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11/14/2013

Noisy supply voltages


For
single
ended
operation,
if
Vdd
changes by V, o/p also
changes by the same
amountO/P is quite
susceptible to supply
noise
Diff operation: If the ckt
is symmetric, supply
noise affects Vx and Vy
but NOT Vx-Vy.

Differential amplifiers
Dr Sreehari Rao Patri
ECE DEPARTMENT NITW

Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department


NITW

Single ended Vs Differential signal

Differential distribution for NOISY lines

A single-ended signal:
measured w.r.t. a fixed
potentialgnd
Differential
signal:
measured between two
nodes that have equal and
opposite excursions around
a fixed potential

Clock is distributed in
differential form on 2
lines.
With perfect
SYMMETRY, the
components of CK and
coupled to signal
line gets cancelled

Strictly speaking the 2 nodes


must also exhibit equal
impedances
to
that
potential.
The center potential in
differential signaling is called
COMMON MODE level
Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department
NITW

ADVANTAGES OF DIFFERENTIAL SIGNALING

Employing differential paths for


sensitive signals:
Higher
immunity
to
ENVIRONMENTAL noise.
2 adjacent lines in a ckt carry a
small, sensitive signal and large clock
waveform
Due to cap coupling between lines,
transitions on L2 corrupt the signal
on line L1.
If the sensitive signal is distributed
as equal and opposite phases, with
clk line placed mid way between the
two, the transitions disturb the
differential phases
by equal
amounts leaving the difference
intact
The CM level of the two phases is
disturbed
but diff o/p is NOT
CORRUPTED.
This arrangement REJECTS CM
noise.
Dr Sreehari
Rao Patri ECE Department
NITW

Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department


NITW

Advantages of diff signaling contd..


Max achievable voltage swings increase
Max o/p swing at X or Y is VDD-(VGS-VTH)
Where as Vx-Vy is 2[VDD-(VGS-VTH)]

Simpler biasing and higher linearity


Disadv: double the area w.r.t single ended
counterpart
3

Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department


NITW

11/14/2013

QUASI DIFF AMP contd..

conclusions
Because of symmetry, it is possible to REJECT
the common mode signal
If the SAME thing happens at both the inputs,
corresponding output: CM response
If the input is differential and output is also
differential, CM effect is subtracted

Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department


NITW

What happens if vi1 and vi2


experience a large CM disturbance
or simply do not have a well
defined CM level?
As Vin,CM changes, so do the bias
currents of of M1 and M2 varies
both transconductances of the
devices and the O/P CM level
Variation of trans conductance
leads to a change in small-signal
gain
while the departure of the O/P CM
level LOWERS MAX ALLOWABLE
O/P-SWINGS
Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department
NITW

10

Quasi differential structure


E.g. if I/P CM level is
excessively low, the MIN
values if vin1 and vin2 may
in fact TURN OFF M1 and
M2 leads to severe
clipping at the O/P
Conclusion:
It
is
important that the bias
currents of the devices
have
MINIMAL
dependence on the I/P
CM level.

Vi1 and vi2 are applied


INDEPENDENTLY
vi1 gives vo1

Though vi1 and vi2 are applied


INDEPENDENTLY, it appears as
if vi1 when applied gives an O/P
in which some vi2 is also amplified
Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department
NITW

Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department


NITW

11

DIFF signal
If vo1-vo2 is taken CM signal is subtracted

For a good difference amplifier, the differential


gain should be high and independent of input
common mode voltage, whereas the common
mode gain should be as low as possible.
The common mode rejection ratio is defined as

If single ended o/p is taken, both CM and DIFF


will appear in o/p !

In the simple suggested circuit, transistor


currents, and hence the differential gain, will
depend on the common mode voltage.
This is not a desirable feature as we would like a
good difference amplifier to ignore the common
mode voltage and to amplify just the difference
signal.

CM signal

Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department


NITW

Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department


NITW

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11/14/2013

Diff amp

When ever IC is desired, design 2 CS stages,


arrange them adjacent and lift the sources by
current source
This makes it to function INDEPENDENT of bias
current
Current source acts as bias provider
Biasing ckt has NO EFFECT on ckt performance
since it is CM signal
It is of NO CONSEQUENCE even if the current
source is NON-IDEAL
i.e. even if the current source is replaced by R, it
has no effect on differential mode operation
This is very IMPORTANT IMPORTANT

A quasi diff amp can be made


FULLY diff amp by the
structure
If Vi1=Vi2=Vc,
Vp=Vc-VGS
Current in both arms is SAME
irrespective of CM voltage
due to symmetry
Vc
Vout

Vp
CONSTANT

VGS
CONSTANT

ID

Dr Sreehari
Rao Patri ECE Department
CONSTANT
NITW

Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department


NITW

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16

Significance of diff amp


Any variation in Vc should change current ID but current
source keeps it constant
Is/2
Voltage across current source should adjust to maintain
current
VP should change in response to Vc keeps VGS constant
In turn, ID is kept constant at Is/2
Individual outputs are REJECTING CM input changes
NO transmission of CM info from i/p to o/p
Fantastic idea!
Ckt has immense value in IC
Can always be used to REJECT CM signal and SELECT
DIFFERENTIAL mode signal.
Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department
NITW

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NO coupling exists for power supply variations since it is CM


signal
No IDIOT should use single structure in IC
This exhibits excellent PSRRy
Problem lies in making how to make the ckt SYMMETRIC
It is an art!
Spending more time in making symmetric is meaningful
Front-end of any system should be DIFFERENTIAL
E.g. common man rejection at the entrance of a party by a
watchman
It is IMPORTANT for the first stage to REJECT CM signal than
amplification
If amplification is going to suffer due to CM rejection, DO IT!
Subsequent stages can concentrate on amplification
O/p stage should worry to drive loadno amplification
Rao Patri
Department
If noise appears as CM,Dr Sreehari
signal
asECE
differential,
SNR is improved17
NITW

COMMON MODE REJECTION RATIO

=
for vi1=V, vi2= -V
E.g. consider a complex n/w with
common resistor
If vi1 changes by V,

For
differential
signal, above ckt
Vp changes by V
boils down to 2
vi2 changes by -V; Vp changes by V
single
stage
Net voltage or current change across R
is ZERO
structures
at node P, V=0; I=0
For CM signal, ckt
It is either open circuit or short circuit
O/P is IND of CM
Conclusion: For differential signal,
variations
node P is grounded

Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department


NITW

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Ad=differential gain =
Ac= CM gain=

! /$
! /$

% &!
/$
'( /$

There is no point in taking differential o/p


Otherwise even quasi diff amp gives Ac=0 for
differential o/p
Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department
NITW

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11/14/2013

Calculation
of Ad

Common
mode gain

Let some differential i/p


be applied
CM i/p is of no
consequence
Vc= (Vi1+Vi2)/2
Net i/p at G1=Vc+Vid/2
Net i/p at G2=Vc-Vid/2

Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department


NITW

Consider the current


source to be NON-ideal
Apply only CM input
As Vc increases, current
thru M1 Io/2+ I
Current thru M2 Io/2+ I
Current thru ro is 2.I
Voltage across ro is ro. 2.I

Since CM input is of NO
consequence, ckt can be
viewed as
Differential current is

I1-I2=2I
If Vid=0, net current is
Io/2-Io/2=0

Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department


NITW

Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department


NITW

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22

It can be viewed as if I
is flowing thru 2ro
still I1-I2 = 0

Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department


NITW

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23

CMRR calc..contd..

(&*

) ,

This ckt can be


considered as

= ./ 0
Load resistance is of no
consequence in the
calculation of CMRR

=
Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department
NITW

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&*

1
, 2
*

&*
3

, 2
*
, 2
*

Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department


NITW

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11/14/2013

CALCULATION OF DIFF CURRENT

DIFFERENTIAL AMP WITH MOS LOAD

Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department


NITW

Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department


NITW

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DIFF AMP WITH CURRENT SOURCE


LOAD

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CONVERSION OF DIFF TO SINGLE


ENDED O/P

It is difficult to fix up
the bias voltage

Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department


NITW

Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department


NITW

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Qualitative analysis

Current mirror bias

Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department


NITW

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Let Vin1-Vin2 be varied from - to


+
If Vin1 is much more negative than
Vin2, M1 is OFF M2 is ON; ID2=Iss
Vout1=VDD
Vout2=VDD-RDISS
As Vin1 is brought closer to Vin2;
M1 turns gradually ON
Draws afraction of ISS and lowers
Vout1
Since ID1+ID2=ISS, ID2decreases and
Vout2 raises
For Vin1=Vin2, Vout1=Vout2= VDDRDISS/2
As Vin1 becomes more +ve, M1
carries greater current than M2
Vout1 drops below Vout2
For sufficiently large Vin1-Vin2, M1
hogs all of ISS turns off M2
Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department
NITW

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11/14/2013

Observations
Max and min levels at the o/p: well defined:
VDD and VDD-RDISS and IND of i/p CM level
Small signal gain (slope of Vout1-Vout2 Vs
Vin1-Vin2) is MAX for Vin1=Vin2; gradually
falls to 0 as 4561 4562 increases
ckt becomes NON-linear as i/p swing
increases
For Vin1=Vin2, ckt is in EQUILLIBRIUM
Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department
NITW

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What happens if Vin,CM


raises further?
Since Vout1 andVout2 are
relatively constant, M1
and M2 enter triode
region if
4 ,'( > 4 ; + 4 <
=4== >= ?@@ 2 + 4 <
This sets an upper limit on
the i/p CM level
Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department
NITW

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Plot of small-signal diff gain against i/p


CM level

Role of tail current source is to suppress i/p CM level


variations on the operation of M1 and M2 and o/p
level
Does it mean that Vin,CM can assume ANY arbitrarily
low or high values?
Set Vin1=Vin2=Vin,CM; Vary Vin,CM from 0 to VDD
Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department
NITW

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As Vin,CM > Vth, diff gain increases


Once tail current source enters sat (Vin,CM= V1) ,
gain becomes constant
As Vin,CM further increases, (Vin,CM= V2) driving tsts
enter linear region gain falls
Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department
NITW

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How large can the o/p voltage swings


of the diff amp be?

For M1 and M2 to be
saturated, each o/p can go
as high as VDD
But as low as appxly Vin,CMVth
i.e. higher the Vin,Cm level,
SMALLER the o/p voltage
swing
It is desirable to choose
relatively low Vin,CM
But preceding stage may
not provide such level easily

When Vin,CM=0, M1,M2 are OFF ID3=0


M3 is in deep triode region (sicne Vb>0)
ID1=ID2=0, Vout1=Vout2=VDD NO amplification
As Vin,CM >Vth , M1,M2 turn ON
Beyond this point, ID1,ID2 continue to increase, VP also
increases
M1 and M2 constitute source follower VP tracks Vin,CM
For sufficiently large Vin,CM VDS3 > OD of M3 M3 will be
driven to sat
Now total current thru M1 and M2 remains constant
Conclusion: for proper operation, Vin,CMVGS!+(VGS2-Vth3)
Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department
NITW

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Dr Sreehari Rao Patri ECE Department


NITW

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