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You are on page 1of 6

For

single

ended

operation,

if

Vdd

changes by V, o/p also

changes by the same

amountO/P is quite

susceptible to supply

noise

Diff operation: If the ckt

is symmetric, supply

noise affects Vx and Vy

but NOT Vx-Vy.

Differential amplifiers

Dr Sreehari Rao Patri

ECE DEPARTMENT NITW

NITW

A single-ended signal:

measured w.r.t. a fixed

potentialgnd

Differential

signal:

measured between two

nodes that have equal and

opposite excursions around

a fixed potential

Clock is distributed in

differential form on 2

lines.

With perfect

SYMMETRY, the

components of CK and

coupled to signal

line gets cancelled

must also exhibit equal

impedances

to

that

potential.

The center potential in

differential signaling is called

COMMON MODE level

Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department

NITW

sensitive signals:

Higher

immunity

to

ENVIRONMENTAL noise.

2 adjacent lines in a ckt carry a

small, sensitive signal and large clock

waveform

Due to cap coupling between lines,

transitions on L2 corrupt the signal

on line L1.

If the sensitive signal is distributed

as equal and opposite phases, with

clk line placed mid way between the

two, the transitions disturb the

differential phases

by equal

amounts leaving the difference

intact

The CM level of the two phases is

disturbed

but diff o/p is NOT

CORRUPTED.

This arrangement REJECTS CM

noise.

Dr Sreehari

Rao Patri ECE Department

NITW

NITW

Max achievable voltage swings increase

Max o/p swing at X or Y is VDD-(VGS-VTH)

Where as Vx-Vy is 2[VDD-(VGS-VTH)]

Disadv: double the area w.r.t single ended

counterpart

3

NITW

11/14/2013

conclusions

Because of symmetry, it is possible to REJECT

the common mode signal

If the SAME thing happens at both the inputs,

corresponding output: CM response

If the input is differential and output is also

differential, CM effect is subtracted

NITW

experience a large CM disturbance

or simply do not have a well

defined CM level?

As Vin,CM changes, so do the bias

currents of of M1 and M2 varies

both transconductances of the

devices and the O/P CM level

Variation of trans conductance

leads to a change in small-signal

gain

while the departure of the O/P CM

level LOWERS MAX ALLOWABLE

O/P-SWINGS

Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department

NITW

10

E.g. if I/P CM level is

excessively low, the MIN

values if vin1 and vin2 may

in fact TURN OFF M1 and

M2 leads to severe

clipping at the O/P

Conclusion:

It

is

important that the bias

currents of the devices

have

MINIMAL

dependence on the I/P

CM level.

INDEPENDENTLY

vi1 gives vo1

INDEPENDENTLY, it appears as

if vi1 when applied gives an O/P

in which some vi2 is also amplified

Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department

NITW

NITW

11

DIFF signal

If vo1-vo2 is taken CM signal is subtracted

gain should be high and independent of input

common mode voltage, whereas the common

mode gain should be as low as possible.

The common mode rejection ratio is defined as

will appear in o/p !

currents, and hence the differential gain, will

depend on the common mode voltage.

This is not a desirable feature as we would like a

good difference amplifier to ignore the common

mode voltage and to amplify just the difference

signal.

CM signal

NITW

NITW

12

11/14/2013

Diff amp

arrange them adjacent and lift the sources by

current source

This makes it to function INDEPENDENT of bias

current

Current source acts as bias provider

Biasing ckt has NO EFFECT on ckt performance

since it is CM signal

It is of NO CONSEQUENCE even if the current

source is NON-IDEAL

i.e. even if the current source is replaced by R, it

has no effect on differential mode operation

This is very IMPORTANT IMPORTANT

FULLY diff amp by the

structure

If Vi1=Vi2=Vc,

Vp=Vc-VGS

Current in both arms is SAME

irrespective of CM voltage

due to symmetry

Vc

Vout

Vp

CONSTANT

VGS

CONSTANT

ID

Dr Sreehari

Rao Patri ECE Department

CONSTANT

NITW

NITW

13

16

Any variation in Vc should change current ID but current

source keeps it constant

Is/2

Voltage across current source should adjust to maintain

current

VP should change in response to Vc keeps VGS constant

In turn, ID is kept constant at Is/2

Individual outputs are REJECTING CM input changes

NO transmission of CM info from i/p to o/p

Fantastic idea!

Ckt has immense value in IC

Can always be used to REJECT CM signal and SELECT

DIFFERENTIAL mode signal.

Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department

NITW

14

signal

No IDIOT should use single structure in IC

This exhibits excellent PSRRy

Problem lies in making how to make the ckt SYMMETRIC

It is an art!

Spending more time in making symmetric is meaningful

Front-end of any system should be DIFFERENTIAL

E.g. common man rejection at the entrance of a party by a

watchman

It is IMPORTANT for the first stage to REJECT CM signal than

amplification

If amplification is going to suffer due to CM rejection, DO IT!

Subsequent stages can concentrate on amplification

O/p stage should worry to drive loadno amplification

Rao Patri

Department

If noise appears as CM,Dr Sreehari

signal

asECE

differential,

SNR is improved17

NITW

=

for vi1=V, vi2= -V

E.g. consider a complex n/w with

common resistor

If vi1 changes by V,

For

differential

signal, above ckt

Vp changes by V

boils down to 2

vi2 changes by -V; Vp changes by V

single

stage

Net voltage or current change across R

is ZERO

structures

at node P, V=0; I=0

For CM signal, ckt

It is either open circuit or short circuit

O/P is IND of CM

Conclusion: For differential signal,

variations

node P is grounded

NITW

15

Ad=differential gain =

Ac= CM gain=

! /$

! /$

% &!

/$

'( /$

Otherwise even quasi diff amp gives Ac=0 for

differential o/p

Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department

NITW

18

11/14/2013

Calculation

of Ad

Common

mode gain

be applied

CM i/p is of no

consequence

Vc= (Vi1+Vi2)/2

Net i/p at G1=Vc+Vid/2

Net i/p at G2=Vc-Vid/2

NITW

source to be NON-ideal

Apply only CM input

As Vc increases, current

thru M1 Io/2+ I

Current thru M2 Io/2+ I

Current thru ro is 2.I

Voltage across ro is ro. 2.I

Since CM input is of NO

consequence, ckt can be

viewed as

Differential current is

I1-I2=2I

If Vid=0, net current is

Io/2-Io/2=0

NITW

NITW

19

22

It can be viewed as if I

is flowing thru 2ro

still I1-I2 = 0

NITW

20

23

CMRR calc..contd..

(&*

) ,

considered as

= ./ 0

Load resistance is of no

consequence in the

calculation of CMRR

=

Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department

NITW

21

&*

1

, 2

*

&*

3

, 2

*

, 2

*

NITW

24

11/14/2013

NITW

NITW

25

LOAD

28

ENDED O/P

It is difficult to fix up

the bias voltage

NITW

NITW

26

Qualitative analysis

NITW

29

27

+

If Vin1 is much more negative than

Vin2, M1 is OFF M2 is ON; ID2=Iss

Vout1=VDD

Vout2=VDD-RDISS

As Vin1 is brought closer to Vin2;

M1 turns gradually ON

Draws afraction of ISS and lowers

Vout1

Since ID1+ID2=ISS, ID2decreases and

Vout2 raises

For Vin1=Vin2, Vout1=Vout2= VDDRDISS/2

As Vin1 becomes more +ve, M1

carries greater current than M2

Vout1 drops below Vout2

For sufficiently large Vin1-Vin2, M1

hogs all of ISS turns off M2

Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department

NITW

30

11/14/2013

Observations

Max and min levels at the o/p: well defined:

VDD and VDD-RDISS and IND of i/p CM level

Small signal gain (slope of Vout1-Vout2 Vs

Vin1-Vin2) is MAX for Vin1=Vin2; gradually

falls to 0 as 4561 4562 increases

ckt becomes NON-linear as i/p swing

increases

For Vin1=Vin2, ckt is in EQUILLIBRIUM

Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department

NITW

31

raises further?

Since Vout1 andVout2 are

relatively constant, M1

and M2 enter triode

region if

4 ,'( > 4 ; + 4 <

=4== >= ?@@ 2 + 4 <

This sets an upper limit on

the i/p CM level

Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department

NITW

34

CM level

variations on the operation of M1 and M2 and o/p

level

Does it mean that Vin,CM can assume ANY arbitrarily

low or high values?

Set Vin1=Vin2=Vin,CM; Vary Vin,CM from 0 to VDD

Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department

NITW

32

Once tail current source enters sat (Vin,CM= V1) ,

gain becomes constant

As Vin,CM further increases, (Vin,CM= V2) driving tsts

enter linear region gain falls

Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department

NITW

35

of the diff amp be?

For M1 and M2 to be

saturated, each o/p can go

as high as VDD

But as low as appxly Vin,CMVth

i.e. higher the Vin,Cm level,

SMALLER the o/p voltage

swing

It is desirable to choose

relatively low Vin,CM

But preceding stage may

not provide such level easily

M3 is in deep triode region (sicne Vb>0)

ID1=ID2=0, Vout1=Vout2=VDD NO amplification

As Vin,CM >Vth , M1,M2 turn ON

Beyond this point, ID1,ID2 continue to increase, VP also

increases

M1 and M2 constitute source follower VP tracks Vin,CM

For sufficiently large Vin,CM VDS3 > OD of M3 M3 will be

driven to sat

Now total current thru M1 and M2 remains constant

Conclusion: for proper operation, Vin,CMVGS!+(VGS2-Vth3)

Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department

NITW

33

NITW

36

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