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THE

HIGH

-CASTE

WOMAN,

HINDU

itv

PUNDITA

RAMABAI

vSARASVATL

wmt

or

Accordingto
I: :^Srf^"S
RAMABAI

in

the

Office

of the

Press

Act

of

Congress,

DONORS
librarian

ot The

of

in

tfce year

1887,by

MEDHAVI,
Congress

AU

rights

Jas. B. Roclgers Printing Co.

reserved.

TO

Off

MEMORY

MY

DONGR3,

LAKSHMIBAI

WHOSE

THIS

IS

MOST

GUIDE

AND

LIGHT

ABWffi

AND

INFLUENCE

SWEET

MOTHER,

BELOVED

UTTU-C

KEV"R"NTI,Y

OF

MY

VOLUME

DEDICATED.

ftt

ANANDIBAI

JOSHEE,

DAUGHTER

OF

GANPATRAO

M.

D.

AMRITASWAR

AND

OUNGABAI

in

Boni

1865.

(Child-name,

Married

Sailed

being

first

of

College
Hindu
cine

Landed
in

in

Sailed

Died

th$

1st,

Fetnale

the

from

the

the

nth,

Degree

April 7th, 1883*


to

June

to

come

Medical

Woman's

1886, being
of

the

4th, 1883.

Doctor

New

position

1886, to the
Ward

City of Kolhapur,

from

in

1874.

3ist,

the
of

first

Medi*"

country.

of

put, October

York,

March

receive

Appointed, June
xn*Charge

March

woman

tfew

in

medicine,

to

any

in

Brahman

Pennsylvania,

woman

3ist,

Joshee,)

high-caste

States,

Graduated

Joshce,

Calcutta, India, for America,

from

the

United

Vinoyak

Anandibai

March

Joshee.)

Yamuna

Gopalrao

(Wife-name,

Presidency, India,

Bombay

Poona,

York,

to

of

the

Albert

Physician-

Edward

pital,
Hos-

India,

assume

her

duties

9tht 1886.
Poona,

of

India; February

?6th, 1887.

in

Kolha-

INTRODUCTION.

silence of

THE
and

the

reader

catches

of

with

unpretending

this

of

the

broken,

little volume

unfamiliar

voice

revealed
in
the following
they are
can
intelligent,educated, happy Ameri-

woe,

to

pages

been

has

years

first utterances

the

Throbbing

thousand

women.

grant that these

God

all

women

away,

as

above
turn

upon

they

pious tale, and


this story of

are

whom

women,

the

earth,

wont

to

has

He

do

from

some

without
The

flippantly

not

may

blessed

!
reading, condemn
Womant
High-caste Hindu

over-

To

begin

and

not

through attentively to the last word of the


agonized appeal, is to invoke upon oneself the divine
who
out
those
to
disregard the
displeasure meted
that had
to help him."
These
none
cry of "him
with
written
lines are
deep emotion ; the blinding

to

read

tears

my

it

the
fall upon
have ever
wept.

which

eyes
childhood
From
cottcernmg

of

ladiju

My

I had

page

been

the

saddest

familiar with

the condition

sympathies

are

had

of the

the

native

always

tears

ments
state-

women

been
*

with

Introduction.

ii
them, and my

annual

to
offering

worked

societies which

sionary
the treasury of misamong

them,

had

September, 1883, there


door a little lady in a blue cotton $aree^
to my
catne
penter,
accompanied by her faithful fnend, Mrs. B. F. Carof Roselle, New
Jersey,and since that hour,
when, speechlessfor very wonder, I bestowed a kiss
of welcome

words,

lady

the
upon
I have loved the

months

ago,

the

women

gave

before to honor

and
her

woman,

in

little

city of

stirred

birth,was
amid

of

three

than

conservative

and

lieu

The

of India.

Joshee. I^ess

wealthy

Poona, India, which


never

stranger's cheek

Anandibai

Mrs.

was

in

omitted; but

been

never

as

the pomp

performed by orthodox
Hindu
her funeral pilewas
priests,
lightedfrom the
sacred fire,in the presence of a great throng of sorrowing
She sealed with her early death the
Hindus.
superhuman effort to elevate her countrywomen and
to minister
in her own
to their physical
person
of Brahmanical

funeral

rites

needs.
To
there

witness
came

to

Dr.

Philadelphiafrom JBngland

Pundita
met

Joshee's graduation in medicine,

until

Ramabai

Sarasvatl

The

her

two

woman,
kins-

ladies

they greeted each other under my


roof,March
6th, 1886 ; but, as kindred spirits,
they
had corresponded
for several years.
Strangelyenough,
each left India without the knowledge of the other,
and withm
the same
month, Mrs. Joshee sailingfrom
Calcutta and the Pundita
from Bombay.
The
day
that Mrs. Joshee left Liverpool for New
bai
York, Ramaand her littledaughter landed m
England, Th$
receptionof the two ladies in the summer
of 1883,
on^ in England and the other in the United States,
most
cordial ; and, comforted and blessed as neiwas
ther
had dared to anticipate
before leavingIndia,
each
settled down
to work with industry and with
never

Introduction.
which
degree of Intelligence

My
to

lot in

cook

in

her

her

who

to her

lookers.
on-

fell

collegein Philadelphia. She tried


little woman
of eighteen,to prosecute
time to keep caste-rules
at the same
food ; but

own
was

room

revelation to

the

this
faithfully,
her studies,and
and

personal experience relates

own

our

was

iii

constant

the anthracite

vexation, and

coal-stove

likewise

danger; and the solitude of the individual


house-keeping was
overwhelming. In her father's
hotise, the congregate system, referred to in this
of means,
the
book, prevailed; and, being a man
band's
familywas always large. letter,when under her husbeen
in the postal service,and
care, lie had
in the same
the dwelling apartments were
building
she had
known
the
with
never
post-office
; hence
complete solitude. After a trial of two weeks, her
health declined to such
an
alarming extent that I
of

source

invited her

to pay

left it

never

again

visit in ray home, and she


in Philadelphia
to dwell elsewhere
a

short

during her student residence. In the performance o"


collegeduties,going in and out, and up and down,
patientway,
dignified,
always in her measured, quiet,
well as the stairways
as
she has filled every room,
the
hallow
which
now
and
halls, with memories
continue so to do throughout the
home, and must
to

years

come,
.

In the

spring of 1884, Mrs.


to address

an

audience

Joshee acceptedan
of ladies convened

vitatio
infor

ject
missionaryanniversary,and she chose as her subence
Child Marriage/1and surprisedher great audiIf there are
by defending the national custom.
of disappointment
stillcherish the feelings
any who
and regretengenderedthat April afternoon, let them
turn to Ramabai's
chapter on Married I/ife in this
it was
for
Wok, and learn how absolutelyimpossible

"

Introduction.

iv
high-casteHindu

wife

speak otherwise, Let


them also discover,in the herculean attempt of that
clue to the influences which
at length
a
occasion,
overpoweredand slew this gentle,grave woman.
"I
will go (to America) as
a
Hindu, and come
back
live among
and
people as a Hindu."
my
words ! a resolve which was
carried
Brave, patriotic
death.
Ramabai's
out
to the
chapter on Married
in the year
Life,the married life of a Hindu
woman
1887,no less than in past centuries,reveals to the
reader what
it was
for this refined,intellecWestern
tual
whose
faculties developed rapidlyunder
woman,
and
Western
whose
scientific acquireopportunities,
ments
her peers
placed her high in rank
among
in the collegeclass, to
accept again the position
awarded her by the Code of Manu
(Manu ix, 22 ; see
a

page
she

40). That

she

did

to

accept it,that "until death

patientof hardships,self-controlled, and


strove to fulfill that most
excellent duty which
is
vShe battled
prescribedfor wives, is undoubted*
hand to hand with every circumstance,
resolved,as a
for the uplifting
Hindu, to live and work
of her
sisters,but all in vain 1
After years of exile,she found herself once
in
more
the familiar placesof her childhood,surrounded
by
her mother
and maternal
grandmother and sisters.
was

"

She

had

storation

returned

to them

too late to admit

of the

ra*

of her

appetiteby the nourishingfood their


skillful hands knew how
to prepare j but in love they
watched beside her, and it was
the dear mother*!* privilege
to support the daughterin her arms
when
at
midnight the end came
quickly, This occurred Fetmary 26th, 1887, in the city of Poona, in the house iti
which

she

was

born*

took
body, which
death,her husband

Previous to the cremation of the


place the morning followingher
had

photographtaken

of "mat-

Introduction.
ter

before it

The

and ashes/*
into vapor
The
lifelessform is indescribable.

transformed

was

pathos of

that

last of several
of the

career

them

all.

pictures,taken during the


little reformer,it is the most

The

brief

public
eloquent of

lips,and the face,wan and wasted


and prematurely aged in the fierce battle with sorrow
and
friends this
pain, alike convey to her American
all that
not to be forgotten: "I
have
done
message,
I could do."
Ah!
who
will thus early dare to say
that she has not
by her death
accomplished more
than she might have
accomplished by a long life?
Herself
and
husband
returned from a foreign land,
where
they had dwelt with a strange people,ought,
by Hindu custom, to have been treated as outcasts,
and

their shadows

known

had

that

the

reached

her

and
and

mute

to extend

Even

distinguishedyoung
early home, old and

non-orthodox,
a

to

came

pay

was

Hindu

doctor

young,

dox
ortho-

friendly visits

cordial welcome.

the reformers

the

it

Instead, when

shunned.

in which

manner

astounded

were

when

the travelers

were

held
they betreated

by the most orthodox families. The papers from day


the state of the invalid's health,
to day chronicled
several of the
and when
at length she passed away,
journalsof Poona printedin the vernacular, contained
notices of her
under symbols of mourning, eulogistic
\

character

and

\ these for me,

work.

and

from

Ramabai
them

has
I make

translated two
extracts

of

"Dr. Anandibai
Joshee has left us to abide in the
next world ; but the example she has set will not be
lady
fruitless. It is indeed wonderful that a Brahman
severance,
^perhas proved to the world that the great qualities"
and
undaunted
an
unselfishness,
courag^
one's country" do exist in the
eager desire to serve
We
ought as a people to do
So-called,weaker sex
something that will remind us of her and l"ear wit-

Introduction.

vi

virtues ; in our opinion,


forever to her wondrous
be better
this debt of gratitudeto Anandibai cannot
discharged than by providing a lady, who will be
willing to study medicine, with all the pecuniaryaid
tinguish
of the late disthe memory
Thus
necessary.
may
ness

lady
27,

be

Kesari, February
perpetuated."-"

1887.

of the great and grievouslosses which


One
unfortunate
Hindustan
incessantlysustains was
"

our

nessed
wit-

by Poona, we grieveto say, on Saturday last,


summoned
from this
Dr. Anandibai
Joshee was
late in the midnight. She has been residingin
Foona
for the last two
hither in
months ; she came
the hope that her native city, which
has many
nowned
rein
for
her
it,might prove
physiciansresiding
and
that
the
a
healthy place,
pleasantweather and
home influenceswould
all contribute towards
ing
improvher health.
The
hopeful expectations of her
who
had
looked
forward to the day
countrywomen,
when
able
they would be benefited by Dr Joshee's remarkabilityand well-earned knowledge, are now wholly
when
world

dissipated,"
Although Anandibai
44

her perseverso
ance,
young,
devotion
husband
to
her
courage
were
think it will be long before
unparalleled, we
shall
we
like her in this country.
again see a woman
We
do not hesitate to say that Dr. Joshee is worthy
of a hi^h place on
the roll of historic women
who
have striven to serve
and to elevate their native land*
The education that she had
received had
greatlyheightenedher nature and ennobled her mind.
than words
Although she suffered more
can
express
from her ^mortal disease,phthisis,
not a word
either
of complaint or impatience
her
at
escaped lips any time*
After months
of dreadful suffering
she was
reduced
to skin and bone, and
that looked at her
every one
could not but be greatly pained;
yet, wonderful to
Anandibai
relate,
thought it her present duty to suffer
was

undaunted

and

and cheerfully.
silently
After the picturew*3
taken, her relatives bathed the body and decked it
with bright garments and
ornaments, according to
Hindu
custom.
There was
time to spread the sad
no
news
throughout the city,but as many
heard it
as
.

Introduction*

vii

accompanied her remains to the cremation


ground,
thus
showing the respectfulaffection they felt for
Some
her
might
people had feared that the priests
raise objectionsto cremating
her body in the sacred
fire, according to the Hincm
rites; out these fears
proved groundless. Not only on the occasion of her
her
cremation, but earlier during her lifetime,when
husband
offered sacrifices to the gods and the guardian
planets to avert their anger and her death, ^the
priests showed
no
sign of any prejudice against
them ; they gladlyofficiated in the religious
sacrifices,
advanced
thus affordinga remarkable
of
their
proof
views.
After the body was
placed upon the funeral
pileMr. V. M. Ranade made an oration in Dr. Joshee's
then completed without
honor, and the cremation
was
hindrance."" Dnyana Chakshu" March
2nd, 1887.
The

generalpublicinterest in the person- and wort


of Dr. Joshee is a sufficient reason
for presentingin
this introductorychapter the above
details, which
have
not
been
elsewhere
given to her American
friends.
Pundita
Ramabai, her beloved and trusted
kinswoman, still lives to perform, not her identical
work, but to prosecute the generaldisenthrallment of
Hindu
ment
concerning the ultimate accomplishwomen,
of which
Dn
Joshee cherished invincible faith.
porter
Greatly bereaved, her fond hopes of a congenialsupand an efficient helperin India suddenly dashed
toils on with a heroic singleto the ground, Ramabai
ness
of this one
of purpose.
It is in the prosecution
to a
object of helping her countrywomen
supreme
better and higher life that this littlebook has been
with American
In her contact
written.
pists
philanthroand educators,during the year of her sojourn
has found popular
in the United
States, Ramabai
and
of India erroneous,
ideas concerningthe women
it is to correct these, and also to reveal fully their
needs, that the followingchapters have been prepared.
She lias written in the belief that if the depths of

viii

Introduction.

the thralldom

in which

in Indian

the dwellers

nas
zena-

held

by cruel superstitionand social customs


were
only fathomed, the light and love in American
have so comforted
her burdened
homes, which
heart,
are

might

flow forth in

Indian

women.

Woman

Hindu

is not

She

the

reached

has

by

with

nation

the

The

overwhelming tide to bless all


task of preparing The High-caste
not been for her a congenialone.

an

nature

iconoclast.

an

strong love.

pure,

it is akin

height where

skillful surgeon

she

love has

her

But

to the motive

to inflict pain

dares

her

loves

She

of

because

she

of
regardspain as affordingthe only sure means
"relief. She is satisfied,
that India cannot
moreover,
arise and
the nations
take her place among
of the
"earth

until

she, too, has

is transformed

zenana

"the

; until

mothers

into

the

Hindu

the

Hindu
where

home,

united

have
family can
"pleasant times t"5.gether" (see p. 48).
The experiment of bringing the existingcondition

"of

to the test of codes of


high-casteHi"du women
"sacred law, it is believed,was
before attempted.
never
"The reader will bear in mind, as she cons
the carewhich
ifullyselected texts from the Code of Manu
"abound
tences
throughout the volume, that these are sentoo sacred for feminine
lipsto utter, and that

tfew

in

women

beheld

"less "have

have

them

the

from

education
his wife

bai
her

never

saw

sacred
a

copy

their

he

as

heard,

was

own

them, much
Even

eyes.

in his views

cerning
con-

of women,
withheld the sacred
and
daughters. The Sanskrit

literature accessible to
associated with

ever

with

Shastri,liberal

Ananta

texts

India

them, consisted of poems


rites and

of the

scholastic attainments

Code
had

ceremonies.
of Manu

been

not
Rama*

until after

publiclyrecognized

in Calcutta.
She

has

exercised great

care

in

securing correctness

Introduction.

ix

in Her

quotations,diligently
comparing translations,
where
than
more
one
were
available,and in some
cases
making the translation herself from the original
Sanskrit.
The
general statements
throughout the
book
the

be relied upon
for their accuracy.
Should
may
volume
reach India,these statements
will edly
undoubtbe

assailed

possibly there

untruthful

as

and

be

may

in the

persons
will strive to create this

who

sacrilegious,and
United

States

impression; but Ramabai's desire to speak the truth is only equalledby


her determination
to let in the full blaze of day upon
effete customs

and

She has withheld


periloususages.
that her wide
experience throughout

essential

nothing

has

India

revealed

this information

for the

gain, but because


Spirit,that

the

There

are

book, will
all

and

In view

and

rescue

seeks

she

relief.

of
title-page

for the

name

hearts of

first

naturally inquire, Who

fact,that

of the

print

reputationor of
vine
believes,by the Di-

the

who, upon

will

such

not

of

to deeds of

Pundita's

the

does

will stir the

revelation

story

readers
see

She

purpose
taught,as she

read the

those who

her.

to

to

this

time,

is she?

assume

grave

before the American


public this quesresponsibilities
tion
the
of
a
nd
risk
is legitimate,
therefore,at
ing
grow-

tedious, I will endeavor


a

weird

beginning

to turn

in

early

the

to page

The

the river-side to bathe


the

make

read

37 and
on

the

of

the

learned

little girlof nine, whom

he

who
pundit,

Ttiis Brahman

cared

for the little girlbeyond all

native of the

the

who
Ananta

quirer
in-

sacred
came

to

Shastri,

carried away
Ramabai's

the
mo,

"well

ther.

the

occurrence,

of

banks

day followingas his child-bride,wa$

ask

an

fine-lookingman
was

It is

answer-

life-sketch to

morning,

river Godavari.
and

of

to

and

tenderly

was
expectation/*

Mangalore district in

Western

India.

Introduction.

boyhood, when

In his

married, and

been

had

and

house

mother's

about

years of age, he had


his child-bride to his

ten

brought

committed

the

little

girl to

her

possessedwith a desire
keeping. He, however, was
of knowledge, and attracted by the
for the acquisition
scholar,
fame of Ramachandra
Shastri, a distinguished
his way
thither,
dwelt in Poona, he early made
who
Brahman
This eminent
and sought his instruction.
to visit
had been employed by the reigning Peshwa
vorite
his palacestatedly,and
give Sanskrit lessons to a fawife.
The
student Ananta
was
privilegedto
his teacher, and, thus
going in and out
accompany
heard the lady reciting
of the palace,he occasionally
Sanskrit
The

poems.

boy

should

be

gave
resolved

he

learned, and

so

he would

that

ended

his duties

with

as

The

married

on,

ment
astonish-

learning,and
little wife just as
the palace. His

and he
twenty-three,
incorporateeducation

of

the

But

his mother

and

the husband

life went

woman

her

of

householder.

familydemurred,and

to desist.

wore

his

villageto

desire to be instructed

of the

age

that

of

teach

at the

to his native

hastened

on,

bride

had

all the elders

compelled

was

children

were

born

couple, and at length the wife died.


had not forgottenthe Peshwa's
palace

the

The

time

admiration

place to

student-life

to

as

Shastri taught the fair Rani

the

no

wonder

filled with

was

young
widower

in Poona

and

begin his

next

the

Sanskrit

and

poems,

he

resolved

to

experiment early.
learn from
how
We
the printed page
the littlebride of nine.who was
offered

to

him, and

carried her

he

delivered

his

to

her

to

her

Sanskrit.
as

voice

his distant

mother, and
But

the

home

; there

he

immediately began
elders of

before ; the littlewife


in the matter, and the

was

tie

to

household

too young

husband

accepted

to

teach

jected
ob-

have

resolved that

Introduction.
the

with

his

remote

in the
as

wife

young

plateau of
jungle, took

how

without

shelter

the

to

Gungamul, on
Ghauts, and literally

abode.

his

childhood
was

left the

forest of

the Western
up

be

should

valley
journeyed upward

and

him,

her

Ramabai

relates
recital of

mother's

spent in the sylvan solitude,


kind.
with
A great tiger came

of any
and
from

darkness,

therefore

He

out.

of her
memory
the first night

the

girl'seducation

civilization below

and

the

of

experiment
carried
faithfully

xi

across

made

ravine,

the

The
littlebnde
night hideous with its cries.
wrapped
herself up tight in her pasodi (cotton quilt)and lay
the ground convulsed
with
terror, while the
upon
husband
kept watch until daybreak, when the hungry
of the jungle
beast disappeared. The wild animals
all about them, and
were
hourly terrified the lonely
little girl; but the lessons went
without hindrance,
on
and day by day the wife,I/akshmibai,grew 'in stature
and in knowledge
A rude dwelling was
constructed,
and

after

few years

in the forest,
"

devoted

one

himself

daughter, and
sought

littlechildren

son

and

two

out

the

famous

whose

in
dwelling-place

the

of

of the

regarded

one

rivers,was

of the

of young

now

to

daughters.

to the education

also to that

came

men

The

father

and

who,

Brahman

mountains,
as

son

home

the

at the

sacred, and

elder

as

dents,
stu-

priest,
source

hence

Ramaplace of pilgrimage for the pious. When


born, in April,1858,the
bai, the youngest child,was
father was
occupied to instruct her,
quite too much
and, moreover, he was growing old. Upon her mother,
a

therefore,devolved
The
the

the instruction in Sanskrit.

visitingpilgrimsand
members
mother-in-law, now

resident ^students and

aged father

of the

and

as well
ifatoily,

as

the

the children

of the household,

entailed many
cares
upon the educated
mother,and the only time that could be found

Hindu
for the

Introduction.
and

children wandered

from

xiii

localityto the
the early mornnext, having no certain dwelling-place,
ing
lessons were
continued, and Ramabai, developing
rare
talent,became, under the instructions of father
and mother,
a
prodigy of erudition.
Engrossed in
her studies,she was
allowed
to remain
singleuntil the
sacred

one

"

"

"

age of sixteen,
each other,her

when, within

month

parents died.
earliest years," Ramabai

"From

my
a love of books.

had

and

half

of
ways
al-

states, "I

Though I was not formally


father and
mother
taught Marathi, yet hearing my
speak it and being in the habit of reading newspapers
in that
and
books
language, I acquired a correct
I acquired also the
knowledge of it. In this manner
and Bengali while
knowledge of Kanarese, Hindustani
did not do
My father and mother
traveling about.
in the habit of doing with their
with me
as others were
daughters, z. /?.,throw me into the well of ignorance
by giving me in marriage in my infancy. In this my
parents

of

both

were

mind."

one

When

death

the pilgrim household, the father,bowed with


now
totallyblind for several years, was taken
six weeks

family
not

be

the

extreme

was

secured

ghat,which
the

who

to

bear

death.

took

The

remains

the

At

first; in

poverty of the

pity upon

to the

distant from

length
them,

two
and

and

age

consequently, Brahmans

three miles

was

mother's

found

followed.

mother

invaded

could

burning-

the

Braimans
with

of

scene

the

were

ance
assist-

selves
daughterthempreciousburden to the distant place
low stature compellingthe
of cremation, Ramabai's
bearing of her share of the burden upon her head.
of nameless
this passage
woe?
do I recount
Why
in our
American
Because
own
we
women,
Why?
of these men,
carried the

homes,
Upon

have

whom

never

the

devoted

son

before looked

ministryof

sorrow

and

into the face of


so

one

overwhelmingas

Introduction.

xiv
this lias been

laid, and

to realize that God

of

made

The

men.

the city of
she

whom

lovelywoman
Philadelphiaand

dedicates it were

in the

and

hath

need, in

we

of

all nations

blood

one

writes this

who
the

book

mother

beloved

knowledge of God ; but, in


great spiritualdarkness, they ministered to and
cherished each

filialaffection which

and

to

Gungamul
titute
pilgrimagealike des-

true

loved and

in

in the forest of

later,dusty paths of

of the

prosperity,

our

their
tually
mu-

other with that maternal


is

the

same

the woild

the

elder sister,

over

After the
Ramabai

death

and

visited many

of the

her

parents and

brother continued

to travel.

They

the great continent of India,


the Punjab, Rajputana,the Central Provinces,Assam,

Bengal

and

and

countnes

on

Madras, and,

as

pilgrims,were

often in

distress.

cating
They spent their time in advofemale education,i. e." that before
marriage
Hindu
high-caste
girls should be instructed in vSansknt and in their vernacular,
accordingto the ancient
want

Shastras,

When, in their journeying,


they at length reached
Calcutta,the young
sensation

She
scholarship.

pundits of
examination

the

Sanskrit scholar and

by
was

her

lecturer created
views and her

advanced

summoned

capitalcity; and

before the assembled


as

result of their

the

title of Sarasvati wa"


distinguished
publiclyconfeired upon her by them. Soon after,her
brother died. "His
great thought during his brief

illness/'she writes, "was


of
of his

me

for me;
left alone in the world?

I answered:
anxiety,

what

When

would

come
be-

he spoke
but Goci

'There is no one
for you
and me.'
'Ah/ he answered, 'then
if God
for us, I am
cares
afraid of nothing/ And,
indeed,in my loneliness,
it seemed as if God was "car
me
j I felt His presence." " After six months
I marto

care

Introduction.
tied

xv

Bengaligentleman,Bipin Bihari Medhavi, M.A.,


sity.
B.I,.,a Vakil and a graduate of the Calcutta Univera

But

of

civil marriage

happy

married

rite.

husband's

happy
and

name

widow

she

lecturer. It became

the

of

cause

Hindu

believed to be the
times.

modern

gained her
W.

Her

true

and

earnestness

the

interests of India.

good she

was

that he made
in

her

cupation
oc-

especialmission
accordingto
women,
cient
rendering of the anthe degraded notions
whom

Hunter, prominently connected

and

father

her

admirers, among

many

educational

in the

former

to her

returned

now

Shastras,in opposition to
of

before the

few months

Him,

her

Ramabai

as

what

to

come

little

before

to advocate

to

was

birth, and hence, she found a


(Heart'sJoy],
awaitingher," Manorama

mother

beautiful

if I
' '

me.

I felt that He

to God.

born
daughter was
daughter greatlydesired by both

death

home"

The

draw

Himself

must

died of cholera.

dear husband

that

with

months

nineteen

After

nearer

me

and

teaching me,

He

duism
Hin-

married

were

we

so

in

either

believed

us

life,
my

This great griefdrew


was

of

and
Christianity,

or

the

neither

we

enthusiasm
Dr.

was

with

the

W.

British

thought her career


tion
worthy of admira-

He

doing so well
the subjectof

lecture

delivered

Edinburgh.
"

When

Indian

lady being

audience
which
her

spoke," says

rose

as

thus

one

the Pundita
in

man

and

Ramabai

was

Henceforth

countrywomen/'

known

Hunter, "of a high-caste


employed, that great English
Dr.

England, as

well

as

in

applauded the efforts


making on behalf of
her

name

was

India, to all who

interested in the social amelioration

of the

well
were

people

of

Hindustan.

degraded condition of
her countrywomen, she formed
in Poona
a societyof
the Arya Mahila
as
ladies,known
Somaj,whose obWith

view

to

improve

the

Introduction.

xvi

native
promotion of education among
and
the discouragement of child-marriage.
women,
bay
from city to citythroughout the BomShe then went
ing
branch societies and arousPresidency,establishing
the
the people by her eloquent appeals. When
in Sepvisited Poona
tember,
English Education Commission
tional
1882, for the purpose of inspectingthe educainstitutions of that city,the leading Brahman
of the newly-formed societyand others,
ladies,members

ject

the

was

hundred, assembled with


their children in the Town
mission
the ComHall, to welcome
and to show them
pality
that, although the municihad not encouraged girls'schools, a genuine

to the number

movement

of the

of about

three

being inauguratedby

was

Marathi

Ramabai

Pundita

country.

the best families


*

of the occasion.

orator

Hunter,

Dr.

made

President

as

Ramabai

the

the

was

of the Education

sion,
Commis-

prominent figureamong

the

examined
before
noteworthy persons who were
him during that visit. He regarded her evidence as of
much
so
importance that he caused it to be translated
from, the Marathi and separatelyprinted. A copy of
this India print is before me
I write.
There are
as
many

three

viz. :
questions,

"

Questionr

"State

the
on
opinion
your
experience

what

opportunities
you

subject of Education
has been
gained?

in

have

India, and

had
in

of forming an
what province

follows,in reply,a brief,but remarkablyclear,


narrative of her parentage, her father's views/thoseof
her brother,also a statement
in regard to her husband,
Here

and

the

vicissitudes of her

stated,had

afforded her many

life; all of which, she


ing
opportunitiesof form-

opinionon the subjectof


different provincesof India. She
an

"I

am

the child of

man

who

had

Female

Education

closes thus

to suffer

great deal

in

:"

on

account

Introduction.

xvii

compelled to discuss
Education, and who was
his own
out
well as to carry
great oppoviews, amidst
sition
it my
I consider
duty, to the very end of my life,to
this cause, and
maintain
to advocate the proper
position of women
this land "
in
of

advocating Female

the

subject,as
.

Question

2."

What

is the best method

of

providing teachers

for

girls?

come
who
Answer
evident that the women
to me
to beare
2 "It
appears
teachers
of others
work.
should
have
a special training for that
Besides having a correct knowledge of their own
language, they ought
to acquire
Whether
teachers
are
those training to be iemale
English
married
their
in
or
unmarried, or widows, they ought to be correct
conduct
and
morals, and they ought also to DC of respectable families.
to
be provided with
ought
They
good scholarships Teachers of girls
also ought to have higher salaries than those of boys, as they should
be
of a superior character
and
position. The students should live in the
and
their manners*
habits improved,
college compound, so as to nave
and
there ought to be a large building with
appliance for the
every
comfort of the teachers and students.
They ought to have a native lady
of good position over
them.
Mere
learning is not enough ; the conduct
of the students should be attended
and morals
to.
f

'

do you
Question 3." What
regard as the chief defects,other than any
to which
that experience has brought to light
have
already
referred,
you
What
in the. educational
system as it has been hitherto administered?
for the remedy of such delects ?
suggestions have you to make

female
inspectresses over
ought to be female
3." There
These
ought to,be of the age of thirty or upwards, and of a
Native
or
European.
class, and highly educated, whether
very supenor
for the following reasons
men
Male
(i)The woinspectorsare unsuitable
of this country are
If a male
inspector goes into a
very timid
and girls are
thrown
into confusion, and
female school,all the women
this state of things will
unable
to speak. The
inspector
are
seeing
teachers, and so in all probability
write a bad report of the school and
for that school, and so the
teacher
male
a
will
Government
appoint
tion
teacher.
As the educaschool will not have the advantage of a female
of girlsis different from that of boys, female schools ought to be in
In ninetyis this
the hands of female teachers.
(2)The second reason
of
are
this
of
the
educated
men
out
a
hundred,
country
posed
opcases
nine
If they
and the proper positionof woman.
Education
to Female
into
of mustard-seed
observe the slightestfault,they magnify the gram
the
ofa
often
character
the
ruin
woman
and
to
poor
a mountain,
try
,
-and well informed, her character is
not being very courageous,
woman,
able to reach the authorities are
Men
being more
completely broken.
should be alike to a paBoth
wall,
to
the
while
rental
women
believed;
go
Government, whose children, male and female, should be .treated
It is evident that women,
being one-half of the
with equal justice
treated by the other
and
cruelly
are
oppressed
people of this country,
"al" To. put a stop to this anomaly is worthy of a good Government*
Another
augrcestion I wonld make" is with regard to lady-doctors.
there
of gentleman-doctors,
numbers
there are
in
Hindustan
Though
much
of
this
are
The
that
women
country
of
profession.
ladies
are no
rather
of them would
reserved than ifiother countries,and most
WOTS
of
is,
want
The
to
ailments
of
their
a man.
die than *aeak
lady^doctprs
dying prematbw*"r"7thecatute of hundreds of thousands of women
fwoisld,
earnestly entreat of our Government
tu*e deaths,
tfcesrttfore,
and thus save
of
medicine by women,
for
rirovisioa
the study
to make
of
fr'one very
foo"docto**
w*at
maltltaide*.
those
of
.Th*
th* Jtafe
of this
mufcb felt and id a great defect in the Education of the women

Answer
schools.

""

'

xviii

Introduction.

questionsare introduced in full,


acter,
valuable
and ample testimony to the charas
bearingin
of Ramabai
and the positionbefore the public,
her own
country. Upon the authority of the Time?
sicians
of India, it may be stated that her pleafor women-phybefore the Commission, in September,1882, (See
The

to these

answers

3), is believed

Answer
of her
have

attracted the attention

have

to

Majesty, the Queen -Empress, and


gracious
been indirectlythe originof the movement

in

developments,

has

Hindustan

which, in

latest

its

to

tion
proportions of The National Associafor Supplying Female Medical Aid to the Women
Countess1 of Dufferin
as the
of India, popularly known
reached

the noble

"

of the

her work

enable

to

the

among

she

as

of that

her

in

feel after Him

solemn

had

Hindu

become
to

woman

off from
me

to

as

and

tection.
whither

I went.

in St.
me.

could

Mary's

There

have

if

haply she

"

as

When

Home

at

to

see

the

started

I felt a

"

I could

faith in

as

Abraham,

me

to

came
now

I did
on

oneself always

voice

to

seems

very

with

my

God's pro*

knowing
reached England, the Sisters
Wantage kindly received

graduallylearned

and
Christianity,

cuts

; one

But

"

great step for

throwing myself

forth

went

sea

It

...

little child
I

it is such

people.

one's

the

cross

Abraham.

strange how
friend

strong

sessed
pos-

movement

find Him

and

come
be-

experience

restless desire to go to England," she writes.


not have
done this unless I had felt that my
God

success

guidance,her spiritwas
is the

sonal
per-

cation.
in behalf of edu-

seeking "the Lord

God ward,

(they)might

had

which

unrest

prosecute with

to

of India

of God's

conscious

soul

her

women

Then, too,

of the

herself needed

realized that she

now

training

wife

India.

Viceroy of

Ramabai

the
distinguishedpresident,

its

from

Movement,"

that it is

to
a

not

feel the

truth

of

philosophy,teach*

Introduction.

xix

in all our sysing truths higher than I had ever known


tems
that it gives not only precepts, but a per; to see
fect
it
does
and
not give us precepts
art
example that
of divine grace, by which
us
example only, but assures
follow that example.
True to her honest
we
can
na*
ture,she acted promptly upon her convictions and em'
braced Christianity,
and
she and
her little daughter
were
baptized in the Church of England, September
cational
she devoted
herself to edu29th, 1883. Henceforth
work.
The first year
was
spent at Wantage
in the study of the English language, which
hitherto
had
unknown
her.
been
to
Acquiring this, she
tenham,
entered, September, 1884, the Ladies' College at Chelwhere
fessor
a
positionwas
assigned her as Proof Sanskrit.
Her
spent as
unoccupied time was
a student
of the college,in the study of mathematics,
natural science,and English literature.
Her
nities
opportuat Cheltenham
Collegewere of the highest order,
,

"

and

the

whom

influence

she

made

refined and
educational

near

witness

Mrs.

After

presence

its

Wantage,

Character. She

studies,and

appointment

at

ernment
possibleGov-

in India

loomed

up

nth, 1886

"holy
for

the

and

there

with

women

invitation reached her to


an
future, when
delphia,
Joshee's graduation in medicine in Phila-

March
That

Christian

salutary in

in her

rapid progress

in the

noble

associated,both

was

most

was

of the

land

called America"

her, and
and

these

work

of

were

her

had
now

traction
long held atheightened by

beloved

kinswoman.

painfulindecision,she decided to
her sole reason
for allowing her
accept the invitation,
studies to "be interruptedthus
inopportunely being
her thorough conviction that it was
her duty in the
interests of

her

that time.

In

Upon

an

of

weeks

some

to visit America
at
countrywomen
February, 1896, she again embarked

unknown

sea,

accompanied by

her

young

Introduction.

adapt

it to

Hindu

needs

In

xxi

September, 1886,

she

ten
promptly enrolled herself as a student in a kindergarher
have perduties
and, as
training-school,
public
mitted,
she has faithfully
of study
pursued the course
can
throughout the scholastic year just ending". Amerischool-books were
to her in the beauty
a revelation
of their illustrations and of their letter-press
and the
qualityof the paper upon which they are printed. In
series of
a
July, 1886, she set herself to work upon
Marathi
school-books for girls,modeled
after the American
idea, beginning with a primer and continuing
regularlyup to a reader of the sixth grade. She was
to results,designing to illustrate with
enthusiastic
as
American
cessarily
wood-cuts,although the printing would nebe delayed until Bombay
is reached, on account
of the Marathi
type required. The primer was
finished,and much of the material for the reading
soon
stituted
inwas
a
books prepared,when
prudent investigation
fact revealed

expensive to
the

Thus

the

to

as

that

cost
the

be dreamed
case

stands

the

of illustrations,and

charming pictureswere

stern

far too

of for her books.

June ist, 1887. Pundita

Rama-

the courageous
bai, the high-caste Brahman
woman,
daughter of the forest,educated, refined,rejoicingin
the

the

ing
Gospel, and yet by preferenceretainHindu's
as
care
a
regards a vegetable diet, and
of the dress of Hindu
widowhood,
peculiarities

libertyof

the

consecrated
sole'mnly

work

to the

of

developing self-

of India, has her school-books


the women
help among
her plans for the organization
nearly ready for^theprinter,
of

school, such

developed,

well

and

as

two

she

describes

teachers

on

page

14,

(Amerkfah Taffies,

Tickets for
graduated kindergartner)secured.
herself and teachers might be taken for India at once,
the untimely
and as a result of the strong reaction which
death of Dr. Joshee has set up, Ramabai, outcast
one

Introduction.

xxii

is among
her own
people,might
favorable auspices, her work
among

though,she
under

inaugurate,
the child-

widows
the money
is wanting. In 1793, when
Carey, the first English missionaryto Asia,

William

But

to set sail for


go

down

India,he said

into the

hold

deep

but

"

about him,

to those

mine,

about

was

I will

that you

remember

"
As I close this chapter,the
ropes
the favored women
longing fillsmy soul that among
of this Christian land there might be found a sufficient

must

the

to hold

number

the ropes

sible for her to go out

"

It must

not

of

even

quicklyto

few thousand

must

her

dollars,but

periodof

few hundred

or

steadyholdingon

less than

not

be let go while

not

God-inspiredwork

fitfulbenefaction of

ropes, for

to the

They

be

Ramabai, making it pos-

for

ten

years.

in the throes of

she

with
death-struggle
superstitionand caste prejudice,
and
feminine
unwillingnessto rise,is fastened to the
India end
A

decade

presumed

of years
to

appeal

ago, no sane
to the women

shall

days

be made

!
to

shall be born

written, "the
"

power

young girlsof
this of Ramabai,

come

to the

projectsuch as
in
rapidlywe are moving
on
We
read in prophecythat "the earth
bring forth in one day," and "a nation
at

in that

birth, the

their
"

;" and

once

people shall

When

have

and

this land to engage in a


do.
I now
But
how
as
these last

would

woman

degradation,and
Help or we perish!

"

be

another

willingin

great Hindu
women

are

sure

the

day of

nation
moved

word

to

about

is
His
to

arise in

themselves
it cannot

uttearthe feeble cry,


be otherwise than that

multitude
of women
must
be found
corresponding,
elsewhere,willing,in the day of God's power, to send
the help.
There have long been in every community, women
who
not in accord with the so-called missionary
are
a

xxiii

Introduction.
and
societies,
or

who

contribute

never

to the material

aid of Oriental

ment
enlighten-

the

to

Rama-

women.

bai's

boarding-schoolfor child-widows, primarily an


educational scheme, may
be safelytaken
up by such,
and while they organize, and after the manner
of the
boards
women's
work
of the churches, through a great netof auxiliarysocieties, prosecute with
growing
interest

zeal their child-widow

and

work

so-called,
may

work,

school

be continued

the

by

of

Pundita

bears

ties
socie-

its own

every denomination, each according to


methods, the treasuries of all being alike full.
The

sionary
mis-

to
witness, in public and in private,

the

good accomplished in the Bast by missionary ladyvorably


teachers,and it is her earnest desire not to affect unfain

treasury or the work


reach

Hindu

however

manner,

any

women

of church
as

remote,

societies.

Hindus,

to

give

either

She

the

seeks to

them

liberty

convictions ; she would


regards religious
condition as to reading the Bible or studying
make
no
Christianity; but she designsto put within their reach
shelves of the school
in reading-books and
on4 the
side by side,the Bible and the Sacred books of the
library,
and latitude

as

East, and for the rest, earnestlypray that God will


guide them' to His saving truth.
will need about
It is roughly computed that Ramabai
fifteen thousand
dollars to fullyinaugurate the work
dollars annually
of her first school and five thousand
afterwards during the ten years for which she asks help.
abai
! RamSo easy is it to plan,so difficult to execute
herself offers a reasonable means
by which the
collection of this
of
It has

been

sum

may

be

commenced,

this,her only American

printed,in
privately

book

in

the

to the

sentation
pre-

public.

order that the entire

to her; in the hope of a possible


profitsmay accrue
large sale,the pages have been copyrightedand elecwoman
who,
trotyped. If,therefore,every American

xxiv

Introduction.

Ramabai
heard

during the last twelvemonth, has taken


by the hand, every collegestudent who has
Pundita
speak in collegehalls,every reader

time

at any

the

whose

of this book
the

by

heart

perusalof

has

stirred to compassion

been

its sorrowful

pages, will at once


induce a fnend to do

copy of the book and


each reader being responsiblefor the

purchasea
the same,

the work

is done, and

sale of

the

large fund needed


to prepay three passages to India, to purchase the illustrative
material for the school-rooms, to illustrate and
the needed
schoolprint the school-books, and secure
assured.
property in India, is at once
has come
Ramabai
into my
well,
libraryto bid me fareprevious to her setting out pn a journey of a
few days. I asked her as she arose
to depart,if she
one

copy,

had

last message
them/' she
and

it was
mankind

for the

readers

of her book.

mind
"Re-

ance
countenreplied,with animated
rapidspeech,as she clasped my hand "that

out of Nazareth
came

that

'

that the blessed

great reforms

Redeemer

of

and
again
instrumentalities that the world
have

again been wrought by


despised. Tell them to help me educate the high-caste
child-widows ; for I solemnly believe that this hated
and enlighteducated
and despised class of women,
ened,
India I"
are, by God's grace, to redeem
R.

1400 NORTH

aist ST

June

PHILADELPHIA,

ist, 1887.

CONTENTS.

PREFATORY

CHAPTER

I.

CHAPTER

IL

REMARKS,

CHILDHOOD,

...................

CHAPTER
MARRIED

LIFE,

PI"ACE

29

IN

REWOION

CHAPTER

WIDOWHOOD,

EBB

SOCIETY,

AND

CONDITION

OF

AWPRAI*

....................

..."

50

V.

69

WOMEN

CHAPTER
THE

IV.

....................

CHAPTER
How

III.

...................

CHAPTER
WOMAN'S

12

VI.

TEI"I^

UPON

SOCIETY, 94

VH.
107

THE

HIGH-CASTE

PREFATORY
order

IN

it

woman,

reader
the

to

REMARKS.

know

is

Hindustan

population of

foreign

The

nation.

numbers

fiftymillions,and

du
Hin-

religionand

of the
Hindu

of the

of

the

for

necessary

something

social customs

and

tlielife

understand

to

WOMAN.

HINDU

red
hund-

two

is made

up

of

dus,
Hin-

Mahometans, Eurasians, Europeans


Jews

more

are

than

professorsof

religion in

Among
are

three-fifths of this vast

these

one

or

the

essentiallythe

the

so-called

other

the

of

religiouscustoms
same

differ slightlyin various

the

and
lation
popu-

Hindu

its

forms.

and

orders

social customs

parts of the country,

The

but

they

High- Caste

have

Hindu

Woman.
underlying
similarity

unmistakable

an

them.

The

religionof
be

subject to

and

other

be

They believe
scriptures.
Paramatrna, which

when

and

formless

thing in

few

graphs
para-

the

Vedas

one

canonical

the

as

spirit,

supreme

present,
omnipassionless,
in its essence,

by Maya,

form,becomes

every

in

is pure,

it is influenced

assumes

in

vast

recognize the

apocryphalbooks

holy

is too

what
briefly
stated,
however, some-

Hindus

All

:"

Hindus

fully treated

; it may

thus

the

male

and

universe

but

it
illusion,

or

female,creates

out

of

its

own

substance.

it

worshiprivers,
mountains,heavenly

sin to

does
Hindu, therefore,

bodies,creatures,etc., since they


substantial with God
same

may

spirit Any

and

he
divinity

the

ruler.

con-

manifestations of the

the

own

objectof devotion"
choice ; Irisfavorite

will call the supreme

and
universe,
supreme

man's

all

of these manifestations

one

be selected to be

accordingto

are

think

not

others

ruler of

gods,servants

of

tfte
tibt#
,

The

incessantly
try

must

the

of

earthly existences

renders him

perpetualbirths
These, with

articles of

deny

belief,and
These
much

are

the

daily life

and

who

Hindus

idolatrous

customs.

doing

called,are

are

national

religion.
be

it may

regardssocial customs,

that

present

theists in their

pure

they

chief

the

the

at

good by purifyingthe

As

are

creed

disregardall
as

degradation

are
beliefs,

few heterodox

they

Bramos,

rules
religious

or

deaths.

caste

least

the

liable to the

Hindu

are

all this ;

social

and

the

the

day. There

it is his

knowledge,for

of
transgression
trifling

of

tion
perfec-

the

to

get rid of the misery of the

to

series of

however

attain

to

supreme

last chance

long

Woman.

Hindu
High-Caste

habits

of

the

said

people

in India.
immensely influenced by religion

There

is not

by
religiously

that is not

act

an

them

humorous

performed
tag

author

i1

said,with

some

truth,that

sin

The
religiously."

the

morning,

of hands

and

the

"the

risingfrom

Hindus

eve"

the bed

ift,

cleaningof teeth,washing

bathingof

the

body,

Remarks.
Prefatory
of garments,

ing

and

eating

drinking and

is
description,

the

with

and

be

to

the

or

of similar

act

of prayers

or

"the

in

found
pro-

it is old

custom, when

entitled

lamp,

prescribedmanner,

utterance

Each

fire

every

in

done

silence.

enough

the
lighting

of the

way

an-

"*

form

the

cients," takes

most

part

independentof
that

so

customs, founded

are
tradition,

on

the canonical

person

is liable to

by custom,

be

much

punished, or

though

even

altogether

so
writings,

excommunicated, for doing

even

is

religionand

These

scrupulouslyobserved.
for the

of

bidden
for-

deed

it be

tioned
sanc-

by religion.

example, eating the

For

of

persons

by

forbidden

the

At
"

Pure

food of
4*

the

inferior caste
the sacred

prepared by

is not

laws,but

only

not

is sanctioned

them.*

by

an

food

Or

present day, however, time-honored

men

of the first three castes

householder"

Shudras

(Brahman

(servile
caste)may

superintendence of

Apastymbo,XL

2, 3.

i.

men

4.

of

or

shall

other

prepare

the

high caste).

prepare the food under

the

first three castes."

Hindu
High-Caste

The

overrules

custom

that

drink

nor

undergo some

heavy

became, as
the

entire

the

race.

of the nation.

caste)were

They,

all,and

society.The

in

their

wisdom,

The

to defend the

injustice
by
the

sequently
sub-

undertake

to

might promote

the welfare

priesthood(Brahman
be

the

the

were

spiritual
ernors
gov-

recognizedhead

vigorous,warlike

people (Kshatriya,
or

by

Aryan Hindus

portionapart

appointedto

over

the

talented and

of dividing
and
necessity
society,

certain duties which

the

the

must

natural,the governing body

was

set each

of

originatedin

intelligent
portionof

regainit

to

penance

of

transgressing

division of labor. The

economical

saw

Hindus

doubt, "caste"

Without

of

touch

the

forfeit their caste,and


instantly

this rule

says

anything cooked

eat

of inferior caste.

person

most

not

pollutedby

water

laws, and

ancient

the

must

person

Woman.

warrior

portionof
was
caste)

country, and suppress crime and


means

of

physicalstrength;assisted

priesthood,
they were

temporal governors

in

the

to

be

the

administration of

Remarks.
Prefatory

tradesmen
justice. Tile business-loving

(Vaisya,or

artisans

trader

caste)had

important position assigned under


classes or
class

was
(Shudra caste)

included

not

The

castes.

ancient

in the

times

of the four castes

capacityand

the

ceding
pre-

servile

accordingto

In

castes.

each

assignedto

were

an

of all those

up

precedingthree

persons

also

fourth,or

made

and

their individual

merit, independentof
"

dent
acci-

the

of birth.

Later

when

on,

it
faith,

the Hindu

;which
A

prevaileverywhere in

he

because

is honored

Brahman

was

family. Intermarriageof
lawful,even

as

been

had
a

man

of

woman

of

an

is overruled

take

into

born

castes

was

after caste

dia.
In-

the

merit,

Brahman
once

by

cognized
re-

tance
inheri-

acknowledged,provided that

superiorcaste

did

inferior caste ;

by

as

of his

because

of all castes, not

head
but

article of

an

the formidable proportions

assumed

now

of

son

became

caste

custom.

place

without

not

but

marry
now

law

cannot
Intermarriages

involving serious

High-Caste

The

and

consequences,

The

four

again divided

are

belongingto high

men

clans must

give their daughtersin marriageto

not

low

transgress this

To

clans.

klose

Besides

of

by

even

their clans there

"mixed
collectively,

of members
intermarriage

the

preceding; their

the

increased

by

is to

custom

relatives.

and

called

castes

formed

castes"

friends and

the four castes

numerous

of

men

and
privileges,

family honor, caste

intercourse with

are

casts.
offenders out-

the

making

principalcastes*

into clans ;

Woman.

Hindu

is

number

again

according to employment,

castes

scribe,tanner, cobbler,shoemaker,tailor,

as

the

as

"There

yas, and

have
among

their

own

ple
exam-

tions,
distinc-

themselves

as

are

VaisBrahmanas, Kshatriyas,

castes"

Shudras."

"Amongst
birth to the

"The

four

are

for

outcasts, such

sweeper,

powerful

as

the

Even

etc., etc.

precedingcaste is superiorby
-Apastamba I. i, i, 3, 4.
following.""

these, each
one

Brahmana,

the

twice-born

ones,

are

the

one

birth

only ;

there

is

Kshatriya and
but
no

the

the

Vaisya

castes

fourth,the Shudra,has

fifth caste."" Mantt


r

4.

PrefatoryRemarks.
those

the

of

high

subject to

punishment
change

of

Offenders

be

is

with

such

relation.

any

way

him

by

in it

high

only

social

what
caste

he

low-caste

is

as

this

caste

man,

is ordered
"

is

them,

he

an

outcast,

not

by

order, it has

now

Thoughtful men
others

like

the

low-*

entered

into

people will

look

wretch.

So

has

in

the

he

is not

heart
in

disrespectshown
since He

recognizes

by religion. For,

confessedlyan

great articleof the Hindu

tanya and

of

that

the

man
Brah-

any

custom

by

It

of lower

person

lawless

Hindu

offended

although "
of

The

orthodox

as

members

this Brahnten

every

severe

redemption*

caste, fcut also

whose

deeply rooted
of

shunned

own

caste

marry

drinks with

and

est,
low-

or
by intermarriage,

without

to

despisedand

upon

and

bprne in mind, that if

eats

only by his

the

highest to

excommunication

condescends

caste, or

the

faith,are

also

must

Transgressorsof

castes.

rules are, from

caste

9'

outgrowth
the

become
creed

all

over

first

India*

Buddha, Nanafc, Chai-

rebelled

againstthis

The

io

proclaimedthe gospel of

nical custom, and

of all men,
social equality

strong for them.

too

present day
are

other

any

have

they, too, are

divided

are

strict

as

Protestant
in

more

or

to

in the Madras

compelled to

in

when

the'

Even

their observances.

Hindu

converts

of the

Roman

less ruled

by

not

to

Catholic
The

caste.

caste

overcome

it difficult

prejudice

many

years

presidency,
clergymenwere
different cups

use

as

into several castes,and

their converts, and

caste

caste

found
missionaries,
likewise,

earlydays

among
ago,

subjectto

Hindus

members
Christianity,

the

at
disciples

escaped this tyrant;

million

proved

caste"

Hindus.

not

the

as

Over

Church, are

Their

orthodox

Mahomedans

"

but

much

as

are

Woman.

Hindu

High-Caste

they

for each

celebrated

the

rate
sepa-

lord's

Supper.
The

Vedas

to

be

believed

are

the

Word
eternal,self-existing

God, revealed by
the Vedas

five books

du
by the devout Hin-

Him

to different sages.

there

of sacred

are

more

than

law, ascribed

to

of
sides
Be-

twentydifferent

High-Caste

The

12

Woman.

Hindu

II.

CHAPTER
CHILDHOOD.

the code

ALTHOUGH

is

equal

be founded
son

all
a

children,

that

therefore

that
blessings

son
a

equalityto

son's birth in the

through

cannot

be

garded
re-

that

of
superiority

is the most

Hindu

gle
sin-

ix.,130),

the statement

establishes the

code

the ancient
male

passage

exception to

an

Manu

ter
daugh-

the results attainable

upon

; the
as

son," (See

declares
expressly

the context

her

to

"

it is written

in which

passage

contains

of Manu

craves, for it is

familythat

of

coveted

by

the father is

redeemed.

"Through

son

lie conquers

the

worlds, through

Childhood.
son's

he

son

obtains

but through
immortality,

grandson he gains the


"

is

There

of male

If

should

"

is

man

the

it
sonless,

son's

have eight sons, and


thee."

thought

else ;

to

use

in

sons,

in

salvation.

daughter
the
the

there
of

son

next

India when
elders and

thy

of

world,

"

girl

priests,

"Mayst thou

husband

survive

blessingthe deity is

have

to

be

for they
daughters,

the property of

besides,a daughter is

be of any

stands

grant daughters. Fathers

to

wish

seldom

very

the

may

the form

invoked

never

are

In

even

these words

they bless her with

that he

ix. 139.

salutes

woman

of

son

Southern

and

Western

obtain

no

Manu,

son.'1"

son's

has

is destitute

2.

son

difference ; for

who

son's

grandfather,through

the

and

son
no

him

daughter saves

or

to his

son

her

ix.,137.

who

is desirable

daughter,for

exists in this world

In

(inHeaven)

man

grandfather
may

Between

like the

his

""Manx,

sun

"

have

whom

of the

offspring."Vasisktha,xvii.

placeof

the

world

place for

no

to the

not

somebody

supposed to

parents in their old

Although it is necessary

for the continuance

age.

of

that

the

race

the

world, it

If

a
unfortunately

daughtersand

no

of such

wife

happens

son,

Manu

to

boys,

have

authorizes

all
the

supersedeher

to

woman

eleventh

the

in

another

that of the

exceed

should

means

into

born

their number

is desirable that

no

with

be

girlsshould

some

by

husband

Woman.

High-CasteHindu

The

14

year

their

of

*
marriage.

In

other country is the mother

no

with

and

care

childbirth as
of
on

in India*

winningher
her

In

husband

the

most

approach of
her

cases

to herself

hope

hangs solely

bearingsons.

Women
richest

anxiety on

laden

so

of

the

poorest as

families,are
to

almost

this trial. Many

well

as

of

the

subjected
invariably
are

the sad

and

stories
heart-rending

heard

unhappy women

have lost their husband's

favor

the

lipsof

by bringingforth daughtersonly,or by

having no
a

who

from

children at all. Never

sorrowful

childhood

When

scene

that I witnessed in my

about
*See

shall I forget

thirteen years of age

page 61,

Childhood.

accompanied my

liarem

where

visit.

The

whom

mother

they
Prince

blessed with
of her

two

had

been

had

sons,

sister to

and

invited

eldest
of

was

to

pay

having

of

been

the favorite

course

face beamed

her

husband, and

royal

wives, three

four

childless. The

were

with

happiness.
We

shown

were

into

the

royal bed-chamber,where
contentment
a

the

to

this

was
brightness

sad and

were

for them

hope

and

oh ! what

presentedin
Their

; there seemed

careworn

iu this

the

peace

apartments of the childless three.

faces

no

world, since their lord

with them,
displeased

was

signsof

conspicuous.But

were

contrast

and

nursery

on

of their

account

misfortune.
A

that her

birth to
sec

and

friend of mine

lady

her

told

in Calcutta

warned

her not

husband

had

the
girl,

firsttime,ot he would

face

also,she

had

give
never

this wife

again,but happilyfor

for her husband

to

me

two

sons

family

before the

daughtercame.

In, the

there

another woman,

the sister-in-lawof

was

same

The

first-born had

friend,whose

my

She

I wa*it

Poor

have
-wife,
food

are

drudge

is

have

in order
to convert

Rosaries

to

such

ornaments,
the

show

she should

bad

be

save

tence
exismade

Not

un-

luck attends

mothers
superstitious

attempt
catastrophe,

child into

by mothers

with ; herbs and

for their virtue

scanty

boy, if

happily
un-

'girl.

used

to pray

no

another

and

wear

household.

poor

the unborn

it be

to

that
asserted,

avert

to

and

whole

advent, and
girl's

notified by

been

supersededby

necessary

of the

it
frequently,
a

be

husband,

son,

in bearing
persisted

clothes

coarse

which
of

the

should

eat, should

to

those

! she had

that if she

daughtersshe

she should have

this time

-woman

husband

her

have

house, constantlybesought me

the

to

ter.
daugh-

favor,and when

her husband's

to foretell whether
son

been

longed unceasinglyto
to win

in order

Woman.

High-CasteHindu

sons

roots

are

cured
pro-

celebrated

sw^l*
eagerlyand regularly

are

lowed ; trees and

of

son-givinggods are devoutjj

worshipped. There

is a curious ceremony,

Childhood*
ored with

the

administered
and
the

the

the

to

fourth

"

sacrament,

which

between

mother

month

of

purpose

"

of

name

her

of

the

is

third

for,

pregnancy

convertingthe embryo

into

boy.
In

spite of
into

come

all these

Hindu

households

rather nature, will have


one

or

and

under

often
her

more

such

birth

both

and

"

which
asserts

and

case

there

itself not

overcomes

popular custom.
her

daughter.

by

very

And

love

after

and

derness
ten-

parent's heart
with

the

own

of her

is

custom, is still

cruel

Especiallymay

Hindu

sweet
affection,

maternal

unwelcome,

not

parents lavish

blunted

strong in the
this be the

the birth of

After

her, for natural affection,


though

upon
modified

ill-luck,or

as

mothers
circumstances,
have

to

it

girls are

sons

long

precautions girlswill

neither

and
male

strong, before
n

female,

nor

unfrequentlyin

Hindu

selfishness and

false

loving mother

homes,
fear

will

happinessby braving
lord,afcd

will

That

mother.

treat

the

her

of

fice
sacri-

pleasur
dislittle

The

the

daughter as

tany country
dark

the

might

be

side is too

In

home.

of her.

proud

alas !

But

passed

be

conspicuousto

"world ; the

the

at

The

poor

adherence

to

manifest

the

occurrence

all that is

babe

their

going

The

on

and

soon

does

caused
a

rections
in all di-

phenomenon.

her, for

around

time

of
at

has lost the favor of

relatives because

of the

herself

infantile needs

babyish requests. Under


baby

daughter,

happilyunconscious

birtlfcimayselfishly
avenge
disregardto

noses

of such

mother, who

her husband

into the

is born

tion
disgustand indigna-

their

is

cruel

to

greatlydistressed

is

mother

neighbors turn

innocent

least

by

that the little stranger is

to learn

and

shadowed

child
a
prejudice,

and

custom

If

woman

in silence.

over

she

Such

of all treasures.

best

truly praiseworthyin

is

heroism

Woman.

High-CasteHindu

such

and
a

by

girl's
ing
show-

slighting

mother

the

begins to feel her misery,although


not

understand

to suffer this cruel

girlis

born

how

or

why

she is

injustice,

after her

brother's

death,

High-CasteHindu

The

20

If there is
the

boy remainingin

and

caresses

who

by servants,

girlis made

share her

she

is

lavished

praisesare

to feel that she has

brother's

the

occasion the

every

right

no

good fortune,and

unwelcome, unbidden

an

even

fully sympathizewith

parents in their grief. On

to

family,all

and
by parents and neighbors,

him

poor

the

words, the comforts and

sweet

and
gifts,the blessings
upon

Woman.

that

guest in the

family.
Brothers,in
of their

proud

better than
their

own

superiorsex

what
and

cases, are, of course, very

most

they see

It is not

slipof
what

to

remind
is

with

by
a

rare

should

or

her that she is

boy. Subjectedto

girlsbecome
are

some

and

to

hear

know

no

concerning

qualities.
They,

despisegirlsand

thing to

boy gravely lecture


she

they can

their sisters'

too, begin by and


women.

hear

mere

his elder sister as

should

not

do,

and

only a girland that


such

sullen,morbid

he

most
humiliation,

and

dull.

There

fiery natures, however,who

burn

%and
indignation,

burst out

in their

own

Childhood.
childish
and

given

in
to

come

that

even

do

shout, they

done

commit

mostly

six

or

seven

years

their

help

in

taking care

the

modern

of age

mothers

caste

girls

they,play
about

are

or

strictness of
to

riage.
mar-

have
therefore,

reason

the first moment

work,

regard

may,

this

birth, the parents

no

popular

children.

in

system

of the disfavor shown

From

or

little

in household

earlier the

that

not

they usually begin

of the younger

already guessed

homes.

the

themselves,and

readers
Intelligent

bottom

soon

ally
gener-

and

prayers

memory,

mentioned

have

are

they please. When

manner

to

to

left to

in whatever

often

are

little

Having

few

not

they laugh,they

freely,and

them.

education, except

are

they

unpleasant speechesare

upon

to

them

about

when

merry

will

they

be

to

Children,however,

so.

run

if

brothers

going

are

that

them,

wrong

showered

soon

and

to

forgetthe

they

marriage,
see

entreated

songs

tell their

eloquence; they

cousins

21

to

lies at

girlsin
of the

tormented

the

Hindu

ter's
daughinces-

The

22

High- Caste

riage
Marof their position.
responsibilities

the

is the

girlof

ceremonies.

high

Poverty in

than

two

daughtersin

societynot only has


children,but
to

all
relatives,

his

are

the

wife

and

parents, his brothers

either

through ignoranceor

and

of whom

widowed

the nearest

very

often

depend upon
these,there

family priests,
beggars d.nd
religious

others, who

expect much

fettered

hand

and

customs

which

threaten

he

bered,
remem-

in Hindu

own

for their support ; besides

man

many

his

also

work

least.

; if there

be

of the house

to feed

their families
idleness,

one

not

family,his

it should

For,

the bread-winner

in the

great that

so

of

diture
expen-

an

dollars at the very

is

is inevitable.

unable

marriage

able to incur this expense

are

more

ruin

India

The*

tivities
fes-

all Hindu

family involves

caste

hundred

of two

are

of
expensive

most

and

fathers

Woman.

anxiety in regard to her future,

santly with
and

Hindu

foot

from

him.

Thus,

by barbarouslycruel
to

striphim

of everything

him
has, starvation and death staring

face,the

wretched

father of many

girls

Childhood.
is

truly an

that
the

23

objectof pity. Religion enjoins


girl must

every

neglectof

this

be

given

duty

in

marriage;
father

for the

means
"

unpardonablesin,publicridicule
this is not

But

be

must

within

The

of

of years

this in

the custom

of

high

clan

will

even

one

the same,
never

part by

have

served
ob-

prejudicefor

clan

have

of

Brahman

ten, eleven, twenty,

marry

and
He

of

taking advantage

polygamy.

of it

India

despitepoverty ; they

hundred

business

girl

period,the
be

must

Eastern

their
successfully

done

The

communicati
ex-

that of her father.

Brahmans

hundreds

all.

but
equal or superior,

the clan either

to
inferior,

caste

fixed

of the future husband

caste

and

married

and

fiftygirls. He
goes

and

up

or

makes

down

the

land

marrying girls,receivingpresents from

their

parents,and

good-bye
he

never*

Brahtnan
care-

of

to

returns

^need not

immediately thereafter
the

brides ;
them.

to

bother

supportingso

many

ding
bid-

going home,

The
himself

illustrious
with

wives,

for

the

the

Hindu
High-Caste

The

24

parents pledge themselves

daughterall
married

if
life,

her

virginto

for him

to

is useful to the

has

In

in

work

is

the

of the
a

this form

among

the

of the

non-Brahman

of

cannot

caste,a

daughters.

and

from

or

Caste

and

Rajputsof

Central

North

India,who

ter's
daugh-

member

is not

man

to

exist

not

receive

friends ; he

clan

the

high clan.

polygamy does

support either many

the

his

Kshatriyas,because,as

others,except

his

society
;

for himself

gods,since

to Beg
by religion,

father

thereby having

ridicule of

Brahman
of

the

having given

marriage, and

brightmansions

from

cult
is it diffi-

nor

secondly^of having obtained

But

requiredto

; moreover,

escapeddisgraceand

husband

familyin doing the cookingand

of
the satisfaction first^

daughter

of such

case

his means,

them

support the daughter,for she

household

other

she stays with

father is not

beyond

the

maintain

to

the end.

marriage as this,the

spend money

Woman.

wives

lowed
al-

gifts

therefore
or

many

prejudice
tyrannized
and

Northwestern

belong to

the

Ksha-

Childhood.

triyasor
they

warrior

caste, to such

driven

were

irreligiouscustom

into

their

society. This

the

whom

bound

they

for

are

neighborsand

boy

with

is

command

born,

If
that

announces

obey

to

that
very

care

child

home

allowed
to

was

to

things.

the

is

Rajputs
to

announced

has

father

been

girl,and

and

grave

this

coolly

born

into

is understood

that

she

world,

is

and

quiet

girlscould

many

live, the

child.

expressionit
is

gratulate
con-

by distributing

daughter, the

how
considering

tyranny
which

and

likely to be nothing in

After

in all

birth

songs

even

husband

the birth of

his

which

the

the friends go

be

formed
per-

of the

among

"nothing"

family, by

his

was

friends to assemble

music, glad

sweetmeats.

act

themselves, or

the father upon


If

infanticide

female

universal custom

inhuman

the

cruel

fathers

the

by mothers, at

It is

of

that

extent

an

introduce

to

and

by

25

father

ly
safe-

took

good

and

clan

himself

from

caste

by killing'the

extra

girls at birth,

defend

as

easilyaccomplishedas destroying

High-CasteHindu

The

26

other

mosquito or

can

save

babe

is

opportunity?Opium
the

determined

parentsare

eagerlywatch

for

skillful pressure

known
also

"

the

as

other nameless
in

there

the

are

steal

not

to

that may

and

few

the

law,

clan

"

are

be

is

throat,
several

employed

the

unholy

system.

Then

child-thieves who

rally
gene-

the wild animals

even

of such

at British

neck, which

innocents upon

caste

girls;

and
intelligent
mock

methods

this

cruel task ;

There

purpose.

the
sacrificing

altar of

the

putting nail

the

answers

upon

keep

to

pillof

small

drug is sufficientto accomplishthe


a

suitable

used
generally

cryingchild quiet,and

Who

insect

annoying

if the

slay her, a"d

to

Woman.

refined taste

and

almost

are

that

so

they

always steal

their hunger.
girlsto satisfy

Female

infanticide,
though
and never
by religion,
looked

not

upon

sanctioned
as

right

by conscientious people,has, nevertheless,


in
those parts of India

passedover
As

mentioned,been silently
unpunished by societyin general.

early as

1802

the

British government

The

28

High-CasteHindu

practicedbefore

the

prohibitorylaw.

As

he

to the

came

was
practice

Woman.

government
a

enacted

the

tion,
result of careful observathat this horrible

conclusion

still followed

in secret,and

to

alarmingextent/

an

The

there

Census
fewer

are

returns

which

have

female

with

sexes

among

may

imperfecttreatment
in

lack

attendance.

all

that

in India

men

this

show

the

by

causes

rical
surprisingnume-

be

named,

infanticide in certain parts of the

the
women

Chief

brought about

difference of the

1880-81

than

women

five millions.

over

of

of

after

try,
coun-

the diseases

of

parts of Hindustan, together

of proper hygieniccare

and

medical

Married

Life.

CHAPTER

29

III.

MARRIED

IT is not
of

Hindu

begins. The

five hundred

According
and

years
to

act

of

of my

of age

years

for

high

of

is the
the

caste

era.

mum,
mini-

maximum

girl.* The

giving the daughterin

riage,
mar-

merit,for thereby the

entitled to rich rewards in heaven,

parentsare

tatl^e who

at least

the Christian

eight years

the greater is the

man

country, is

older than

Manu,

marriageableage

*A

life

early marriage system, although

twelve

earlier the

hood
child-

the

the married

and

girlends

the oldest custom

not

when

determine

to

easy

aged thirtyyears
pleaseshim, or a

eightyears

of age," Manu

shall marry
man

of

ix",94*

maiden

of

twenty-foura girl

The

High-Caste

There

have

to this rule,
always been exceptions

however.

in the

eightkinds of marriages

the

Among

described

is

law, there

onlyan agreement

religious
ceremony,

no

to witness and

of

as

completelylawful

It is quiteplainfrom
not

betrothed

twelve

considered
in olden

times.

in this form if

marry

of the most
form

is this :

women

choose

Europe

and

their

America

husbandSjbut

castes

and

men

at such

an

any

other.

eight and

of

age

marriagewas

and

not

the Hindus

classes could
to do

they chose

as

well

One

so.

as

men

women

occurrence

choose

do

it is considered

women

quite

were

future spouses.

own

to be the first to

woman

regarded

noticeable facts connected with this

free to

both

the

also that

All

third party

this is

institutionby
religious

is

this fact that all girls


were

between
and

years,

a,

marriageas

loyal

tionship,
agreement and rela-

the

yet by the law

and

that is

marriagethere

even

nor

confirm

form

one

the lovers to be

between

to each other ; in this form

Woman.

Hindu

30

In
their

shame

for

and
requestmarriage,

will be shocked
; but

in

equally

India,women

Married
had

freedom

equal

least

in this

men,

without

shocking

and

being put

the

select her

until

common

D., and

even

other

party,

rfisband.

own

of

I know

form.

could

to

of his

by
of

own

the

the

accordingto

another

Mahomedan
B., had

A.

infant

could

caste, as

this

is still living;

man

caste, he
his

as

do

had

is

the act

The

the

versalizi
do in uni-

to

marriage in India.

girlsare givenin marriage at

tioned
sanc-

viour
beha-

lawless

intruders from
much

giously
reliout
with-

so

religious
ceremony

law.

Hindu

twelfth century,

many

of

he

wife,but

going through

century,

Bombay presidency

Brahman

wife, being

wedded

quite

people.

openly acknowledge

not

she been

few

firstwife of the

The
second

the

in the

woman

is married

the eleventh

as

to

although very rarely,this

now,

is practiced
by

custom

who

late

as

at

case

husband) was
Svayamvara (selecting

The

A.

31

might, without

forward

come

with

woman

shame, and

Life.

the

great

present

day litmlly while they are stillin their cradles;


from

"ve

to

eleven

years

is the usual

period

Caste Hindu
Hig"-

The

32

for their

girlsshould

it is absurd

As

to

that

assume

their future

allowed to choose

be

all

Brahmans

the

marriage among

India*

over

Woman.

husbanfts in their infancy,this is done

for

guardians*In

the

them

by their parents*and

northern

part of the country the familybarber

generallyemployed to select boys and girls

is

to be

married,it being considered


and

and

mean

act

an

guardians to

daughtersand
Although

sons-in-law.

for

are

and

seven

well-to-do

bachelor
the

age;
even

family does

of
not

after seventeen
but
respectable
of

shame

for

able
marriagetom
popular cus-

and

ten

married

be

age.

to

girlsof
boy

of

a
a

eighteenyears

of

or

very

poor

high caste,cannot

man

twelve

generallyremain

their boys so soon, but

marry
it is

to

eight years

if they are

the

man,

Boys of

law.

doomed

now

minimum

is the

young

defies the

said that
distinctly

has

Manu

twenty-fouryears
age

their future

to seek

out

go

part of parents

the

on

ting
humilia-

too

even

families,
afford to

among

to remain

them

unmarried

Married

after twenty

girlshave

voice

the

in

first

well

as

as

selection of their

the

if

marriage,but

lose his firstwife, and

has

33

twenty-five. Boys

or

no

at

spouses

Life.

marries

man

time, he

second

voice in the matter.

the

Although

ancient

desirable to marry

law-giversthought

girlswhen

and

quite young,

consequentlyignored their rightto choose


husbands, yet they

own

feelings.They

void of humane

parents and

forbidden

were

it

their

not

altogether

have

positively

guardiansto give

girlsin marriage unless good suitors

away

fered
of-

were

them.

"To

handsome
distinguished,

should

give his daughter

father

prescribedrule, though
the

she

give
"

ix.

her

to

until

'.'

attained

not

death, than

destitute of

man

woe

the law

too

It allows

but
;

in accordance

with

caste

the

the proper

that

rather

he should

good qualities.""

$9.

But, alas,here
custom.

equal

maiden, though marriageable,should

stop in the father's house


ever

have

of

88.

age"" Manii^,
"But

suitor

some

to

the

men

is defied
to

maiden

by

cruel

remain

married,
un-

and

her

to

The

34

High-Caste

has

law

that
she

said so, the

ever

have

can

wonder

of

matter

nine

that

when

anxious

eight or

and

in

merit

India, as

world, but

will

never

to

low

merits

caste

of

man

as

care

marriage.

the

daughters

be

else

caste

own

in

wealth

high

he be

high

of

pride and

own

marry

over

is

caste

his

the
as

man

daughter

millionaire.

surpasses

the

beauty and honor; parents


learning,

As

of well-to-do families for


the

boys

are

too

young

i. "?.,
possessing"good qualities,"

learning,common-sense,
take

to

in one's

their sons-in-law.
pass

its

powerful

though

generallyseek boys

to

marry

rule.

condescend

wealth

But

caste

tremely
ex-

in

everywhere

this

even

nothing before

to

has

Wealth

then, a

daughtersare

unsought

are

is

unless

parents become

parents, though they may

families.

caste

salvation
It is not,

their

Very few suitors offer


of poor

Although

popularbelief

no

formally married.

be

remain

to

as

marriageableage.

woman

unfortunate

so

the

singleafter
no

is

if she

family

Woman.

Hindu

of

abilityto support and

family, and

charrespectable

The

36

High- Caste

Hindu

for their

looking,prosperous

men

take

great

consult

both

partiesin

their

daughters;

the

order

in such

girlshall

the

is to

her, the

bad

sought for,because

is

that in that
wrestle with

always happens,

will
parties
and

husband

informed
were

each

the

that

be

fall in

wife
me

die

for this

is

if it reveals

If

sidered
con-

the

husbands

lieved
sincerelybe-

guardian planets
almost

as

stronger, i. e., the


or
victorious,

the

one

her

else

and
conflict,

was

the

friend of

that three hundred

before
rejected

reason

match

together. A

planet. Undoubtedlymany
good

things,

widow.

other,and,

with
agreed satisfactorily

make

all

ious
anx-

that her future

it is

the

case

planet will

husband's

are

of

boy having a horoscopeequally

then

future

above

become

not

reverse,

mine

they

satisfactory
; but

very

both

cases,

and

survive

horoscopesof
the

horoscopereveals
daughter's

husband

will

the

sons-in-law,

know

to

over
ascertain,

to

that

to

care

Woman.

copes
horos-

found

which

sister's guardian

who
suitors,

might

for these little girls,


are

and unworthy
rejected,

men

fall

Married

misery instead

of

source

"without

concerning

statement, his

with
and

the father
his

of age, and

take

rest

near

and

for

to bathe

day

came

he

the

dinary
extraor-

following

of his wife

the other

One

seven

town

to

morning

the

Godavari,

man
fine-looking

After the ablution

were

the stranger who


on

the

sacred river

saw

prayers

most

stoppedin

two.

the

the man's

age
pilgrimreligious

nine and

or

consisted

there also.

morning

of
inquired
he

the town, when

the

they had

bathingin

was

coming

on

family,which

years

father

was

daughters,one

two

of

place in

took

marriagethat

social

clan, and

and

I know

inquiry

and

from

give

strangers

making

to learn

caste

of his home.
locality

manner

to

suitor's character

the

position. It is enough
own

that fathers

in

exercising care

blessing.

daughtersin marriage

their

away

of

unfrequentlyhappens

It not

37

thus, the horoscope becomes

their lot ;

to

Life.

he

over, the father


was

and whence

learninghis caste,and clan,and

also
dwelling-place,

that he

was

widower, the

father offered him bis littledaughterof nine, ift

The

38

High- Caste Hindu

marriage. All thingswere

the

the

day

; next

so

little

miles away

took

from

settled in

her

the

hour

an

the

possessionof

hundred

nearly nine

her home.

or

concluded,and

marriage was

girl placed in

stranger, who

Woman.

The

father left the

place the day

after the

daughter,and

pursued his pilgrimage with

lightheart
in

the
fortunately

good hands,and

for

beyond

her

who
father,

all

littlegirlhad

well and

was

but
expectation,
cared

daughter'sfate,is none
When

marriage without

few

her

days her darlingwill


When

to her

law

the

many

are

she

were

her

own

affection

bounds

no

knowing

be torn

; she

that in
from

away

she goes

to pay

the

child's future mother-in-

tearful entreaties and

solicitationsthat
stirring
toward
forbearing

of

mony
marriagecere-

mother's

in endless ways,

customary visit

tenderlycared
the conduct

the

knows
girlfrequently

lovingembrace.

fallen

the less censurable.

draws near, the Hindu

indulgesher

little to ascertain his

so

the time to conclude

for the

the

she will be

as

kind

the little stranger as

daughter. The

souland

though

boy's inotltefc

Married
is moved

at

heart,and

she

this

littlebride.

Life.

time,for

promises to
the

On

she
be

has
a

day fixed

39
woman's

mother

for the

marriage,

parents formallygive their daughteraway

boy

; afterwards the young

who
priests

them

and wife in the presence

man

fire and

of relatives and

"Neither

by

sale

her husband

I^"rd of

creatures

Marriage is
to

the

presumedthat

must

the

know

the

of old.'*

Manu

we

"

only

the texts
she

The

are

law

Henceforth

to

wife

dissolu
in-

released

be which

the

tered
adminis-

accompaniedwith
It is to

texts.

introduced

him
the

no

be

in honor
sacrament

without

the

cred
sa-

girlis his,not

only his property,but also that of his


relatives.

riage
mar-

ix.,46.

marries,for
to

Sacrament"

caste woman,

administered

formulae.

of the Vedic

whom

man

be

made

high

utterance

of the

; such

pronounce

is henceforth

by repudiationis

nor

by

of the sacred

friends.

being thus concluded,it

from

and

to the

united

people are

utter the sacred texts

the

to

nearest

TJte High-Caste Hindu

40
"For

alone."

husband, and

Apastamba //., 10, 27,

"

The

girlnow

his

by

kind

of

merit

or

assumes,

like

Many

the

be

is united

woman

of

in

girlswhen

innocentlyanswer

great pains

to

; children

gorgeous

the

no

is one

whom

even
qualities

she

-Manu

ix., 22,

in fun

ther
whe-

be married would

affirmative.

their sisters,
cousins

pleasure. Even

have

with

man

asked
to

soon

in

; the occasion

with

the

marriage,such

like

is

she

can

river united with the ocean/'"

our

was

own.

qualitiesof

lawful

they would

see

She

impersonalbeing.

"Whatever

some

that

by the firstname

her

clan ;

relatives will not

her parents ; henceforth

qualityof

husband

in

and

familyname,

allow her to be called

to the

the husband's

parts of India the husband's

given her by

not

bride is

3.

belongs to

she is known

often

tliat

they (the ancient sages)declare


to tlie family of her

given

Woman.

or

long to

They

ried
playmatesmar-

be remembered

the poorest families take

make

it

enjoyit

most

pleasant to
of all.

body
every-

There

are

beau*
dresses',
bright colored clothes,

Married
tiful

Life.

decorations,
music,

plenty of

fruit and

is illuminated

things to

sweet

with many

tempting

more

to

ride

of fun.

Is

I shall ride

Oh,

the

thinks

peoplein

besides ; all the

much

will make

me,

and

caress

girlof
mother,

me

bed, ^nd

elephant!

will wait

on

fun I"

what

"Oh,

ill,"said

be

darling?"

like to

child?

everybody will

cold,and

sorts

something more

surprise."Oh,

little girl,"I

the

in

in

of

"Why,

four.

for

the house

try to pleaseme.

like to have

"I

there is

and

all

the

of

back

the

on

girl;

newly-married

the

grand enough

it not

these?

than

processionamidst

in

be

can

times
hig elephantis some-

which

brought, on

to

house

the whole

child's mind

and

eat

lamps. What

In addition to all this the

children

fireworks,fun,

songs,

and
lovelyflowers,

give away,

41

asked

her

because," replied
eat

my

breakfast

then, too, everybody waits

on

me!"
Who

and
even

has

not

heard

such

remarks

over
laughed heartily

to be illfor the sake

them?
of

as

these,

Children

being waited

like
on.

42

The

What

wonder, then,if

High-Caste

married

for the

coveted

!
privilege

farewell

girlslike being

enjoying that

after

comes

to be

laughter,and

married

the

to

of

be

can

fun

that

girl'sheart,for

no

she

Free

pleases,never

social

excites

when

the

bothered

in

and

young

of

Hindu

out

caste

worried
or

in

babyhood.

where

or

other

by lesson-

knitting,loved,

spoiledby parents,

sisters,uncles

desire

the

marriage takes

by

learning,sewing, mending

from

life of

relatives,

in and

to go

never
restrictions,

petted and

bid

except the

reason

is,indeed,the heyday

life.

woman's

must

free

nearest

place she is just emerging from


Childhood

fun.

the child desires

by her

home

there

enjoyment

the

she
when, through superstition,

is ill-treated at

otherwise

poor

ment,
mother, to noisy merri-

and

enjoyment. Sometimes

pure

much-

these

little do

But

what

to home

and

the

Hindu

they imagine that they

do

Little

Woman.

of

sake

know

innocents

Hindu

brothers

and

ent
aunts, she is little differcolt whose

complete liberty. Then

days
lo, all

are

at

spent
once

High-Caste Hindu

The

44

Woman.

North of India the littlebride's lot is


to

one

to

her

to

go

begin

with ; she

husband's

pier
hap-

being forced

not

home

until

is

she

about

The

thirteen

fourteen years

or

of age.

jointfamilysystem, which

is

of the

one

of Eastern countries,
is very deeply
peculiarities
rooted

in the

soil of

be
unfrequently
under

one

India.

found

roof. The

four
house

There

generationsliving
is divided

distinct parts,namely, the outer

The

court.

windows,
men's

Houses

houses,as

and

court

is

the

placesare

She

better than those


and

women

have

of

darkness reignsperpetually.

does

not

house to be the head of


enters

the

is situated at the back

the child-bride is

confined.

few

common.

court

house,where

There

but

usually dark

are

cities. Men

nothingin

The women's

the inner

and

comparatively
lightand good.

in country

in the crowded
almost

they

into two

rule,have

not

may

brought to
enter
new

her

be

forever

husband's

home, but

rather

the house of the father-in-law


to become

the lowest of its

members, and

to

occupy the

Married
humblest

positionin

bride's

young

of
discipline
talk

the

is
spirits
this

male

distant

India,where
bride

all

into

these

them, when
where

she

where

women,

they need

not

show

respect

and

remain

obligedto

be

them

duties.
of age

These

as

enter

In

to

it, or
to

respect

apartment

an

Southern
not

India,
veils,

wear

they rise

their

long

to

husbands,
they

as

are

in their presence.

employ their daughters

household

of

work,

thorough knowledge
children

find it irksome

long without

show

rule, do

elders and

young

face with

their faces ;

cover

to

be.

standing

all kinds

give

veils,the

to

band,
hus-

In Northern

so.

her

mothers-in-law

The
in

as

do

persons

before

or
brother-in-law,

wear

room

happens to

never

speak

never

to

covers

another

must

relatives of her

women

woman

or

She

elder

unless commanded

runs

essential part of the

abode.

new

45

family. Breaking the

an

father and

other

any

the

laugh loudly,must

or

to

or

Life.

the

hope

in

order

of domestic

of nine

or

to work

hard

of

to

ten

years

all

hearing a word

day
of

girl is scolded

for

of

words
silently
accepted,

of the littleones

In

then

sorrowful

I must,

her

Many

of their

sons

do

them

tified
thus,mor-

seek
tears

they

console

to

miss

in silence,
the

dear

lovingsympathy.

of them
as

their

treat the young

brides

children ; many

own

temper and

not

treatment
; such

seem

be

to

mean

having themselves

torment

hours

sive
abu-

are

but ignorant
affectionate,
; they easily

lose their

they

tional
for inten-

to the mothershowever, do justice

in-law.

kind and

; the faults

of
artillery

the

distressed,
they

and

mother

it is

encouragement and

by sheddingbitter

such

done,

well

speechis opened upon

themselves

she

often mistaken

are

and
offences,

and

mistake

demoralizingthem

children and

rule,the

ing
being regardedas spoil-

the elders

praisefrom

every

be

work

; if the

commits

As

the mother-in-law.

praisefrom
little

Woman.

High-Caste Hindu

The

46

been

to
so.

be hard when
Others

the victims of merciless

in their childhood become


an

the child

one

again,

will do

all $he

hearted
hardcan

to

by using abusive language,

Married

by beating her

and

neighbors. Often
this

Life.

her
slandering

she is not

but induces
herself,

wives

young

her.

join

to

son

husbands

47

satisfied by

and

have

before the

doing
the

encourages

several

times

seen

shamefullybeaten by beastlyyoung

who

cherished

natural

no

love

for

them.
As

have

we

without

and
or

after it the

be

the

couple

must

mutual

attachment

such

never

being

and

betray
before

be

forming attachment,the

their

relationship
; and

this,the
ypuug
ways,

mother-in-law

man

to

it is not

torment

of their

der
party. Unand

meet

easilyunderstood
chief

the

do. not

cases

many

if in the midst

beginsto

in

most
allike

of all

encourage

wife

his

of

means

couple are

young

strange that

speak

the young

seldom

they

party,

to

sign

third

cluded
con-

until after

then

any

off from

strangers,and in

allowed

even

therefore

cut

either

the husband

circumstances

talk ; it may

of

bride is not

acquaintedwith

is

marriage

consent

the second ceremony,

that

the

seen,

the^

various

feelingakin

to

High-Caste

48

The

hatred

takes root

thirteen
in my

house

for

presence
did

that she
as

between

there

like

not

at her

is in

couplethat

her

well

so

husband

in his

home.

own

India
would

of all these

happy

many

be

honor

complain of except

an

the

from the

drawbacks,
and

nation.

brightenedby
nothing to
of

freedom

since wives

beginningwhat

is,they are

generallywell

in

bondage;

there

as

the

loving

to any

absence

thought and action;but


known

child of

be

to

love, the happy wife has

mutual

never

by

thfe conjugalrelation is

Where

of

tellingthe simple truth,

spite,however,

In

them.

cruellybeaten

was

Woman.

Hindu

freedom

to

content

remain

such

is,however, no

have

thing

familyhaving pleasanttimes together.

Men

spend

hours with

their

eveningsand

friends of their

the outer* court

or

own

from

away

other
sex,

home.

leisure

either in
Children

to

enjoy the company

of father and

by going in
but
made

the

children

happy by

and

out

of young
the

when

mother

nately,
alter-

they choose,

parents are

father's caresses

never
or

any

Married

of

the

elders

children

his

the

desty prevents
to

of

demonstration

other

had

what

her

freely.
their

theirs, and
lord

may

the

young

family usually take


have

Life.

the

please

49

in

love

his

of

father

from

wife,
to

of

after
as

leave

mod-

speaking

women

meals

sence
pre-

false

notion

The

the

on

the

men

rule,
his

the

eats

plate.

CHAPTER
PLACE

WOMAN'S

THE
"

IV.
AND

RELIGION

IN

commands
religion

Hindu

Women

Woman.

High-Caste Hindu

The

50

"be honored

must

and

adorned

by their fathers,

who
brothers-in-law,

brothers,husbands, and

SOCIETY.

desire their

welfare."

own
"

but

Where
where

honored,there

are

women

they

honored,

not

are

the

gods'are pleased;
sacred

no

rite

yields

rewards,"

soon

not
"

relations live in

female

the

"Where

wholly perishes; but


unhappy
The

family where

they

are

prospers."

ever

houses

that

grief,the family

on

honored, pronounce

which

female

not being duly


relations,

stroyed
as if decurse,, perishcompletely,

by magic,"
"Hence

honor

women

of) ornaments,
"

In that

who

men

seek
on

own

holidaysand

clothes and

family where

their

welfare,should
festivals with

ways
al-

(gifts

dainty food,"

the husband

is

pleasedwith

hi"

The

52

High-Caste
is the

mother

The

'hold. She

Woman.

Hindu

of the son's house-

queen

generallyobeyed

the

of

head

the

as

is

there,and

wields great power

family
'

by

her

and

sons

there is

But

should

not

be

studied

in

the

with

few

that

not

her

daughters-in-law.
side to the shield that

reverse

left unobserved.
of

laws

Manu,

about

having brought

is best

all

Hindus,

as

women

tliyteacher his

to

off the line of children I

cut

This

believe implicitly
what
exceptions

law-giver
says

After
do

by

reward,

proper

(i.e. Do,

not

remain

unmarried).
Do

not

swerve

from

the truth.

Do

not

swerve

from

duty.

Do

not

neglectwhat

Do

not

neglectthe learningand teachingof the Veda.

Do

not

neglect the sacrificial works

and

is useful.

due

to

the

gods

fathers.

Let

thy

mother

Let

thy

father be to tliee like unto

Let

thy

teacher

Let

thy guests

Whatever

be to thee

be to thee
be to thee

actions

are

like unto

blameless

god.

like unto
like unto

god.

god.

a
a

god

those

should

be

re*

garded, not others.


Whatever

should

be

good

works

observed

have

been

by thee,

Upamshad, Valli,,i.An.

si,

i,

not
2.

performed by
others."

"

us

Taittiriya

In
is

"It

the

only
slave
"

they
"

even

of desire

and

do

not

on

give

anger."

the

to

women

is the

in the law
be

hood

their

itself."

then- mutable

law

impure
ix.,

Ix"rd of

the

to

allotted

and

of

and

is

guard
to

tures
crea-

love
sires,
de-

impure

conduct"

bad
is

settled;

performed with
women

destitute of the
as

man

them."

women

ornament,

rite

who

are

knowledge

that
falsehood itself,

is

of
a

14-18.

opinion of
men

concerning all

Manu

with

regard women,

own

ugly."

carefully they

however

sacramental

all

; and

through

man,'

to the

and

himself

Manu

seat

the

as

fixed rule."" Manu

is

he

creation, to be such, every

at the

strength and
are

attention

their

that

which
disposition,

texts, thus

texts,

this world."

no

women

not

heartlessness,they become

husbands,

bed, of their

Such

in

him

make

to

is

nor

handsome

their

their

destitute of
Vedic

unguarded

and

enough

is

wrath, dishonesty, malice

sacred

this

in

men

ri.,213-214.

for men,

creating them,

"For

never

beauty,

strenuously exert

most

of their

are

Manut

natural

laid in them

"When

seduce

man,

their

guarded in

"Knowing

should

"

for

care

their passion

disloyaltowards
be

learned

themselves

through

temper,

to

astray in this world

lead

to

thinking 'it

age;

Through

may

able

are

fool,but

Women

fixed

wise

the

reason

women

women

53

of females."

company

"For

of

nature

world ; for that


the

Religionand Society.

mothers, "as

more

even

or

less faith

though they

impure

as

fake-

"And
in the

Vedas,
of

'

"

; hear

women

father

my

distrust and

Such

and

nature

such

in India.

the

be denied.

by

the

the household

"Bay and

"

sensual

control

Her

woman

"Women

of

the

law

is

general,is

sixth

their

greatly

that it

century, B,c.,

relatives are

of all their freedom

must

at

women

has

deprivethe

to

man's
wo-

intensely
tyrannical

All male

be

and
families,

enjoyments, they

manded
com-

of

women

:"

kept in dependence
if

they

must

be

attach

selves
them-

kept under

"

father protects her in


in

in

invasion ; but

night women

males

her
a

about

20.

custom

become

me,'

from

of seclusion of

Mahomedan

existed from

one's

refer to

estimate of

low

'This mischievous

increased and has

to

position
dis-

seed

ix.,19,

character

the root of the custom

the

the true

which

texts

that

keep

Manu

text"-"
scriptural

that is the

by

also

their sins."

illicitdesires,may

cannot

those

now

chanted

conceived
mother, going astray and unfaithful,

If my

since

are

fully known

to make

order

in

of
expiation

the

sacred texts

this effect many

to

Woman.

Hindu
High-Caste

The

54

youth, and
never

must

fit for

her

her husband
childhood,

sons

tects
pro-

protect her in old age ;

""Maw
independence.

ix.,2,

be guarded againstevil
particularly

3.

in-

In

Religionand Society.

however
clinations,

guarded, they

not

are

"Considering
weak

they
trifling

husbands

that

"will bnng

the

sorrow

they

families."

two

on

all castes,

of

highest duty

strive to

must

for if

appear;

may

55

guard their

wives."

even

Manu

"

ix.,5, 6.
*'

No

they

man

be

can

guarded by

expedients:
"Let
and

completely guard

can

the

husband

employ

Manu

of

ix.,10,

Sanscrit literature in the


to

recognizethe

those
make

To

employ

her

keeping

her

sils."
uten-

impartiallyread

in

of

to

be

is forbidden

she has
out

low

no

rightto

of them.

kind

to

kindred

and

the

only

mischief,the

of

To

desire

read the sacred


pronounce
appease

to

the world's eye.

means

blessed

culture being denied


enjoyment of literary

She

of

one

as

housekeeping

out

fail

their best

done

being in

occupationsis thought
of

tion
prepara-

cannot
original,

have

hateful

woman

the

the household

law-giverManu

who

hundreds

keeping everything

n.

and
diligently

who

collection

the

religiousduties,in

looking after

in

in

his wife

wealth, in

his

of

food,and

Those

following
*

clean,in the fulfilment

"

of the

employment

the

but

"

expenditure
of his

by force

women

her

her*

scriptures,

ble
single syllauncultivated,

by giving her

ornaments

her

adorn

to

Hindu

High- Caste

The

56

which

to

the

Hindu

Wife,the
is

fit for

never

impure

of the

trusted ; matters

be

be

to

committed

can

have

to

read

never

of

sacred

book

about

here

and

there

such

words

after

having charged them, as

crime

and

more

from
and

kind

word
a

me

literature is

by

no

towards
respectful

the ethical

also

never

kind

of hateful

about

contain

them, but

heartless
a

mockery*

class,with

evil deeds.

Profane
or

women.

to

to

in Sanscrit

True, they

sentiment

seem

never

that
truthfully,

meeting this

is

her*

any

literature without

is "as

importance are

honestlyand

say

ter
daugh-

and
independence,

She

She,

devoted

affectionate

"
falsehood itself.

as

highest honors

nation,the

sister and

tender

bow

is entitled.

woman

loving mother

occasional

an

the

nothing,are

costs

by giving her

and

person,

daintyfood togetherwith
which

Woman.

few

means

less

women.

teachings,
partsof

proverbs:
"

severe

quote

catechism

Religionand Society.

In

What

A.

The

is cruel?

is

Q. What
A.

The

Hindu

heart

moral

on

of

subjectswritt

high literaryre

"

A.

chief gate to hell?

is the

woman.

like wine?

bewitches

Q. What
woman.

Q. Who

be

sonless,pennilesswidow.

What

A.

of all "

cruelest
of

that?

woman.

gentleman

A.

of

catechism

says

cruel than

is the

The

viper.

more

heart

Q. What
A.

of

heart

He

wisest

is the
has

who

compared
Q.

What

A.

Women.

not

of the

been

Women.

What

A.

Women.

by

women

fetters to men?

is that which

A.

deceived

malignant fiends.

to

are

Q. What

wise ?

cannot

poison is that which

be

trusted?

appears

like

ne

PROVERBS.

"Never

put your

"Women's
"Woman

place of

trust in women."

counsel
is

leads to destruction."

great whirlpoolof suspicion,a

vices, full of

a
deceits,

heaven, the gate of hell."

hindrance

in tl

The

58

Woman.

Hindu

High-Caste

Having fairlyillustrated the popular belief


nature, I

woman's

about

proceedto

now

such

religion.Virtues

woman's

state

ness,
truthful-

as

purity of heart
forbearance, fortitude,
"

are
uprightness,

and

understood,has

distinct

two

and
duties,privileges
has its

also
religion

The

given

in

husband

as

through him,
things,never
do

covet

to

anything but

law

and

now

one,

By

"

To

look

him

to

is

only

in all

never
independence,

that which

be
her

upon

for salvation

obedient

the duties of

Manu
law-giver,

"

feminine

to

approved by

custom.

"Hear

own

be

to

peculiar

of the latter may

god, to hope

the

peculiarities.

words:

few

in

own

The

honors.

and substance

sum

commonly

the feminine.

its

religionhas

masculine

is

and

men

natures

and

law ; the masculine

Hindu

The

the word

as
religion,

but

women,

to

common

girl,by

nothing must
house."

women,"

says the

:
"

young

be

done

woman,

or

even

by

independently,
even

an

aged
in her

The

60

High-Caste

Hindu

her duty towards


"By violating

disgracedin
of

is

tormented

husband, a wife

her

this world, after death

jackal,and

Woman.

she

is

the wotub

enters

by diseases,the punishment

of her sin."
"She

who" controlling
ner

slightsher lord, resides

never

in
"

heaven, and

reward

In

of such

thoughts,speech
and

renown,

Manu

"

"

in

only is

He

and
the

v.,

called

is

after death

who

actions,gams

this life

world

next

The

wife

propertyn

"cows,

MARITAI,

RIGHTS.

perfectman

who

learned

of her

wife is
with

"For

one

hates him
,

her

of her

but

her

near

consists

his

band."
hus-

of three

sons
per-

offspring;thus

Brahmanas

propound this

is declared to be

to

be

husband,and

female

one

with

"

the

marital

is classed with

falo-cows
bufcamels,slave-girls,
ewes.""

(SeeMamt

ix.,

her huspunishablefor treating


band

aversion

year

highest

ix.,45.

and
she-goats

The

place

and

is declared

mares,

in

controls her

164-166.

Veda, and

the wife.' **"Manu

her husband

conduct, a female

likewise,'The husband

maxim

with

deeds,

wife."

virtuous

united, his wife, himself


says the

and

thoughts,words

let

after

"

a
a

property and

husband

lapseof
cease

bear
a

with

wife who

year, let him

to live with

her,"

deprive

Religionand Society.

In
"She

who
to

shall be

shows

passion,is

evil

some

for three

deserted

her ornaments
"She

disrespectto

and

be

time
"

she

superseded by

barren

wife

only daughters in
"

wife

her

who, being superseded,in

off in the

"Though
form, he

But
;

and
he

have

been

no

such

on

the

revere

be

"

if she be

her husband

to

accepted

contrary, she

evil

as

Manu

"

made

ix.,

diseased,

or

ix.,72.

Mann

for the 'woman

of

though

seek

good

passion,fond

with

remain

-god,even

virtue,and

83.

in due

damsel

blemished

must

devoid

be

some
quarrel-

instantlyconfined

be

given with fraud,"

destitute of

is

departs from

anger

"

provisionis

elsewhere, or
addicted

her

bears

who

family."

of the
have

may

abandon

either

must

presence

man

may

if she

and

house,

who

ix,, 80, 81.

"

husband's
cast

or

she

eleventh,but

delay." Manu

without

any

eighth year,

the

tenth, she

the

all die in
the

at

wife."

supersededin

be

of

conduct,

wasteful, may

or

another

may

children

whose

of bad

spirituousliquor,is

diseased, mischievous
rebellious,

deprived

ix.,77, 78.

Mann

"

diseased,

or

be

and

months,

furniture."

drinks

who

drunkard,

is addicted

who

husband

61

of

pleasure

qualities,
spirituous

or
diseased, and what not I
liquors
much
How
justiceis shown
impartial
"

treatment

of womankind

understood
fairly

after

by

Hindu

readingthe

law,
above

in the
can

be

quota-

Woman.

Hindu
HigfaCaste

The

62

tions. In olden times these laws

by the community

his wife ; she could

over

power

British rule,the

in the

as

golden

his absolute

suffered in

age, take

least

suit againsther
bring,
claim

to

his

his

to

cannot

has

of

property,"if
him

by

not

bound

now

in the courts

to

she

house, but

person

is

He

"marital
submit

unwillingto

of

dition
con-

^herwhenever

her

over

power
the

better

no

True, the husband

found, and drag her

be

may

is in

woman

of old.

than

nothing but

the so-called Christian

under

Now,

protest

do

utteringa word

to his will without

submit

absolute

had

husband

enforced

were

to

justice
she

be,

other

any

means.

her

near

relative of mine

childhood

in

her

in her

had

the

than

boy
where

was

been

marriage to

parents agreedto let him


with

had

own

given in

boy

whose

stayand be educated

home.

No

marriage ceremony

ever,
how-

sooner

been

cluded
con-

they forgottheir agreement ; the

taken

to

he remained

the

home

t"*grow

up

of his parents
to be

worth-

In
less

Religionand Society.

dunce, while
and

his wife

advanced

into

views

bright young

the

through

of her

63
ness
kind-

oped
father,develand

woman

well

accomplished.
Thirteen
claim

his

send

to

who

the
later,

years

the

wife, but

protect his wife.

support and
had

wish

no

living,and

honest

to

with

go

him
the

stranger to her; under


could

love

neither

why

reason

saw

no

her

husband

her

and

and

case

was

favor, according to
*In
and

all

cases

except

unable

The

wife

should
he

he

Hindu
those

too,
a

she

be
him

with

law.*

is bottnd

who

follow

worthless

to

her

sue

of

due

tice.
Jusmony
cere-

the man's

The

directlyconntcted

death, the British Government

ber
num-

not

given in

was

to

was

British Court

examined

the verdict

sense

community

to enable

parents in the

The

beggar

circumstances

wife

collected funds

man,

was

since

the

though

even

heart

respect him.

nor

people in

of orthodox

no

the

nor

to

came

parents had

the power

posseted neither
an

'man

darlingdaughter with

their

to make

young

wife

with

life

according to

The

64

High-Caste

doomed

was

she

the

cholera.

by

with

go

who

put

end

an

their

committingsuicide.
wife

and
the

gods

of

Rakhmabai,

under

the

of

thing

well-educated

suffer

justice

same

her

lady, who

the treaties concluded

with

are

has

lately

class.
is that

was

of her

The

she

is

brought

and
father,

the inhabitants of

their social and

laws ; judicial
decisions

that

society,is only

the

about

loving care

interfere with

the

men.

thousands

remarkable

and

rarity

to

who

women

the

band
hus-

for their

India,owing

profoundly agitatedHindu
one

women

law between

at

of

that

the
of

case

in

conduct

silently,
knowing

The

Many

cial,
so-

earthly sufferings
by

Suits

British Courts

always favor

persecutedby

remarkable

are

submissive

ever

thus

country,

our

nate
the unfortu-

State laws.

to

be said of

may

among

are

and
religious

to

this sorrowful

Whatever

unwelcome

not

are

women

Fortunately

epidemics that yearly assail

they

in

him.
from

released

soon

was

world

to

Woman.

Hindu

up

had

India,not

customs
religious

given accordingly.

and

In

Religionand Society.

learned from

him

the

of social and

assaults

But

as

soon

claimed

be

against her

in

to

go

that the

her
the

such.

Mr.

in the

first

of

the

India

over

their loins
and
the

her

the

of

allegedhusband

threateningthe

force the

the

husband

sums

were

stand

British

if
displeasure

the

collected

live

Upon
party

and

girded

They encouraged
his

to

for

of

helplesswoman

it failed to

according to

case

to

will.

ground firmly,

government

woman

as

sense

lady

man

friends.
to

without

conservative

one

denounce

to

handful

to

as

ground

tried the

against her

rose

the

on

sufficient

force

to

The

legallyconsidered

instance,had

husband

suit

ing
declinherself,

concluded

was

be

not

refuse

who

man

Bombay.

man

hearing this decision,the


all

the

Justice Pinhey, who

justiceto
her

religiousbigotries.

court

live with

could

against

husband, brought

marriage that

her consent

with

herself

bravelydefended

woman

to

to defend

her father died

as

to

young

how

65

lic
pub-

keep

its agreement

to

live with

go

Hindu

the

with

law.

benefit

Large
of

this

the

decision

the

horror

the Hindu
this

in

Bombay, March

judged by

written

letter

of

by

my

herself,bearing date

Rakhmabai

friend

lower

painfultermination

The

laws.

the

to

case

merits,as

its

on

trial,I have

dear

the

back

for re-trial

appealagainst

people, the
right-thinking

all

of

to

bench, whereupon, to

the full

to

sent
chief-justice
court

him

enable

Dadajee,to

man,

Woman.

High-CasteHindu

The

66

her

i8th,1887.

quote from

civilized

of the full bench

letter :
"

The

learned

determined

enacted

They

ago.

live with

to

the

the

of the

costs

decision I

Are

not

cast

this
Mr.

into

the

extraordinary

impartialBritish

Queen-Empress Victoria,

friend, I

prison when

I do

the

pay

giving equal justiceto all,

dear

My

the State

under

is

better

no

Hindu

opinion that
a

by

of this

to

go

not, and

shall

been

have

this letter reaches

obey the

cannot

you

order

of

Justice Farran.

"There
be

ruled

woman?

is because

think

boasts of

to

me

obliged me

have

living under

not

we

and

herself

also

dispute. Just

which

we

but

human
in-

thousand

times, four

only commanded

are

the

enlightened age,

barbaric

not

man,

government,
are

in

have

judges

this

enforce, in

to

laws
years

and

my

condition

hope
rule
case

for

for

women

or

British rule ;

so

in

India,whether
some

cruellydecided, may

woman

are

they
of

the

bring about

by turningpublicopinionin

68

The

High-Caste Hindu

and

powers

of
principalities

would

Mammon
and

British

matter

if that

sacrifice of the

ancient

surely

profit and

rule

endangered thereby.
no

Woman.

Let

be

success

rights and

the

displeased,

India

in
us

be

wish

tions,
institu-

be

might
it

achieved
comfort

success,
the

at

of

over

"

hundred

one

million

Meanwhile,
of the
the

weak,

made
41

shall

we

shall

kingdom
the

happy

wipe

lowly

because
away

women.

patientlyawait

of

the

vent
ad-

righteousness,wherein

and
the

all tears

the

helplessshall

great Judge
from

be

Himself

their eyes."

Widowhood*

69

CHAPTER

V.

WIDOWHOOD.

WE

periodof

the worst

to

come

now

woman's
high-caste

India,widowhood
for

by
upon

be

the

or

her

the punishment

crimes

former

less,according to the
and

murdering him
the

out
Through-

mitted
com-

existence'

periodof punishment

The

Disobedience

the crime.

regardedas
or

dreaded

most

life.

crime
in

woman

greater or

are

is

horrible

earth.

husband,

and

nature

of

disloyaltyto

the

in

chief crimes

may

an

earlier existence

punished in

the

presentbirth by widowhood.
If the widow
not

be

mother

of sons,

she

usuallya pitiable
object; although she

certainlylooked

upon

as

sinner,yet

is
is

social

70
abuse

The

High- Caste

aad

hatred

an

ancient

in

commands

an

people,to

which

old

life-time.

But

community

was

upon

whom

times

has been
when

of

not

Vedic

in

an

hatred

the

code

and

yet mutilated

re-marriagewas

or

cial
espe-

of the

whom

pronounced.

future

text

tred,
ha-

her husband's

child-widow

and

treated

genuine

the

yet in the dark

reading of

dividua
the in-

greatestcriminal upon

judgment

ancient

honor

the

daughtershave

marriage in

it is

the

as

priesthoodhad

custom

her

falls the abuse

manner

In

in

when

with

all

from

is
girls

of

sometimes

widow

childless young

Heaven's

added

widow-mother

given

her lot

quiteindependentof

age

especially
so,
been

be

sand
thou-

the

of
persecutions

may

and
indifferently

not

virtuous, aged

involuntary respect

The

stands

her

to

bravely withstood

has

temptations and

given to

rank

the

of

mother

because

widow,

who

widow

is

she

Next

superiorbeings.

In virtue

greatlydimished

are

fact that

the

of

Woman.

Hindu

of

Mann

when
the

the

original

concerningwidows,
in

existence.

Widowhood.

be

historymay

Its

stated
briefly

child-marriageleft

of

before

she

husband

knew

enter

into

uthe

father

obtains

his

is

It

son.

rite

widow
and

her

right

no

to

for
enjoy immortality,
debts

immortality if

living

had

sonless

and

throws

"

marriagewas,

died

heaven

The

girl a

many

what

having

71

he

the

on

the

sees

declared

in

and

son

of

face

the

Vedas,

"

endless
sons

; there

destitute
curse

is

of

that

place

no

be

those

for

the

who

be

have
who

man

pronounced

enemies

our

of

offspring." The

male

could

"may

was

worlds

the

are

is

greatest

enemies,

on

destitute

of

spring.
off-

"

In

order

attain

the

sages

abodes

as

the

the

among

raised up

The

of

husband's

"

desired issue

"

Hindu

or

husband.
man
kins-

and

duly

"

offspringto
been

yans
Ar-

other

appointed

having

ancient

appointmentM

Jews, the

brother,cousin

authorized to raise up
The

of

seed for the deceased

was
successively

might

blessed,the

the custom

invented

by which

husbands

that these young

the dead.

obtained

any

High-CasteHindu

The

72

the

bet-ween

intercourse

husband,

her

deceased

the

appointment

widow

of

children

by

his

considered

were

of

this custom

on,

her

and

"

alreadyquoted

"

heirs.
"

appointment

gradually discouragedin spite of


text

was

sinful.

the

still remained

woman

Later

appointed persons

and
illegal

thenceforth considered
The

Woman.

there is

the

was

Vedic

place for

no

the

"

is destitute of male

who

man

duties

The

of

in the code

"

on

Manu

the

mention

described

"

emaciate

her

fruit ; but

of another

name

thus

are

and

flowers,roots

pure

widow

pleasure let

her

At

of

offspring."

her
she

body by living
must

after her

man

never

even

husband

has

died"
"

which

is

only.*7 Manu
"
.

Nor

for virtuous
"

prescribedfor
v

"

trolled,
patientof hardships,self-con-

strive

chaste, and

and

duty

be

let her

death

Until

is

second

women.**

Manu

"

A. virtuous wife who

constantlyremains

fulfil that most

wives

who

have

excellent

husband

one

158.

157,
a

to

husband

anywhere prescribed

v., 162.

after the

chaste, reaches

death

of

heaven,

her

husband
"
"

Manu

v., 16a
"

In

reward

of such

thoughts,speech, and

conduct, a female who


actions, gains

in

controls

this life

her

highest

Widowhood.
and

renown,

burn

followingare

wife

and

dies

of

Agnihotra, and

"

with

house

own

Manu

Manu

in

the

others

sacred

conducts

the sacred

:
"

law, shall
herself

fires used

funeral, given the

before

him, he

having

taken

dunng

the

thus

for the

may

sacred

fires to

again,and

marry

wife, he

dwell

must

period of

second

his

in

life.
"

should

the

or

in mind
is

of

heavenly bliss with

the

she be

faithful to him

only placewhere

she

taught
and,

in
can

her

him

according

heaven

to

it,

in

the

woman

next

and

independentof

the

to

husband, where

thought, word
be

mention

not

that

other

no

mansion

shares

do

Manu

borne

there

laws

code

Apastamba, Asvalayana

than

be

seat

The

compiled.

older

ceased
detom
cus-

the

priesthoodafter

the

schools of

their

on

evidently a

was

pyre

by

was

popular belief

hell.

widower

fires."
(nuptial)

invented
of

band."*
hus-

the sacrificialimplements."

husband's

than

the

self-immolation of widows

The

her

near

167-169.

v.t

*It

in
who

caste

with

at the

the

And

....

his

him,

dies

kindle

versed

equal

thus

his wife who

again

place

the rules for

man,

before

Having

world

next

v., 166.

twice-born

"A

"

the

Manu

"

The

in

73

she

world

if

deed.

The

him

is in

High-CasteHindu

The

74
neither

does the code

Vishnu

which

is
"

that

woman

funeral

the

after the death

of

pile

those who
so-called

life

ascend

or

husband."

her

Vishnu

"

the terrible custom

invented

Suttee,which

authoritynext

As

did

producing
natural

fears

silence the

such

the

themselves

priestssaid

let these

with

thus

widow

should

there

overcome

well

as

refuse to

as

allow

strong authority.
was

according to

text

their

in

own

the
dering
ren-

"

not

women,

to be

widowed, good wives,

collyrium,holding clarified butter,consign

to the

fire !

bandless,well adorned
fire whose

the

necessityof

would

horrid rite without

reads

adorned

of

critic who

Rig-veda which

"Om!

which

text

some

sanction

not

the

the priestssaw
sacrifice,

limely
sub-

the greatest

Manu

the Vedas

to

of

of the

regardedas

was

meritorious act

So

of her husband

virtuous

of

says,

difficult to ascertain the motives

It is very

the

code

2.

xxv.,

this

The

of Mantu

comparativelyrecent,

eithei;lead

should

Woman.

Immortal,

with

originalelement

gems,

not

not
childless,

let them

is water.'*

pass

hus-

into the

The

76
herself

High- Caste

and, holding Kusha


from

on

rightpalm, scattered

her

of

such

such

may

meet

Arundhati,and

one,

sojourn

of my

husband,

my

"hi-m the

with

there

facilities of

Indra

regionsof

he

have

killed

ever

laws of

gratitudeand truth,or

ascend

this funeral

guardiansof

you,

air,of

moon,

and

his funeral

side upon

his

of

passage

the

them

that

criminals

that

the

for

with

horse

the
her

were

which

earthlyservice?"
The

act

husband, and
the

was

couch

sick and

of

the
I do

Now
I

call upon

world, of
the

flame

stm,

water,

you,

Day,

beloved,by
tbatt the

it wonderful

pile.' Is

lord's

broken

Death, and

of

fourteen

to my

that I die for my

Sati to her

that
public festival,

touch

given

slain his friend.

King

Yama,

enjoy

maternal

the

fire,the ether, the earth and

the

witness
Twilight,

and

Night

my

upon

may

Brahman,

lord's line ; that

through

eight regionsof

the

soul.

own

my

pile of

bless my

be

may

hairs

the

as

of my
far

go

pardon

that
,

whether

sins

may

fire,that

that the years

Svarga ;

many

those

day I, such

in the

heaven, and

and

praisedby Apsarasas, I

as

this

multiplied,that

scores

many

paternalancestors,

and

be

grains,and then,

' on

Om

reside in

may

bright garments,

hand, sipped water

family,die

"

Tila

some

looking eastward, quietlysaid,


and

left

The

men.

and

new

in her

grass

and

described

bathed, put

"widow

Woman.

gods

is thus

rite of Suttee

"The

the

please

to

Hindu

was

Hke"

prayed her

sorrowful

a,

to

fearless,conquering fraud,
little,

let loose

if she

carried her

was

looked
never

(". Arnold.)

supposed to

upon
used

tfrem,

agaJfc

,'',','

be

altogetJw#

Widowhood.

voluntary one,
many

cases.

than

death

happy

believed
be

happy

afterwards

miseries
lot

the

the

escape

as
or

to

the fearful altar ;


of

heat

escape

late.

They

which
other

must
men

the

pyre.

did

than

they

taken

had

be

at

hand
In

the

to

sins and
their
tion
ambi-

pure

they

their
from

tried

feel the

leap

to

the terrible fate ; but

never
were

again,

often shrank

sooner

flames

and

down
too

the

the

on

fall to

from

and

died,

others

would

die,very
no

obtain

impulse,declared

momentary

thus

intentions

thus

who

should

monuments

temptations,and

Those

widows.

had

they

to

inscribed

they knew

their

they

they

and

family gods ;

which

for

Some

were

names

stronger

because

that

who

those

thousand

from

heart

hereafter.

to

list of

long

World, but

for tombstones

erected

love

because

in

so

was

cherished

not

all the

great renown,
were

this

it

for the

they
died

in

with

made

died

which

Some

doubt

no

Some

husbands.
been

and

77

it

was

oath

solemn

broken, priests and


to

force them

Bengal, where

to

this

mount
re-

cus-

The

78
torn

High-CasteHindu

practice,countless,fearful

in

most

was

Woman.

after

tragediesof

this

occurred
description

British rule

was

tian
long established there, Chris-

missionaries

the government
petitioned

abolish this inhuman


told that
the

the

custom, but

social and

people constituted

of the

The

be

custom

from

man

Mohun

Roy,
that it

as

on

the

set
was

his
not

face

He

the noble

government

to abolish it.

moral

many

of
co-operation

at

last in

clared
de-

the Veda

the wickedness

succeeded

the

wrote

by

Ram

againstit,and

sanctioned

he
friends,

thick, when

the

until

Hindus, Raja

subject,
showing

act, and with

interference."

present century, when

claimed.
priests

this

such

unmolested

the

among

of

that their rule in India

on

first quarter of the

were

part of the business

no

endangered by
went

they

to

religiouscustoms

government, and

might

even

books
of the
few

getting the

Lord William

Ben*

of India, had
Governor-general
courage

to enact

the famous

law

of

the Suttee rite within British


1829,prohibiting

domains,and

holdingas criminals,
subjectto

Widowhood.

79

capitalpunishment, those
it.

But

had

any

That

it

effect upon
the

quoted

text

the

known

and

greatlydiffers from

without
that

the

know

"The
"so

shows

sanctioned

the

Many

repeat them

the

the texts

they

Max

says

earliest

Grihya-sutras,the

wife
to

Rig-veda,and
and to return

ordered

Indian

of the

Rigin

accompanies

the funeral

she is there addressed with

not

contained

ceremonial

the Vedic

dows,
wi-

of

was

periodof

hymns

verse

to

to the world

peat
re-

Muller,

this custom

the

those

indeed, are

few

clearlythat
during

Ve-

Sanskrit,

enforcing the burning

corpse of her husband

the

The
of

and

meaning*of

According to
rhitfto*7*
veto* md

Brahmans

Veda.

by heart

Rig-veda,"

far from

was

the later form.

mistake, but

Veda

all

oldest form

is the

language

Vedas

minds.

the

had

of the

meaning

the

^aw

part of it forged,could

dic

know

Hindu

from

easily shown

been

countenanced

1844 that ^e

orthodox

mistranslated,and
have

until

not

was

who

the

pile,but

taken

from

leave

band
her hus-

of the

living."

The

8o

world

of

whose

life is gone.

life,thou

fulfilled the
who

Come

"This

duties of

is

verse

the

later

readingof

the

is

the

word,

hast

band,
the hus-

to

and

made

the

very

have

Brahmans
of their
is

verse

thee

reading, in
of

The

tenet

all

doubt, for

our

sense

of

Rig-veda. Besides,
and

commentaries

nowhere

verse

falsified and

cruel

beyond

in the whole

the

and

hand

thy

various

no

have

we

wife

him

unto

Thou

us.

precededby

quoted in support

there

to

the

to

"

mother.'

which

sleepestnigh

took

once

Woman.

said,'come

it is

"'Rise, woman,'

thus

Hindu

High- Caste

is there

the

any

ials,
ceremon-

difference to

the

text

the other
and
the

its

or

who

women

who

meaning.

have

are

to

is addressed

It

present

pour

at the

oil and

to

ral,
fune-

butter

on

pile
.

these

u"May
but

have

and

butter.

up

are

good husbands, draw

first to

sorrow,

who

women

but

These
the

who

are

with

fine

near

mothers

altar,without

decked

not

tears,

widows,
with

oil

may

go

wi

'n
jewels,

Widowhood.
It

the

unscrupulouspriestsmanaged

Those

who

know

the

with

their

fancy dictated and

religionthey

thousand

the

has

than

more

been

thinking that

text
pre-

of
two

state

the will

law

the

the

delivered from
little do

terriblefate; but

of

the

Hindu

hand

of

they realize

of affairs!

Provinces,women
6

cause

as

good people feel

except
Throughout I^dia,
era

it

the

the

the

partlyby

i" their minds,

itfcte
iWe

cusable
ex-

comparing the

been

have

many
empire, is prohibited,

widow

not

are

Suttee-rite,
partlyby

people and

of the

the

years.

that

Now

all that

under

thus

lives for

destroyingcountless

the

they translated

its context,

verse

can

of

error

Instead of

in the least.

of

for

permitted the

priestswho

characters

carelessness

copyist,but

or

verse.

falsification very

the

that

change

to

whole

the

Sanskrit

the

likely originatedin
transcriber

of

meaning

easily understand

easy

a
by falsifying
single syllablethat

was

entirelythe

Her

are

in the Northwest-

put

to

the

severest

Hindu
High-Caste

The

82

trial

The

which

in

manner

them

be

to

does
of

the

die than

The

have

crueltyof

here.

Among

about

the

every

fortnight Some

have

glossy

does
hair

not

with

generously decorated
woman

thinks

it

worse

her

hardly know

the

the

castes,

shaving

tating
pride in imi*

What

woman

death

fourteen

of soft

has

nature

head?

reason

stop

regularly

the wealth

than

things

Deccan

of

much

which

the

of

not

lower

custom

love

beautiful "hair. Girls of


who

the

high-castebrethren.

is there who
and

of

of

this

adopted

heads, and

their

sooner

deprived

does

be shaved

must

ments
orna-

their persons.

on

or

Brahmans

of all widows

widows'

of

of all the

social customs

heads

too, have

petty

no

they are

and

up

pels
com-

own

silver ornament,

bright-colored
garments,
to

their

to

lovers
passionate

and

gold

they love

death.

brought

are

but
self-adornment,

of

husband

every

they

slaves

little interests,
to be
and

husband*

their earliest childhood

treated from

and

the

imaginable after

Woman.

Hindu

to lose

and

why

so

he^:

fifteen/

they

are

The

84

her in abusive
There

is

Woman.

High-CasteHindu
language at

scarcelya day

opportunity.

every

life

of her

which

on

cursed

'she is not

in-law

gives vent

language

There

way.

be

looked
as

time

were

this
In

is

fear she
the

bring disgraceupon

rule,
tion
addi-

always

improperact.

may

to

tiful garments

her

on

less attractive to
to

ling

her

sacred
which

eat

more

to

to

or

The

purpose

once

from

eye.
a

not

bright,bew-

is to render her,

person,

man's

than

abstain

days, is

ornaments

put

at

family by

her by shaving her head,by


disfiguring

allowing her

her

possible

every

widow

young

widow's

many.

prisoner,for

committing some
of

not

into

and closely
guarded
suspicion,

with

upon

if she

any

this,the

all

burns

exceptionsto
are

mother-

young

in

intolerable

may

cause

grief by using such

short, the

but, unhappily,they
to

The

heard,

once

In

life is rendered

her

to

as, when

heart

human

people as th^

friend* s death.

their beloved

of

these

by

Not

allowing

day, and compel-'

food

ott
altogether

by
part of the discipline

mortify her youthful nature

and

$""

Widowhood.
sire.

is

She

85

closelyconfined

forbidden

even

friends

often

with

associate

to

to

the

house,

her

female
"

as

(who
or

see

social

few

but

of

hope, empty

and

has

husband

to

unable

are

take

to

parentallove.
with

her.

she lives in

of

care

if his

her, do,

custom

stronger hold

pleasureand

sympathizewith

sympathizewith her, but


faith have

every

relatives,or

no

tute
then, desti-

curse

society at large. She

to

persons

allowed

a
intolerable,

parents,with whom

own

sins
aunt-cou-

literaryknowledge,

least

the

life

Her

advantage,becomes

herself

her

and

her.

speak with

of all

void

except

man

no

are
regardedas brothers)

are

it is of

as

to

as

father,brother,uncles

her

to

wishes ;

she

Her

her

relatives

of course,

religious

and

upon

case

has

them

than

ter
They, too, regard their daugh-

concern,

lest she

bring disgraceupon

their family.
It is not

widow
mind
the

an

without

and

uncommon

thing

occupation that

heart,and

unable

for
may

young

satisfy

longer to endure

to which
and suspicions
slights

she is per-

The

86

Hindu
Higfb-Caste

to
petuallysubjected,

home.
where

shall she
of

even

by

has

She
which

for

her

on

wears

her

stare

the

but

honest

an

any

living.

single garment
Starvation

person.
the

in

face ;

no

ray

hope penetrates her densely-darkenedmind.

What

life of

is the

cruel,cruel

by

prayer

misery,which
sisters*

It

Zenana

missionary,one
can

written

the

Hindu

widowhood

bitter

than

by

read and

tasted

pupil of

write,and
and
her

and

her

words

of

own

any

one

Here

life-long

to

of the few

sorrows

from

fate.

will describe her

Oh,

sands
drives thou-

doomed

woman

mine.

who

such

to

worse

shame.

and
that

custom

feelingsbetter
was

suicide or,

infamy

widows

of young

alternative before

only

is either to commit

still,
accept

The

do?

she

can

her

is

make

she may

death

her

have

completely ignorant of

nothing

she

and
of

which

it,

respectablefamily,

caste, will

is

She

prisonfrom

gets away

No

go?

her

from

escape
she

lower

servant

art

when

But

Woman.

British

Hindu

who

men
wo-

has

$f
degradation,

childhood,
"

Widowhood.
"Oh
the

on

Lord, hear

my

oppression

that

weeping,

and

our

case.

art

the

his

"0

some

have

only

wilt

impotence,our

our

Lord, inquire into


has brooded

over

of dust it rises and


in
in

Bruised

of the

upon

us,

above

and

hear

and

round,

us

when

the

has

inquire into

below,

but

Thou

complaint, Thou
"

dishonor.
dark

ages

and

we

cloud

and

ied
bur-

strength to

no

like

are

rance
igno-

like prisoners

are

choked

have

the

husks

dry

juice has

sweet

all

one

spirits; like

we

beaten, we

eye

to

No

nor

For

minds

our

and

turned

us.

our

case.

custom, and

sugar-cane

save

mouldering house,

dust of

the

have

degradation,our

our

wraps

old and

an

out

go

look

an

suffer,though with

women

would

one

who

has turned

one

desire,we

searched

One

No

poor

eyelids to

We

knowest

we

crying and

sides,hoping that
lifted up

prayer!

87

been

tracted.
ex-

All-knowing God,
sins and

give us

of

Thy

free from

this

live in this

world.
For

flows,but it

From

Thy

not

reach

does

comes
misery, only injustice

"Thou

hearer

but
Thee, forgive,

is.

Must

too

ignorant to

the

with
we
are

are

the
not.

happier than

world.

They

were

if

prayer,

we

know
with
very

are

us

too

not

for

born

in

set

born

to

life-long

sinned

have

we

it is"

they

be

tice
judgment jus-

this,our

ignorantto

thing
some-

us.

drunkards, with
animals

we

been

of

; in

see

may

we

of sin fall

what

forgiveour

shall

have

as

know

know

against
what

those

on

who

great Lord,

lunatics,with

they

Criminals,confined
we,

we

throne

near

punishment

is written

name

of

that

sin

what

prayer

Father, when

prison?

our

of escape,

power

jail?

hear

are

in the

not

are
our

beciles,
im-

ble,
responsi-

jailsfor life,
of

Thy

have

not

something

prison,but

sin

we

The

88
for
to

day, no,

one

it is

us

world, we

us, who

works

may

in this

has

Or

the

Why

are, that

we

in

the

and
a

The

cannot

think

remember

bear

our

hard

we

are

our

longer

be

mercy,

we

Thee

from

the

men

Hindu

entitled "The

is

of

of the

Century,

Widow,

quote from

to

for

God

curse

saved

is
we
selves,
our-

of
may,

in

lives may

our

joys

"

which

Create

gentleman contributes
Hindu

Almighty

killed

the

India.

victim

us,

have

us

longing, that

something

even

God

this,that
of

heard
our

save

than
forts
com-

mercy,

Lord,

sympathy, that

some

taste

in the

upon

Thy

men
wo-

other

oppressed is

killing ourselves.

women

passed in vain
may

upon

us

female?
us

justice? O

us.

still
to

hearts of the

of

for

us?
Thou

Dost

share

look

lot; many

prayer

removed

Thou

sea, and

and
mercy,

canst

doors

Thy

shut

of the

born

created

and

make

some

cry

for

Shall

been

us?

male
to

have

house.

thought

us

power

might

too

Unapproachable,

vast

be

not

Then

world.

hosts,and

created

but

to know

learn

not

made

no

have

dying.

are

god

who

have

Thou

Thou

Hast

Thou

of this life?

here, and

other

Thou

hast

We

the

seen

Thee,

of the

India?

world, hast

men

Almighty,hast
we

died

Those

possible to

four walls
or

Thy world

having

not

understand

to

is not

perchance, some

only for

care

have
of

Father

"O

learn

the world,

jail,we

; and

Thee, its maker.

only the

see

Woman.

dreams, seen

our

name

in, it

shut

call them

we

but

know

We

in

even

cannot

are

Thee.

not

nothing

Thy

seen

Hindu

Caste
Hig/i-

the
no

by Thy

of life."

,an

article

Th"

teenth
Nine-

this a$

te$i"

'

WidowJwod.
from

mony

of my

the other sex, of the

statement,lest

sister-widows

The

life under

the

knows

comfort

no

roof

from

there

Hindus,
if

call it her
has

if she
is made

she

clothes
a

coarse

had

on, but

white

English

neither the
our

think
and

cursed

death

the

hatred

it.

for

and
If

Among

husband

she

not
can-

belongs to

her

son,

to inherit

nobody
him

all her
on

cannot

widow's

it she

property

bare

ance
allow-

widow

save

is burnt

dies she

wife

for

paternalproperty, and

give

when

proaches.
unjust re-

corpse

in

is covered

cloth, and there is little ceremony

at

funeral

"'The

in

$ven

For
indignities.

with
her

him.

her

arrangements of the

her wealth

heir, and

she*

sisters-in-law.

and

of age, and herself live

comes

and

only receives

has

whole

from

slave, and

and

if she

and

adopt an

to

granted by
the

All

own.

any,

directlyhe

from

like

property by her

is left any

my

then

to meet

looks

inherit any

cannot

women

widow

unkind

work

is blamed

widow

family the

only

has

disorder in the domestic

any

is

She

mother-in-law

her

her

to pass

father-in-law,and

drudgery she

of all her

which

to
"

her

to

aggerate
ex-

for life :

whatever.

has

She

abhorrence

of

to

appear

parents has

no

relations

late husband's

reward

has

who

truthfulness

condition

doomed

are

widow

should

the miserable

"

89

abolished

have

English

nor

the

houses, and the Hindus


it

well

good I*

m%ht

Such
she

were

Sati

angels
not

words
'

what

know

only

the

exclaim, that

but
(Suttee),

do

goes

not

of

alas!

care,
a

neither tiie

on

but

widow;

English

angels know,

the

nor

think

care, but

for her

barbarous

to be

their

to

mortal,

realize them.

of

course

the

One

lot must

widow's

is

'the

even

or

it

can

be

their

the

thousand

times
It is

doubt

no

widows

times many

pyres of their dead

this

she

practice
know

how

widow
her

"

is added
her

own

is

miserable

themselves

DEVENDIRA

the

death

drove

feelingthat

says),

continuous

the

to

any

hard

receives from

than

"

widow

the

humiliations

Hindu

to immolate

husbands

contrary,

widows

easilyimagine

welcome

more

the

Hindu

when

To

sisters and

own
on

angels,'(as

....

friends.

of the

perfectlyimpossiblefor

gallingill-treatmentwhich
and

them,

consider the

self-inflictionsand
fastings,

relations

ledge
fair know-

horrors

; nay,

salutary. Only

evils and

Hindus

orthodox

the

sufferings
;

own

the

can

among

manner

have

vouch

the widows

victimizes

ruthless

and

good

other

which

so

majorityof

the

sufferingsof

only don't

not

I am,

as

few Hindus

to know

custom

Hindus

for Hindu

'

that very

actual

daughters in

that the

and

good

still care

fewer

and

it

statement

of the

Woman.

High-CasteHindu

The

go

tence.
exis-

former

in

on

the funeral

N,

teenth
DAS, Nine-

Century,September,1886.

There

is

they will

class of reformers who


all the wants

meet

of widows

tablishingthe re-marriagesystem.
tern

should

benefit
marry

time

of
on

certainlybe
the

infant

coming

it should

to

think that

This

introduced

widows

who

age ; but at

be remembered

by

es*

$ys^

for

tfye

wish

to

the

same

that this alptte

The

92

and

their friends

their

tears

in

maids

if

of

resist these
to

be

preparedto
marrying

or

world

they

would

the

on

be

to

established
a

man

to

some

are

with

they
to

would
to

were

people

fall in distress

dailybread

and
are

hated

in

this tremendous

The

by people who

customs

is

few

of all

there

endured

cut

give

ever

their

by,

so

After

be

to

be

relatives. In such

altar of conscience?

in

must

societyand friends,

earn

make

burden.

wish

men

sure

Hindu

ridiculed
many

who

blood

flesh and

If

their nearest

be

How

men.

caste

widow

unable

will

they

the idea

perpetualmartyrdom.

assistance if

become

and

convictions,
they

faithful

no

case

them

suffer

with

even

offer money

Can

temptations?

with

give up

to

widow*

all connection

off from
and

consent

to their

true

others

eyes,

them

relatives entreat

they will

marrying

Woman.

Hindu

High-Caste

the

fice
sacrition
persecu-

transgress

comes
great that life beyears

ago

high-

Cutch, (Northwestern
tured
venIndia,)

marry

which
persecution

widow, but

ensued,

was

to

endure

the

beyond his

Widowhood.

power,

found

the

and

fellow

wretched

it

be

at

all

sufferer's

of the

of

ending

taken
with

away
none

her

with

miseries

from
to

help

her,
her.

So

lot

high-caste widow

available, nor

not

gation
miti-

poor,

less
help-

desirable, as

times

in

remains

after

soon

was

suicide.

dead, having committed

Re-marriage, therefore, is
would

93

the

the
the
as

one

chance

Suttee
in

ages

rite

past

The

94

CHAPTER
HOW

VI.

OF

CONDITION

THE

have

done

state

of

THOSE; who
in

anything to
Hindu

the

nonsenses

nation.
which

and
forced

been

complete dependence

generous

the

that this has

women

have

broad

the

science

many

have

and

countries

have

the

rance
igno-

already

day-lightof
been

found

example o/

as

in

keeping women

into

noble

hundreds

brought forward

are

and
civilization,

all,the
in

the

over

dependence. They

fieryproofof

Above

I pass

for

out

keep

to

of
the present degradation

do with

strongest reasons

best

their

vehemently deny
ignorance,

and

of

TEI^LS

WOMEN

SOCIETY.

UPON

women

Woman.

High- Caste Hindu

put

to

wanting.

thousands

burned

of
the

Condition of Women
so-called

ashes.

to

reasons

still hoveringover

are

and

are

to

duty

death.

hope

that

us

all these

body

and

put forth

to

the

suffered

not

their

women,

of

God's
forever

it is

our

best endeavors

our

India's

our

from

in

the

to

daughters,aye,

spiteof

the

that

they

brethren

degradationof
betrays but

condition

own

in

meanwhile

also ; because

assertions

proud

rant
igno-

into serious consideration,

glad day for


sons

the

devils shall be

the matter

for her

have

Let

ghosts

of the Hindus
and

to take

hasten

and

the land
timid

of India's

out

their

But

frighteningthe

good time,
cast

upon Society.95

too

plainlythe contrary.
Since

men

and

by Providence
body

of human

each
society,

confess it
the

all

or

not.

In the animal

vegetablekingdom,

nature

as

they
well

which

they

were

they

cannot

will

as

demands

livingbeings shall freelycomply


or

same

suffer when

must

whether
suffer,

of growth
cppiditions
that

the

of

-members

as

their fellow-members

united
indissolubly

are

women

with

in

that

its

become

designed to
originally

The

96
be.
be

should

Why

to

the

drink

in

their

and

lives

of

weaker

crushed
spirits

and
prejudices
starved from
of

under

the

absolute lack of

out

calculation,
they

the welfare

much
neighbors,

being.
be

come
be-

^minds
and

Thus

hundred, at
to

grow

of their

be

selfish

ferent
indifinterests,

immediate

own

to their nation's well-

more

could

How

their

world.

of

slaves to their petty individual


to

to

social

food
literary

opportunityto 9bserve the

least

portunit
op-

dwarfed,

weight of

and
superstitions,

in ninety cases
fettered,
the

the

generationto

from

generation,their physical statures


their

house,

sunshine,they

wholesome

weaker

their

healthy fresh air,or

breathe

the

of

walls

four

Closely

women?

purdah

deprived throughout
to

this law

exceptionto

any

the

for

made

confined

Woman.

Hindu
High-Caste

these

imprisonedmothers

expected to bring forth children better thap

themselves,for
shall

around

the
us

as

the

fruit be.
in

deservingthat

India

tree

and

soil are,

Consequentlywe
a

exalted

of
generation

men

appellation.

see

so

all

Condition
The

doctrine

nowhere

be

India.
and

of Women

mind

mother's
well

as

and

monotony

pre-natalinfluence'1

spirits
being depressed,
body weakened

as

men

of Hindustan

suck

from

the mother's

is unable

owing

and

present

her utter

to

and

born
un-

when

not

babes,

breast,true patriotism,

developethat

condition

with
Fault-finding
towards

do

boyhood,the mother,poor

to

them

the

by

escape the evil consequences.

The

in their

In

of her life,the
inactivity

child cannot

and

can

satisfactorily
proved than

more

The

"

of

upon Society.97

divine

faculty in

ignoranceof
of

woman,

the past

native

her

land.

neighbors,bitter feelings

expressedin

tyrant relatives

words

actions,selfish interest in personal and

these
family affairs,

learn

children

babyhood

up

at

to

the chief lessons that

are

mother's

the

the seventh

or

knee, from

eighth year

of

age.

Again, how

does

it

come

succeedinggenerationgrows
one

precedingit,if
each

of
7

not

to pass

that each

weaker

than the

because

lack
generation

the

the

tors
progeni-

mental

and

children

physicalstrengthwhich
The

inherit?

to

healthy in mind,

the

mother

not

was

well

as

bequeathed the

fatal

dullness

children.

them

to

her

of

women

upon

dependent,and
their

sons

some

other

The

as

mission
completesubHindu

of

one

any

thus

it has

years

and

nation,and

converted

altogether

depend

upon

themselves.

upon

have

telling
upon
men,

borne

the

Hindu

been

in

and

these

to

death if

die

of

fatally

physicalhealth of

last times

poisonousfruit that

nation

the

the mothers

graduallyand

the mental

and

upon

are

to pass that

come

not

has

law

They

be

race, desire to

ignoranceforced

nation

our

to

and

seclusion,complete dependence and

absolute

the

of weakness

creatures.
slavery-loving

lean

glad to

has

the

milleniums

body, bnt

undoubtedly

The

under

lapseof
into

legacy

free

been

in

as

she

destined

are

have

father may

and

in the

Woman.

High-CasteHindu

The

98

will

miserable

timelyremedy

they have

compel the
and

is not

longed
pro-

taken

them.

Moreover

the

Hindu

woman's

ignorance

but
do

can

Having
of

and loving mother


intelligent

an

for

her

bring to

the

work
all-important

this

children at that

age?

thus far endeavored


Western

to

condition

the

women

class of their oriental

I now
sisters,

direct

to
definitely

their attention

needs.

After

and

many

years

thought,I

have

women

are

;
71

:
"

3rd, Native

"

law-giverto keep

them

to

human

Women
than

their

to the

tion
observasion
conclu-

Hindu
high-caste

state of

men

women

are

pendence
completede-

requiredby

from

lives makes

*have

it

impossiblefor
which

pitifulparasite.

working classes are

their sistersof

the

birth to the

without
self-reliance,

being becomes
of the

chief

our

Teachers.

Women

The
Self-Reliance.

of

tion
ist, Self-Reliance ; 2nd, Educa-

in which

end

of

of

desire to

of careful
come

that the chief needs

importantperiodof

and
interesting

life. Who

notice

their character at

mould

flueuce is exerted to
this most

Woman.

High-Caste Hindu

The

I oo

high castes

in

better off

India,for

Condition
in many

of Women

they are

cases

themselves,and

obligedto depend

afforded

they largelyprofit

of

their

the

four

time, if they
a

male

in
energy
of

and

indolence

them

false

strengthto

withstand

which

be

on

her

to

hope

must

toward

way

that

will

the
ever

the

may

become

by

or

culties
diffiperson

But

it is idle

my

women
country-

of

improve without

self-reliant?

little

trials and

progress.

with

easily

are

have

and

teach

them,

helplessvictims

encountered

sisters to

Western

e.

self-reliance and

self-reliance; therefore,is it not


our

after-

cruelly cropped

so

condition

In

do

to

timiditythey

of their wits

in
with-

for

care

what

been

have

up

protector,i.

know

dead within

are

house.

early days that

their

out
frightened

jo

not

They

themselves.

their

support and

relative to

do
they literally

shut

are

left without

are

which

by

actually destitute

are

keep them,
walls of

them

high-castewomen,

But

families

to

means

upon

opportunityfor cultivating

an

self-reliance is thus

unless

upon Society. 101

them

individual
the

duty

how

of

they

the

of India

women

lack of education among

The

Education."

IL

1883, and

for

thousand

the

and

women

of

returns

census

seven

girlsdirectly

rule, ninety-nineand

British

under

mission
Com-

the Educational

ninety-ninemillion

the

Of

1880-81.

fairlyrealized by

be

can

scanning the report of

hundred

Woman.

Hindu
HigJi-Caste

The

102

one-half

millions

are

write ; the
who

returned

and

seven

short time she


to

read

the

metic
than

the

four

nmntz"

able
of

or

the

than

third

the

the

two

vernacular

read

or

write

government

are

arith^
more

be

membered
re-

thousand
the

u#/-

schools,mission

schools,
privateschools conducted
of India

no

It should

hundred

that

ability

little knowledge of

simple rules.

to

school-

within

usually comprehends

that
women

age ;

acquireslittle more

second

which

of

years

and
reading-book,

the

girl is generallybetween

nine

thousand

write,cannot

or

educated,for

as

going period of

read

and

read

to

hundred

two

either to

reckoned

all be

as

remaining

able

are

unable

by

the

habitant
in-

independently,
privatesocie-

Condition of Women
ties and

mission

Zenana

together.

agenciesall

how
surprising

It is

of

number

upon Society. 103

women

when
knowledge indicated,

and

Girls of nine
and

school

off from

is

popular

belief

that

their husbands

read

or

The

should

hand,

fear of

it

It

house.

husband's

high-castewomen

their

in

pen

widow

they should

if

die

will

becoming

is

in the

read

to

cut

hold

girl to

or

among

hold

of

wholly

are

or

woman

of others in her

presence

India.

recently out

marriage

in her

the

incessantly

writing,because

young

book

or

paper

in

reading or
for

shame

when

ten

given

are

education in

female

fightingagainst

ited
lim-

consider

we

that
principalities

and

powers

this small

even

acquired the

have

can

reckoned

fingers.
their

overcomes

and

hunger
the

enough
,;marid

'

to

$eea

to

the

knowledge.

get

but

self-culture;

any

little wives

devote
'

thirst for
can

possess the
time

is in

by her husband's

canno" long

be

desire and
constant

relatives.

kept

Moreover

scanty time

secret

to

fortunate

one

able to
fear
Her

'

of

com-

being

employ-

where

every

Woman.

High-CasteHindu

The

IO4
is

on

she

is

ridiculed,
laughed at and

interfered with

her

by

alas,such

Our

schools,too,
the

teachers

of

primary schools,

to these schools that

sent),are

but

how

to

children,
who
girls
or

third

make

have

the

standard

as

and

in

most

engage

primary

world

or

an

and

in newspaper

have

little

thingsaround

own

the

they find

important events

dailyoccurringin their

of

get
quicklyto for-

the

they
book-reading,
common

for
interesting

these

as

from

to
ability

knowledgeof
of the

soon

do not

up to the second

it their business

destitute of the
useful

usually

great many

(grade)in

opportunity. Shut

no

lessons

been educated

their lessons

and

girlsare

nominallyeducated,and

Consequentlya

schools make

elders be

attractive to

very

(and it is

know

an

extremely rare.

are

not

are

at

now

the

sense.
non-

progressive
husban^;

husbands

but

children ;

leave off this

proceedingsof

the

unless

manded
com-

even

pursuitsare
literary

Her

end

elders to

the

by

discovered

when

lookout,and

the

one

or

them,

that

are

lands.
foreign

Condition

of Women

upon Society.105

selfish
Ignorant,unpatriotic,
the

they drag

abyss where

dark

hope, without
do

down

men

///. Native

English
doing

and
respect1

to be

but

the

and

of

to

can

and

elevate

some

are

hundred

rule to whom
under
America

these

are

unfriendlyclimate,

to

must

Hindu
and

in

it exceedingly

enter

their

upon

reachingIndia

among

be added
and

the

nearly
British

under

women

few

thousand

several millions

Mahommedan

England

Hindu

; and

many?"

so

among

lost
literally

millions of

they toil,

elevation

an

after

time

heart-felt

we

hear

rule.
aging
encour-

which
reportsfrom mission fields,
that

are

enlighten

the

tongue make

unknown

an

then, "what

In

and

American

"

praisefrom all,and

disabilitiesof

for

more

to

missionaries

Zenana

as

difficult for them

one

something or

Teachers.

of those for whose

thanks

They

into the

daughters. These good peopledeserve

India's

work

them

the world.

Women

they

uncultivated,

they dwell togetherwithout

women

all

with

ambition

something in

and

and

state

Mahommedan

and

women

schools

Woman,

High-CasteHindu

The

io6

in their

or

homes, but these

own

as

nothing, compared to the

of

the

female

creed, we

national

general spread

of

through

women,

the

of their

men

All

past historyof mankind

efforts for the elevation of


from

within

The

and

work

nation

outward

is

themselves
to teach

who

own

race

that

shown
must

to be

come

effectual.

by precept

countrywomen*

and

make

it their

the

women

among

body of persons from


shall

among

thing needful,therefore,
for

one

India

of the

experiencein

has

general diffusion
of education
in

tenets

knowledge

useful

through foreignwomen.

or

of

seclusion

scarcelyhope for

can

either

In

Hindustan.
the

and

castes

seem

multitude

vast

regarded as essential

are

women

populationof

where

country

in

being instructed

girls are

among

life-work

example their fellow-

people rank

caste

they have
for

been

in

kept

perceptionand

make

will

them

is not

inherited

have

ness
degree,quick-

of

bestowed
them

upon

competent

That

workers.

by

little

this statement

visionaryon
altogether

proven

still are

and

A
intelligence*

many

able

teachers and

has been

certain

judiciouseducation

and

care

race

The

years.

been

have

ignorance,yet they

from their fathers to


of

cultivated

thousand

two

of these castes

women

intelligent
;

most

refined and

than

more

the

as

India,the high-

of

inhabitants

the

Among

Woman.

Hindu

High-Caste

The

io8

my

part,

results
gratifying

the

of

in the person of Chandramukhi


careful training

A.,

Bose, M.

now

of
lady principal

Kadambini
School,Calcutta,
M.

B., and

also others

passedtheir
The

B.

who

examinations

of
professors

Bethune

Ganguli,B, A.,

have

successfully

in the Calcutta University,


the Woman's

cal
Medi-

will bear testimony


Collegeof Pennsylvania
to the

Had

would

of
ability

her
have

the late Dr. Anandibai

life been

shown

spareda

Joshee*

littlelongershe

to the world

that the Hin~

The
du

woman,

any

woman

in

spiteof

all drawbacks

the

to

were

in India

and

thirty thousand

equals

these

thousand

hundred

one

of age,

years

nine

Under

years

nine

dred
hun-

and

ages

six hundred

were

1881

hundred

six

all

of

of

census

twenty million

twenty-six widows,
Among

109

of civilized countries.

Again, according
there

Appeal.

and

widows

and
castes.

sixty-nine

under

teen
nine-

viz. :
78,97$

of age

From

10

to

14 years

of age.

From

15 to

19 years

of age.

207,388
382,736
669,100

and

Girls of nine
age,

betrothed

whose

and

virgin widows,
must
families,

Now

if there

where
be

were

young

or

thirteen

husbands

are

these, if

of

years

of

dead, are

high-caste

singlethroughoutlife.

suitable educational institutions


widows

who

might

their relatives and

livingfor themselves, might

instructed in
for

remain

of
independent

honest

ten,

wish

make
go

to
an

to be

useful handiwork, and educated

teachers,
many

horrid

occurrences

might

and
prevented,

be

would

Miss

India,with

find

condition in

by

means

at

for
that

girlsin

period, and

the

British

would

upon

her return
founded

the

might

for

gested
sug-

should

womentraining

be awarded

prolong their school-going

assist

indigentwomen,

to Miss

to

end

She

should
scholarships

response

which

that

government

otherwise be unable
In

by

iu

country might be

zenanas.

schools

order to

tour

by furnishingwomen-

Hindu

to

way

the desired

the

teachers and that

some

short

discovered

which

establish normal

that

once

accomplishedwas

teachers

to

to

cation.
edu-

Englishlady,

eminent

1866,an

improved. She
chief

receive shelter and

can

view

India where

in

Carpenter,made

Mary

women's

institutions have

anywhere

widows
high-caste

In the year

blessingto their

alas !

But

these widows

time

same

welcome

founded

been

not

the

at

prove

countrywomen.

be

Woman.

Hindu
Tfie High-Caste

1 10

to

pursue

who

their studies.

Carpenter's
appeal

England,the

British government

several schools for

women

in

The

India,and
"

in

Appeal.
of

honor

this

in

good lady

"
Mary Carpenterscholarships

by benevolent
I

have

of

undoubtedly been
ized the

them,
of the

of

hopes of

and

partlyon

of

are

thrown
to

out

this

to

as

scarcelyenough

to

value

its money
to

twenty

she cannot

the

or

in

cases

kind

in

her

being

normal

from

from

educational

even

this

finds
vation,
star-

twelve

twenty-five dollars per year

get

ture
crea-

she is

studentshipshe
keep

is

she

so

If then

tfe sheltered

to go

receive any

alone.

is awarded

school and

herself

relatives ;

own

the world

face

When

hope, except
rare, to

in

inadequacy

forlorn
helpless,
penniless,

fortunate

so

her

of the

it upon

takes

extremely

real-*

caste-rules

for attendance.

cannot

help from

not

founder,partlybecause

account

arrangements

to

they have

have

of keeping
impossibility

school,she

which

they

use,

their

high-castewidow
to

opened

while

caste, and

every

which

schools

personallyinspected,were

women

of the

endowed

were

These

persons.

few

; but

scanty support from

department, unless

she

pass

certain examination.

widow

hope

How

"are

of which

at

?
schools for

normal

the

present time, there

mission
foreign*

few

woman

find

may

but

if she

and

of

be

shelter
orthodox

an

to this

Hindu

caste

statement,but

knows

that

she must

will

on

no

strange

of
exceptions

are

as

be

and

embrace

any

religionin

induced

it appear

to

rule,a high-

to

this .alternative.
to live

goes

lose caste,and

forsake her

strange
which
to

violate her

shelter. That

she

others

ancestral
No

one.

by faith,

that

studytheir Bible,and perhapsin

end

would

Hindu

if she

missionaries she must

where

instruction,

death
prefers

woman

She
with

and

refugewith people of

and country. There


religion
course

schools

family,she
respectable

take

account

to

illiterate

an

probably$ix throughoutall India,there

are

and

can

pass that examination

to

Besides these government


women,

Woman.

High-Caste Hindu

The

1 1 2

woman

the

faith
of

ther
firmlybelieves wheto

be

conscience
the fear of

for
abjureone's religion

true

or

simplyfor

false,
food

being tempted

the sake of

worldly

The

gain

should

widow

from

AppeaC.

prevent many

going

is undoubted.

intolerable

she

herself in

drown

which

deed

she

wretchedness
will

be

to

eternal

these

which

would

of

way

to

removed,

and

in order to
of India

succor

ing
educatof

none

her
the

path?
course

widows

the

in

general,may

be

opened for

be

and
stated

"

should

shelter without

to

ly
advantageous-

most

can

high-castechild-widows

caste, or

her

Can

be

judgment

religion

helping and

they
in my

cured,
se-

come.

from

can

heaven

doom

removed

I. Houses

take

no

past sins

ancestral

be

women

and

her

obstacles

follows

as

place in

high-castewidows?

be taken
the

forsake

her

by
the

only escape

life,but
a

misery

sacred river

some

perditionin the world

Is there then

Yes

this

domestic

by

not

circumstances

any

these

will

forgiven,and
but

under

of

Hindu

that if her

honestlybelieves

life is rendered
can

excellent

an

foreignmissionaryschools

to

She

113

of

the

where

fear of

being disturbed

the young

in

they

can"

losing their

their

religious

1 1

The

Woman.

High-Caste Hindu

belief and where


of action

as

they

have

may

relates to

dom
entire free-

such
caste-rules,

cooking of food,etc,, providedthey


violate the rules

house wherein
order

II. In

and

disturb

or

taken

theyhave

help them

to

these houses
and

nurses

to

to

and
housekeepers,

their taste and

These

houses

ladies and

pledged to

seek its

an

able
honor-

make

of

should become

cording
hand-work,ac-

capacity.

should

be

under

house

the

of influential

gentlemen,who
each

be

should

happy

be

home

opportunities.

The

ladies as

services of

assistants and

in order to

Western

American
well-qualified
teachers should be

afford the

houses the combined

V.

the

instructive institutionfor those who

an

IV.

of

teachers,
esses,
govern-

and management
superintendence

and

not

up their abode.
make

be

skilled in other forms

Hindu

do

independentliving,
they should

taught in

III.

the peace

as

cured
se-

occupants of the

advantageof Eastern

and

civilizationand education.

Libraries

the
containing

best books

on

1 1

High-Caste

The

beginning,I
God,

who

resolved to try,

am

need

the

knows

either

them
For

good words

silentlyignore

help to

carry

not

of

pecuniaryaid.

ridicule the
There

it.

would

who

them

or

with

reason

gentlemen concerning this

they only

it

gettingfrom

the present it is useless to

high-casteHindu
matter

or

forward

education

there is littlehope of my

women,

to

ing
becountry-people

bitterly
opposedto the

most

women,
country-

my

in

succeed

whether

of my
great "majority

The

of

trustingthat

able workers

will raise up
this cause,

Woman.

Hindu

proposal or
some

are

and

certainlyapprove

the

into

idea

must

first realize its

good

results.

One

performing miracles

among

but
effect,

advantages and

must
to

would

have

they
its

see

the power

induce

this

of

class of

receive the

to

men

wellgospelof society's

being through the elevation of


a

miracle

have faith

in India
ten

will

years,

prove

and

Such*

woman.

to believe will be

before the

end

of

if this be true, the

after
self-supporting

the

formed
pernext

enterprise

that

period

The
with

only native

handful

of

ideas who

is

social customs

who

will,without

from

the

reform

to

beginning;

but

the

they

the

Hindustan, and

of

doubt, support

forward

now

even

entertainingprogressive

doing all they can

are

to

117

There

aid.

Hindus

and
religious

which

Appeal.

have

work

my

little with

except their personal

cause

services.

institution of the kind

An
the

be

pupilsmust

be founded

and

all
to

good

their

they

may

it is my

years;
most

sacred

of

land
highly-favored

whatever

kind

to

they

make

those who

this

I invite

belief

may

way

about

that

who

bestow

States

whatever

period of

those

this educational
to

solemn

duty

flourishing

of the United

men

for

Therefore

in
help liberally

able

be

foreign

cannot
services,

kept in

money.

and

women

give me

their

afterwards

condition without

the

supported and

paid for
liberally

teachers

indicated,where

ten

it is the

dwell

in

this

freelytalents

of

ward
possess*to help forI venture

movement

appeal because

believe

regardthe preachingof

the

that

gospel

The

1 18

of

High-Caste Hindu

Lord Jesus Christ

our

importantas
millions

lives will deem

for the

by throwingopen
zenanas,

without

the locked

which

Mothers
of your

and

the

you

at
darlings

on

in

can

tormentors.

walls of

widows

and

the

the condition
your

India,who

the

sides
happyfire-

are

then

of

already
an

human
in-

ask yourselves

stop short of doingsomething


from

Millions of

dailyrisingfrom
Indian

have

unholy altar

the littlewidows

rescue

are

bear the

to

persecution.

social custom, and

cries

men,
wo-

that of millions of littlegirls


of

'been sacrificed

their

safely
the

to

world

fathers,
compare

correspondingage

to

done

able

outer

of social

sweet

own

with

whether

be

be

gospel

doors of the Indian

cannot

whereby they will

dazzlinglight of

the

spread of

giving suitable education

perilousblasts

valuable

of

it of the first importanceto

the way

prepare

so

accomplishment

hundreds

and

of money

heathen

the

to

in its

spend

to

Woman.

zenanas;

the hands of

heart-rending

within

the stony

thousands of child-

annually dying without

ray

of

The

hope

cheer

to

Appeal.

their

weight of

sin and

their ruin

crushed

shame,

under

with

by providingfor

fearful

to

one

no

them

sands
thou-

other

hearts,and

daily being

are

1 1

vent
pre-

better

way.

Will
think

of

moved

from

beg

these,my

by

cry

countrywomen,

and

impulse, to

free

who

life-long
slaveryand
you, friends and

compassion for
of India's

reach
name

this

common

all
philanthropists,
or

read

not, all of you

you

your

of

infernal

have

who

any

ears

and

stir your
the

the

of

America,

it

to

you,

true

In

of your

manity, and, above all,in


summon

and

interest in

hearts.

name

most
women

misery?

daughters,feeble though

humanity, in

them

let
fellow-creatures,

your

in the

God,

rise,

educators
benefactors,

workers
as
responsibilities

of

book/

cause

the

be,
the

sacred
of hu-'

holy
and

name
men

gardless
borEoj^^mrhelp quickly,re-

of natiggftcaste