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DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

Region V (Bicol)

SCHOOLS DIVISION OFFICE

Tabaco City Division

SAN LORENZO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL

San Lorenzo, Tabaco City

SUMMER CLASS IN MATHEMATICS

STUDENTS

I.

ABSTRACT

II.

INTRODUCTION

Mathematics is one of the most important school subjects in the curriculum not

just in the Philippines but worldwide. It is a subject that has a direct relationship with the

other subjects, particularly Sciences. Mathematics is also a subject that cuts across primary

and secondary school as a compulsory subject. It is view as bedrock and an indispensable

tool for scientific, technological and economic advancement of any nation, (Umameh, 2011).

In addition to that, Davies and Hersh, (2012) see Mathematics as the important subject not

only in the point of view of getting academic qualification in secondary level but it prepares

students for the future as well irrespective of which work of life they choose to be part of.

(Mefor, 2014) summarized it all by saying that Mathematics relates everything in the

universe from the smallest to the largest. (Umameh, 2011) added that Mathematics is

intimately connected to daily life and everybodys lifelong planning. Therefore, Mathematics

is a subject that education and human life cannot function without it.

However, almost every student says that Mathematics is one of the subjects they

are less likely to comprehend and this is why many students fail in Mathematics. Its in this

aspect that this action research is conceptualized to determine the factors affecting the

students low performance in Mathematics, specifically, the Grade 7 students of San

Lorenzo National High School, Tabaco City

The present study was primarily an attempt to diagnose the factors affecting the

low performance of Grade 7 students taking summer class in Mathematics at San Lorenzo

National High School, Tabaco City.

Specifically, it will answer the following sub-problems:

1. What are the least mastered competencies of the Grade 7 students

taking summer class?

2. Is there a significant difference in the performance of the students after

the remediation?

3. What plan of action can be developed to further enhance the essentials

III.

BRIEF REVIEW OF LITERATURE

There are lots of possible factors that hinder students in achieving

high performance in Mathematics considered in this study. These include the students

interests, study habits, their teachers personality traits, instructional materials and teaching

skills.

Teachers play important role in the realization of the high standards which are

increasingly emphasized in schools and school systems across the world. Despite the

general agreement about the importance of high quality teachers, researchers, practitioners,

policy makers and the public have been unable to reach a consensus about what specific

qualities and characteristics makes a good teacher. The profession of teaching is becoming

more and more complex and the demands placed upon teachers are increasing with the

ever changing world. Hanushek (1997) estimated that the difference between having a good

teacher and having a bad teacher did exceed one grade level equivalent in annual

achievement growth. It is therefore important that both pre-service and in-service training

are essential for the quality professional development of the teacher.

The availability, provision and the use of teaching and learning materials go a

long way to improve quality teaching which enhances academic performance. Adedjei and

Owoeye (2002) found a significant relationship between the use of recommended textbooks

and academic performance. According to Douglass and Kristin (2000), in a comprehensive

review of activity based learning in mathematics in kindergarten through grade eight,

concluded that using manipulative materials produces greater achievement than not using

them. They also note that the long term use of concert instructional materials by teachers

knowledgeable in their use improves students achievement and attitudes. Opare (1999)

also asserted that the provision of the needed human and material resources goes a long

way to enhance academic performance. Ankomah (1998) noted that effective teaching and

learning greatly lied on the competences of its human resources as well as material

resources which were needed for the impartation of knowledge.

A highly motivated person puts in the maximum effort in his or her job.

According to Farrant (1968); Today the relationship between teachers and pupils is often

up-side down; pupils come because they must and teachers teach because they are paid to.

Teachers mourn that their profession is not respected and complain that they are

inadequately paid for the duties they are required to do. They look over their shoulders at

others professions and conditions of services for a better life (pg 125).

This assertion by Farrant (1968) exhibited lack of motivation on the part of

both teachers and students. More so, it may contribute to ineffectiveness and inefficiency in

academic work and its effects- poor performance. Studies by Lockheed (1991) cited in Etsey

(2005) revealed that lack of motivation and professional commitment produce poor

attendance and unprofessional attributes towards students which in turn affect the

performance of students academically.

Students attitude towards mathematics influences the efforts they put in

understanding and practicing mathematical concepts and skills. According to the National

Research Council (2000) as cited in Akey (2006), Students beliefs about their competence

and their expectations for success in school have been directly linked to their levels of

engagement, as well as to emotional states that promote or interfere with their ability to be

academically successful. Thus attitudes determine the effort a student is likely to put in his

learning of the subject (mathematics).It is therefore necessary for mathematics teachers to

strive and sustain positive attitudes towards mathematics for good performance in the upper

classes (Benson, 1999).

Performance THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

Motivation

Students Performance

IV.

SOURCE OF DATA

The main sources of data will be from the pre-test in Math Grade 7 and

the post-test after the remediation lessons will be implemented and a survey will be

conducted by the researcher on the causes of their poor performance in

Mathematics 7. A total of twenty- three students are the respondents of the study,

who are taking Summer Class in Mathematics 7 at San Lorenzo National High

School, Tabaco City.

RESEARCH INSTRUMENT

The main instrument used to gather the needed data were the pre- test

and post- test which composed of fifty- item test. The study is a descriptive and

qualitative type of research which aimed to determine the factors affecting the low

performance of Grade 7 students taking summer class in Mathematics and to

enhance the mastery of K-12 mathematics competencies through remediation

lessons.

V.

The following tables reflect the answers of the respondents to the survey given.

I.

Student-Related Factors

Table 1.1

Verbal

A. Interest

Weighted Mean

I listen attentively to the lecture of my teacher.

I actively participate in the discussion, answering

3.70

4.04

3.04

Interpretation

Often

Often

Sometimes

4.17

Often

2.87

Sometimes

understand.

I want to get good grades on tests, quizzes,

assignments and projects.

I get frustrated when the discussion is interrupted

Table 1.1 represents the Interest of the students in Math as one of the factors of the low

performance of students. The indicator, I want get good grades on tests, quizzes,

assignments and projects, gained the highest weighted mean of 4.17 and a verbal

interpretation of Often. The rest gained also a verbal interpretation of Often with weighted

means of 3.7, 4.04, while the indicator for participation in the discussion and frustration

when the discussion is interrupted got the two lowest weighted mean of only 3.04 and verbal

interpretation of Sometimes.

Table 1.2

Verbal

B. Study Habits

Weighted Mean

I do my assignments regularly.

I exert more effort when I do difficult assignments.

I spend my vacant time in doing assignments or

3.83

3.57

studying my lessons.

3.48

Interpretation

Often

Often

Sometimes

Often

3.83

the class

I study and prepared for quizzes and tests.

I study harder to improve my performance when I

3.65

4.09

Often

Often

3.78

Often

3.26

Sometimes

2.39

Rarely

3.78

Often

I spend less time with my friends during school

days to concentrate more on my studies.

I prefer finishing my studying and my assignments

first before watching any television program.

I see to it that extracurricular activities do not

hamper my studies.

I have a specific place of study at home which I

keep clean and orderly.

Table 1.2 represents the Study Habits of the students in Math as one of the

factors affecting their low performance. The indicator, I study harder to improve performance

when I get low grades, gained the highest weighted mean of 4.09 and verbal interpretation of

Often. The indicators, doing assignments regularly, exerting more effort on doing difficult

assignments, studying missed lessons, reviewing for quizzes, spending less time with peer

and having specific place to study at home, gained the same verbal interpretation of Often

with weighted means equal to 3.83, 3.57,3.83, 3.65 and 3.76, respectively. While the indicator

that students see to it that extracurricular activities do not hamper their studies gained the

lowest weighted mean of 3.35, with a verbal interpretation of Sometimes.

Table 1.3

Verbal

Weighted Mean

3.43

Interpretation

Sometimes

class

I do not like mathematics and it scares me to have

3.39

Sometimes

to take it.

Math is very interesting to me and I enjoy Math

3.43

Sometimes

course.

My mind goes blank and I am unable to think

3.09

Sometimes

3.22

Sometimes

subjects.

I feel a sense of insecurity when attempting

3.17

Sometimes

3.26

Sometimes

3.78

3.39

3.39

Often

Sometimes

Sometimes

Mathematics.

Math makes me feel uncomfortable restless,

irritable and impatient.

Math is something which I enjoy a great deal

I feel ease in Math and I like it very much

I am happier in Math class than in any other class

Table 1.3 represents the Attitude towards Math as one of the factors affecting

the low performance of the students in Math. The indicator, Math is something which I enjoy,

gained the highest weighted mean of 4.09 and verbal interpretation of Often. The indicators,

having a feeling of terrible strain in mathematics class, not liking Mathematics and it scares

them to have to take it, Math is very interesting, their mind goes blank and unable to think

when working Math, feeling insecure, uncomfortable, restless, irritable and impatient when

attempting Mathematics, feeling at ease in Math liking it very much to the point the they feel

happier in Math class than in any other class, gained the same verbal interpretation of

Sometimes with weighted means equal to 3.43, 3.39, 3.43, 3.09, 3.22, 3.17, 3.26,3.39, and

3.39, respectively.

II.

Teacher-Related Factors

Table 2.1

Verbal

A. Personality Traits

Weighted Mean

4.48

Interpretation

Often

3.87

Often

3.87

Often

3.65

Often

3.78

Often

teachers.

Shows smartness, confidence and firmness in

making decisions.

Imposes proper discipline and is not lenient in

following the prescribed rules.

Has an appealing personality with good sense of

humor.

Is open to suggestions and opinions and is worthy

of praise.

Table 2.1 represents Personality Traits of the Math Teachers as one of the

factors affecting the low performance of the students. The indicator, Has a good relationship

with the students and teachers, gained the highest weighted mean of 4.49 and verbal

interpretation of Often. The indicators that Math teacher shows smartness, confidence and

firmness in decision making, imposes proper discipline and is not lenient in following the

prescribed rules, has an appealing personality with good sense of humor, is open to

suggestions and opinions and is worthy of praise, gained the same verbal interpretation of

Often with weighted mean of 3.87, 3.87, 3.65, and 3.78, respectively.

Table 2.2

Verbal

B. Teaching Skills

Weighted Mean

4.70

Interpretation

Always

3.96

3.48

Often

Sometimes

4.00

Often

3.35

Sometimes

Has mastery of the subject matter.

Is organized in presenting subject matters by

systematically following course outline.

Is updated with present trends, relevant to the

subject matter.

Uses various strategies, teaching aids/devices

and techniques in presenting the lessons.

Table 2.2 represents the Teaching Skills of the Math Teachers as one of the

factors affecting the low performance of the students. The indicator, Explains the objectives of

the lesson clearly at the start of each period, gained the highest weighted mean of 4.70 and

verbal interpretation of Always. The indicators that Math teacher has mastery of the subject

matter and is updated with present trends, relevant to the subject matter, gained the same

verbal interpretation of Often with weighted mean of 3.96 and 4.00, respectively .While the

indicator that Math teacher uses various strategies, teaching aids/devices and techniques in

presenting the lessons gained the lowest weighted mean of 3.35, with a verbal interpretation

of Sometimes.

Table 2.3

C. Instructional Materials

Chalk and blackboard in explaining the lessons

Workbooks/textbooks

PowerPoint presentations (visual aids)

Articles

Materials for project development

Verbal

Weighted Mean

4.52

4.35

2.96

3.52

4.13

Interpretation

Always

Often

Sometimes

Often

Often

Table 2.3 represents the Instructional Materials of the Math Teachers as one of

the factors affecting the low performance of the students. The indicator, use of chalk and

blackboard in explaining the lessons, gained the highest weighted mean of 4.52 and verbal

interpretation of Always. The indicators that Math teacher uses workbooks/textbooks, articles

and materials for project development as their instructional materials, gained the same

verbal interpretation of Often with weighted mean of 4.35, 3.52, and 4.13, respectively

.While the indicator that Math teacher uses PowerPoint presentations as their instructional

material, gained the lowest weighted mean of 3.35, with a verbal interpretation of

Sometimes.

Table 3 represents the result of t-test between Pre Test and Post Test

and the performance of Grade 7 students in Math.

Table 3.1- t-Test Result of Pre Test and Post Test

t-Test: Paired Two Sample for Means

Mean

Variance

Observations

Pearson Correlation

Hypothesized Mean Difference

df

t Stat

P(T<=t) one-tail

t Critical one-tail

P(T<=t) two-tail

t Critical two-tail

POST TEST

21.04347826

36.22529644

23

0.239192685

0

22

7.242428595

1.47731E-07

1.717144335

2.95463E-07

2.073873058

PRE TEST

12

7.545454545

23

The table shows the t-test result of Pre Test and Post Test. Since the computed

value which is equal to 7.24 is greater than the critical value which is equal to 1.71, then there

is a significant difference between the Pre Test and Post of Grade 7 students. The mean of

Post Test is equal to 21. 04 which is greater than the mean of the Pre Test which is equal to

12. The scores of students in Pre Test is less scattered, having a variance of 7.54 (or a

standard deviation of 2.747), than the scores of the students in Post Test which has a variance

of 36.23 (or a standard deviation of 6.0187).

Table 3.2- Mean PL of Pre Test and Post Test

Number of Students

Total Scores

Mean

PL

Post Test

23

484

21

42

Pre Test

23

276

12

24

Table 3.2 reveals that during the Pre Test-before remediation lessons started,

the twenty- three students earned a total score of 276 while their total score in the Post Test-

after the remediation lessons were conducted, becomes higher which is equal to 484 in the

fifty- item test. The mean of twenty- three students in the Pre Test is equal to 12 and a

Performance Level (PL) equal to 24% while there is an improvement during the Post Test with

mean equal to 21 and Performance Level (PL) equal to 42%.

VI.

CONCLUSIONS

The researcher concludes that the factors presented in the study really

affect the students performance of Grade 7 students. Base from the result of the survey

from student- related factors, the interest of the students in learning Mathematics has a

high relationship with their performance. The researcher boosts the students interest by

giving them enjoyable discussions in the remediation class. Hence, the result of the

remediation lessons (refer Table 3.2) shows that interest of the students in learning

Mathematics really is a factor affecting the performance of the students. Apart from

interest of the students in learning Mathematics, study habits of the students was also

emphasized while conducting the remediation lessons. Checking of the preparations

was strictly implemented to ensure that the students are giving importance to their

studies. Also, the attitude of the students towards Mathematics should be given enough

attention. Teachers should avoid inconsiderate way of handling the students especially

to the underperforming students for them to be more active during discussions.

Collaborative learning also helps for the students to easily catch up with the topics being

discussed and students feel more at ease, more patient and secured that leads to

positive perspective in dealing with Mathematics.

Base from the result of the survey from teacher- related factors, the

personality traits of the Math teachers has no effect on the low performance of the

students. Hence,

Table 2.1 represents Personality Traits of the Math Teachers as one of the

factors affecting the low performance of the students. The indicator, Has a good

relationship with the students and teachers, gained the highest weighted mean of 4.49

and verbal interpretation of Often. The indicators that Math teacher shows smartness,

confidence and firmness in decision making, imposes proper discipline and is not lenient

in following the prescribed rules, has an appealing personality with good sense of humor,

is open to suggestions and opinions and is worthy of praise, gained the same verbal

interpretation of Often with weighted mean of 3.87, 3.87, 3.65, and 3.78, respectively.

VII.

REFERENCES

Prepared by:

SONIA C. BUARAO

Department Chairman- Mathematics

Recommending Approval:

ARLIN B. OBIASCA

Principal II

Approved:

EVANGELINE P. PALENCIA, Ph.D. CESO V

Schools Division Superintendent

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