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Design and Simulation of

Smart Antenna System

Amit Singh, Sreeni Rao, Anil Kr. Pandey
Keysight Technologies

Application Overview

Design and Simulation of Smart Antenna System at ISM Band

using Multi technology and EM Circuit Excitation in

Application Design Scope

and Objective
This example illustrates the Multi Technology Flow of SMART ANTENNA SYSTEM using Butler Matrix and SPQT
The first part deals with the design of a microstrip antenna phased array with Butler matrix. The planar microstrip
antenna array has four beams at four different directions by implementing the 44 Butler matrix as a feeding network to
the 44 planar microstrip antenna array.
Switched beam system has four fixed beam patterns. A decision has to be made by user as to which beam to access
Adaptive arrays allow the antenna to steer the beam to any direction of interest while simultaneously nulling interfering
The benefit of using Smart Antenna System is better range or coverage which focusses the energy sent out into the cell
increases base station range and coverage. This is because of the inputs from multiple antennas are combined to
optimize available power required to establish given level of coverage.
The Smart Antenna system consists of three major technologies (Libraries):
1. Antenna: Single layer ISM-band microstrip patch antenna array with Butler matrix.
2. SPQT: Based on DemoKit_MTM.
3. QFN Package: Standard QFN package for SPDT switch packaging.
Note: The Antennas are not smart but Antenna system is smart.


Problem statement
There are some areas which are overcrowded and some which have
less dense population.
Traffic varies in real time.(not constant)

Need a intelligent traffic management system, which allows focusing on most
traffic area
Technology to focus Antenna's gain in a specific direction.

Adaptive Antenna array


Switched beam system

coverage patterns

Adaptive array coverage

Smart Antenna Design Flow

Smart Antenna System in

Multi-Technology flow

Hybrid Coupler Topology

Quadrature hybrids or hybrid couplers are well
known devices used for their ability to generate
signals 90 degrees out of phase at its outputs. The
port closer to the input port is leading in phase by
90 degrees. The port located on the same side as
the input port is isolated since there is no power
reaching it.

Crossover Topology
Crossover also known as 0 dB couplers, are an
efficient means of crossing two transmission lines
with a minimal coupling between them. Referring
to Fig. 2.7, it can be observed that the planar
implementation is made here as a cascade of two
hybrid couplers (with slight modifications on line

Butler Matrix Theory

Butler Matrix is described by Butler,
consists of N input ports and an equal
number of output ports or radiating
elements. A signal introduced at one input
produces equal amplitude excitations at all
outputs but with a constant phase
difference between them, resulting in
radiation at a certain angle in space

Butler Matrix for Antenna

A phase shift of 45 deg for every end

Microstrip Patch Antenna in

ISM Band
This is edge feed square microstrip Patch Antenna.
Antenna is designed for ISM Band.

Antenna with Butler Matrix

Radiation Parameters

SPQT(Single Pole Quad Throw) Chip comprises of 3
SPDT(Single Pole Dual Throw), more information of
the design can be taken from MMIC_SP4T_wrk.
RF flows from Source to Drain when Gate is at 0 volt.
Hence series FETs have input and output at Source
and Drain respectively. Single DC bias is used to
connect all ON devices and another single DC bias is
used to connect all OFF devices

To know more about designing SPQT Chip refer to MMIC_SPDT in


SPQT Switch Package

SPQT Chip is mounted on the QFN Package.
Connected using bond wires.

SPQT Chip with QFN package in ADS Layout


Smart Antenna Concept

EM-Circuit Excitation
This option can be found at drop down menu in Schematic view

User will have to click on Run AC/HB Simulation and after HB Simulation
Open Visualization button becomes active and then user will have to select
check Box for far field for momentum microwave

EM-Circuit Excitation cont.

Select 2.4 GHz in the drop down menu and click on Open Visualization.

Now this pops-up another drop down menu

Select the beam you want to see in visualization

Far-field Visualization
Set phi = 90 and display cut in Data display

Smart Antenna Results

Simulation Result of
Complete System

S- Parameter Results

Multi Technology has been demonstrated for design of complete Transceiver
System . This flow also demonstrated the usage of multiple technologies
defined in separate libraries to create a Smart Antenna system
Multi-level hierarchy support.
Multi-Technology vertical stack up.
MoM simulation of Multi technology Layout.
Use EM circuit excitation simulation to verify Far-field data of System (Multi
technology schematic).
Application of Smart Antenna system for adaptive phased array system.