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Deutsche Version

Ohm's Law
Calculator and all Formulas
Resistance (ohms), current (amps),
and voltage (volts)
Ohm's Law is the linear proportionality between current and voltage that occurs for
most conductors
of electricity. A graph of voltage against current is a straight line. The gradient is the
resistance.
Practitioners rarely speak of potential difference, when electrical voltage (drop) is
meant. VIR

Electrical voltage=current times resistance "VIR"


Input:
current I

Output:
voltage V

resistance R

ohms

amperes
voltage V

volts
voltage V

volts

volts

resistance R

current I
Reset

ohms

amperes

current I

resistance R
-

amperes

ohms

= reset.
-

Formulas:

V=IRI=V/RR=V/I

The mathematical formulas of Ohm's Law

Ohm's Law can be rewritten in three ways for calculating current,


resistance, and voltage.
If a current I should flow through a resistor R, the voltage V can be
calculated.
First Version of the (voltage) formula:

V=IR

If there is a voltage V across a resistor R, a current I flows through it. I can


be calculated.
Second Version of the (current) formula:

I=V/R

If a current I flows through a resistor, and there is a voltage V across


the resistor. R can be calculated.
Third Version of the (resistance) formula:

R=V/I

All of these variations of the so called "Ohm's Law" are mathematically


equal to one another.
Name
voltage
current
resistance
power

Formula sign
V or E
I
R
P

Unit
volt
ampere (amp)
ohm
watt

Symbol
V
A

What is the formula for electrical current?


When the current is constant:
I = Q / t
I is the current in amps (A)
Q is the electric charge in coulombs (C),
that flows at time duration of t in seconds (s).
Voltage V = current I resistance R
Power P = voltage V current I
In electrical conductors, in which the current and voltage are proportional
to each other, ohm's law apply: V~ I or V I = const.
Constantan wires or other metal wires held at a constant temperature meet
well ohm's law.
"V I = R = const." ist not the law of ohm. It is the definition of the
resistance.

Thereafter, in every point, even with a bent curve, the resistance value can
be calculated.
For many electrical components such as diodes ohm's law does not apply.

"Ohm's Law" has not been invented by Mr. Ohm


"U I = R = const." is not the law of Ohm or Ohm's law. It is the definition of the resistance.
Thereafter, in every point - even with a bent curve - the resistance value can be calculated.
Ohm's law "postulates" following relationship: When a voltage is applied to an object, the
electric
current flowing through it changes the strength proportional to the voltage. In other words, the
electrical resistance, defined as the quotient of voltage and currentis constant, and that is
independent of voltage and current. The name of the law "honors" Georg Simon Ohm, who
could
prove this relationship for some simple electrical conductors as one of the first searchers.
"Ohm's Law" has really not been invented by Ohm.

Tip: Ohm's magic triangle


The magic VIR triangle can be used to calculate all
formulations of ohm's law.
Use a finger to hide the value to be calculated. The other
two values then show
how to do the calculation.

The symbol I or J = Latin: influare, international ampere, and R =


resistance. V = voltage or
electric potential difference, also called voltage drop, or E = electromotive
force (emf = voltage).
Voltage drop calculations - DC / single phase calculation
The voltage drop V in volts (V) is equal to the wire current I in amps (A) times twice
the wire length L in feet (ft) times the wire resistance per 1000 feet R in ohms ( /
kft)
divided by 1000:
Vdrop (V) = Iwire (A) Rwire ()
= Iwire (A) (2 L (ft) Rwire ( / kft) / 1000 (ft / kft))
The voltage drop V in volts (V) is equal to the wire current I in amps (A) times twice
the wire length L in meters (m) times the wire resistance per 1000 meters R in ohms
( / km) divided by 1000:
Vdrop (V) = Iwire (A) Rwire ()
= Iwire (A) (2 L (m) Rwire ( / km) / 1000 (m / km))

If the unit of powerP=IV and of voltageV=IRis


needed,
look for
"The Big Power Formulas":
Calculations: power (watt), voltage, current,
resistance
Some persons think that Georg Simon Ohm calculated the "specific
resistance".
Therefore they think that only the following can be the true ohm's law.
Quantity of resistance

R = resistance
= specific resistance
l = double length of the cable
A = cross section

m
m
mm2

Electrical conductivity (conductance) (sigma) =


1/
Specific electrical resistance (resistivity) (rho) =
1/
Electrical
conductor

Electrical conductivity
Electrical conductance

Electrical resistivity
Specific resistance

silver

= 62 Sm/mm

= 0.0161 Ohmmm/m

copper

= 58 Sm/mm

= 0.0172 Ohmmm/m

gold

= 41 Sm/mm

= 0.0244 Ohmmm/m

aluminium

= 36 Sm/mm

= 0.0277 Ohmmm/m

constantan

= 2.0 Sm/mm

= 0.5000 Ohmmm/m

Difference between electrical resistivity and


electrical conductivity
The conductance in siemens is the reciprocal of the resistance in ohms.

Simply enter the value to the left or the right side.


The calculator works in both directions of the sign.
Electrical conductivity
S m / mm
58

Specific elec. resistance


Ohm mm / m
0.017241

=1/

=1/
siemens S = 1/ or ohm = 1/S

The value of the electrical conductivity (conductance) and the specific


electrical resistance
(resistivity) is a temperature dependent material constant. Mostly it is given
at 20 or 25C.

Resistance R= (l/A) or R=l/(A)

For all conductors the specific resistivity changes with the temperature. In a
limited
temperature range it is approximately linear:
where is the temperature coefficient, T is the temperature and T0 is any
temperature,
such as T0 = 293.15 K = 20C at which the electrical resistivity (T0) is
known.

Cross-sectional area - cross section - slice plane


Now there is the question:
How can we calculate the cross sectional area (slice plane) A
from the wire diameter d and vice versa?
Calculation of the cross section A (slice plane) from diameter d:
r = radius of the wire
d = diameter of the wire
Calculation diameter d from cross section A (slice plane):

Cross section A of the wire in mm2 inserted in this formula gives the
diameter d in mm.

Calculation Round cables and wires:


Diameter to cross section and vice versa
Electric voltage V=IR

(Ohm's law VIR)

Electrical voltage = amperage resistance (Ohm's law)


Please enter two values, the third value will be calculated.

Electric voltage V
Amperage I
Resistance R

volts
amps
ohms

reset

V=IR

I=V/R

Electric power P=IV

R=V/I

(Power law PIV)

Electric power = amperage voltage (Watt's Law)


Please enter two values, the third value will be calculated.

Electric Power P
Amperage I
Voltage V

watts
amps
volts

reset

P=IV

I=P/V

V=P/I

Ohm's law. V=IR, where V is the potential across a circuit element, I is the
current
through it, and R is its resistance. This is not a generally applicable definition of
resistance. It is only applicable to ohmic resistors, those whose resistance R is
constant over the range of interest and V obeys a strictly linear relation to I.
Materials
are said to be ohmic when V depends linearly on R. Metals are ohmic so long as one
holds their temperature constant. But changing the temperature of a metal
changes R
slightly. When the current changes rapidly, as when turning on a light, or when using
AC

sources, slightly non-linear and non-ohmic behavior can be observed. For non-ohmic
resistors, Ris current-dependent and the definition R = dV/dI is far more useful. This
is
sometimes called the dynamic resistance. Solid state devices such as thermistors
are
non-ohmic and non-linear. A thermistor's resistance decreases as it warms up, so its
dynamic resistance is negative. Tunnel diodes and some electrochemical processes
have a complicated I to V curve with a negative resistance region of operation. The
dependence of resistance on current is partly due to the change in the device's
temperature with increasing current, but other subtle processes also contribute to
change in resistance in solid state devices.

Calculation: Parallel Resistance (Resistor)


Calculator
Color Code Calculator for Resistors
Electric Current, Electric Power, Electricity and
Electric Charge
The Formula Wheel - Formulas of Electrical
Engineering
In acoustics we use "Ohm's law as acoustic
equivalent"
Deutsche Version

Ohm's Law
Calculator and all Formulas
Resistance (ohms), current (amps),
and voltage (volts)
Ohm's Law is the linear proportionality between current and voltage that occurs for
most conductors
of electricity. A graph of voltage against current is a straight line. The gradient is the
resistance.
Practitioners rarely speak of potential difference, when electrical voltage (drop) is
meant. VIR

Electrical voltage=current times resistance "VIR"


Input:
current I

Output:
voltage V

resistance R

amperes
voltage V

volts
voltage V

ohms

volts

resistance R

current I
-

ohms

amperes

current I

resistance R
-

amperes

volts

ohms

= reset.
-

Formulas:

V=IRI=V/RR=V/I

The mathematical formulas of Ohm's Law


Ohm's Law can be rewritten in three ways for calculating current,
resistance, and voltage.
If a current I should flow through a resistor R, the voltage V can be
calculated.
First Version of the (voltage) formula:

V=IR

If there is a voltage V across a resistor R, a current I flows through it. I can


be calculated.
Second Version of the (current) formula:

I=V/R

If a current I flows through a resistor, and there is a voltage V across


the resistor. R can be calculated.
Third Version of the (resistance) formula:

R=V/I

All of these variations of the so called "Ohm's Law" are mathematically


equal to one another.
Name
voltage
current
resistance
power

Formula sign
V or E
I
R
P

Unit
volt
ampere (amp)
ohm
watt

Symbol
V
A

What is the formula for electrical current?


When the current is constant:
I = Q / t
I is the current in amps (A)
Q is the electric charge in coulombs (C),
that flows at time duration of t in seconds (s).
Voltage V = current I resistance R
Power P = voltage V current I
In electrical conductors, in which the current and voltage are proportional
to each other, ohm's law apply: V~ I or V I = const.
Constantan wires or other metal wires held at a constant temperature meet
well ohm's law.
"V I = R = const." ist not the law of ohm. It is the definition of the
resistance.
Thereafter, in every point, even with a bent curve, the resistance value can
be calculated.
For many electrical components such as diodes ohm's law does not apply.

"Ohm's Law" has not been invented by Mr. Ohm


"U I = R = const." is not the law of Ohm or Ohm's law. It is the definition of the resistance.
Thereafter, in every point - even with a bent curve - the resistance value can be calculated.
Ohm's law "postulates" following relationship: When a voltage is applied to an object, the
electric
current flowing through it changes the strength proportional to the voltage. In other words, the
electrical resistance, defined as the quotient of voltage and currentis constant, and that is
independent of voltage and current. The name of the law "honors" Georg Simon Ohm, who
could
prove this relationship for some simple electrical conductors as one of the first searchers.
"Ohm's Law" has really not been invented by Ohm.

Tip: Ohm's magic triangle


The magic VIR triangle can be used to calculate all
formulations of ohm's law.
Use a finger to hide the value to be calculated. The other
two values then show
how to do the calculation.

The symbol I or J = Latin: influare, international ampere, and R =


resistance. V = voltage or
electric potential difference, also called voltage drop, or E = electromotive
force (emf = voltage).
Voltage drop calculations - DC / single phase calculation
The voltage drop V in volts (V) is equal to the wire current I in amps (A) times twice
the wire length L in feet (ft) times the wire resistance per 1000 feet R in ohms ( /
kft)
divided by 1000:
Vdrop (V) = Iwire (A) Rwire ()
= Iwire (A) (2 L (ft) Rwire ( / kft) / 1000 (ft / kft))
The voltage drop V in volts (V) is equal to the wire current I in amps (A) times twice
the wire length L in meters (m) times the wire resistance per 1000 meters R in ohms
( / km) divided by 1000:
Vdrop (V) = Iwire (A) Rwire ()
= Iwire (A) (2 L (m) Rwire ( / km) / 1000 (m / km))

If the unit of powerP=IV and of voltageV=IRis


needed,
look for
"The Big Power Formulas":
Calculations: power (watt), voltage, current,
resistance
Some persons think that Georg Simon Ohm calculated the "specific
resistance".
Therefore they think that only the following can be the true ohm's law.
Quantity of resistance

R = resistance

= specific resistance
l = double length of the cable
A = cross section

m
m
mm2

Electrical conductivity (conductance) (sigma) =


1/
Specific electrical resistance (resistivity) (rho) =
1/
Electrical
conductor

Electrical conductivity
Electrical conductance

Electrical resistivity
Specific resistance

silver

= 62 Sm/mm

= 0.0161 Ohmmm/m

copper

= 58 Sm/mm

= 0.0172 Ohmmm/m

gold

= 41 Sm/mm

= 0.0244 Ohmmm/m

aluminium

= 36 Sm/mm

= 0.0277 Ohmmm/m

constantan

= 2.0 Sm/mm

= 0.5000 Ohmmm/m

Difference between electrical resistivity and


electrical conductivity
The conductance in siemens is the reciprocal of the resistance in ohms.
Simply enter the value to the left or the right side.
The calculator works in both directions of the sign.
Electrical conductivity
S m / mm
58

Specific elec. resistance


Ohm mm / m
0.017241

=1/

=1/
siemens S = 1/ or ohm = 1/S

The value of the electrical conductivity (conductance) and the specific


electrical resistance
(resistivity) is a temperature dependent material constant. Mostly it is given
at 20 or 25C.

Resistance R= (l/A) or R=l/(A)

For all conductors the specific resistivity changes with the temperature. In a
limited
temperature range it is approximately linear:

where is the temperature coefficient, T is the temperature and T0 is any


temperature,
such as T0 = 293.15 K = 20C at which the electrical resistivity (T0) is
known.

Cross-sectional area - cross section - slice plane


Now there is the question:
How can we calculate the cross sectional area (slice plane) A
from the wire diameter d and vice versa?
Calculation of the cross section A (slice plane) from diameter d:
r = radius of the wire
d = diameter of the wire
Calculation diameter d from cross section A (slice plane):

Cross section A of the wire in mm2 inserted in this formula gives the
diameter d in mm.

Calculation Round cables and wires:


Diameter to cross section and vice versa
Electric voltage V=IR

(Ohm's law VIR)

Electrical voltage = amperage resistance (Ohm's law)


Please enter two values, the third value will be calculated.

Electric voltage V
Amperage I
Resistance R
reset

volts
amps
ohms

V=IR

I=V/R

Electric power P=IV

R=V/I

(Power law PIV)

Electric power = amperage voltage (Watt's Law)


Please enter two values, the third value will be calculated.

Electric Power P
Amperage I
Voltage V

watts
amps
volts

reset

P=IV

I=P/V

V=P/I

Ohm's law. V=IR, where V is the potential across a circuit element, I is the
current
through it, and R is its resistance. This is not a generally applicable definition of
resistance. It is only applicable to ohmic resistors, those whose resistance R is
constant over the range of interest and V obeys a strictly linear relation to I.
Materials
are said to be ohmic when V depends linearly on R. Metals are ohmic so long as one
holds their temperature constant. But changing the temperature of a metal
changes R
slightly. When the current changes rapidly, as when turning on a light, or when using
AC
sources, slightly non-linear and non-ohmic behavior can be observed. For non-ohmic
resistors, Ris current-dependent and the definition R = dV/dI is far more useful. This
is
sometimes called the dynamic resistance. Solid state devices such as thermistors
are
non-ohmic and non-linear. A thermistor's resistance decreases as it warms up, so its
dynamic resistance is negative. Tunnel diodes and some electrochemical processes
have a complicated I to V curve with a negative resistance region of operation. The
dependence of resistance on current is partly due to the change in the device's
temperature with increasing current, but other subtle processes also contribute to
change in resistance in solid state devices.

Calculation: Parallel Resistance (Resistor)


Calculator
Color Code Calculator for Resistors

Electric Current, Electric Power, Electricity and


Electric Charge
The Formula Wheel - Formulas of Electrical
Engineering
In acoustics we use "Ohm's law as acoustic
equivalent"