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AHMEDABAD-GANDHINAGAR CLUSTER

DATE:12/12/2015

Sr.

1.

Is the force acting between two point electric charges q1 and q2, kept at

some distance apart in air, attractive or repulsive, when (i) q1q2 > 0 (ii)

q1q2 <0 ?

Mark

s

1

Solution:

(i) The force is repulsive. When q1q2 > 0, it means that charges are

either both positive or both negative. This implies that the force between

them is indeed repulsive.

(ii) The force is attractive. When q1q2 < 0, it means that one of the

charges is negative and the other is positive. This implies that the force

between them is indeed attractive.

2.

correspond to stable equilibrium?

Solution:

3.

When the electric dipole is in the direction of the electric field, it is said to

be in stable equilibrium.

1

Figure shows three point charges +2q, q and + 3q. Two charges + 2q

and q are enclosed within a surface S. What is the electric flux due to

this configuration through the surface S?

Solution:

permittivity of free space.

, where

is the

4.

effective resistance between the ends of a diameter AB?

Solution:

The effective resistance between the ends of diameter AB is

.

5.

on its surface is 5 V. What is the potential at the centre of the sphere?

Solution:

We know

and for hollow shell electric field at center = 0

6.

Hence Vc = 5V

Define electric dipole moment. Write its S.I. unit.

Solution:

7.

charge and the distance between the charges (this distance is also

called the displacement vector). It is a vector quantity with direction

pointing from pointing from the negative charge to the positive charge.

SI unit of electric dipole moment is coulomb meter (Cm).

Two charges of magnitudes 2Q and +Q are located at points (a, 0) and

(4a, 0) respectively. What is the electric flux due to these charges

through a sphere of radius 3a with its centre at the origin?(1)

Solution:Gauss theorem states that the electric flux through a closed

surface enclosing a charge is equal to (1/ 0) times the magnitude of the

charge enclosed.

8.

are connected in parallel with each other across an external resistance

R. What is the current through this resistance?

Solution:

The cells are arranged as shown in the circuit diagram given below:

R

Potential difference across the resistance = E

So, current through the resistance,

9.

Explain its motion when it is placed, (a) parallel to the field, (b)

perpendicular to the field.

Solution:

(b) = p E sin 90

10

.

battery exceed its e.m.f.?

Solution:

During Charging of battery,

V>E

1.

(i) Show that the net force acting on it is zero.

(ii) The dipole is aligned parallel to the field. Find the work done in

rotating it through the angle of 180.

Solution:

(i) Consider an electric dipole consisting of two equal and opposite

point charges, q at A and + q at B, separated by a small distance

2a.

Let this dipole be held in a uniform external electric field

angle with the direction of

Force on charge q at A= q

at an

.

, in a direction opposite to

Net force on the dipole = qE qE = 0

(ii) Work done on dipole, W = U = pE (cos 1 cos 2

W = pE (cos0 cos180)

W = 2pE

2.

effective resistance between the ends of a diameter AB?

Solution:

The effective resistance between the ends of diameter AB is

.

3.

(i) stable, (ii) unstable equilibrium?

Solution:

A dipole placed in a uniform electric filed is in

i.

Stable equilibrium when the electric field is directed

ii.

is parallel to .

Unstable equilibrium when the electric filed is directed

at an angle of 180 degrees with the direction of the dipole,

i.e., when

4.

is anti-parallel to

What will be their net capacitance if connected in parallel?

(ii) Find the ratio of energy stored in the two configurations if they

are both connected to the same source.

Solution:

(i) When connected in series, the net capacitance is 2 F.

Ceq = C1 + C2 + C3 = 6 F + 6 F + 6 F = 18 F.

(ii) Energy for series combination

Hence,

5.

with AJ = l.

(i) The values of R and X were doubled and then interchanged.

What would be the new position of balance point?

(ii) If the galvanometer and battery are interchanged at the balance

position, how will the balance point get affected?

Solution:

(i) As the ratio of

is now interchanged by

, the new

(ii)

galvanometer. Hence, interchanging the battery and the

galvanometer will have no effect on the balance point.

6.

(i) Calculate the electric flux passing through the surface.

(ii) How would the flux change if the radius of the Gaussian surface is

doubled and why?

Solution:

i.

ii.

7.

100 T m2

The flux would not change if the radius of Gaussian

surface is double because enclosed charge remains the same.

Two metallic wires of the same material have the same length but crosssectional area is in the ratio 1:2. They are connected (i) in series and (ii)

in parallel. Compare the drift velocities of electrons in the two wires in

both the cases (i) and (ii).

Solution:

(i) When two wires are connected in series, the current in both wires A

and B will be the same.

(ii) When two wires are connected in series, the potential difference

across the wires A and B will be the same.

8.

resistor R. Plot a graph showing the variation of terminal potential V

with resistance R. Predict from the graph the condition under which V

becomes equal to E.

Solution:

V becomes equal to E when no current flows through the circuit.

9.

(i) Can two equi-potential surfaces intersect each other? Give reasons.

(ii) Two charges q and +q are located at points A (0, 0, a) and B (0, 0,

+a) respectively. How much work is done in moving a test charge from

point P (7, 0, 0) to Q (3, 0, 0)?

Solution:

(i) Two equipotential surfaces cannot intersect each other because when

they will intersect, the electric field will have two directions, which is

impossible.

(ii) Charge P moves on the perpendicular bisector of the line joining +q

and q. Hence, this perpendicular bisector is equidistant from both the

charges. Thus, the potential will be same everywhere on this line.

Therefore, work done will be zero.

10

A carbon resistor is marked in red, yellow and orange bands. What is the 2

approximate resistance of the resistor?

Solution:

24 x 103 ohm 20 %

1.

On what principle does a metre bridge work? Draw a circuit diagram and

explain how this device can be used for determination of an unknown

resistance.

Solution:

Meter bridge consists of a metre scale, a wire of length 1 m and a

galvanometer. Meter scale is attached to the wire and one end of the

galvanometer is connected to the metallic strip between the

resistors R and S and the other end is connected to a jockey, which can slide

over the metallic meter scale. R is the unknown resistance whose value is to

be determined. S is a known resistance. The jockey connected is moved on

the metre scale such that we get zero deflection at some point. Let this point

be l1 distance away from A.

If Rcm is the resistance per unit length of the 1 meter wire, then the resistance

of one portion of the wire will be Rcm l1 and the resistance of another portion

will be Rcm(100 - l1).

Using the condition for balanced bridge, we obtain

2.

By substituting the value of l1 in the above equation, we can find out the value

of R, which is the unknown resistance.

Derive a mathematical expression for resistivity of a conductor in terms of

number density of charge carriers in the conductor and relaxation time.

Solution:

Average velocity of all the electrons at any instant of time under no external

electric field is zero.

Now, when the external field is present, the electrons get accelerated.

Let the average acceleration be a. Then,

a

Let the initial velocity of all the electrons be denoted by vi and the final

velocity be Vi. Therefore,

Vi = vi

The value of time (t) is the average value of the time taken by each electron

during any one collision. This is called relaxation time.

The average velocity of all the electrons without an external field is zero.

Thus,

vi = 0

Vi

Here, Vi is the average velocity or drift velocity vd.

Vi = vd

vd

Because of the external electric field, electrons are accelerated. They move

from one place to another and current is produced.

For small interval dt, we have

Idt = q

Where q is the total charge flowing

Let n be the free electrons per unit area. Then, the total charge crossing

area A in time dt is given by:

Idt = neAvddt

Substituting the value of vd, we obtain

Idt = neA

dt

Where,

J is the current density

J = n Et

From Ohms law,

J = E

Where,

is the conductivity of the material through which the current is flowing

Thus,

= n

=

3.

Where,

t is the relaxation time

Two point charges 4Q, Q are separated by 1 m in air. At what point on the

line joining the charges is the electric field intensity zero? Also calculate the

electrostatic potential energy of the system of charges, taking the value of

charge, Q = 2 107 C.

Solution:

Electric field at P due to 4Q = Electric field at P due to Q

x = 2 2x or x = 2 2x

x + 2x = 2 or x + 2x = 2

3x = 2 or x = 2

or x = 2

x = 2 m is not possible

m

Electrostatic potential energy of the system is

4.

(i) Calculate the equivalent resistance of the given electrical network between

points A and B.

(ii) Also calculate the current through CD and ACB, if a 10 V d.c source is

connected between A andB, and the value of R is assumed as 2 .

Solution:

(i) Equivalent circuit is

arm CD is ineffective.

Resistance of arm ACB, R1 = R + R = 2R and the resistance of

arm ADB, R2 = R + R = 2R

Effective resistance between A and B is

(ii) The points C and D are at the same potential. Therefore, no current flows

through the arm CD.

Resistance of arm ACB = 2R = 2 2 = 4

5.

I = 2.5 A

Three identical capacitors C1, C2 and C3 of capacitance 6 F each are

connected to a 12 V battery as shown.

Find

(i) charge on each capacitor

(ii) equivalent capacitance of the network

(iii) energy stored in the network of capacitors

Solution:

The 12 V battery is in parallel with C1, C2, and C3. C1 and C2are in series with

each other while C3is in parallel with the combination formed by C1 and C2.

Total voltage drop across C3 = 12 V

q3 = CV

Where, q = Charge on the capacitor

C1, C2, C3 = 6 F (Given in the question)

q3 = 6 12 = 72 C

Voltage drop across C1 and C2 combined will be 12 V.

Let the voltage drop at C1 = V1

Let the voltage drop at C2 = V2

Then,

V = V 1 + V2

Then,

6.

Or,

q = 36 micro coulombs

Thus, charge on each of C1 and C2 is 36 coulombs.

In a meter bridge, the null point is found at a distance of l1 cm from A. If now a 3

resistance of X is connected in parallel with S, the null point occurs at l2 cm.

Solution:

Initially, when X is not connected

7.

Calculate the value of the resistance R in the circuit shown in the figure so

that the current in the circuit is 0.2 A. What would b the potential difference

between points B and E?

Solution:

8.

R = 5

VBE = 5(0.2) = 1V

Deduce the expression for the electrostatic energy stored in a capacitor of

capacitance 'C' and having charge 'Q'.

How will the (i) energy stored and (ii) the electric field inside the capacitor be

affected when it is completely filled with a dielectric material of dielectric

constant K?

Solution:

Energy stored in a charged capacitor. The energy of a charged capacitor is

potential we know that capacitance is

where qis the charge on the

plates and V is potential difference.

When an additional amount of charge dq is transferred from negative to

positive plate, the small work done is given by

capacitor then

(ii) Electric field is reduced

plates of dielectric as a result of which an electric field is induced which is in

opposite direction. Thus, Net electric field is reduced.

(i) Again, V0 = E0d ... (1)

Where V0 is the potential when there is vacuum between the plates of the

capacitor and d is the separation between the plates of the capacitor,

When dielectric is introduced, potential difference is given by

V = Ed ... (2)

Dividing (1) & (2)

Thus potential difference also decreases.

9.

Since V decreases, U also decreases.

A thin conducting spherical shell of radius R has charge Q spread uniformly

over its surface. Using Gausss law, derive an expression for an electric field

at a point outside the shell.

Draw a graph of electric field E(r) with distance r from the centre of the shell

for 0 r .

Solution:

According to Gauss law,

Where,

q is the point charge

E is electric field due to the point charge

dA is a small area on the Gaussian surface at any distance and

is the proportionality constant

For a spherical shell at distance r from the point charge, the integral

merely the sum of all differential of dA on the sphere.

Therefore,

is

spread uniformly over its surface, the electric field at any point outside the

shell is

Where r is the distance of the point from the centre of the shell.

The graph of electric field E(r) with distance r from the centre of the shell for

0 r .

1

0.

moment p in the presence of a uniform electric field

E .

Solution:

Dipole in a Uniform External Field

2a placed in a uniform electric field

Force on charge q at

(opposite to

Force on charge +q at

(along )

Electric dipole is under the action of two equal and unlike parallel forces,

which give rise to a torque on the dipole.

= Force Perpendicular distance between the two forces

= qE (AN) = qE (2a sin )

= q(2a) E sin

= pE sin

1.

diagram to compare emf of two primary cells. Derive the formula

used.

(b) Which material is used for potentiometer wire and why?

(c) How can the sensitivity of a potentiometer be increased?

Ans:

A potentiometer works on the principle that fall of potential across

a wire of uniform area cross section through which is constant

current is flowing is proportional to the length. If V is the fall of the

potential across a length l then

V x l or V/l = constant.

The circuit diagram for comparing the emfs of two cell is given

below :

resistance (rheostat, R) in the circuit. Since the wire is uniform, the

potential difference between A and any point at a distance l from A is

ll

where is the potential drop per unit length.

Figure shows an application of the potentiometer to compare

the emf of two cells of emf 1 and 2 . The points marked 1, 2, 3 form

a two

way key. Consider first a position of the key where 1 and 3 are

connected

so that the galvanometer is connected to 1. The jockey

is moved along the wire till at a point N1, at a distance l1

from A, there is no deflection in the galvanometer. We

can apply Kirchhoffs loop rule to the closed loop

AN1G31A and get,

l1 + 0 1 = 0

Similarly, if another emf 2 is balanced against l2 (AN2)

l2 + 0 2 = 0

From the last two equations

on the equatorial plane of the dipole.

(b) Draw the equipotential surfaces due to an electric dipole.

Locate the points where the potential due to the dipole is zero.

Solution:

(a) Electric dipole moment: The strength of an electric dipole is

measured by the quantity electric dipole moment. Its magnitude

is equal to the product of the magnitude of either charge and the

distance between the two charges.

Electric dipole moment, p = q d

It is a vector quantity.

In vector form it is written as

, where the direction of

from negative charge to positive charge.

Electric Field of dipole at points on the equatorial plane:

is

+q and q are given by,

components normal to the dipole axis cancel away. The

components along the dipole axis add up.

Total electric field

[Negative sign shows that field is opposite

to

The potential due to the dipole is zero at the line bisecting the

dipole length

Using Gauss law deduce the expression for the electric field due

to a uniformly charged spherical conducting shell of radius R at

a point

(i) Outside and (ii) inside the shell.

Plot a graph showing variation of electric field as a function of r

> R and r < R.

(r being the distance from the centre of the shell)

Electric Field Due To A Uniformly Charged Thin Spherical Shell:

Suppose that we have to calculate electric field at the point P at

a distance r (r > R) from its centre. Draw the Gaussian surface

through point P so as to enclose the charged spherical shell.

The Gaussian surface is a spherical shell of radius r and centre

O.

Let

is given by,

1

Since

is also along normal to the surface,

d = E ds

Total electric flux through the Gaussian surface is given by,

Now,

according to Gauss theorem,

In such a case, the Gaussian surface encloses no charge.

According to Gauss law,

E 4r2 = 0

i.e., = E = 0 (r < R)

Graph showing the variation of electric field as a function of r:

capacitor of capacitance C with air as medium between its plates

having charges Q and Q. Show that this energy can be

expressed in terms of electric field as

where A is the

area of each plate and d is the separation between the plates.

How will the energy stored in a fully charged capacitor change

when the separation between the plates is doubled and a

dielectric medium of dielectric constant 4 is introduced between

the plates?

Ans:

Consider a situation when one plate has a charge Q and the

other plate will also have charge Q.

The voltage between the plates will be . A small charge equal

to Q is transferred from the negative plate to the positive plate.

A small work W is done in this process.

W = V Q

=

Energy stored =

(1)

Now,

Q = A where Surface charge density

where A Area of the plates and d Separation

between the plates

Putting these values in equation (1), we obtain

Energy stored =

Now, we know that,

Electric field,

Therefore, energy stored

(2)

constant is 4, the energy stored in the capacitor will

be

=

Thus, the total energy will become half when the distance

between the plates is doubled and the dielectric constant is 4.

5

its direction. Write its SI unit.

An electric dipole is placed in a uniform electric field . Deduce

the expression for the torque acting on it. In a particular

situation, it has its dipole moment aligned with the electric field.

Is the equilibrium stable or unstable?

Electric dipole moment is defined as the product of any one of

the charges and the length of the electric dipole.

Where,

p = Electric dipole moment

q = One of the charges

2a = Length of the electric dipole

Its direction is from negative charge to positive charge.

Its SI unit is coulomb metre.

= q E (2a sin )

= p E sin

() = p E sin

For equilibrium () = 0,

p E sin = 0

sin = 0

= 0 or 180

When the dipole is aligned along the electric field,

= 0

Now,

U Potential energy

U = p E cos

= p E cos 0

=pE

The potential energy is minimum at = 0.

Hence, the dipole is in stable equilibrium.

6

capacitor.

On charging a parallel plate capacitor to a potential V, the

spacing between the plates is halved, and a dielectric medium

of

is introduced between the plates, without

disconnecting the d.c source. Explain, using suitable

expressions, how the (i) capacitance, (ii) electric field and (iii)

energy density of the capacitor charge.

Solution:

Energy stored in a parallel plate capacitor:

At any intermediate stage, suppose charge on conductor 1 is

+ q and charge on conductor 2 is q.

C is the capacity of the capacitor.

Suppose the capacitor is charged gradually and at any stage, the

charge on the capacitor is q.

Potential of capacitor =

Small amount of work done giving an additional charge dq to the

capacitor is

Put Q = CV

(i) Let

E

Charge of energy density:

(b) The electric field components due to a charge inside the cube

of side 0.1 m are as shown:

Ey = 0, Ez = 0

Calculate (i) the flux through the cube and (ii) the charge inside

the cube

Solution:

(a) Electric flux:

It is the number of electric field lines passing through a surface

normally.

S.I unit of flux = Nm2 C1

(b) Here, Ex = x, Ey = 0, Ez = 0

= 500 N/C-m, Side of cube a = 0.1 m

Since the electric field has only x-component,

for each of four faces of cube to y-axis and zaxis.

Electric flux is only for left and right face along x-axis of the

cube.

(i) Electric field at the left face, x = a, is

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