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# Data Integration with

Frank Gielsdorf
Lothar Gruendig
Bernd Aschoff

Data Acquisition
Observations

Digitizing

Local
Coordinates

Geo-Referencing

Observations
Distances
Directions

Global
Coordinates
xy 1m

GIS
Global
Coordinates
xy 0.01m

## Problems caused by PAI

Virtual displacement of points

3.50

## Geometrical Thematic Data

Gielsdorf, Gruendig, Aschoff: Positional Accuracy Improvement

## Reasons of PAI Problems

View of Computer
Scientist

View of Surveying
Engineer

## Each relative measure can be

derived from coordinates

## Coordinates are calculated

from observations

Observations are:

## Coordinates and relative

measures are equivalent

redundant
random variables

variables

## Coordinates and Observations

are not equivalent

## Two Different Views

Relative Geometry
Observations
Functional Stochastical
A

Absolute Geometry
Parameters
?

Cll

## Gielsdorf, Gruendig, Aschoff: Positional Accuracy Improvement

Functional Stochastical
x

Cxx

## Two Different Views

Computer Scientist
Unnecessary

Primary Data

Relative Geometry
Observations
Functional Stochastical
A

Absolute Geometry
Parameters
?

Cll

## Gielsdorf, Gruendig, Aschoff: Positional Accuracy Improvement

Functional Stochastical
x

Cxx

## Two Different Views

Surveying Engineer
View

Primary Data
Relative Geometry
Observations
Functional Stochastical
A

Absolute Geometry
Parameters
?

Cll

## Gielsdorf, Gruendig, Aschoff: Positional Accuracy Improvement

Functional Stochastical
x

Cxx

## Integration of Relative Geometry

Case 1: Original observations do not exist
e.g. simulation of membrane behaviour,
geometrical constraints

## Integration of Relative Geometry

Case 2: Original observations exist
Solution: Adjustment with original (and artificial)
observations

0.0

4.32
3.50

8.66

- 4.50 -

- 8.60 -

Updating Process
GIS
Check Out

Long Transaction
PAI
Improved
Coordinates

Coordinates

## Find Point Identities

Generate Observations
Check In

Coordinates

## Gielsdorf, Gruendig, Aschoff: Positional Accuracy Improvement

Data Management
Implementation in GIS
Projects
j
(
management,
g
, ...))

GIS
Layers of
Abstraction

## Objects (plots, buildings, ...)

Attributes (names, values, ...)
Topology (nodes, edges)
Geometry (coordinates)

Integration
Process

Exchange of Geometry
Gielsdorf, Gruendig, Aschoff: Positional Accuracy Improvement

## The Role of Topology

point 1
shape
point n

no access
redundancy

point
(1,*)

x
point
y

object disappears
at moving

x
is coordinated
y
(1,*)

point_id
point

just one
reference frame

y
Gielsdorf, Gruendig, Aschoff: Positional Accuracy Improvement

reference frame

## Functional Modelling of Identities

Approach: Introduction of identity observations
Functional Model
v X = X k X i
vY = Yk Yi

Stochastically Model
(Error Propagation)
2X
2Y
X ... Y
i

= X2 i + X2 k
= Y2i + Y2k

## Gielsdorf, Gruendig, Aschoff: Positional Accuracy Improvement

Identity
Observation

Principle of Interconnected
Transformation
Map 1

Map 2

Map 1

Map 3

Map 3

Map 4

Map 5

Map 6

Map 2

Map 4

Map 5

## Gielsdorf, Gruendig, Aschoff: Positional Accuracy Improvement

Map 6

Comparison of Approaches
Classic

Interconnected

xi, yi

xi, yi

Observations:

Target Function:

np

v
i =1

Unknowens:

2
xi

+ v = min
2
yi

X0, Y0, a, o

np

v
i =1

2
xi

+v

2
yi

= min

## X0, Y0, a, o, Xi, Yi

Proximity Fitting
Topological Model
Disregarded Neighbourhood

## Each point can be calculated

separately
Problems with geometrical
constraints and field
measurements

Regarded Neighbourhood

Geometrical constraints and field
measurements can be integrated

## Gielsdorf, Gruendig, Aschoff: Positional Accuracy Improvement

Proximity Fitting
Functional and Stochastically Model:
Distance Weighted Interpolation

Membrane Method

## Integration of Geodesic Measurements

Membrane Triangles
- 14.36 -

- 20.08 -

Colinearities
Orthogonalities
Parallelities
Circle Continueties

## Gielsdorf, Gruendig, Aschoff: Positional Accuracy Improvement

35.22

4.76 28.37

21.46

17.12

Distances

7.88

Local Coordinates

10.95

12.14

Global Coordinates

## Proximity Fitting of local referenced

Point Fields in Hamburg
The Project:

Ca 200.000 points at 255 km2
10 local reference frames
Coordinate deviations up to 17 cm

Simultaneous transformation and proximity fitting
into a unique reference frame (ETRS89)
Required point accuracy 2 cm
Gielsdorf, Gruendig, Aschoff: Positional Accuracy Improvement

Subproject
Points:
6973
Reference Points:36
Point Identities: 38
Triangle Sides: 20883

## Gielsdorf, Gruendig, Aschoff: Positional Accuracy Improvement

Subproject
Points:
6973
Reference Points:36
Point Identities: 38
Triangle Sides: 20883