You are on page 1of 21

Data Integration with

Adjustment Techniques
Frank Gielsdorf
Lothar Gruendig
Bernd Aschoff

Data Acquisition
Observations

Digitizing

Local
Coordinates

Geo-Referencing

Observations
Distances
Directions

Global
Coordinates
xy 1m

GIS
Global
Coordinates
xy 0.01m

Gielsdorf, Gruendig, Aschoff: Positional Accuracy Improvement

Problems caused by PAI


Virtual displacement of points

3.50

Geometrical Basic Data

Violation of neighbourhood relationships !

Geometrical Thematic Data


Gielsdorf, Gruendig, Aschoff: Positional Accuracy Improvement

Reasons of PAI Problems


View of Computer
Scientist

View of Surveying
Engineer

Coordinates are constants

Each relative measure can be


derived from coordinates

Coordinates are calculated


from observations

Observations are:

Coordinates and relative


measures are equivalent

redundant
random variables
contradictorily

Coordinates are random


variables

Coordinates and Observations


are not equivalent

Gielsdorf, Gruendig, Aschoff: Positional Accuracy Improvement

Two Different Views

Relative Geometry
Observations
Functional Stochastical
A

Absolute Geometry
Adjustment
Parameters
?

Cll

Gielsdorf, Gruendig, Aschoff: Positional Accuracy Improvement

Functional Stochastical
x

Cxx

Two Different Views


Computer Scientist
Unnecessary

Primary Data

Relative Geometry
Observations
Functional Stochastical
A

Absolute Geometry
Adjustment
Parameters
?

Cll

Gielsdorf, Gruendig, Aschoff: Positional Accuracy Improvement

Functional Stochastical
x

Cxx

Two Different Views


Surveying Engineer
View

Primary Data
Relative Geometry
Observations
Functional Stochastical
A

Absolute Geometry
Adjustment
Parameters
?

Cll

Gielsdorf, Gruendig, Aschoff: Positional Accuracy Improvement

Functional Stochastical
x

Cxx

Integration of Relative Geometry


Case 1: Original observations do not exist
Solution: Adjustment with artificial observations,
e.g. simulation of membrane behaviour,
geometrical constraints

Gielsdorf, Gruendig, Aschoff: Positional Accuracy Improvement

Integration of Relative Geometry


Case 2: Original observations exist
Solution: Adjustment with original (and artificial)
observations

Gielsdorf, Gruendig, Aschoff: Positional Accuracy Improvement

0.0

4.32
3.50

8.66

- 4.50 -

- 8.60 -

Updating Process
GIS
Check Out

Long Transaction
PAI
Improved
Coordinates

Coordinates

Find Point Identities


Generate Observations
Adjustment
Check In

Coordinates

Gielsdorf, Gruendig, Aschoff: Positional Accuracy Improvement

Data Management
Implementation in GIS
Projects
j
(cadastral
(
management,
g
, ...))

GIS
Layers of
Abstraction

Objects (plots, buildings, ...)


Attributes (names, values, ...)
Topology (nodes, edges)
Geometry (coordinates)

Integration
Process

Exchange of Geometry
Gielsdorf, Gruendig, Aschoff: Positional Accuracy Improvement

The Role of Topology


point 1
shape
point n

no access
redundancy

point
(1,*)

x
point
y

object disappears
at moving

x
is coordinated
y
(1,*)

point_id
point

just one
reference frame

y
Gielsdorf, Gruendig, Aschoff: Positional Accuracy Improvement

reference frame

Functional Modelling of Identities


Approach: Introduction of identity observations
Functional Model
v X = X k X i
vY = Yk Yi

Stochastically Model
(Error Propagation)
2X
2Y
X ... Y
i

= X2 i + X2 k
= Y2i + Y2k

Gielsdorf, Gruendig, Aschoff: Positional Accuracy Improvement

Identity
Observation

Principle of Interconnected
Transformation
Map 1

Map 2

Map 1

Map 3

Map 3

Map 4

Map 5

Map 6

Map 2

Map 4

Map 5

Gielsdorf, Gruendig, Aschoff: Positional Accuracy Improvement

Map 6

Comparison of Approaches
Classic

Interconnected

xi, yi

xi, yi

Observations:

Target Function:

np

v
i =1

Unknowens:

2
xi

+ v = min
2
yi

X0, Y0, a, o

Gielsdorf, Gruendig, Aschoff: Positional Accuracy Improvement

np

v
i =1

2
xi

+v

2
yi

= min

X0, Y0, a, o, Xi, Yi

Proximity Fitting
Topological Model
Disregarded Neighbourhood

Each point can be calculated


separately
Problems with geometrical
constraints and field
measurements

Regarded Neighbourhood

Network adjustment is necessary


Geometrical constraints and field
measurements can be integrated

Gielsdorf, Gruendig, Aschoff: Positional Accuracy Improvement

Proximity Fitting
Functional and Stochastically Model:
Distance Weighted Interpolation

Gielsdorf, Gruendig, Aschoff: Positional Accuracy Improvement

Membrane Method

Integration of Geodesic Measurements


Membrane Triangles
- 14.36 -

- 20.08 -

Colinearities
Orthogonalities
Parallelities
Circle Continueties

Gielsdorf, Gruendig, Aschoff: Positional Accuracy Improvement

35.22

4.76 28.37

21.46

17.12

Distances

7.88

Local Coordinates

10.95

12.14

Global Coordinates

Proximity Fitting of local referenced


Point Fields in Hamburg
The Project:

Cadastre of coordinates
Ca 200.000 points at 255 km2
10 local reference frames
Coordinate deviations up to 17 cm

The Task:
Simultaneous transformation and proximity fitting
into a unique reference frame (ETRS89)
Required point accuracy 2 cm
Gielsdorf, Gruendig, Aschoff: Positional Accuracy Improvement

Subproject
Points:
6973
Reference Points:36
Point Identities: 38
Triangle Sides: 20883

Gielsdorf, Gruendig, Aschoff: Positional Accuracy Improvement

Subproject
Points:
6973
Reference Points:36
Point Identities: 38
Triangle Sides: 20883

Gielsdorf, Gruendig, Aschoff: Positional Accuracy Improvement