5.65572 m/s2 .

Find the tension in the string connecting the

m1 and the m2 masses.

Correct answer: 26.2747 N.

Explanation:

From equation (1),

T1 = m1 (a + g)

= (1.7 kg) 5.65572 m/s2 + 9.8 m/s2

= 26.2747 N .

Explanation:

Consider the free body diagrams:

Find the tension in the string connecting the

m2 and the m3 masses.

Correct answer: 8.6201 N.

Explanation:

From equation (3),

T1

m2

T2

a

T2 = m3 (g a)

T1

m1

m3

= 8.6201 N .

these masses we get

m1 a = T1 m1 g

m2 a = T2 + m2 g T1

m3 a = m3 g T2

(1)

(2)

(3)

At a instant when a 5.7 kg object has an

acceleration equal to ~a = (ax + ay ), where

ax = 6.8 m/s2 , ay = 1.2 m/s2 , one of the

two forces acting on the object is known to

be ~f1 = (f1x + f1y ), where f1x = 19 N,

f1y = 26 N.

Determine the magnitude f2 of the other

force acting on the object.

Correct answer: 27.5239 N.

(m1 + m2 + m3 ) a = (m1 + m2 + m3 ) g ,

Explanation:

Basic Concept:

X

F = ma

30

Solution:

Let : m1 = 2 kg ,

m2 = 4 kg ,

m3 = 4 kg ,

= 0.13 .

F

~f1 + ~f2 = F

~ net , so

~f2 = F

~ net ~f1

= (max f1x ) + (may f1y )

each mass is the same, but the tensions in the

two strings will be different.

f2 =

Fnet = m a 6= 0

There is friction between the block and the

table.

The suspended 2 kg mass on the left is

moving up, the 4 kg mass slides to the right

on the table, and the suspended mass 4 kg on

the right is moving down.

The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .

string and T2 be the tension in the right string.

Consider the free body diagrams for each

mass

T1

N

T1

N

m1 g

T2

T2

m2 g

m3 g

4 kg

m1 g acts down, with the acceleration a directed upward, so

= 0.13

Fnet1 = m1 a = T1 m1 g .

2 kg

4 kg

of the system?

Correct answer: 1.4504 m/s2 .

a

(1)

the right, T2 acts to the right, T1 acts to the

left, and the motion is to the right so that the

frictional force m2 g acts to the left and

Fnet2 = m2 a = T2 T1 m2 g .

(2)

m3 g acts down, with the acceleration a directed downward, so

Fnet3 = m3 a = m3 g T2 .

Explanation:

(3)

(m1 + m2 + m3 ) a = m3 g m2 g m1 g

m2

m3 m2 m1

g

m1 + m2 + m3

4 kg (0.13) (4 kg) 2 kg

=

2 kg + 4 kg + 4 kg

(9.8 m/s2 )

a=

m1

and

m3

= 1.4504 m/s2 .

083 (part 1 of 2) 0.0 points

A block weighing 9.3 N requires a force of

3.9 N to push it along at constant velocity.

What is the coefficient of friction for the

surface?

Correct answer: 0.419355.

Explanation:

Constant velocity implies the system is in

equilibrium. Thus

Fright = Flef t

f1 W1

=

0.419355

= 1.90769 N .

W=

Two blocks are arranged at the ends of a massless cord over a frictionless massless pulley as

shown in the figure. Assume the system starts

from rest. When the masses have moved a distance of 0.36 m, their speed is 1.33 m/s.

The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .

F = N . Friction always opposes the motion, and acts in the opposite direction of the

motion.

Consider the free body diagram:

31

4.2 kg

W1

2.7 kg

W1

The normal force is W1 , so

f W1 = 0

3.9 N

f

=

= 0.419355 .

=

W1

9.3 N

084 (part 2 of 2) 0.0 points

A weight W is now placed on the block and

4.7 N is needed to push them both at constant

velocity.

What is the weight W of the block?

Correct answer: 1.90769 N.

Explanation:

Consider the free body diagram:

f1

m2 and the table?

Correct answer: 0.231002.

Explanation:

Given :

m1 = 2.7 kg ,

m2 = 4.2 kg ,

s = 0.36 m ,

v0 = 0 m/s .

and

F =Ma

from the equation

W1

v 2 v02 = 2 a (s s0 )

1N

The normal force is W1 + W, so

Fnet = f1 (W1 + W) = 0

f1 = W1 + W

v 2 v02

a=

2h

(1.33 m/s)2 (0 m/s)2

=

2 (0.36 m)

= 2.45681 m/s2 .

Consider free body diagrams for the two

masses

a

m2

T

T

m1

T is

T = m2 [a + g]

= (4.2 kg) [(2.45681 m/s2 )

+ (0.231002) (9.8 m/s2 )]

= 19.8266 N .

m2 g

m2 g

m1 g

N

which leads to

X

F1y : m1 a = m1 g T

X

F2x : m2 a = T fk

X

F2y : N = m2 g ,

1, = 0.231002, is verified.

(1)

(2)

(3)

Eq. 3, fk N = m2 g.

Because m1 and m2 are tied together with a

cord, they have same the speed and the same

acceleration. Adding Eqs. 1 & 2 we have

(m1 + m2 ) a = m1 g fk = m1 g m2 g

A 33 kg box rests on the back of a truck. The

coefficient of static friction between the box

and the truck bed is 0.351.

The acceleration of gravity is 9.81 m/s2 .

What maximum acceleration can the truck

have before the box slides backward?

Correct answer: 3.44331 m/s2 .

Explanation:

Basic Concept:

so that

m2 g = m1 g (m1 + m2 ) a .

Thus

m1 (m1 + m2 ) a

m2

m2

g

2.7 kg 2.7 kg + 4.2 kg

=

4.2 kg

4.2 kg

2.45681 m/s2

9.8 m/s2

= 0.231002 .

Fs,max = matruck,max = s mg

Given:

m = 33 kg

s = 0.351

g = 9.81 m/s2

What is the magnitude of the tension in the

cord?

Correct answer: 19.8266 N.

Explanation:

Using Eq. 1 the tension T is

T = m1 (g a)

= (2.7 kg) (9.8 m/s2 2.45681 m/s2 )

= 19.8266 N

32

in place, but if Fs,max < ma, then the box will

slide to the back of the truck bed. Thus

matruck,max = s mg

atruck,max = s g

= (0.351) 9.81 m/s2

= 3.44331 m/s2

forward.

088 0.0 points

A girl coasts down a hill on a sled, reaching

level ground at the bottom with a speed of

6.6 m/s. The coefficient of kinetic friction

between the sleds runners and the hard, icy

snow is 0.060, and the girl and sled together

weigh 768 N.

The acceleration of gravity is 9.81 m/s2 .

How far does the sled travel on the level

ground before coming to a rest?

33

The coefficient of static friction between the

4.41 kg crate and the 35.4 incline is 0.287.

The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .

Explanation:

vi = 6.6 m/s

1

4. 4

kg

k

Fk

768 N

Fn

Basic Concepts:

Fk = k Fn

Fx,net = max = Fk

0=

vi2

35.4

k = 0.06

the crate perpendicular to the incline to prevent the crate from sliding down the incline?

Correct answer: 52.0031 N.

+ 2ax

Explanation:

since vf = 0 m/s.

Given :

Given :

vi = 6.6 m/s ,

k = 0.060 ,

Fn = Fg = 768 N ,

and

g = 9.81 m/s .

Solution:

m = 4.41 kg ,

w = m g = (4.41 kg) (9.8 m/s2 ) = 43.218 N ,

= 35.4 , and

s = 0.287 .

block

F

m=

Fg

768 N

=

= 78.2875 kg

g

9.81 m/s2

k Fn

m

0.06(768 N)

=

78.2875 kg

= 0.5886 m/s2

ax =

Vertically,

X

mg

Fy = n Wy F = 0

vi2

x =

2ax

=

in

gs

s

co

N

g

m

=

m/s)2

(6.6

2 (0.5886 m/s2 )

= 37.0031 m .

n = Wy + F = m g cos + F

Horizontally,

X

Fx = m g sin fs = 0 ,

so the force of static friction is

fs = m g sin .

But

fs s N = s (m g cos + F )

m g sin s m g cos + s F

Thus

m g sin

m g cos

s

(4.41 kg) 9.8 m/s2 sin 35.4

=

0.287

(4.41 kg) 9.8 m/s2 cos 35.4

= 52.0031 N .

34

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