Sie sind auf Seite 1von 34

duong (ktd359) Homework 3 Spurlock (44103)

This print-out should have 89 questions.


Multiple-choice questions may continue on
the next column or page find all choices
before answering.

in random directions and lengths starting at


position (41 km, 41 km) ,
C

001 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points


A truck travels up a hill with a 13 incline.
The truck has a constant speed of 17 m/s.
What is the horizontal component of the
trucks velocity?

Correct answer: 16.5643 m/s.


Explanation:
Let :

v = 17 m/s
= 13 .

17

and

How far from the starting point is the hiker


after these four legs of the hike? All angles
are measured in a counter-clockwise direction
from the positive x-axis.

/s
vy

Correct answer: 26.5623 km.

13
vx

Explanation:

vx = v sin = (17 m/s) cos 13


= 16.5643 m/s .

002 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points


What is the vertical component of the trucks
velocity?

Let :

(x0 , y0 ) = (41 km, 41 km) .

Correct answer: 3.82417 m/s.


Explanation:
vy = v sin = (17 m/s) sin 13
= 3.82417 m/s .
003 10.0 points
A hiker makes four straight-line walks
A
B
C
D

27 km
33 km
25 km
23 km

at
at
at
at

277
75
164
234

ax
ay
bx
by
cx
cy
dx
dy

= (27 km) cos 277 = 3.29053 km ,


= (27 km) sin 277 = 26.7987 km ,
= (33 km) cos 75 = 8.54101 km ,
= (33 km) sin 75 = 31.8756 km ,
= (25 km) cos 164 = 24.0316 km ,
= (25 km) sin 164 = 6.8909 km ,
= (23 km) cos 234 = 13.519 km ,
= (23 km) sin 234 = 18.6074 km ,

duong (ktd359) Homework 3 Spurlock (44103)

15

151
A

7. 6

37

D
E

Find the magnitude of the third displacement.


Correct answer: 13.7849 m.
Explanation:

x = ax + bx + cx + dx
= 3.29053 km + (8.54101 km)
+ (24.0316 km) + (13.519 km)
= 25.719 km and
y = ay + by + cy + dy
= 26.7987 km + (31.8756 km)
+ (6.8909 km) + (18.6074 km)
= 6.63969 km ,

~ = 15 m ,
Let : kAk
a = 37 ,
~ = 7.6 m ,
kBk
B = 151 .

Scale: 10 km =

and

B
so the resultant is

(x)2 + (y)2

E=

(25.719 km)2 + (6.63969 km)2

= 26.5623 km .

004 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points


A particle undergoes three displacements.
The first has a magnitude of 15 m and makes
an angle of 37 with the positive x axis. The
second has a magnitude of 7.6 m and makes
an angle of 151 with the positive x axis. (see
the figure below).
After the third displacement the particle
returns to its initial position.

~ +B
~ +C
~ = 0,
A

so

~ = A
~ B
~
C

Cx = Ax Bx
= A cos A B cos b
= (15 m) cos 37 (7.6 m) cos 151
= 5.33242 m and
Cy = Ay Bx
= A sin A B sin b

duong (ktd359) Homework 3 Spurlock (44103)


= (15 m) sin 37 (7.6 m) sin 151
= 12.7118 m ,

Correct answer: 10.1385 m.

~ is
so the magnitude of C
q
~
kCk = Cx2 + Cy2
q
= (5.33242 m)2 + (12.7118 m)2

Explanation:

005 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points


Find the angle of the third displacement (measured from the positive x axis, with counterclockwise positive within the limits of 180
to +180 ).

The resultant is the diagonal of the parallelogram defined by the two displacements:

~ = 11 m ,
kAk
= 81 ,
~ = 9.8 m ,
kRk
= 139 .

Let :

and

= 13.7849 m .

Correct answer: 112.757 .

Explanation:

tan C =

R
Cy
Cx


Cy
C = arctan
C
 x

12.7118 m
= arctan
5.33242 m


~ =A
~ +B
~
R
~ =R
~ B
~ .
B

= 112.757 .

11 m

006 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points


A particle undergoes two displacements, measured from the positive x-axis, with counterclockwise positive. The first has a magnitude
of 11 m and makes an angle of 81 with the
positive x axis. The resultant displacement
has a magnitude of 9.8 m directed at an angle
of 139 from the positive x axis.

9.

139

81

The components of the second displace~ are


ment B
Bx = Rx Ax = R cos A cos
= (9.8 m) cos 139 (11 m) cos 81
= 9.11693 m and
By = Ry Ax = R sin A sin
= (9.8 m) sin 139 (11 m) sin 81
= 4.43519 m ,
~ is
so the magnitude of B
~ =
kBk
=

Find the magnitude of the second displacement.

Bx2 + By2
(9.11693 m)2 + (4.43519 m)2

= 10.1385 m .

duong (ktd359) Homework 3 Spurlock (44103)


007 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points
Find the angle of the second displacement
(measured from the positive x axis, with counterclockwise positive and within the limits of
180 to +180 ).
Correct answer: 154.058 .
Explanation:

tan =

Correct answer: 52.25 m/s.


Explanation:
Let : ay = 8.5 m/s2 and
vyo = 3 m/s .
~vy = ~vyo + ~ay t
= (3 m/s) + (8.5 m/s2 ) (6.5 s)

By
Bx

= (52.25 m/s) .


By
B
 x

4.43519 m
= arctan
9.11693 m

= arctan

= 154.058 .

010 (part 3 of 3) 10.0 points


What is the magnitude of the displacement
from the origin (x = 0 m, y = 0 m) after
6.5 s?
Correct answer: 182.277 m.

008 (part 1 of 3) 10.0 points


A particle moves in the xy plane with constant
acceleration. At time zero, the particle is
at x = 1.5 m, y = 5.5 m, and has velocity
~vo = (5 m/s) + (3 m/s) . The acceleration
is given by ~a = (2 m/s2 ) + (8.5 m/s2 ) .
What is the x component of velocity after
6.5 s?
Correct answer: 18 m/s.
Explanation:
Let :

ax = 2 m/s2 ,
vxo = 5 m/s , and
t = 6.5 s .

After 6.5 s,
~vx = ~vxo + ~ax t
= (5 m/s) + (2 m/s2 ) (6.5 s)
= (18 m/s) .
009 (part 2 of 3) 10.0 points
What is the y component of velocity after
6.5 s?

Explanation:
Let :

do = (1.5 m, 5.5 m) ,
vo = (5 m/s, 3 m/s) , and
a = (2 m/s2 , 8.5 m/s2 ) .

From the equation of motion,


~d = ~do + ~vo t + 1 a t2
2
h
i
= (1.5 m) + (5.5 m)

+ [(5 m/s) + (3 m/s) ] (6.5 s)


i
1h
+ (2 m/s2 ) + (8.5 m/s2 ) (6.5 s)2
2
= (76.25 m) + (165.562 m) , so
|~d| =
=

d2x + d2y
(76.25 m)2 + (165.562 m)2

= 182.277 m .
011 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points
A particle has an initial horizontal velocity
of 2.5 m/s and an initial upward velocity of

duong (ktd359) Homework 3 Spurlock (44103)


vy
vx
2.68 m/s
= arctan
11.11 m/s
= 11.4287 m/s

4.7 m/s. It is then given a horizontal acceleration of 2.1 m/s2 and a downward acceleration
of 1.8 m/s2 .
What is its speed after 4.1 s?

= arctan

Correct answer: 11.4287 m/s.


Explanation:
Basic Concepts:
The direction of the motion depends only
on the horizontal and vertical components of
the velocity at any moment.
Solution:
For the horizontal motion,
vx = v0x + ax t

= 2.5 m/s + 2.1 m/s2 (4.1 s)
= 11.11 m/s
For the vertical motion,
vy = v0y ay t


= 4.7 m/s 1.8 m/s2 (4.1 s)
= 2.68 m/s

A resultant negative velocity vy would indicate downward motion.


A right triangle is formed by the components, so
q
v = vx2 + vy2
q
= (11.11 m/s)2 + (2.68 m/s)2
= 11.4287 m/s

012 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points


What is the direction of its velocity at this
time with respect to the horizontal? Answer
between 180 and +180 .
Correct answer: 13.562 .

Explanation:
The vertical component vy is the side opposite the angle and the horizontal component
vx is the side adjacent to the angle, so
tan =

vy
vx

The angle must be in degrees and a positive


angle indicates upward motion while a negative angle indicates downward motion.
013 10.0 points
Assume: A 78 g basketball is launched at an
angle of 40.1 and a distance of 13.8 m from
the basketball goal. The ball is released at the
same height (ten feet) as the basketball goals
height.
A basketball player tries to make a long
jump-shot as described above.
The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .
What speed must the player give the ball?
Correct answer: 11.7151 m/s.
Explanation:
Basic concepts: Horizontally,
voh = v cos
vh = voh
d = voh t
Vertically,
vov = v sin
vv = vov g t

1 2
gt .
2
Solution: At the maximum range of the ball,
vf v = vov , so,
h = vov t

vov = vov g t
2 vov = g t
vov
.
t=2
g
The maximum distance covered is
d = voh t =

2 voh vov
g

duong (ktd359) Homework 3 Spurlock (44103)


d=

2 v cos v sin
g

v 2 (2 sin cos )
v 2 sin(2 )
d=
=
.
g
g
Thus the initial velocity is
s
dg
v=
sin[2 ]
s
(13.8 m) (9.8 m/s2 )
=
sin[2 (40.1 )]
= 11.7151 m/s .
014 10.0 points
A golf ball is hit at ground level. The ball is
observed to reach its maximum height above
ground level 7.9 s after being hit. 0.55 s after
reaching this maximum height, the ball is
observed to barely clear a fence that is 636 ft
from where it was hit.
The acceleration of gravity is 32 ft/s2 .
How high is the fence?
Correct answer: 993.72 ft.
Explanation:
Basic Concepts:
~v = ~v0 + ~a t
1
~s = ~s0 + ~v0 t + ~a t2
2
Solution
The golf ball reaches its maximum height
after t1 seconds, so
vy = 0 = vy0 g t1
vy0 = g t1
The ball barely clears the fence after t =
(t1 + t2 ) seconds, so
h = v0y t

1 2
gt
2

1
= (g t1 ) (t1 + t2 ) g (t1 + t2 )2
2

1
2
= g t1 + g t1 t2 g t21 + 2 t1 t2 + t22
2

= g t21 + g t1 t2

1 2
1
g t1 g t1 t2 g t22
2
2

1 2 1 2
gt gt
2 1 2 2

1 
= g t21 t22
2


1
= (32 ft/s2 ) (7.9 s)2 (0.55 s)2
2
= 993.72 ft .
=

Intuitive Reasoning: The time taken for


the ball to rise from the ground to the top
equals the time taken for the ball to fall from
the top to the ground. So the maximum
1
height is at y = h = g t21 . After reaching the
2
height h, the amount of the subsequent fall in
1
the time interval t2 is h = g t22 . So the y2
1
coordinate at t = t1 +t2 is hh = h g t22 .
2
015 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points
A car is parked on a cliff overlooking the
ocean on an incline that makes an angle of 16
below the horizontal. The negligent driver
leaves the car in neutral, and the emergency
brakes are defective. The car rolls from rest
down the incline with a constant acceleration
of 2.7 m/s2 and travels 43 m to the edge of
the cliff. The cliff is 34 m above the ocean.
How long is the car in the air? The acceleration of gravity is 9.81 m/s2 .
Correct answer: 2.23925 s.
Explanation:
Let :

= 16 ,
a = 2.7 m/s2 ,
d = 43 m ,
y = 34 m , and
g = 9.81 m/s2 .

The car is allowed to accelerate at a rate of


2.7 m/s2 for a distance of 43 m, so
vb2 = vt2 + 2 a d

vb = 2 a d
q
= 2(2.7 m/s2 )(43 m) = 15.2381 m/s .

duong (ktd359) Homework 3 Spurlock (44103)


The car leaves the cliff at the same angle as
the road, so

vb,y = vb sin = (15.2381 m/s) sin(16 )
= 4.20019 m/s and
vb,x = vb cos = (15.2381 m/s) cos(16 )
= 14.6478 m/s .
The vertical motion defines the time:
1
y = g t2 vb,y t
2
0 = g t2 + 2 vb,y t + 2 y
q
2 8 y g
2 vb,y 4 vb,y
t=
2g
q
2 2 y g
vb,y + vb,y
=
.
g

017 10.0 points


Two men decide to use their cars to pull a
truck stuck in mud. They attach ropes and
one pulls with a force of 699 N at an angle
of 26 with respect to the direction in which
the truck is headed, while the other car pulls
with a force of 1186 N at an angle of 17 with
respect to the same direction.
N

699
26

17
1186
N
What is the net forward force exerted on
the truck in the direction it is headed?
Correct answer: 1762.43 N.
Explanation:
Let : F1
F2
1
2

Since
2
vb,y
2 y g = (4.20019 m/s)2

2(34 m)(9.81 m/s2 )


= 684.722 m2 /s2 ,

= 699 N ,
= 1186 N ,
= 26 , and
= 17 .

For the first vehicle, the forward component


is

p
4.20019 m/s + 684.722 m2 /s2
t=
9.81 m/s2
= 2.23925 s .

F1f = F1 cos 1
= (699 N) cos 26
= 628.257 N .
Similarly, for the second vehicle,

016 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points


What is the cars position relative to the base
of the cliff when the car lands in the ocean?
Correct answer: 32.8 m.
Explanation:
There is no acceleration in the horizontal
direction, so

F2f = F2 cos 2
= (1186 N) cos 17
= 1134.18 N .
Thus the net forward force on the truck is
Ff = F1f + F2f
= 628.257 N + 1134.18 N
= 1762.43 N .

x = vb,x t = (14.6478 m/s)(2.23925 s)


= 32.8 m .

018

10.0 points

duong (ktd359) Homework 3 Spurlock (44103)


A 6.1 g bullet leaves the muzzle of a rifle with
a speed of 327.6 m/s.
What constant force is exerted on the bullet
while it is traveling down the 0.7 m length of
the barrel of the rifle?
Correct answer: 467.616 N.
Explanation:
Average acceleration can be found from
vf2 = vo2 + 2 a

Explanation:
Consider the free body diagram for the
avalanche:
0
=

Ff
os
c
g
M
=
N

in
gs
Mg
M
Since the slope is essentially frictionless, the
only force with a non-zero component parallel
to the surface is the weight, hence

Since vo = 0, we have

Fxnet = m g sin

v2
2

a=
Thus

v2
2
(6.1 g)(327.6 m/s)2 1 kg

=
2 (0.7 m)
1000 g

F = ma = m

= 467.616 N .
019 10.0 points
One of the great dangers to mountain climbers
is an avalanche, in which a large mass of snow
and ice breaks loose and goes on an essentially
frictionless ride down a mountainside on a
cushion of compressed air.
The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .

which gives us the downhill acceleration


1 net
a=
F
= g sin = 5.67696 m/s2 .
m x
The avalance starts at zero initial speed. At
the above acceleration, it would take time
r
2s
= 12.0624 s .
t=
a
to cover distance s = 413 m.
020 10.0 points
Take the mass of the Earth to be 5.98
1024 kg.
If the Earths gravitational force causes a
falling 46 kg student to accelerate downward
at 9.8 m/s2 , determine the upward acceleration of the Earth during the students fall.
Correct answer: 7.53846 1023 m/s2 .

41

3m

a
av

e
ch
n
a
l

35.4

If you were on a 35.4 slope and an


avalanche started 413 m up the slope, how
much time would you have to get out of the
way?
Correct answer: 12.0624 s.

Explanation:
By Newtons third law, the force Fse exerted on the student by the earth is equal in
magnitude and opposite in direction to the
force Fes exerted on the earth by the student.
Thus
Fes = Fse
me ae = ms g
ms g
ae =
me
(46 kg)(9.8 m/s2 )
=
5.98 1024 kg
= 7.53846 1023 m/s2

duong (ktd359) Homework 3 Spurlock (44103)

we have
021 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points
Consider the 659 N weight held by two cables
shown below. The left-hand cable had tension
T2 and makes an angle of 2 with the ceiling.
The right-hand cable had tension 400 N and
makes an angle of 35 with the ceiling.
The right-hand cable makes an angle of 35
with the ceiling and has a tension of 400 N .

x
Fnet
= F1x F2x = 0
= F1 cos 1 F2 cos 2 = 0
(1)
y
y
y
Fnet = F1 + F2 Wg = 0
= F1 sin 1 + F2 sin 2 Wg = 0 (2)

Solution: Using Eqs. 1 and 2, we have


F2x = F1 cos 1
= (400 N) cos 35
= 327.661 N , and

(1)

F2y = F3 F1 sin 1
= 659 N (400 N) sin 35
= 659 N 229.431 N
= 429.569 N , so

(2)

35

T2

40

0N

659 N
a) What is the tension T2 in the left-hand
cable slanted at an angle of 2 with respect to
the wall?

F2 =
Correct answer: 540.27 N.
Explanation:
Observe the free-body diagram below.

F2

F1

(F2x )2 + (F2y )2
(327.661 N)2 + (429.569 N)2

= 540.27 N .
022 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points
b) What is the angle 2 which the left-hand
cable makes with respect to the ceiling?
Correct answer: 52.6649 .

Wg

Note: The sum of the x- and


y-components of F1 , F2 , and
Wg are equal to zero.
Given : Wg
F1
1
2

= 659 N ,
= 400 N ,
= 35 , and
= 90 .

Basic Concept: Vertically and Horizontally,

Explanation:
Using Eq. 2, we have

F1y
2 = arctan
Fx
 1

229.431 N
= arctan
327.661 N

= 52.6649 .


023 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points


A block with a mass of 4.1 kg is held in
equilibrium on a frictionless incline of 33.0
~ , as shown.
by the horizontal force F
The acceleration of gravity is 9.81 m/s2 .

duong (ktd359) Homework 3 Spurlock (44103)

10

024 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points


What is the magnitude of the normal force?

33
F

4. 1

kg

Correct answer: 47.958 N.


33

Explanation:
Basic Concepts:
Fy,net = Fn F sin Fg = 0

What is the magnitude of F ?


Correct answer: 26.1198 N.

Fg = m g cos

Explanation:
Solution:
Let :

m = 4.1 kg ,
g = 9.81 m/s2 ,
= 33 .

and

Consider the free body diagram for the


block

in
s
g
mg

os
gc

m
Basic Concepts:

Fn = F sin + m g cos
= (26.1198 N) sin 33
+ (4.1 kg) (9.81 m/s2 ) cos 33
= 47.958 N .

025 10.0 points


A mass of 2 kg lies on a frictionless table,
pulled by another mass of 3.3 kg under the
influence of Earths gravity.
The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .

Fx,net = F cos Fgk = 0

2 kg

Fgk = m g sin = 0
Solution: Choose the coordinate axes with
x along the incline and y perpendicular to
the incline. In equilibrium, the acceleration is
zero. Hence from Newtons second law in the
x direction,
X
Fx = F cos m g sin = 0 .

Therefore

F cos = m g sin
m g sin
F =
cos
(4.1 kg) (9.81 m/s2 ) sin 33
F =
cos 33
= 26.1198 N .

3.3 kg
What is the magnitude of the acceleration
a of the two masses?
Correct answer: 6.10189 m/s2 .
Explanation:

Given : m1 = 2 kg and
m2 = 3.3 kg .

duong (ktd359) Homework 3 Spurlock (44103)


Basic Concept: Newtons Second Law

T
T

m1
N

11

m2

m1 g

F =Ma

m2 g

Let the direction of acceleration as indicated in the figure be positive. The net force
on the system is simply the weight of m2 .
Fnet = m2 g = 32.34 N .
From Newtons second law,
Fnet = m2 g = (m1 + m2 ) a .
Solving for a,
m2
a=
g
m1 + m2
3.3 kg
=
2 kg + 3.3 kg
= 6.10189 m/s2 .
026 10.0 points
Two blocks are arranged at the ends of a massless string as shown in the figure. The system
starts from rest. When the 3.09 kg mass has
fallen through 0.442 m, its downward speed is
1.35 m/s.
The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .

Solution: The acceleration of m1 is obtained


from the equation
v 2 v02 = 2 a (s s0 )

v 2 v02
2h
(1.35 m/s)2 (0 m/s)2
=
2 (0.442 m)
= 2.06165 m/s2 .

a=

Consider free body diagrams for the two


masses
N

T
N

m2 g

m1 g

a
Because m1 and m2 are tied together with
string, they have same the speed and the same
acceleration, so the net force exerted on m2 is

4.54 kg

F2 = m2 a
3.09 kg
What is the frictional force between the
4.54 kg mass and the table?
Correct answer: 14.5516 N.
Explanation:
Given : m1
m2
v0
v

= 3.09 kg ,
= 4.54 kg ,
= 0 m/s , and
= 1.35 m/s .

The net force on m1 is m1 a = m1 g T , so


that T = m1 g m1 a.
Thus
F2 = T fk ,
fk = T F2
= m1 g (m1 + m2 ) a
= (3.09 kg) (9.8 m/s2 )
(3.09 kg + 4.54 kg)
(2.06165 m/s2 )
= 14.5516 N .

duong (ktd359) Homework 3 Spurlock (44103)

12

(A considerable difference)
027 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points
A car is traveling at 35.9 mi/h on a horizontal
highway.
The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .
If the coefficient of friction between road
and tires on a rainy day is 0.12, what is the
minimum distance in which the car will stop?
(1 mi = 1.609)

029 (part 1 of 2) 0.0 points


A descent vehicle landing on the moon has
a vertical velocity toward the surface of the
moon of 29.9 m/s. At the same time, it has a
horizontal velocity of 55.7 m/s.
At what speed does the vehicle move along
its descent path?

Correct answer: 109.461 m.

Correct answer: 63.2179 m/s.

Explanation:
Newtons second law in the direction of
motion gives

Explanation:
Let :

fk = k mg = ma

vv = 29.9 m/s ,
vh = 55.7 m/s .

and

Solving for a
a = k g

(1)

vh

The acceleration a may be found from the


following kinematics equation with vf = 0:

vv

vf2 = v02 + 2ax


v02
(2)
2x
Combining equations (1) and (2), we obtain
a=
v02
2x

= k g

or solving for x,
v02
2k g

Plugging in the appropriate values,


xwet =

The speeds act at right angles to each other,


so
v=
=

x=

m/s)2

(16.0453
= 109.461 m
2(0.12) (9.8 m/s2 )

028 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points


What is the stopping distance when the surface is dry and dry = 0.631?
Correct answer: 20.8167 m.
Explanation:

vh2 + vv2
(55.7 m/s)2 + (29.9 m/s)2

= 63.2179 m/s .

030 (part 2 of 2) 0.0 points


At what angle with the vertical is its path?
Correct answer: 61.7729 .
Explanation:
vh is the side opposite and vv is the side
adjacent to the angle, so
tan =

vh
vv

= arctan
xdry =

m/s)2

(16.0453
= 20.8167 m
2(0.631) (9.8 m/s2 )

vh
vv

= 61.7729 .

= arctan

55.7 m/s
29.9 m/s

duong (ktd359) Homework 3 Spurlock (44103)


031 (part 1 of 2) 0.0 points
A child rides a toboggan down a hill that
descends at an angle of 19.1 to the horizontal.
The hill is 20.4 m long.
What is the horizontal component of the
childs displacement?

Let :

d = 31.8 m
= 18.0 .

13

and

Correct answer: 19.277 m.


d

Explanation:
Let :

d = 20.4 m and
= 19.1 .

x = d cos = (31.8 m) cos 18

= 30.2436 m .
d

y
034 (part 2 of 2) 0.0 points
How far does it move vertically?

x = d cos = (20.4 m) cos(19.1 )


= 19.277 m .

Correct answer: 9.82674 m.


Explanation:
y = d sin = (31.8 m) sin 18

032 (part 2 of 2) 0.0 points


What is the vertical component of the childs
displacement?
Correct answer: 6.67525 m.
Explanation:
y = d sin = (20.4 m) sin(19.1 )
= 6.67525 m .
033 (part 1 of 2) 0.0 points
A roller coaster travels 31.8 m at an angle of
18.0 above the horizontal.
How far does it move horizontally?
Correct answer: 30.2436 m.
Explanation:

= 9.82674 m .
035 0.0 points
When the Sun is directly overhead, a hawk
dives toward the ground at a speed of
4.92 m/s.
If the direction of his motion is at an angle
of 24.6 below the horizontal, calculate the
speed of his shadow along the ground.
Correct answer: 4.47344 m/s.
Explanation:
Let :

v = 4.92 m/s
= 24.6 .

and

The velocity of the hawks shadow on the


ground will be equal to the horizontal projection of the velocity of the hawk:

duong (ktd359) Homework 3 Spurlock (44103)

14

Explanation:
u = v cos = (4.92 m/s) cos 24.6 = 4.47344 m/s .
= 12 and
a = 4.4 m/s2 .

Let :
036 0.0 points
Bob heads out into a lake at an angle of 29
with respect to the shore.
If his boat is capable of a speed of 2 m/s,
how far from land will he be in 4 min and
39 s ?

ax

ay

Correct answer: 270.524 m.


Explanation:
Let v be the rate at which the boat is moving away from the shore.

ax = a cos = (4.4 m/s2 ) cos(12 )


= 4.30385 m/s2 .

2m

/s
v
038 (part 2 of 2) 0.0 points
What is the vertical component of the skiers
acceleration?

29

Although the boats speed is vboat , it is


moving away from the shore at less than
this speed. The boats speed vboat is the
hypotenuse of a right triangle with v the side
opposite the angle , so
sin =

Correct answer: 0.914812 m/s2 .


Explanation:
ay = a sin = (4.4 m/s2 ) sin(12 )
= 0.914812 m/s2 .

vboat
v = vboat sin

and

(d = v t = vboat sin ) t
= (2 m/s)(sin 29 )(279 s)
= 270.524 m .
037 (part 1 of 2) 0.0 points
A skier squats low and races down a 12
ski slope. During a 7 s interval, the skier
accelerates at 4.4 m/s2 .
What is the horizontal component of the
skiers acceleration (perpendicular to the direction of free fall)?
2

Correct answer: 4.30385 m/s .

039 0.0 points


Two airplanes leave an airport at the same
time. The velocity of the first airplane is
660 m/h at a heading of 56.5 . The velocity
of the second is 570 m/h at a heading of 139 .
How far apart are they after 2.2 h?
Correct answer: 1790.39 m.
Explanation:

Let :

v1
1
v2
2

= 660 m/h ,
= 56.5 ,
= 570 m/h ,
= 139 .

and

duong (ktd359) Homework 3 Spurlock (44103)


Under constant velocity, the displacement
for each plane in the time t is

Let :

d = v t.
These displacements form two sides of a triangle with the angle
= 2 1 = 82.5

A = 11.8 km ,
B = 28.7 km ,
= 71.7 .

15

and

= 180 = 180 71.7 = 108.3 ,

between them. The law of cosines applies for


SAS, so the distance between the planes is
q
d = d21 + d22 2 d1 d2 cos .
Since

2 d1 d2 cos = 2 (1452 m) (1254 m) cos 82.5


= 4.75324 105 m2 , then

applying the Law of Cosines,


R2 = A2 + B 2 2 A B cos .
Since
2AB cos = 2 (11.8 km)(28.7 km) cos 108.3
= 212.674 km2 , then
q
R = (11.8 km)2 + (28.7 km)2 + 212.674 km2
= 34.2871 km .


d = (1452 m)2 + (1254 m)2

4.75324 105 m2

= 1790.39 m .

1/2

040 (part 1 of 2) 0.0 points


A car travels 11.8 km due north and then
28.7 km in a direction = 71.7 west of
north.

041 (part 2 of 2) 0.0 points


Calculate the direction of the cars resultant displacement, measured counterclockwise from the northerly direction.
Correct answer: 52.6285 .
Explanation:
Applying the Law of Sines,

N
W

sin
sin
=
B
R
B
28.7 km
sin =
sin =
sin 108.3
R
34.2871 km
= 0.794716
= arcsin 0.794716 = 52.6285 .

E
S
y
B

Find the magnitude of the cars resultant


displacement.

042 0.0 points


A person walks 33 m East and then walks
37 m at an angle 45 North of East.
What is the magnitude of the total displacement?

Correct answer: 34.2871 km.

Correct answer: 64.6897 m.

Explanation:

Explanation:

duong (ktd359) Homework 3 Spurlock (44103)

Let :

Ra = 33 m ,
Rb = 37 m ,
= 45 .

and

The total displacement is the vector sum of


the two displacements, so
Rx = Ra + Rb cos = 33 m + (37 m) cos 45
= 59.163 m and
Ry = Rb sin = (37 m) sin 45 = 26.1629 m .

044 0.0 points


~ has a magnitude of 12 and points
Vector A
~ has a
in the positive x-direction. Vector B
magnitude of 17 and makes an angle of 29
with the positive x-axis.
~ B?
~
What is the magnitude of A
Correct answer: 8.72669.
Explanation:
B

The final displacement is


q
R = Rx2 + Ry2
q
= (59.163 m)2 + (26.1629 m)2
= 64.6897 m .

Correct answer: 5.52268.

AB

A
~ along the x-axis
The component of vector B
Bx = B cos = 17 cos 29 = 14.8685
and the component along the y-axis is
By = B sin = 17 sin 29 = 8.24176 .
~ points in the x-direction, so it has
Vector A
no component along y-axis, so

Explanation:
~ = (2.3, 3.7) ,
A
~ = (3.4, 1.9) ,
B

A
AB

is

043 0.0 points


~ B,
~ and C
~ have the following
Three vectors A,
x and y components: Ax = 2.3, Ay = 3.7;
Bx = 3.4, By = 1.9; Cx = 1.6, Cy = 7.3.
~ +B
~ +C
~ ?
What is the magnitude of A

Given :

16

and

~ B)
~ x = Ax B x
(A
= 12 14.8685 = 2.86854 ,

~ = (1.6, 7.3) .
C
~ =A
~ +B
~ + C.
~ The x component o f
Let D
~
D is
Dx = Ax +Bx +Cx = 2.3+(3.4) +1.6 = 0.5

~ B)
~ y = Ay B y
(A
= 0 8.24176 = 8.24176 ,

and

~ is
and the y component of D
Dy = Ay + By + Cy = 3.7 + 1.9 + 7.3 = 5.5 .
~ +B
~ +C
~ is given by
Thus the magnitude of A
q
D = Dx2 + Dy2
p
= 0.52 + 5.52
= 5.52268 .

~ Bk
~ =
kA

(2.86854)2 + (8.24176)2

= 8.72669 .

045 (part 1 of 2) 0.0 points


A particle has ~r(0) = (4 m) and ~v (0) =
(2 m/s).

duong (ktd359) Homework 3 Spurlock (44103)


If its acceleration is constant and given by
~a = (2 m/s2 ) ( +), at what time t does the
particle first cross the x axis?
Correct answer: 2 s.
Explanation:
~r (t) = ~r (0) + ~v (0) t +

1 2
~a t ,
2

17

047 (part 1 of 2) 0.0 points


A particle travels horizontally between two
parallel walls separated by 18.4 m. It moves
toward the opposing wall at a constant rate
of 7.4 m/s. Also, it has an acceleration in the
direction parallel to the walls of 3.9 m/s2 .

so

~r (t) = (4 m) + (2 m/s) t
2

+(1 m/s ) ( + ) t

3.9 m/s2

= [(2 m/s) t (1 m/s2 ) t2 ]

+[4 m (1 m/s2 ) t2 ]

7.4 m/s
18.4 m

~r(t) will not have a y component when

What will be its speed when it hits the


opposing wall?

4 m (1 m/s2 ) t2 = 0

(1 m/s2 ) t2 = 4 m

Correct answer: 12.1983 m/s.

t= 2s .

Explanation:
046 (part 2 of 2) 0.0 points
At what time t is the particle moving parallel
to the y axis; that is, in the direction?

Let :

Correct answer: 1 s.

d = 18.4 m ,
vx = 7.4 m/s ,
a = 3.9 m/s2 .

Explanation:

vx

~v(t) =

d~r
= ~v (0) + ~a t ,
dt

vf

1 2
~a t
2
so
a

~r(t) = ~r(0) + ~v(0) t +

vy

~v (t) = (2 m/s) (2 m/s2 ) ( + ) t


= [(2 m/s) (2 m/s2 ) t]

(2 m/s ) t

~v(t) will not have an x component when


2 m/s (2 m/s2 ) t = 0

t= 1s .

At this time ~v (t) = (2 m/s) parallel to


the y-axis.

d
The horizontal motion will carry the particle to the opposite wall, so
d = vx tf
18.4 m
d
=
= 2.48649 s
tf =
vx
7.4 m/s

duong (ktd359) Homework 3 Spurlock (44103)


is the time for the particle to reach the opposite wall.
Horizontally, the particle reaches the maximum parallel distance when it hits the oppod
site wall at the time of t =
, so the final
vx
parallel velocity vy is

vy = a t =

Correct answer: 0.585176 s.


Explanation:

vy0 = 6.5 m/s ,

Let :

g = 9.8 m/s2 ,
vx0 = 0 , and
a = 1.8 m/s2 ,
= 36 .

ad
(3.9 m/s2 ) (18.4 m)
=
vx
7.4 m/s
= 9.6973 m/s .

The velocities act at right angles to each


other, so the resultant velocity is
q
vf = vx2 + vy2
q
= (7.4 m/s)2 + (9.6973 m/s)2
= 12.1983 m/s .

048 (part 2 of 2) 0.0 points


At what angle with the wall will the particle
strike?

18

and

vt

vyt

36
vxt

The vertical velocity is


vyt = vy0 g t
and the horizontal velocity is
vxt = vy0 + a t = a t .

Correct answer: 37.3472 .


Explanation:
When the particle strikes the wall, the vertical component is the side adjacent and the
horizontal component is the side opposite the
angle, so
tan =

The vertical component is the opposite side


and the horizontal component the adjacent
side to the angle, so
vyt
vy g t
= 0
vxt
at
a t tan = vy0 g t
a t tan + g t = vy0
tan =

vx
vy


vx
= arctan
vy


7.4 m/s
= arctan
= 37.3472 .
9.6973 m/s


049 0.0 points


Initially (at time t = 0) a particle is moving vertically at 6.5 m/s and horizontally at
0 m/s. Its horizontal acceleration is 1.8 m/s2 .
At what time will the particle be traveling
at 36 with respect to the horizontal? The
acceleration due to gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .

t=
=

vy0
a tan + g
(1.8

m/s2 )

6.5 m/s
tan(36 ) + 9.8 m/s2

= 0.585176 s .

050 0.0 points


A cannon fires a 0.499 kg shell with initial
velocity vi = 9.5 m/s in the direction = 50
above the horizontal.

duong (ktd359) Homework 3 Spurlock (44103)

19

shell. It is a simple function of the flight time


t.

9.

5m

/s

h
y

50

x
The shells trajectory curves downward because of gravity, so at the time t = 0.343 s
the shell is below the straight line by some
vertical distance h.
Find this distance h in the absence of
air resistance. The acceleration of gravity is
9.8 m/s2 .
Correct answer: 0.57648 m.

x
= t vi cos ,
y = t vi sin .
The gravity does not affect the x coordinate
of the shell, but it does pull its y coordinate
downware at a constant acceleration ay = g,
so
x = t vi cos ,
g t2
.
2

1
Thus, x = x
but y = y gt2 ; in other words,
2
the shell deviates from the straight-line path
by the vertical distance
h = y y =

051 (part 1 of 2) 0.0 points


During World War I, the Germans had a gun
called Big Bertha that was used to shell Paris.
The shell had an initial speed of 1.47 km/s at
an initial inclination of 65.1 to the horizontal.
The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .
How far away did the shell hit?
Correct answer: 168.417 km.
Explanation:
The range R is given by
v02
sin(2 0 )
g
(1470 m/s)2
sin 130.2
=
2
9.8 m/s
= 168.417 km .

R=

Explanation:
In the absence of gravity, the shell would fly
along the straight line at constant velocity:

y = t vi sin

g t2
2
(9.8 m/s2 ) (0.343 s)2
=
2
= 0.57648 m .

h =

g t2
.
2

Note: This result is completely independent of the initial velocity vi or angle of the

052 (part 2 of 2) 0.0 points


How long was it in the air?
Correct answer: 272.113 s.
Explanation:
The time in the air is
t=

R
v0x

R
v0 cos 0
1.68417 105 m
=
(1470 m/s) cos 65.1
= 272.113 s .
=

053 0.0 points


A 1.8 tall basketball player attempts a goal
13.1 from the basket that is 3.05 high.

20

v0

duong (ktd359) Homework 3 Spurlock (44103)


2

1
x
g
2
vi cos
g (x)2
41
= x tan
2 vi2 cos2
3.05 m
1.8 m
g (x)2
= x tan y
2 vi2 cos2
13.1 m
s
If he shoots the ball at a 41 angle, at what
g (x)2
v
=
i
initial speed must he throw the basketball so
2 (cos )2 (x tan y)
that it goes through the hoop without striking
the backboard? The acceleration of gravity is
Since
9.81 m/s2 .
x tan y
Correct answer: 12.0737 m/s.
= (13.1 m) tan 41 1.25 m
Explanation:
= 10.1377 m , then
Let :

x = 13.1 m ,
= 41 , and
g = 9.81 m/s2 .

1.8 m

3.05 m

y = 3.05 m 1.8 m = 1.25 m .

13.1 m
The horizontal motion defines the time:
x = vi cos t
x
.
t =
vi cos
Then vertically,
1
y = vi sin t g (t)2
2 

x
y = vi sin
vi cos

vi =

g (x)2
2 cos2 (x tan y)
(9.81 m/s2 ) (13.1 m)2
2 cos2 41 (10.1377 m)

= 12.0737 m/s .
054 0.0 points
To win the game, a place kicker must kick a
football from a point 15 m (16.404 yd) from
the goal, and the ball must clear the crossbar,
which is 3.05 m high. When kicked, the ball
leaves the ground with a speed of 14 m/s at
an angle of 56.9 from the horizontal.
The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .
By how much vertical distance does the ball
clear the crossbar?
Correct answer: 1.0985 m.
Explanation:
First, compute the components of the initial velocity.
vx = v cos
= (14 m/s) cos 56.9
= 7.64542 m/s ,

duong (ktd359) Homework 3 Spurlock (44103)


vy = v sin
= (14 m/s) sin 56.9
= 11.7281 m/s .
We can find the time required for the ball
to reach the position of the crossbar from
x = vx t as
t=

x
vx

15 m
7.64542 m/s
= 1.96196 s .

At this time the height of the football above


the ground is
1 2
gt
2
= (11.7281 m/s)(1.96196 s)
1
(9.8 m/s2 )(1.96196 s)2
2
= 4.1485 m .

y = vy t

Let :

21

F1 + F2 = 327 N and
F1 F2 = 130 N .

Solve the simultaneous equations:


F1 + F2 = 327 N
F1 + F2 = 130 N
2 F2 = 457 N
457 N
F2 =
= 228.5 N .
2
056 (part 2 of 2) 0.0 points
What is the magnitude of the smaller of the
individual forces?
Correct answer: 98.5 N.
Explanation:
F1 = 327 N F2

= 327 N 228.5 N = 98.5 N .

Thus, the ball clears the crossbar by


y = 4.1485 m 3.05 m
= 1.0985 m .
055 (part 1 of 2) 0.0 points
Two lifeguards pull on ropes attached to a
raft. If they pull in the same direction, the raft
experiences a net external force of 327 N to
the right. If they pull in opposite directions,
the raft experiences a net external force of
130 N to the left.
Draw a free body diagram for each situation
and find the magnitude of the larger of the two
individual forces.

057 0.0 points


An elevator starts from rest with a constant
upward acceleration and moves 1 m in the first
1.7 s. A passenger in the elevator is holding a
3.7 kg bundle at the end of a vertical cord.
What is the tension in the cord as the elevator accelerates? The acceleration of gravity
is 9.8 m/s2 .
Correct answer: 38.8206 N.
Explanation:
h = 1 m,
t = 1.7 s ,
m = 3.7 kg ,

Correct answer: 228.5 N.

andg = 9.8 m/s2 .

Explanation:
~ net = F
~1 + F
~2 ;
F
~ 2 must be applied to the left
the larger force F
in the second situation.
F1
F2

F2 F1

T
g

aelevator
mg

duong (ktd359) Homework 3 Spurlock (44103)


Let h be the distance traveled and a the
acceleration of the elevator. Since the initial
velocity is zero,
h = v0 t +

1 2 1 2
at = at
2
2

2h
.
t2
The equation describing the forces acting on
the bundle is

22

059 0.0 points


A 2.8 kg particle starts from rest and moves a
distance of 3 m in 2.4 s under the action of a
single, constant force.
Find the magnitude of the force.

a=

Correct answer: 2.91667 N.


Explanation:
Basic Concept:

Fnet = m a = T m g



2h
T = m (g + a) = m g + 2
t


2 (1 m)
2
= (3.7 kg) 9.8 m/s +
(1.7 s)2
= 38.8206 N .

058 0.0 points


A 6.1 kg block initially at rest is pulled to the
right along a horizontal, frictionless surface
by a constant, horizontal force of 15.8 N.
Find the speed of the block after it has
moved 4.5 m.
Correct answer: 4.8282 m/s.

m = 6.1 kg ,
F = 15.8 N ,
x = 4.5 m .

and

The acceleration of the block is


F
15.8 N
a=
=
m
6.1 kg
= 2.59016 m/s2 .
Since the force is constant, the acceleration is
constant. We find the final speed of the block
using the equation
vf =
=

v02 + 2 a (xf x0 )
2 (2.59016 m/s2 ) (4.5 m)

= 4.8282 m/s .

vf2 = vi2 + 2 a x
Solution:
Since vi = 0,
vf 2 = 2 a x
a 2 t2 = 2 a x
a 2 t2 2 a x = 0
a(a t2 2 x) = 0
2x
a= 2
t
The solution a = 0 must be ignored.
From Newtons second law, the force on the
particle is

Explanation:
Let :

vf = vi + a t

F = ma
2mx
= 2
t
2 (2.8 kg) (3 m)
=
2.4 s2
= 2.91667 N

060 0.0 points


A 2.1 kg otter starts from rest at the top of a
muddy incline 96.7 cm long and slides down
to the bottom in 0.40 s.
What net external force acts on the otter
along the incline?
Correct answer: 25.3837 N.
Explanation:

duong (ktd359) Homework 3 Spurlock (44103)


Solution:

Basic Concepts:
~ net = F
~ = m~a
F

FT = ma + Fg
= ma + mg

= (4.5 kg) 3.6 m/s2

1
x = a(t)2
2
since vi = 0 m/s.
Given:

+ (4.5 kg) 9.81 m/s2


= 60.345 N

m = 2.1 kg
x = 96.7 cm = 0.97 m
t = 0.40 s

upward.
062 (part 1 of 3) 0.0 points
A 3 kg object is subjected to two forces, F~1 =
(1.8 N) + (1.6 N) and F~2 = (4.7 N) +
(11.6 N) . The object is at rest at the origin
at time t = 0.
What is the magnitude of the objects acceleration?

Solution:
2x
(t)2
2(0.967 m)
=
(0.4 s)2
= 12.0875 m/s2

a=

Correct answer: 4.90453 m/s2 .

down the incline, so


Fnet = (2.1 kg) 12.0875 m/s2
= 25.3837 N

down the incline.

Explanation:

Let :

061 0.0 points


A 4.5 kg bucket of water is raised from a well
by a rope.
The acceleration of gravity is 9.81 m/s2 .
If the upward acceleration of the bucket is
3.6 m/s2 , find the force exerted by the rope
on the bucket of water.
Correct answer: 60.345 N.
Explanation:
FT

23

3.6 m/s2

Fg
Note: Figure is not drawn to scale.
Basic Concept:
Fnet = ma = FT Fg

~ 1 = (1.8 N) + (1.6 N) ,
F
~ 2 = (4.7 N) + (11.6 N) ,
F
~vo = 0 m/s .

and

~ net = m~a = F
~1 + F
~ 2 , so
F
~ net
F
m
~
~2
F1 + F
=
m
(1.8 N + 4.7 N) + (1.6 N + (11.6 N))
=
3 kg


2
= 2.16667 m/s + 4.4 m/s2 .

~a =

k~ak =

(2.16667 m/s2 ) + (4.4 m/s2 )

= 4.90453 m/s2 .

Given:
m = 4.5 kg
a = 3.6 m/s2
g = 9.81 m/s2

063 (part 2 of 3) 0.0 points


What is the magnitude of the velocity at t =
3.2 s ?

duong (ktd359) Homework 3 Spurlock (44103)


Correct answer: 15.6945 m/s.
Explanation:
Let :

t = 3.2 s .

~v = ~vo + ~a t = ~a t
h

 i
2
2
= 2.16667 m/s + 4.4 m/s (3.2 s)
= (6.93333 m/s) + (14.08 m/s) .

|~v | =

(6.93333 m/s)2 + (14.08 m/s)2

= 15.6945 m/s .
064 (part 3 of 3) 0.0 points
What is the magnitude of the objects position
at t = 3.2 s ?

24

Explanation:
Basic Concepts:
X
~ = m~a
F
~ = m~g
W

Solution: Since W = m g,
Fnet = ma = W f
f = W ma


a
=W 1
g


2.7 m/s2
= (0.9 kN) 1
9.8 m/s2
= 0.652041 kN .
066 (part 1 of 2) 0.0 points
A child holds a sled on a frictionless, snowcovered hill, inclined at an angle of 31 .
F

Correct answer: 25.1112 m.


Explanation:
~vavg =

76

31

~v
~vo + ~v
=
2
2

~r = ~vavg t
1
= ~v t
2
i
1h
= (6.93333 m/s) + (14.08 m/s) (3.2 s)
2
= (11.0933 m) + (22.528 m) .

|~r | =

(11.0933 m)2 + (22.528 m)2

If the sled weighs 76 N, find the force exerted on the rope by the child.
Correct answer: 39.1429 N.
Explanation:
Given :

= 25.1112 m .
065 0.0 points
A person weighing 0.9 kN rides in an elevator
that has a downward acceleration of 2.7 m/s2 .
The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .
What is the magnitude of the force of the
elevator floor on the person?

and

Consider the free body diagram for the


block
F

m
Correct answer: 0.652041 kN.

W = 76 N
= 31 .

i
gs

n
W

os
gc

duong (ktd359) Homework 3 Spurlock (44103)

Correct answer: 62.6595 N.

Fnet = T W sin = 0

62

48 N

Solution: Consider the free body diagram


for the sled: The weight of the sled has components W sin acting down the hill and W cos
acting straight into the hill.
The system is in equilibrium, so for forces
parallel to the hill,

5N

Explanation:
Observe the free-body diagram below.

59

then the forces perpendicular to the hill,


X
X
Fnet =
Fout
Fin = 0

a) What is the tension in the cable slanted


at an angle of 50 ?

.6

Basic Concepts: If we tilt our world,


and consider the forces parallel to the hill,
X
X
Fnet =
Fup
Fdown = 0

25

40.2768 N

48 N

= T = W sin
= (76 N) sin 31
= 39.1429 N

40.2768 N

067 (part 2 of 2) 0.0 points


What force is exerted on the sled by the hill?
Correct answer: 65.1447 N.
Explanation:
For forces perpendicular to the hill,
Fnet = N W cos = 0
= N = W cos
= (76 N) cos 31
= 65.1447 N
068 (part 1 of 2) 0.0 points
Consider the 48 N weight held by two cables
shown below. The left-hand cable is horizontal.

50

48 N

Scale: 10 N
Note: The sum of the x- and
y-components of T1 , T2 , and
Wg are equal to zero.
Given : Wg = 48 N and
= 50 .
Basic Concept: Vertically, we have
Fy,net = F1 sin Wg = 0
Solution:
F1 (sin ) = Wg
Wg
F1 =
sin
48 N
=
sin 50
= 62.6595 N

50

duong (ktd359) Homework 3 Spurlock (44103)


069 (part 2 of 2) 0.0 points
b) What is the tension in the horizontal cable?

26

Consider the free body diagram. The green


vectors are the components of the slanted
forces.

Correct answer: 40.2768 N.

Explanation:
Basic Concept: Horizontally,

F2

F1

Fx,net = F1 cos F2 = 0
Solution:

The weight is is equilibrium, so


X
Fx = F1x + F2x + F3x = 0

F2 = F1 cos
Wg cos
=
sin
(48 N) cos 50
=
sin 50
= 40.2768 N

F1x = F2 cos 2 0
= (5.1 N) cos 57
= 2.77766 N and

070 (part 1 of 2) 0.0 points


The 5.6 N weight is in equilibrium under the
influence of the three forces acting on it. The
F force acts from above on the left at an angle
of with the horizontal. The 5.1 N force acts
from above on the right at an angle of 57 with
the horizontal. The force 5.6 N acts straight
down.

57

5.6 N
What is the magnitude of the force F ?
Correct answer: 3.07655 N.
Explanation:
Standard angular measurements are from
the positive x-axis in a counter-clockwise direction.
Let :

Fy = F1y + F2y + F3y = 0

F1y = F2 sin 2 F3
= (5.1 N) sin 57 (5.6 N)
= 1.32278 N , and

q
2 + F2
F1x
1y
q
= (2.77766 N)2 + (1.32278 N)2

F1 =

= 3.07655 N .

5. 1

F3

F1
F2
2
F3

=F,
= 5.1 N ,
= 57 , and
= 5.6 N .

071 (part 2 of 2) 0.0 points


What is the angle of the force F as shown
in the figure?
Correct answer: 25.4648 .
Explanation:

1 = arctan

= 154.535

F1y
F1x

= arctan

1.32278 N
2.77766 N

measured from the positive x-axis, so


= 180 1 = 180 154.535
= 25.4648 .

duong (ktd359) Homework 3 Spurlock (44103)


072 (part 1 of 2) 0.0 points
An object in equilibrium has three forces exerted on it. A(n) 25 N force acts at 71.6 , and
a(n) 54 N force acts at 60.2 .
What is the direction of the third force?
(Consider all angles to be measured counterclockwise from the positive x-axis.)
Correct answer: 243.802.
Explanation:
Basic Concepts:
Choose a coordinate system with the positive x-axis representing 0 and the positive
y-axis representing 90 .
Any force F has an x-component of Fx =
F cos and a y-component of Fy = F sin
where is measured from the x-axis.
Solution:
Since F1 and F2 act up and to the right, the
force F must act down and to the left, so F
lies in the third quadrant.

ref

F1 sin 1 + F2 sin 2
F1 cos 1 + F2 cos 2


F1 cos 1 + F2 2
= arctan
F1 cos 1 + F2 cos 2
tan =

ref

Since the reference angle is in the third


quadrant, and
F1 sin 1 + F2 sin 2
= (25 N) sin 71.6 + (54 N) sin 60.2
= 70.5813 N
and
F2 cos 1 + F2 cos 2
= (25 N) cos 71.6 + (54 N) cos 60.2
= 34.7278 N , then

= 180 + ref


70.5813 N
= 180 + arctan
34.7278 N
= 78.6621 N

F1
1

27

F2

073 (part 2 of 2) 0.0 points


What is the magnitude of the third force?

For vertical equilibrium,


FyN et = Fup Fdown = 0

Correct answer: 78.6621 N.

F1y + F2y Fy = 0
F1 sin 1 + F2 sin 2 F sin = 0
F sin ref = F1 sin 1 + F2 sin 2

(1)

For horizontal equilibrium,


FxN et = Fright Flef t = 0
F1x + F2x Fx = 0
F1 cos 1 + F2 cos 2 F cos = 0
F cos ref = F1 cos 1 + F2 cos 2
Dividing (1) by (2), we have
F1 sin 1 + F2 sin 2
F sin
=
F cos
F1 cos 1 + F2 cos 2

(2)

Explanation:
From equation (1),


F1 cos 1 + F2 cos 2

F =

cos 2


(25 N) cos 71.6 + (54 N) cos 60.2
=
cos 2

= 243.802

074 (part 1 of 2) 0.0 points


Your car is stuck in a mud hole. You are alone,
but you have a long, strong rope. Having
studied physics, you tie the rope tautly to a
telephone pole and pull on it sideways at the
midpoint, as shown.

duong (ktd359) Homework 3 Spurlock (44103)

28

Find the force exerted by the rope on the


car when the angle is 3 and you are pulling
with a force of 392 N but the car does not
move.

076 (part 1 of 2) 0.0 points


On takeoff, the combined action of the engines
and wings of an airplane exerts a(n) 7210 N
force on the plane, directed upward at an
angle of 62.3 above the horizontal. The plane
rises with constant velocity in the vertical
direction while continuing to accelerate in the
horizontal direction.
The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .
What is the weight of the plane?

Correct answer: 3.74504 kN.

Correct answer: 6383.69 N.

Explanation:

Explanation:
The plane moves with constant velocity in
the vertical direction, so the sum of the vertical components of the forces equal zero.

392 N 3

27 m

Let : F = 392 N ,
= 3 , and
= 27 m .

so

Before the car starts moving,


X
Fy = m ay ,
2 T sin F = 0

F
2 sin
kN
392 N

2 sin 3 1000 N
= 3.74504 kN .

T =

Wplane = F sin
= (7210 N) sin 62.3
= 6383.69 N.
077 (part 2 of 2) 0.0 points
What is its horizontal acceleration a?
Correct answer: 5.14511 m/s2 .
Explanation:
The mass of the plane is
m=

Wplane
g

and the horizontal acceleration is


075 (part 2 of 2) 0.0 points
How strong must the rope be if it takes a force
of 608 N to move the car when is 3.1 ?

a=
=

Correct answer: 5.62143 kN.


Explanation:
Let :

=
= 3.1 .

F
2 sin
kN
608 N

=
2 sin 3.1 1000 N
= 5.62143 kN .

T =

Fx
m
F cos
Wplane
g

F g cos
Wplane

(7210 N) (9.8 m/s2 ) cos 62.3


6383.69 N
= 5.14511 m/s2 .

078 (part 1 of 3) 0.0 points


Three masses are connected by light strings
as shown in the figure.

duong (ktd359) Homework 3 Spurlock (44103)

29

so

m1 + m2 + m3
g
a=
m1 + m2 + m3


1.7 kg + 4.26 kg + 2.08 kg
=
1.7 kg + 4.26 kg + 2.08 kg
(9.8 m/s2 )


m2

= 5.65572 m/s2 .

m1
m3
The string connecting the m1 and the m2
passes over a light frictionless pulley.
Given m1 = 1.7 kg, m2 = 4.26 kg, m3 =
2.08 kg, and g = 9.8 m/s2 . The acceleration
of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .
Find the downward acceleration of m2
mass.
Correct answer: 5.65572 m/s2 .

079 (part 2 of 3) 0.0 points


Find the tension in the string connecting the
m1 and the m2 masses.
Correct answer: 26.2747 N.
Explanation:
From equation (1),
T1 = m1 (a + g)
= (1.7 kg) 5.65572 m/s2 + 9.8 m/s2
= 26.2747 N .

Explanation:
Consider the free body diagrams:

080 (part 3 of 3) 0.0 points


Find the tension in the string connecting the
m2 and the m3 masses.
Correct answer: 8.6201 N.
Explanation:
From equation (3),

T1
m2

= (2.08 kg) 9.8 m/s2 5.65572 m/s2

T2
a

T2 = m3 (g a)

T1
m1

m3

= 8.6201 N .

Applying Newtons second law to each of


these masses we get

m1 a = T1 m1 g
m2 a = T2 + m2 g T1
m3 a = m3 g T2

(1)
(2)
(3)

081 0.0 points


At a instant when a 5.7 kg object has an
acceleration equal to ~a = (ax + ay ), where
ax = 6.8 m/s2 , ay = 1.2 m/s2 , one of the
two forces acting on the object is known to
be ~f1 = (f1x + f1y ), where f1x = 19 N,
f1y = 26 N.
Determine the magnitude f2 of the other
force acting on the object.
Correct answer: 27.5239 N.

Adding these equations yields

(m1 + m2 + m3 ) a = (m1 + m2 + m3 ) g ,

Explanation:
Basic Concept:
X

F = ma

duong (ktd359) Homework 3 Spurlock (44103)

30

Solution:
Let : m1 = 2 kg ,
m2 = 4 kg ,
m3 = 4 kg ,
= 0.13 .

~ net = m~a = max + may


F
~f1 + ~f2 = F
~ net , so
~f2 = F
~ net ~f1
= (max f1x ) + (may f1y )

Basic Concepts: The acceleration a of


each mass is the same, but the tensions in the
two strings will be different.

Thus the magnitude of f2 is

f2 =

Fnet = m a 6= 0

(max f1x ) + (max f1y )

082 0.0 points


There is friction between the block and the
table.
The suspended 2 kg mass on the left is
moving up, the 4 kg mass slides to the right
on the table, and the suspended mass 4 kg on
the right is moving down.
The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .

Solution: Let T1 be the tension in the left


string and T2 be the tension in the right string.
Consider the free body diagrams for each
mass
T1

N
T1
N

m1 g

T2

T2
m2 g

m3 g

4 kg

For the mass m1 , T1 acts up and the weight


m1 g acts down, with the acceleration a directed upward, so

= 0.13

Fnet1 = m1 a = T1 m1 g .

2 kg

4 kg

What is the magnitude of the acceleration


of the system?
Correct answer: 1.4504 m/s2 .
a

(1)

For the mass on the table, a is directed to


the right, T2 acts to the right, T1 acts to the
left, and the motion is to the right so that the
frictional force m2 g acts to the left and
Fnet2 = m2 a = T2 T1 m2 g .

(2)

For the mass m3 , T2 acts up and the weight


m3 g acts down, with the acceleration a directed downward, so
Fnet3 = m3 a = m3 g T2 .

Explanation:

(3)

Adding these equations yields

(m1 + m2 + m3 ) a = m3 g m2 g m1 g

m2

m3 m2 m1
g
m1 + m2 + m3
4 kg (0.13) (4 kg) 2 kg
=
2 kg + 4 kg + 4 kg
(9.8 m/s2 )

a=

m1

and

m3

= 1.4504 m/s2 .

duong (ktd359) Homework 3 Spurlock (44103)


083 (part 1 of 2) 0.0 points
A block weighing 9.3 N requires a force of
3.9 N to push it along at constant velocity.
What is the coefficient of friction for the
surface?
Correct answer: 0.419355.
Explanation:
Constant velocity implies the system is in
equilibrium. Thus
Fright = Flef t

f1 W1

4.7 N (9.3 N)(0.419355)


=
0.419355
= 1.90769 N .

W=

085 (part 1 of 2) 0.0 points


Two blocks are arranged at the ends of a massless cord over a frictionless massless pulley as
shown in the figure. Assume the system starts
from rest. When the masses have moved a distance of 0.36 m, their speed is 1.33 m/s.
The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .

The force necessary to overcome friction is


F = N . Friction always opposes the motion, and acts in the opposite direction of the
motion.
Consider the free body diagram:

31

4.2 kg

W1

2.7 kg

W1
The normal force is W1 , so
f W1 = 0
3.9 N
f
=
= 0.419355 .
=
W1
9.3 N
084 (part 2 of 2) 0.0 points
A weight W is now placed on the block and
4.7 N is needed to push them both at constant
velocity.
What is the weight W of the block?
Correct answer: 1.90769 N.
Explanation:
Consider the free body diagram:

f1

What is the coefficient of friction between


m2 and the table?
Correct answer: 0.231002.
Explanation:
Given :

m1 = 2.7 kg ,
m2 = 4.2 kg ,
s = 0.36 m ,
v0 = 0 m/s .

and

Basic Concept: Newtons Second Law


F =Ma

Solution: The acceleration of m1 is obtained


from the equation

W1

v 2 v02 = 2 a (s s0 )

1N
The normal force is W1 + W, so
Fnet = f1 (W1 + W) = 0
f1 = W1 + W

v 2 v02
a=
2h
(1.33 m/s)2 (0 m/s)2
=
2 (0.36 m)
= 2.45681 m/s2 .

duong (ktd359) Homework 3 Spurlock (44103)


Consider free body diagrams for the two
masses
a
m2

T
T

m1

or, using Eq. 2 and from Part 1, the tension


T is
T = m2 [a + g]
= (4.2 kg) [(2.45681 m/s2 )
+ (0.231002) (9.8 m/s2 )]
= 19.8266 N .

m2 g

m2 g
m1 g
N
which leads to
X
F1y : m1 a = m1 g T
X
F2x : m2 a = T fk
X
F2y : N = m2 g ,

Since the T is the same using Eqs. 1 & 2: Part


1, = 0.231002, is verified.
(1)
(2)
(3)

where T is the tension in the cord and from


Eq. 3, fk N = m2 g.
Because m1 and m2 are tied together with a
cord, they have same the speed and the same
acceleration. Adding Eqs. 1 & 2 we have
(m1 + m2 ) a = m1 g fk = m1 g m2 g

087 0.0 points


A 33 kg box rests on the back of a truck. The
coefficient of static friction between the box
and the truck bed is 0.351.
The acceleration of gravity is 9.81 m/s2 .
What maximum acceleration can the truck
have before the box slides backward?
Correct answer: 3.44331 m/s2 .
Explanation:
Basic Concept:

so that
m2 g = m1 g (m1 + m2 ) a .
Thus
m1 (m1 + m2 ) a

m2
m2
g
2.7 kg 2.7 kg + 4.2 kg

=
4.2 kg
4.2 kg
2.45681 m/s2

9.8 m/s2
= 0.231002 .

Fs,max = matruck,max = s mg
Given:
m = 33 kg
s = 0.351
g = 9.81 m/s2

086 (part 2 of 2) 0.0 points


What is the magnitude of the tension in the
cord?
Correct answer: 19.8266 N.
Explanation:
Using Eq. 1 the tension T is
T = m1 (g a)
= (2.7 kg) (9.8 m/s2 2.45681 m/s2 )
= 19.8266 N

32

Solution: If Fs,max > ma, then the box stays


in place, but if Fs,max < ma, then the box will
slide to the back of the truck bed. Thus
matruck,max = s mg
atruck,max = s g
= (0.351) 9.81 m/s2
= 3.44331 m/s2

forward.
088 0.0 points
A girl coasts down a hill on a sled, reaching
level ground at the bottom with a speed of
6.6 m/s. The coefficient of kinetic friction
between the sleds runners and the hard, icy

duong (ktd359) Homework 3 Spurlock (44103)


snow is 0.060, and the girl and sled together
weigh 768 N.
The acceleration of gravity is 9.81 m/s2 .
How far does the sled travel on the level
ground before coming to a rest?

33

089 0.0 points


The coefficient of static friction between the
4.41 kg crate and the 35.4 incline is 0.287.
The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .

Correct answer: 37.0031 m.

Explanation:
vi = 6.6 m/s

1
4. 4

kg
k

Fk
768 N

Fn

Note: Figure is not drawn to scale.


Basic Concepts:
Fk = k Fn
Fx,net = max = Fk
0=

vi2

35.4

k = 0.06

What minimum force F must be applied to


the crate perpendicular to the incline to prevent the crate from sliding down the incline?
Correct answer: 52.0031 N.

+ 2ax

Explanation:

since vf = 0 m/s.
Given :
Given :

vi = 6.6 m/s ,
k = 0.060 ,
Fn = Fg = 768 N ,

and

g = 9.81 m/s .
Solution:

m = 4.41 kg ,
w = m g = (4.41 kg) (9.8 m/s2 ) = 43.218 N ,
= 35.4 , and
s = 0.287 .

Consider the free body diagram for the


block
F

m=

Fg
768 N
=
= 78.2875 kg
g
9.81 m/s2
k Fn
m
0.06(768 N)
=
78.2875 kg
= 0.5886 m/s2

ax =

Vertically,
X

mg

Fy = n Wy F = 0

so the normal force is

vi2
x =
2ax
=

in
gs

s
co
N
g
m
=

m/s)2

(6.6
2 (0.5886 m/s2 )

= 37.0031 m .

n = Wy + F = m g cos + F
Horizontally,
X
Fx = m g sin fs = 0 ,

duong (ktd359) Homework 3 Spurlock (44103)


so the force of static friction is
fs = m g sin .
But
fs s N = s (m g cos + F )
m g sin s m g cos + s F
Thus
m g sin
m g cos
s

(4.41 kg) 9.8 m/s2 sin 35.4
=
0.287

(4.41 kg) 9.8 m/s2 cos 35.4

= 52.0031 N .

34