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ITEM NO.

: CONSTRUCTION OF TRANSPORTATION
FACILITIES
THE MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY STANDARDS FOR
CONSTRUCTION HAVE BEEN COMPILED FOR DESIGN
PROFESSIONALS INVOLVED IN CREATING CONSTRUCTION
DOCUMENTS. THEY REFLECT THE PLANNING,
CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE EXPERIENCE OF
PERSONS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE UNIVERSITY FACILITIES.
THESE STANDARDS
FOR DESIGN AND
CONSTRUCTION OF
FACILITIES AND
INFRASTRUCTURE AT MSU
ARE INTENDED TO
ACHIEVE QUALITY
STRUCTURES AND
SYSTEMS OF MAXIMUM
UTILITY, THEREBY
REQUIRING MINIMAL
MAINTENANCE, OPERATING EXPENSE AND PRUDENT USE
OF ENERGY. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF
TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES," INCLUDES INFORMATION
FROM RESEARCH PREPARED TO "PROVIDE GUIDANCE TO
FINANCIAL SPONSORS SUCH AS GOVERNMENTAL
AGENCIES, RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS, INDUSTRY, THE
ACADEMIC COMMUNITY AND OTHERS IN ALLOCATING
SCARCE FUNDS AND MANPOWER TO THE SOLUTION OF
TRANSPORTATION PROBLEMS." SOME OF THIS
INFORMATION IS INCLUDED IN THIS ARTICLE: GEOMETRIC

DESIGN FOR IMPAIRED DRIVER, DEVELOPMENT OF A


ROADSIDE SAFETY TORT LIABILITY DATA BANK, AND
PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR TRUCK MOUNTED
ATTENUATORS

ITEM NO.

: CONSTRUCTION OF RAILWAY TRACK

NOTWITHSTANDING MODERN TECHNICAL


DEVELOPMENTS, THE OVERWHELMINGLY DOMINANT
TRACK FORM WORLDWIDE
CONSISTS OF FLAT-BOTTOM
STEEL RAILS SUPPORTED ON
TIMBER OR PRE-STRESSED
CONCRETE SLEEPERS, WHICH
ARE THEMSELVES LAID ON
CRUSHED STONE BALLAST.
MOST RAILROADS WITH
HEAVY TRAFFIC USE
CONTINUOUSLY WELDED RAILS SUPPORTED BY SLEEPERS
ATTACHED VIA BASEPLATES THAT SPREAD THE LOAD. A
PLASTIC OR RUBBER PAD IS USUALLY PLACED BETWEEN
THE RAIL AND THE TIEPLATE WHERE CONCRETE
SLEEPERS ARE USED.

ITEM NO.

: DE-VEGETATION & MITIGATION

OLD RAILWAY LINES ARE OFTEN VASTLY


OVERGROWN, AND TREES, SHRUBS AND OTHER DEBRIS
NEED TO BE REMOVED CAREFULLY. VEGETATION IS

REMOVED ONLY WHERE NECESSARY TO


CONSTRUCT, MAINTAIN AND OPERATE
THE RAILWAY IN THE SAFEST
POSSIBLE WAY.
ANY PROTECTED SPECIES LIVING ON
THE RAILWAY CORRIDOR WILL BE
MOVED OR RELOCATED UNDER
SPECIAL LICENCES AND THE UTMOST
CARE IS TAKEN TO PROTECT ENVIRONMENTS
WHICH MAY BE SENSITIVE TO THE IMPACT OF
CONSTRUCTION WORK.

ITEM NO.
WORKS

: THE DESIGN PROCESS & ADVANCE

THE PROJECT OUTLINE DESIGN ESTABLISHES THE


PRINCIPLES OF WHAT WE WANT TO DO. FROM THERE, A
MORE DETAILED DESIGN PROVIDES COMPREHENSIVE
DRAWINGS OF EXACTLY WHAT WILL
BE BUILT
AND HOW THIS WILL BE DONE.
WE THEN CARRY OUT
ADVANCE WORKS, WHICH IS
EVERYTHING THAT HAS TO BE
DONE BEFORE THE PHYSICAL
CONSTRUCTION OF THE
RAILWAY CAN GET UNDERWAY. IN
THE
CASE OF BORDERS RAILWAY, THIS
HAS
INVOLVED DEMOLITIONS, UTILITY DIVERSIONS AND
FILLING IN FORMER MINE WORKS. ITERATIVE DESIGN IS A
DESIGN METHODOLOGY BASED ON A CYCLIC PROCESS

OF PROTOTYPING, TESTING, ANALYZING, AND REFINING A


PRODUCT OR PROCESS. BASED ON THE RESULTS OF
TESTING THE MOST RECENT ITERATION OF A DESIGN,
CHANGES AND REFINEMENTS ARE MADE. THIS PROCESS
IS INTENDED TO ULTIMATELY IMPROVE THE QUALITY AND
FUNCTIONALITY OF A DESIGN.

ITEM NO.

: MOVING HEAVEN AND EARTH

EARTHWORKS ARE OFTEN THE FIRST AND MOST


VISIBLE SIGN THAT THE RAILWAY IS
BEING BUILT. THE GROUND IS
THEN EXCAVATED DOWN.
EMBANKMENTS OR RETAINING
WALLS ARE BUILT EITHER
SIDE OF THE TRACK, USING
EARTH SOURCED FROM
OTHER LOCATIONS WHICH IS
THEN STABILISED OR REENFORCED.
DRAINAGE ALSO NEEDS TO BE CREATED, AS WELL
AS INSTALLING PUMPS, LAYING PIPES, BUILDING
STORAGE TANKS AND BUILDING CULVERTS (DRAINS)
WHICH ALLOW RAINWATER TO FLOW UNDERNEATH, AND
AWAY FROM, THE RAILWAY.

ITEM NO. : WORK TO STRUCTURES

THERE ARE A NUMBER OF


STRUCTURES ALONG THE ROUTE: 137
BRIDGES, 42 NEWLY CONSTRUCTED
AND 95 IN NEED OF
REFURBISHMENT. A VARIETY OF
WORK IS REQUIRED TO EXISTING
BRIDGES IN ORDER TO HELP THEM
COMPLY WITH SAFETY STANDARDS
AND MAKE THEM SUITABLE FOR THE
RAILWAY TO RUN OVER OR UNDER.
WE MAY HAVE TO DEMOLISH AND RE-BUILD SOME
STRUCTURES, INCLUDING THE CREATION OF ENTIRELY
NEW ROADS. HOWEVER, WHERE PARTS OF A BRIDGE
CAN BE RE-USED, WE WILL KEEP THESE IN SITU TO
MINIMISE CONSTRUCTION WORKS AND WE ONLY EVER
REPLACE WHAT IS FAILING OR UNSUITABLE.

ITEM NO. : LAYING THE RAILWAYS


FIRST WE CREATE A RAILWAY FORMATION (THE
FOUNDATION ON WHICH THE RAILWAY LIES). THIS IS
FLATTENED, READY FOR BALLAST TO BE LAID ON TOP.
BALLAST CONSISTS OF LAYERS OF CRUSHED STONE
WHICH FORM THE TRACK BED AND ALSO HELP TO DRAIN
THE RAILWAY.

WE THEN LEVEL AND STABILISE


THIS BALLAST USING SPECIAL
MACHINERY, BEFORE LAYING
SLEEPERS AT PRECISE
INTERVALS ALL THE WAY
ALONG THE ROUTE. THEN
THE TRACKS ARE FINALLY
LAID ON TOP AND FIXED
INTO PLACE. THE GROUND ON
WHICH THE TRACK IS TO BE
LAID IS FIRST PREPARED AND
COMPACTED TO THE REQUIRED STIFFNESS TO ENSURE
THERE ARE NO SOFT SPOTS AND, WHERE APPROPRIATE,
TREATED TO PREVENT THE UPWARD MOVEMENT OF
CLAY-LIKE MATERIAL INTO THE BALLAST .
ITEM NO. : SIGNALLING
RAILWAYS NEED ELECTRICAL POWER FOR SIGNALLING,
POINTS AND OTHER SYSTEMS. WE BRING THIS VIA THE
NEAREST CONNECTION POINTS
ALONG
THE RAILWAY. THIS MEANS
LAYING CABLES IN
SURROUNDING AREAS TO THE
LINE OF ROUTE, AS WELL AS
THE CONSTRUCTION OF
SEVERAL ELECTRICAL
CABINETS.
HOWEVER, WHERE PARTS OF A
BRIDGE CAN BE RE-USED, WE WILL KEEP THESE IN SITU

TO MINIMISE CONSTRUCTION WORKS AND WE ONLY EVER


REPLACE WHAT IS FAILING OR UNSUITABLE.

ITEM NO. : STATIONS


SEVEN NEW STATIONS WILL BE BUILT ALONG THE
BORDERS RAILWAY, SERVING THE SURROUNDING
COMMUNITIES AND CONNECTING THEM TO
OTHER PARTS OF THE SCOTTISH
BORDERS, EDINBURGH AND
MIDLOTHIAN. THE TIME TAKEN
TO CONSTRUCT EACH STATION
WILL DEPEND ON THE SIZE OF
EACH STATION AND ITS CAR
PARK.
FIRSTLY, THE AREA WILL BE
EXCAVATED AND FOUNDATIONS LAID, BEFORE ALL THE
OTHER ITEMS OF THE STATION INFRASTRUCTURE,
INCLUDING PLATFORMS, SHELTERS, TICKET MACHINES,
SIGNS AND CCTV, CAN BE INSTALLED.

ITEM NO. : CONSTRUCTION OF HIGHWAY


WHILE ADOPTION OF COMPETITIVE BIDDING FOR
ROAD AND OTHER CIVIL WORKS HAS BEEN THE NORM IN
MOST COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD, SOME COUNTRIES DO
NOT HAVE A SUFFICIENT INDUSTRY OF INDEPENDENT
CONTRACTORS AND ROAD WORKS ARE MOSTLY DONE BY
FORCE ACCOUNT OR AWARDED TO STATE
CONSTRUCTION AGENCIES ON A NEGOTIATED BASIS.

IN MANY OF THESE
COUNTRIES, NOT
ONLY ARE COST HIGH AND
QUALITY LOW, IT IS
COMMON FOR SUPPLIERS OF
CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS
AND SERVICES TO HAVE
MONOPOLY POWER,
FURTHER INCREASING
INEFFICIENCY AND
LOWERING QUALITY.
HIGHWAY
CONSTRUCTION IS GENERALLY PRECEDED BY DETAILED
SURVEYS AND SUBGRADE PREPARATION. THE METHODS
AND TECHNOLOGY FOR CONSTRUCTING HIGHWAYS HAS
EVOLVED OVER TIME AND BECOME INCREASINGLY
SOPHISTICATED. THIS ADVANCEMENT IN TECHNOLOGY
HAS RAISED THE LEVEL OF SKILL SETS REQUIRED TO
MANAGE HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION .

ITEM NO.

: PREPARATION OF SUB-GRADE

SUB-GRADE ACT AS A CUSHION FOR OTHER LAYERS


I.E. IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE DURABLE ROAD SUB-GRADE
SHOULD BE STRONG. SUB-GRADE IS PROVIDED BY
DIGGING UP THE SUB-SOIL AND THE LEVEL OF THE SUBGRADE IS DECIDED BY SUBTRACTING THE TOTAL
THICKNESS OF THE PAVEMENT FROM THE FINISHED
LEVEL OF THE ROAD PAVEMENT.

THE SUB-GRADE IS
THOROUGHLY COMPACTED
ROLLERS WEIGHING 8
TONNES BY SPRINKLING
WATER ONE NIGHT BEFORE.
LOW SPOTS WHICH
DEVELOP DURING ROLLING
MUST BE MADE UP AND
BROUGHT TO THE GRADES
AS REQUIRED.

BY

ITEM NO. : PREPARATION OF SUB-BASE


ON A WELL COMPACTED SUBGRADE, SPREAD 10 TO 20 CM
SIZE BOULDERS OR BROKEN
STONES, OR OVER BURNT BRICKS
IN LAYERS OF 15 CM THICKNESS
AND TOTAL WIDTH OF THE SUBBASE TO BE KEPT 60 CM WIDER
THAN PAVEMENT WIDTH,
PROJECTING 30 CM ON EACH
SIDE. THE SUB-BASE SHOULD BE COMPACTED BY A
ROLLER TO PROVIDE AN EVEN SURFACE.
IN ROCKY REGIONS THE SUB-GRADES ARE NOT
ROLLED WHEREAS IN REGION OF CLAY SOILS, A LAYER
TO NATURAL SAND, MOORUM OR GRAVEL, IS PROVIDED
OVER SUB-GRADE AND IS DULY PACKED.

ITEM NO. : PREPARATION OF WEARING COARSE

THIS COURSE MAY BE LAID IN ONE OR TWO LAYERS


ACCORDING TO THE TOTAL DESIGNED THICKNESS AND
THE THICKNESS OF EACH
LAYER SHOULD NOT
EXCEED 10 CM. THIS
COMPONENT BEING VERY
IMPORTANT, THE
FOLLOWING STEPS MAY
BE TAKEN
SYSTEMATICALLY.
ON THE PREPARED
SUB-BASE OR DIRECTLY
ON THE SUB-GRADE, AS
THE CASE MAY BE, THE
SPECIFIED MATERIALS OF THE BASE COURSE IS SPREAD
AND PROPER GRADE, THICKNESS AND CROSS SECTIONS
MAINTAINED AS PER DESIGN SHOWN ON THE SUPPLIED
DRAWINGS. A SUBBASE COURSE IS A LAYER DESIGNED
OF CAREFULLY SELECTED MATERIALS THAT IS LOCATED
BETWEEN THE SUBGRADE AND BASE COURSE OF THE
PAVEMENT. THE SUBBASE THICKNESS IS GENERALLY IN
THE RANGE OF 4 TO 16 INCHES.
ITEM NO. : PREPARATION OF SHOULDERS
WHILE CURING THE PAVEMENT SURFACE, PREPARE
THE SHOULDERS BY FILLING EARTH TO THE SPECIFIED
CROSS SLOPE AND COMPACT THEM PROPERLY BY
ROLLING OR BY TAMPING. WIDTH AND THICKNESS OF THE
SHOULDER SHOULD BE AS PER SPECIFICATION.

AFTER PROPERLY
DRYING, THE ROAD
PAVEMENT MAY NOW BE
OPENED TO TRAFFIC,
ENSURING THAT THE
TRAFFIC IS DISTRIBUTED
UNIFORMLY OVER THE FULL
WIDTH OF THE PAVEMENT.
ITEM
NO.
:
LAND
SURVEYING,
INVESTIGATIONS, AND DESIGN ISSUES

OUTDATED REVENUE MAPS FORM


THE BASIS FOR PREPARATION OF
LAND ACQUISITION PLANS. THE
RECORDS ARE OFTEN NOT BEEN
UPDATED FOR A LONG PERIOD
OF TIME.
THERE ARE FREQUENT CHANGES
IN
THE
DESIGNS
AND
ALIGNMENTS
DURING
IMPLEMENTATION STAGE. IN SOME CASES, THERE ARE
DISCREPANCIES IN THE PROJECT COORDINATES AND THE
REFERENCE FRAMES RESULTING IN MISMATCH THEREBY
RESULTING IN REDESIGN OF THE ALIGNMENT.

ITEM NO.

: DELAYED IN LAND ACQUISITION

SINCE ENCUMBRANCE FREE SITE IS NOT MADE


AVAILABLE TO THE CONTRACTORS IN THE INITIAL STAGES
OF THE PROJECT, THE CONTRACTORS DELAY THE

MOBILIZATION AND IN MOST OF THE CASES, THE


CONTRACTORS USE THE MOBILIZATION ADVANCE
ELSEWHERE.
ONE MORE REASON IS
THAT THE EXTENT OF
LAND TO BE ACQUIRED
IS NOT POSSIBLE TO BE
IDENTIFIED BECAUSE OF
THE OUTDATED LAND
RECORDS AND POOR
QUALITY OF DESIGNS.
SOMETIMES
ADDITIONAL LAND
REQUIREMENTS
BECOME NECESSARY TO
TAKE CARE OF THE DESIGNED RIGHT OF WAY. THERE ARE
TWO MOST COMMONLY USED TYPES OF
PAVEMENT SURFACES USED IN HIGHWAY
CONSTRUCTION: HOT-MIX ASPHALT AND PORTLAND
CEMENT CONCRETE. THESE PAVEMENT SURFACE
COURSES PROVIDE A SMOOTH AND SAFE RIDING
SURFACE.
ITEM NO. : CONSTRUCTION AND CONTRACT
MANAGEMENT ISSUES
THE ROLE OF THE INDEPENDENT ENGINEER IS NOT
CLEAR. MANY OF THE EMPLOYERS STAFF AND DOMESTIC
SUPERVISION CONSULTANTS DO NOT HAVE ADEQUATE
KNOWLEDGE/ TO UNDERSTAND THE FIDIC CONDITIONS

OF CONTRACT (BEING FOLLOWED IN MOST OF THE NH


AND STATE HIGHWAYS PROJECTS).
LACK
OF
THE
UNDERSTANDING
BETWEEN
THE EMPLOYERS AND THE
CONTRACTORS THAT SPEEDY
COMPLETION
OF
THE
PROJECTS
IS
TO
BOTH
PARTIES INTEREST.

ITEM NO. :
CONSTRUCTION OF
AIRPORTS
THE FAA DEVELOPS ENGINEERING, DESIGN, AND
CONSTRUCTION STANDARDS FOR CIVIL AIRPORTS,
HELIPORTS, AND SEAPLANE BASES.
THIS
INCLUDES STANDARDS FOR
AIRFIELD PAVEMENT; AIRPORT
LIGHTING, MARKING, SIGNS,
AND OTHER VISUAL AIDS;
SAFETY DURING
CONSTRUCTION; SURVEYING
AND GIS DATA; DEICING, ARFF,
AND OTHER FACILITIES; BIRD
RADAR AND FOREIGN OBJECT DETECTION SYSTEMS; AND
MORE.

ITEM NO. : PREPARATION OF RUNWAY

RUNWAY CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS PRESENT


HAZARDS TO AIRCRAFT AND AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL
OPERATIONS. TO HELP MITIGATE THESE HAZARDS, THE
FAA CREATED AN INITIATIVE TO INCREASE AWARENESS
OF CLOSURES AND
CONSTRUCTION AT
VARIOUS AIRPORTS
ACROSS
THE NATION.
THIS WEBSITE IS
DEDICATED TO HELPING
PILOTS, AIRPORT
AUTHORITIES THAT
SPONSOR
CONSTRUCTION
PROJECTS, AND AIR TRAFFIC MANAGERS AVOID THE
HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH CONSTRUCTION.
HEAVY LOADS ARE CONTINUOUSLY APPLIED TO
PAVEMENT SURFACES, AND THE BASE LAYER ABSORBS
THE MAJORITY OF THESE STRESSES. GENERALLY, THE
BASE COURSE IS CONSTRUCTED WITH AN UNTREATED
CRUSHED AGGREGATE SUCH AS CRUSHED STONE, SLAG,
OR GRAVEL.

ITEM NO. : CONSTRUCTION OF TAXIWAYS


A TAXIWAY IS A PATH FOR AIRCRAFT AT AN AIRPORT
CONNECTING RUNWAYS

WITH APRONS, HANGARS, TERMINALS AND OTHER


FACILITIES. THEY MOSTLY
HAVE A HARD SURFACE SUCH
AS ASPHALT OR CONCRETE,
ALTHOUGH SMALLER GENERAL
AVIATION AIRPORTS
SOMETIMES
USE GRAVELOR GRASS.
BUSY AIRPORTS TYPICALLY
CONSTRUCT HIGHSPEED OR RAPID-EXIT TAXIWAYS TO ALLOW AIRCRAFT TO
LEAVE THE RUNWAY AT HIGHER SPEEDS.

ITEM NO. : CONSTRUCTION OF PORTS


PORTS AND HARBORS ARE ESSENTIAL TO A VITAL
REGIONAL ECONOMY. OUR
MARITIME EXPERTISE SPANS
EARLY ADVISORY WORK AND
FEASIBILITY STUDIES, TO FULL
PROGRAM MANAGEMENT FOR ALL PHASES
OF PORT AND HARBOR PROJECTS.
WE ALSO HAVE IN-DEPTH
KNOWLEDGE OF THE
MACROECONOMIC TRENDS THAT
AFFECT PORT OPERATIONS.
WE WORK CLOSELY WITH OUR CUSTOMERS AND
STAKEHOLDERS TO ENSURE THAT EVERY MARITIME

TERMINAL DELIVEREDEITHER RECONSTRUCTION OR


NEW-BUILDMEETS OR EXCEEDS THEIR EXPECTATIONS.

ITEM NO. : SITE INSTALLATIONS - TECHNICAL


INSTALLATIONS
IN ALL CASES, A PLANT IS NEEDED TO MAINTAIN AND
REPAIR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT, SUCH AS VESSELS,
CRANES ETC. ALSO OFFICES FOR THE CLIENTS STAFF
AND THE
CONTRACTORS OWN
STAFF WITH MEETING
ROOMS WILL BE
INSTALLED.
TELECOMMUNICATION
AND INTERNET
CONNECTIONS ARE
NOWADAYS ESSENTIAL
FOR A SMOOTH
PRODUCTION AND A
PERFORMING QUALITY SYSTEM. SINCE
TELECOMMUNICATION LINES ARE OFTEN NOT AVAILABLE
OR OF INSUFFICIENT QUALITY, DIRECT ACCESS BY
SATELLITE IS NEEDED.
ITEM NO. : AVAILABLE LAND

PORTS WERE CONSTRUCTED IN GEOGRAPHICALLY


FAVORABLE LOCATIONS TO EXPEDITE THE TRANSFER OF
GOODS. ACTIVE DOCKSIDE COMMUNITIES EMERGED AND
THRIVED AS
WATERBORNE TRADE
FLOURISHED.
THE USE OF AVAILABLE
LAND FOR LANDSIDE
FACILITIES
DEVELOPMENT WAS
ACCEPTABLE, MEETING
FEW OBSTACLES
BECAUSE SUCH
EXPANSION WAS IN
THE NAME OF ECONOMIC PROSPERITY.

ITEM NO. : ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS.


THE INCREASED AWARENESS OF
ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
HAS SIGNIFICANTLY INFLUENCED
PORT PLANNING AND
OPERATIONS. THE DREDGING OR
DEEPENING OF CHANNELS TO
MAINTAIN THEIR NAVIGABILITY
INVOLVES REMOVING SEDIMENT,
ROCK, AND DEBRIS FROM THE
CHANNEL BOTTOM. THE BOTTOM
MATERIALS CAN VARY FROM CHANNEL TO CHANNEL,
RANGING FROM ROCK TO SAND TO MUD.

ITEM NO. : VARIES IN LOCATION, PURPOSE AND


CONSTRUCTION
HARBORS VARY IN LOCATION, CONSTRUCTION, AND
PURPOSE. THE INNER HARBOR AREA AT ERIE,
PENNSYLVANIA EXEMPLIFIES A LAKE HARBOR (LAKE ERIE,
TOP). CALIFORNIA'S
CRESCENT CITY HARBOR
IS A COASTAL HARBOR
WITH BREAKWATERS
(PACIFIC OCEAN,
BOTTOM).
THERE ARE OVER
260 COASTAL AND
INLAND PORTS
THROUGHOUT THE
UNITED STATES. THE
STATES OF TEXAS AND
LOUISIANA HAVE THE
MOST COMMERCIAL PORT FACILITIES.
HIGHWAY AND TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERS MUST
MEET MANY SAFETY, SERVICE, AND PERFORMANCE
STANDARDS WHEN DESIGNING HIGHWAYS FOR CERTAIN
SITE TOPOGRAPHY. HIGHWAY GEOMETRIC DESIGN
PRIMARILY REFERS TO THE VISIBLE ELEMENTS OF THE
HIGHWAYS.

ITEM NO.

: HIGHWAY PAVEMENT CONSTRUCTION

THE MATERIALS USED FOR ROADWAY


CONSTRUCTION HAVE PROGRESSED WITH TIME, DATING
BACK TO THE EARLY DAYS OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE.
ADVANCEMENTS IN METHODS WITH WHICH THESE
MATERIALS ARE
CHARACTERIZED AND
APPLIED TO
PAVEMENT
STRUCTURAL DESIGN
HAS ACCOMPANIED
THIS ADVANCEMENT
IN MATERIALS
THERE ARE TWO
MAJOR TYPES OF
PAVEMENT SURFACES
PORTLAND CEMENT
CONCRETE
(PCC) AND HOT-MIX ASPHALT (HMA). UNDERNEATH
THIS WEARING COURSE ARE MATERIAL LAYERS THAT
GIVE STRUCTURAL SUPPORT FOR THE PAVEMENT
SYSTEM. THESE UNDERLYING SURFACES MAY INCLUDE
EITHER THE AGGREGATE BASE AND SUBBASE LAYERS,
OR TREATED BASE AND SUBBASE LAYERS, AND
ADDITIONALLY THE UNDERLYING NATURAL OR TREATED
SUBGRADE. THESE TREATED LAYERS MAY BE CEMENTTREATED, ASPHALT-TREATED, OR LIME-TREATED FOR
ADDITIONAL SUPPORT.

ITEM NO.

: BUS STOPS AND TERMINALS.

WHERE NEW BUS STOP PADS ARE CONSTRUCTED AT


BUS STOPS, BAYS OR OTHER AREAS WHERE A LIFT OR
RAMP IS TO BE DEPLOYED, THEY SHALL HAVE A FIRM,
STABLE SURFACE; A MINIMUM CLEAR LENGTH OF 96
INCHES (MEASURED FROM THE CURB OR VEHICLE
ROADWAY EDGE) AND
A MINIMUM CLEAR
WIDTH OF 60 INCHES
(MEASURED PARALLEL
TO THE VEHICLE
ROADWAY) TO THE
MAXIMUM EXTENT
ALLOWED BY LEGAL
OR SITE CONSTRAINTS;
AND SHALL BE
CONNECTED TO
STREETS, SIDEWALKS
OR PEDESTRIAN PATHS
BY AN ACCESSIBLE ROUTE COMPLYING WITH 4.3 AND 4.4.
THE SLOPEOF THE PAD PARALLEL TO THE ROADWAY
SHALL, TO THE EXTENT PRACTICABLE, BE THE SAME AS
THE ROADWAY. FOR WATER DRAINAGE, A MAXIMUM
SLOPE OF 1:50 (2%) PERPENDICULAR TO THE ROADWAY
IS ALLOWED.
SIGNS THAT ARE SIZED TO THE MAXIMUM
DIMENSIONS PERMITTED UNDER LEGITIMATE LOCAL,
STATE OR FEDERAL REGULATIONS OR ORDINANCES

SHALL BE CONSIDERED IN COMPLIANCE WITH 4.30.2 AND


4.30.3.

ITEM NO.

: PORT FACILITIES CONSTRUCTION

HARBORS VARY IN LOCATION, CONSTRUCTION, AND


PURPOSE. THE INNER HARBOR AREA AT ERIE,
PENNSYLVANIA EXEMPLIFIES A LAKE HARBOR (LAKE ERIE,
TOP). CALIFORNIA'S CRESCENT CITY HARBOR IS A
COASTAL HARBOR WITH BREAKWATERS (PACIFIC OCEAN,
BOTTOM).
ETC.), LIQUID (E.G., PETROLEUM), DRY BULK (E.G.,
GRAIN), AND GENERAL CARGO IN STEEL
CONTAINERS.

THERE ARE OVER


260
COASTAL AND INLAND
PORTS THROUGHOUT
THE UNITED STATES.
THE STATES OF TEXAS
AND LOUISIANA HAVE
THE MOST
COMMERCIAL PORT
FACILITIES. SOME OF
THE LARGEST U.S. PORTS ARE
LOCATED ON INLAND WATERWAYS, INCLUDING HOUSTON
(TEXAS), MOBILE (ALABAMA), NEW ORLEANS
(LOUISIANA), AND PORTLAND (OREGON). THE PORT CITY
FARTHEST FROM THE OCEAN, FAIRMONT, WEST VIRGINIA,

IS 3,355 KILOMETERS (2,085 MILES) VIA AN INLAND


WATERWAY.