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Republic of the Philippines

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Region V (Bicol)
SCHOOLS DIVISION OFFICE
Tabaco City Division
SAN LORENZO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
San Lorenzo, Tabaco City

FACTORS AFFECTING THE LOW PERFORMANCE OF GRADE 7 STUDENTS TAKING


SUMMER CLASS IN MATHEMATICS

TITLE: FACTORS AFFECTING THE LOW PERFORMANCE IN MATHEMATICS OF GRADE 7


STUDENTS
I.

ABSTRACT

II.

INTRODUCTION
Mathematics is one of the most important school subjects in the curriculum not

just in the Philippines but worldwide. It is a subject that has a direct relationship with the
other subjects, particularly Sciences. Mathematics is also a subject that cuts across primary
and secondary school as a compulsory subject. It is view as bedrock and an indispensable
tool for scientific, technological and economic advancement of any nation, (Umameh, 2011).
In addition to that, Davies and Hersh, (2012) see Mathematics as the important subject not
only in the point of view of getting academic qualification in secondary level but it prepares
students for the future as well irrespective of which work of life they choose to be part of.
(Mefor, 2014) summarized it all by saying that Mathematics relates everything in the
universe from the smallest to the largest. (Umameh, 2011) added that Mathematics is
intimately connected to daily life and everybodys lifelong planning. Therefore, Mathematics
is a subject that education and human life cannot function without it.
However, almost every student says that Mathematics is one of the subjects they
are less likely to comprehend and this is why many students fail in Mathematics. Its in this

aspect that this action research is conceptualized to determine the factors affecting the
students low performance in Mathematics, specifically, the Grade 7 students of San
Lorenzo National High School, Tabaco City
The present study was primarily an attempt to diagnose the factors affecting the
low performance of Grade 7 students taking summer class in Mathematics at San Lorenzo
National High School, Tabaco City.
Specifically, it will answer the following sub-problems:
1. What are the least mastered competencies of the Grade 7 students
taking summer class?
2. Is there a significant difference in the performance of the students after
the remediation?
3. What plan of action can be developed to further enhance the essentials
III.

skills of the Grade 7 students?


BRIEF REVIEW OF LITERATURE
There are lots of possible factors that hinder students in achieving

high performance in Mathematics considered in this study. These include the students
interests, study habits, their teachers personality traits, instructional materials and teaching
skills.
Teachers play important role in the realization of the high standards which are
increasingly emphasized in schools and school systems across the world. Despite the
general agreement about the importance of high quality teachers, researchers, practitioners,
policy makers and the public have been unable to reach a consensus about what specific
qualities and characteristics makes a good teacher. The profession of teaching is becoming
more and more complex and the demands placed upon teachers are increasing with the
ever changing world. Hanushek (1997) estimated that the difference between having a good
teacher and having a bad teacher did exceed one grade level equivalent in annual
achievement growth. It is therefore important that both pre-service and in-service training
are essential for the quality professional development of the teacher.
The availability, provision and the use of teaching and learning materials go a
long way to improve quality teaching which enhances academic performance. Adedjei and
Owoeye (2002) found a significant relationship between the use of recommended textbooks
and academic performance. According to Douglass and Kristin (2000), in a comprehensive
review of activity based learning in mathematics in kindergarten through grade eight,

concluded that using manipulative materials produces greater achievement than not using
them. They also note that the long term use of concert instructional materials by teachers
knowledgeable in their use improves students achievement and attitudes. Opare (1999)
also asserted that the provision of the needed human and material resources goes a long
way to enhance academic performance. Ankomah (1998) noted that effective teaching and
learning greatly lied on the competences of its human resources as well as material
resources which were needed for the impartation of knowledge.
A highly motivated person puts in the maximum effort in his or her job.
According to Farrant (1968); Today the relationship between teachers and pupils is often
up-side down; pupils come because they must and teachers teach because they are paid to.
Teachers mourn that their profession is not respected and complain that they are
inadequately paid for the duties they are required to do. They look over their shoulders at
others professions and conditions of services for a better life (pg 125).
This assertion by Farrant (1968) exhibited lack of motivation on the part of
both teachers and students. More so, it may contribute to ineffectiveness and inefficiency in
academic work and its effects- poor performance. Studies by Lockheed (1991) cited in Etsey
(2005) revealed that lack of motivation and professional commitment produce poor
attendance and unprofessional attributes towards students which in turn affect the
performance of students academically.
Students attitude towards mathematics influences the efforts they put in
understanding and practicing mathematical concepts and skills. According to the National
Research Council (2000) as cited in Akey (2006), Students beliefs about their competence
and their expectations for success in school have been directly linked to their levels of
engagement, as well as to emotional states that promote or interfere with their ability to be
academically successful. Thus attitudes determine the effort a student is likely to put in his
learning of the subject (mathematics).It is therefore necessary for mathematics teachers to
strive and sustain positive attitudes towards mathematics for good performance in the upper
classes (Benson, 1999).

Teachers Quality and


Performance THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

Motivation

Students Performance

Availability of Teaching Resources

Students Attitudes towards Mathematics

IV.

METHODOLOGY AND RESEARCH DESIGN


SOURCE OF DATA
The main sources of data will be from the pre-test in Math Grade 7 and
the post-test after the remediation lessons will be implemented and a survey will be
conducted by the researcher on the causes of their poor performance in
Mathematics 7. A total of twenty- three students are the respondents of the study,
who are taking Summer Class in Mathematics 7 at San Lorenzo National High
School, Tabaco City.
RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
The main instrument used to gather the needed data were the pre- test
and post- test which composed of fifty- item test. The study is a descriptive and
qualitative type of research which aimed to determine the factors affecting the low
performance of Grade 7 students taking summer class in Mathematics and to
enhance the mastery of K-12 mathematics competencies through remediation
lessons.

V.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


The following tables reflect the answers of the respondents to the survey given.

I.

Student-Related Factors
Table 1.1

Verbal

A. Interest

Weighted Mean

I see to it that Im prepared for the math subject.


I listen attentively to the lecture of my teacher.
I actively participate in the discussion, answering

3.70
4.04
3.04

Interpretation
Often
Often
Sometimes

4.17

Often

2.87

Sometimes

exercises and/or clarifying things I did not


understand.
I want to get good grades on tests, quizzes,
assignments and projects.
I get frustrated when the discussion is interrupted

or the teacher is absent.


Table 1.1 represents the Interest of the students in Math as one of the factors of the low
performance of students. The indicator, I want get good grades on tests, quizzes,
assignments and projects, gained the highest weighted mean of 4.17 and a verbal
interpretation of Often. The rest gained also a verbal interpretation of Often with weighted
means of 3.7, 4.04, while the indicator for participation in the discussion and frustration
when the discussion is interrupted got the two lowest weighted mean of only 3.04 and verbal
interpretation of Sometimes.

Table 1.2

Verbal

B. Study Habits

Weighted Mean

I do my assignments regularly.
I exert more effort when I do difficult assignments.
I spend my vacant time in doing assignments or

3.83
3.57

studying my lessons.

3.48

I study the lessons I missed if I was absent from

Interpretation
Often
Often
Sometimes

Often
3.83

the class
I study and prepared for quizzes and tests.
I study harder to improve my performance when I

3.65
4.09

Often
Often

3.78

Often

3.26

Sometimes

2.39

Rarely

3.78

Often

get low grades.


I spend less time with my friends during school
days to concentrate more on my studies.
I prefer finishing my studying and my assignments
first before watching any television program.
I see to it that extracurricular activities do not
hamper my studies.
I have a specific place of study at home which I
keep clean and orderly.
Table 1.2 represents the Study Habits of the students in Math as one of the
factors affecting their low performance. The indicator, I study harder to improve performance
when I get low grades, gained the highest weighted mean of 4.09 and verbal interpretation of
Often. The indicators, doing assignments regularly, exerting more effort on doing difficult
assignments, studying missed lessons, reviewing for quizzes, spending less time with peer
and having specific place to study at home, gained the same verbal interpretation of Often
with weighted means equal to 3.83, 3.57,3.83, 3.65 and 3.76, respectively. While the indicator
that students see to it that extracurricular activities do not hamper their studies gained the
lowest weighted mean of 3.35, with a verbal interpretation of Sometimes.

Table 1.3

C. Attitude towards Mathematics

Verbal
Weighted Mean

I am always under a terrible strain in mathematics

3.43

Interpretation
Sometimes

class
I do not like mathematics and it scares me to have

3.39

Sometimes

to take it.
Math is very interesting to me and I enjoy Math

3.43

Sometimes

course.
My mind goes blank and I am unable to think

3.09

Sometimes

I never liked Math and it is my most dreaded

3.22

Sometimes

subjects.
I feel a sense of insecurity when attempting

3.17

Sometimes

3.26

Sometimes

3.78
3.39
3.39

Often
Sometimes
Sometimes

when working Math.

Mathematics.
Math makes me feel uncomfortable restless,
irritable and impatient.
Math is something which I enjoy a great deal
I feel ease in Math and I like it very much
I am happier in Math class than in any other class

Table 1.3 represents the Attitude towards Math as one of the factors affecting
the low performance of the students in Math. The indicator, Math is something which I enjoy,
gained the highest weighted mean of 4.09 and verbal interpretation of Often. The indicators,
having a feeling of terrible strain in mathematics class, not liking Mathematics and it scares
them to have to take it, Math is very interesting, their mind goes blank and unable to think
when working Math, feeling insecure, uncomfortable, restless, irritable and impatient when
attempting Mathematics, feeling at ease in Math liking it very much to the point the they feel
happier in Math class than in any other class, gained the same verbal interpretation of
Sometimes with weighted means equal to 3.43, 3.39, 3.43, 3.09, 3.22, 3.17, 3.26,3.39, and
3.39, respectively.

II.

Teacher-Related Factors

Table 2.1
Verbal

A. Personality Traits

Weighted Mean

Has a good relationship with the students and

4.48

Interpretation
Often

3.87

Often

3.87

Often

3.65

Often

3.78

Often

teachers.
Shows smartness, confidence and firmness in
making decisions.
Imposes proper discipline and is not lenient in
following the prescribed rules.
Has an appealing personality with good sense of
humor.
Is open to suggestions and opinions and is worthy
of praise.

Table 2.1 represents Personality Traits of the Math Teachers as one of the
factors affecting the low performance of the students. The indicator, Has a good relationship
with the students and teachers, gained the highest weighted mean of 4.49 and verbal
interpretation of Often. The indicators that Math teacher shows smartness, confidence and
firmness in decision making, imposes proper discipline and is not lenient in following the
prescribed rules, has an appealing personality with good sense of humor, is open to
suggestions and opinions and is worthy of praise, gained the same verbal interpretation of
Often with weighted mean of 3.87, 3.87, 3.65, and 3.78, respectively.
Table 2.2

Verbal

B. Teaching Skills

Weighted Mean

Explains the objectives of the lesson clearly at the

4.70

Interpretation
Always

3.96
3.48

Often
Sometimes

4.00

Often

3.35

Sometimes

start of each period.


Has mastery of the subject matter.
Is organized in presenting subject matters by
systematically following course outline.
Is updated with present trends, relevant to the
subject matter.
Uses various strategies, teaching aids/devices
and techniques in presenting the lessons.
Table 2.2 represents the Teaching Skills of the Math Teachers as one of the
factors affecting the low performance of the students. The indicator, Explains the objectives of
the lesson clearly at the start of each period, gained the highest weighted mean of 4.70 and
verbal interpretation of Always. The indicators that Math teacher has mastery of the subject
matter and is updated with present trends, relevant to the subject matter, gained the same
verbal interpretation of Often with weighted mean of 3.96 and 4.00, respectively .While the
indicator that Math teacher uses various strategies, teaching aids/devices and techniques in
presenting the lessons gained the lowest weighted mean of 3.35, with a verbal interpretation
of Sometimes.
Table 2.3

C. Instructional Materials
Chalk and blackboard in explaining the lessons
Workbooks/textbooks
PowerPoint presentations (visual aids)
Articles
Materials for project development

Verbal
Weighted Mean
4.52
4.35
2.96
3.52
4.13

Interpretation
Always
Often
Sometimes
Often
Often

Table 2.3 represents the Instructional Materials of the Math Teachers as one of
the factors affecting the low performance of the students. The indicator, use of chalk and
blackboard in explaining the lessons, gained the highest weighted mean of 4.52 and verbal
interpretation of Always. The indicators that Math teacher uses workbooks/textbooks, articles

and materials for project development as their instructional materials, gained the same
verbal interpretation of Often with weighted mean of 4.35, 3.52, and 4.13, respectively
.While the indicator that Math teacher uses PowerPoint presentations as their instructional
material, gained the lowest weighted mean of 3.35, with a verbal interpretation of
Sometimes.
Table 3 represents the result of t-test between Pre Test and Post Test
and the performance of Grade 7 students in Math.
Table 3.1- t-Test Result of Pre Test and Post Test
t-Test: Paired Two Sample for Means

Mean
Variance
Observations
Pearson Correlation
Hypothesized Mean Difference
df
t Stat
P(T<=t) one-tail
t Critical one-tail
P(T<=t) two-tail
t Critical two-tail

POST TEST
21.04347826
36.22529644
23
0.239192685
0
22
7.242428595
1.47731E-07
1.717144335
2.95463E-07
2.073873058

PRE TEST
12
7.545454545
23

The table shows the t-test result of Pre Test and Post Test. Since the computed
value which is equal to 7.24 is greater than the critical value which is equal to 1.71, then there
is a significant difference between the Pre Test and Post of Grade 7 students. The mean of
Post Test is equal to 21. 04 which is greater than the mean of the Pre Test which is equal to
12. The scores of students in Pre Test is less scattered, having a variance of 7.54 (or a
standard deviation of 2.747), than the scores of the students in Post Test which has a variance
of 36.23 (or a standard deviation of 6.0187).
Table 3.2- Mean PL of Pre Test and Post Test

Number of Students
Total Scores
Mean
PL

Post Test
23
484
21
42

Pre Test
23
276
12
24

Table 3.2 reveals that during the Pre Test-before remediation lessons started,
the twenty- three students earned a total score of 276 while their total score in the Post Test-

after the remediation lessons were conducted, becomes higher which is equal to 484 in the
fifty- item test. The mean of twenty- three students in the Pre Test is equal to 12 and a
Performance Level (PL) equal to 24% while there is an improvement during the Post Test with
mean equal to 21 and Performance Level (PL) equal to 42%.
VI.

CONCLUSIONS
The researcher concludes that the factors presented in the study really
affect the students performance of Grade 7 students. Base from the result of the survey
from student- related factors, the interest of the students in learning Mathematics has a
high relationship with their performance. The researcher boosts the students interest by
giving them enjoyable discussions in the remediation class. Hence, the result of the
remediation lessons (refer Table 3.2) shows that interest of the students in learning
Mathematics really is a factor affecting the performance of the students. Apart from
interest of the students in learning Mathematics, study habits of the students was also
emphasized while conducting the remediation lessons. Checking of the preparations
was strictly implemented to ensure that the students are giving importance to their
studies. Also, the attitude of the students towards Mathematics should be given enough
attention. Teachers should avoid inconsiderate way of handling the students especially
to the underperforming students for them to be more active during discussions.
Collaborative learning also helps for the students to easily catch up with the topics being
discussed and students feel more at ease, more patient and secured that leads to
positive perspective in dealing with Mathematics.
Base from the result of the survey from teacher- related factors, the
personality traits of the Math teachers has no effect on the low performance of the
students. Hence,
Table 2.1 represents Personality Traits of the Math Teachers as one of the
factors affecting the low performance of the students. The indicator, Has a good
relationship with the students and teachers, gained the highest weighted mean of 4.49
and verbal interpretation of Often. The indicators that Math teacher shows smartness,
confidence and firmness in decision making, imposes proper discipline and is not lenient
in following the prescribed rules, has an appealing personality with good sense of humor,
is open to suggestions and opinions and is worthy of praise, gained the same verbal
interpretation of Often with weighted mean of 3.87, 3.87, 3.65, and 3.78, respectively.

VII.

REFERENCES

Prepared by:
SONIA C. BUARAO
Department Chairman- Mathematics

Recommending Approval:
ARLIN B. OBIASCA
Principal II

Approved:
EVANGELINE P. PALENCIA, Ph.D. CESO V
Schools Division Superintendent