Sie sind auf Seite 1von 13

International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, Vol. 1, No.

4, October 2010
ISSN: 2010-0264

An Overview of Some Important Issues Related


to Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS)
Rajveer Mittal, K.S.Sandhu and D.K.Jain
Abstract-- Wind power capacity has experienced tremendous
growth in the past decade. There are many loads (such as
remote villages, islands, ships etc) that are away from the main
grid. They require stand-alone generator system (which can
provide constant nominal voltage and frequency) to provide for
their local electrification. This requirement has lead to
widespread research on development of new technologies for
stand-alone generators. Initially an overview of different
existing generator technologies for grid connected operation is
given. This paper presents the recent developments in wind
energy conversion systems, their classifications, choice of
generators and their social and environmental benefits , a
review of the interconnection issues of distributed resources
including wind power with electric power systems, hybrid
power system and reports the developments of interconnection
standards in Canada and IEEE.
Index
Termswind
energy
conversion
system,
interconnection, power quality, renewable energy, wind
turbine, Hybrid Power Systems.

I. INTRODUCTION
The major components of a typical wind energy
conversion system include a wind turbine, generator,
interconnection apparatus and control systems. Wind
turbines can be classified into the vertical axis type and the
horizontal axis type. Most modern wind turbines use a
horizontal axis configuration with two or three blades,
operating either down-wind or up-wind. A wind turbine can
be designed for a constant speed or variable speed operation.
Variable speed wind turbines can produce 8% to 15% more
energy output as compared to their constant speed
counterparts, however, they necessitate power electronic
converters to provide a fixed frequency and fixed voltage
power to their loads. Most turbine manufacturers have opted
for reduction gears between the low speed turbine rotor and
the high speed three-phase generators. Direct drive
configuration, where a generator is coupled to the rotor of a
wind turbine directly, offers high reliability, low
maintenance, and possibly low cost for certain turbines.
Several manufacturers have opted for the direct drive
configuration in the recent turbine designs. At the present
time and in the near future, generators for wind turbines will
be synchronous generators, permanent magnet synchronous
generators, and induction generators, including the squirrel
cage type and wound rotor type.
Rajveer Mittal is with the Department of Electrical and Electronics
Engineering, Maharaja Agrasen Institute of Technology, Rohini,Delhi ,
India (e-mail : rajveermittal@yahoo.com, : rajveermittal@hotmail.com )
K.S Sandhu is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, N.I.T,
Kurukshetra, Haryana, India. (e-mail l:kjssandhu@yahoo.com.).
D. K. Jain is with the Guru Prem Sukh Memorial College of engineering
under GGSIP University , Delhi, India. (e-mail: jaindk66@gmail.com).

For small to medium power wind turbines, permanent


magnet generators and squirrel cage induction generators
are often used because of their reliability and cost
advantages. Induction generators, permanent magnet
synchronous generators and wound field synchronous
generators are currently used in various high power wind
turbines. Interconnection apparatuses are devices to achieve
power control, soft start and interconnection functions. Very
often power electronic converters are used as such devices.
Most modern turbine inverters are forced commutated
PWM inverters to provide a fixed voltage and fixed
frequency output with a high power quality. Both voltage
source voltage controlled inverters and voltage source
current controlled inverters have been applied in wind
turbines. For certain high power wind turbines, effective
power control can be achieved with double PWM (pulse
width modulation) converters which provide a bi-directional
power flow between the turbine generator and the utility
grid.
Capacity factor-Since wind speed is not constant so
annual energy production is never as much as the sum of the
generator nameplate ratings multiplied by the total hours in
a year. The ratio of actual productivity in a year to this
theoretical maximum is called the capacity factor. Typical
capacity factors are 20-40%, with values at the upper end of
the range in particularly favorable sites.[1,2] For example, a
1 megawatt turbine with a capacity factor of 35% will not
produce 8,760 megawatt-hours in a year (1x24x365), but
only 0.35x24x365 = 3,066 MWh, averaging to 0.35 MW.
Online data is available for some locations and the capacity
factor can be calculated from the yearly output [3,4]
Unlike fueled generating plants, the capacity factor is
limited by the inherent properties of wind. Capacity factors
of other types of power plant are based mostly on fuel cost,
with a small amount of downtime for maintenance. Nuclear
plants have low incremental fuel cost, and so are run at full
output and achieve a 90% capacity factor.[5] Plants with
higher fuel cost are throttled back to follow load. Gas
turbine plants using natural gas as fuel may be very
expensive to operate and may be run only to meet peak
power demand. A gas turbine plant may have an annual
capacity factor of 5-25% due to relatively high energy
production cost. According to a 2007 Stanford University
study published in the Journal of Applied Meteorology and
Climatology, interconnecting ten or more wind farms allows
33 to 47% of the total energy produced to be used as
reliable, base load electric power, as long as minimum
criteria are met for wind speed and turbine height.[6,7]

351

International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, Vol. 1, No. 4, October 2010
ISSN: 2010-0264

output voltage and frequency.

II. CLASSIFICATION OF WIND ENERGY CONVERSION


SYSTEMS
There are number of ways to classifying the WECs.
Following are the main types of classifications of WECs:
A. According to size of Electrical Power Output. [19]
(i) Small size (up to 2kW): These may be used for remote
applications,or at places requiring relatively low power.
(ii) Medium Size (2-100 kW): These turbines may be
used to supply less than 100 kW rated capacity, to several
residences or local use.
(iii)Large Size (100 kW and up): They are used to
generate power for distribution in central power grids.
B. According to type of electrical power output ;
There are mainly following three classes of
generators:[16]
1) D.C. generators
D.C. generators are relatively unusual in wind/microhydro turbine applications because they are expensive and
require regular maintenance. Nowadays for most of d.c.
applications, for example, it is more common to employ an
a.c. generator to generate a.c., which is then converted to d.c.
with simple solid-state rectifiers.
2) Synchronous generators
The major advantage of synchronous generator is that its
reactive power characteristic can be controlled and therefore
such machines can be used to supply reactive power to other
items of power systems, which require the reactive power. It
is normal for a stand-alone wind-diesel system to have a
synchronous generator, usually connected to the diesel.
Synchronous generators when fitted to a wind turbine must
be controlled carefully to prevent the rotor speed
accelerating through synchronous speed especially during
turbulent winds. Moreover it requires flexible coupling in
the drive train, or to mount the gearbox assembly on springs
or dampers to absorb turbulence. Synchronous generators
are more costly than induction generators, particularly in
smaller size ranges. Synchronous generators are more prone
to failures.
3) Induction generators
Induction generator offers many advantages over a
conventional synchronous generator as a source of isolated
power supply. Reduced unit cost, ruggedness, brush less (in
squirrel cage construction), reduced size, absence of
separate DC source and ease of maintenance, self-protection
against severe overloads and short circuits, are the main
advantages Further induction generators are loosely coupled
devices, i.e. they are heavily damped and therefore have the
ability to absorb slight change in rotor speed and drive train
transient to some extent can therefore be absorbed. Whereas
synchronous generators are closely coupled devices and
when they are used in wind turbines which is subjected to
turbulence and requires additional damping devices such as
flexible couplings in the derive train or to mount gearbox
assembly on springs and dampers. Reactive power
consumption and poor voltage regulation under varying
speed are the major drawback of the induction generators,
but the development of static power converters has
facilitated the control of induction generator, regarding

C. According to Rotational Speed of Aeroturbines:


Several kinds of generator technologies have been
developed and are in use today. In this section a short
overview of these different generator topologies is presented.
Each of them is discussed with its advantages and
drawbacks.
1) fixed speed system
Fixed speed systems are the simplest and most widely
used arrangement. They operate at constant (or nearly
constant) speed [also called constant speed constant
frequency (CSCF) mode of operation]. This implies that
regardless of the prime mover speed, the angular speed of
the rotor is fixed and determined by the frequency of supply
grid and gear ratio This arrangement, in general, has simple
and reliable construction of the electrical part while the
mechanical parts are subject to higher stresses and
additional safety factors need to be incorporated in the
mechanical design. This arrangement can use induction
generator (IG) and the wound rotor synchronous generator
(SG) as the electric machine. But the squirrel cage induction
generator has been the prevalent choice. The reasons for this
popularity are mainly due to its simplicity, high efficiency
and low maintenance requirements. To compensate for the
reactive power consumption of the induction generator, a
capacitor bank (normally stepwise controlled) is inserted in
parallel with the generator in order to obtain about unity
power factor. Further, to reduce the mechanical stress and to
reduce the interaction between supply grid and turbine
during connection and start-up of the turbine, a soft starter is
used. The main advantage of this system is that it is a simple
and reliable arrangement. However, capacitors need to be
cutin or cutoff regularly to maintain power factor. This
random switching gives rise to undesirable transients in the
line currents and voltages. The fluctuations in prime mover
speed are converted to torque pulsations, which cause
mechanical stress. This causes breakdown of drive train and
gear box. The power generated from this arrangement is
sensitive to fluctuations in prime mover speed. To avoid this
pitch control of rotor blades is required.
The Fixed Speed Induction Generators (FSIG) wind
turbine is a simple squirrel cage induction generator, which
can be directly coupled to the electricity supply network.
The frequency of the network determines the rotational
speed of the stators magnetic field, while the generators
rotor speed changes as its electrical output changes.
However, because of the well known steep torque- Slip
characteristic of the induction machine, the operating range
of the generator is very limited. The wind turbine is
therefore effectively fixed speed. FSIGs do not have the
capability of independent control of active and reactive
power, which is their main disadvantage. Their great
advantage is their simple and robust construction, which
leads to lower capital cost. In contrast to other generator
topologies, FSIGs offer no inherent means of torque
oscillation damping which places greater burden and cost on
their gearbox. The wind energy system and power quality
aspects are discussed in detail in the literature
The Doubly Fed Induction Generators (DFIG) Wind

352

International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, Vol. 1, No. 4, October 2010
ISSN: 2010-0264

speed systems. The torque is under control if Direct Torque


Control or Field Oriented Control techniques are used. This
does not allow the generator to be overloaded. Gear box is
not required with a multi-pole synchronous machine.
However, converters have to manage entire generated
power. Therefore they have to be rated equal to machine
rating. Inverter output filters and EMI output filters are
rated for 1 p.u ( with respect to output power) making filter
design difficult and expensive. Converter efficiency plays
an important factor in total system efficiency over the entire
operating range. It cannot be operated above synchronous
speed with full torque.
a) Direct Drive Synchronous Generator Wind Turbine
An alternative to the much-used induction machine
generator is the use of a multipole synchronous generator,
fed through a power electronic AC/DC/AC stage. The
excitation of the synchronous generator can be given either
by an electrical excitation system or by permanent magnets.
The AC/DC/AC converter acts as a frequency converter and
decouples the generator from the Grid. It consists of two
back-to-back voltage source converters, usually with IGBT
switches, which can independently control the active power
transfer through the DC link and the reactive power output
at each converter terminal .The speed range is generally
similar to that of DFIGs. The multipole construction of the
synchronous generator leads to a low mechanical rotational
speed of the generator rotor and can permit direct coupling
to the wind turbine. The possibility of reducing the number
of stages in the gearbox or eliminating it completely is often
quoted as an advantage of direct drive synchronous
generator wind turbines. However set against this is the
.
greater VA rating of the power electronic converter
compared with DFIGs and the larger physical generator size.
Fig.1. General arrangement of fixed-speed generation system
As a result of the increased mechanical stresses experienced
2) Fully Variable Speed System
by FSIG wind turbines at present there is a practical limit to
With the increase in the size of turbine, the inherent the rating of commercial models of this technology. All
problems of the constant speed systems become more and present commercial models for multi-MW wind turbines in
more pronounced, especially in areas with relatively weak the range above 3MW are either DFIGs, or synchronous
grids. To overcome these problems, the trend in modern generators coupled to the network through back-to-back
generator technology is toward variable-speed concepts. A converters.
variable-speed system keeps the generator torque constant
A comparison between the variable speed wind turbine
and it is the generator speed which changes. Variations in and the constant speed wind turbine shows that variable
the incoming power are absorbed by rotor speed changes. speed reduce mechanical stresses: gusts of wind can be
The variable-speed system therefore incorporates a absorbed, dynamically compensate for torque and power
generator control system that can operate with variable pulsations caused by back pressure of the tower. This
speed. In this arrangement the variable-voltage variable backpressure causes noticeable torque pulsations at a rate
frequency (VVVF) power generated by the machine is equal to the turbine rotor speed times the number of rotor
converter to fixed-frequency fixed voltage power by the use blades. The used of a doubly fed induction generator in
of back to back power converters. The arrangement can WECS with the rotor connected to the electric grid through
have either induction generator or synchronous generator as an AC-AC converter offers the following advantages:
the electric machine. The machine side converter supplies
Only the electric power injected by the rotor needs
the lagging excitation to the machine while the line side
to be handled by the convert , implying a less cost
converter maintains unity power factor at grid interface and
AC-AC converter.
also regulates the dc link voltage constant. The synchronous
Improved system efficiency and power factor
machine offers the least possible configuration for a
control can be implemented at lower cost the
variable-speed sys- tem. It can operate without gear box,
converter has to provide only excitation energy.
with a good multi-pole design. This is an important
Hence, taking advantage of power electronic advances in
objective since gear box is a component that has a tendency recent years, WECS equipped with doubly fed induction
to fail. The advantages of this scheme are that mechanical generator systems for variable speed wind turbine are one of
oscillations in the drive train are absent as it is in fixed the most efficient configurations for wind energy
353
Turbines is a wound rotor induction generator whose rotor
is fed via slip rings by a frequency converter. The stator is
directly coupled to the electrical power supply network. As
a result of the use of the frequency converter, the network
frequency is decoupled from the mechanical speed of the
machine and variable speed operation is possible, permitting
maximum absorption of wind power. Since power ratings
are a function of slip, DFIGs operate over a range of speeds
between about 0.75 and 1.25 pu of synchronous frequency,
which requires converter power ratings of approximately
25%. A great advantage of the DFIG wind turbine is that it
has the capability to independently control active and
reactive power. Moreover, the mechanical stresses on a
DFIG wind turbine are reduced in comparison to a FSIG.
Due to the decoupling between mechanical speed and
electrical frequency that results from DFIG operation, the
rotor can act as an energy storage system, absorbing torque
pulsations caused by wind gusts . Other advantages of the
DFIG include reduced flicker and acoustic noise in
comparison to FSIGs. The main disadvantages of DFIG
wind turbines in comparison to FSIGs are their increased
capital cost and the need for periodic slip ring maintenance.

International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, Vol. 1, No. 4, October 2010
ISSN: 2010-0264

conversion
b) PM synchronous generator
The scheme of a grid-connected PMSG for direct-drive
wind turbines is shown in Fig. 2. The advantages of PM
machines over electrically excited machines can be
summarized as follows according to literatures:
Higher efficiency and energy yield.
No additional power supply for the magnet field
excitation,
Improvement in the thermal characteristics of the PM
machine due to the absence of the field losses,
Higher reliability due to the absence of mechanical
components such as slip rings,
Lighter and therefore higher power to weight ratio.
However, PM machines have some disadvantages, which
can be summarized as follows:
high cost of PM material,
difficulties to handle in manufacture,
Demagnetization of PM at high temperature.
In recent years, the use of PMs is more attractive than
before, because the performance of PMs is improving and
the cost of PM is decreasing. The trends make PM machines
with a full-scale power converter more attractive for directdrive wind turbines. Considering the performance of PMs is
improving and the cost of PM is decreasing in recent years,
in addition to that the cost of power electronics is
decreasing, variable speed direct-drive PM machines with a
full-scale power converter become more attractive for
offshore wind powers. On the other hand, variable speed
concepts with a full-scale power converter and a single- or
multiple-stage gearbox drive train may be interesting
solutions not only in respect to the annual energy yield per
cost but also in respect to the total weight. For example, the
market interest of PMSG system with a multiple-stage
gearbox or a single-stage gearbox is increasing [38].

Fig. 2. General arrangement of the full variable-speed system.

3) Limited Variable-speed systems


Compared to the squirrel-cage induction generator, the
main difference that the doubly- fed induction generator
configuration provides is the access to the rotor windings,
thereby giving the possibility of impressing the rotor voltage.
With this arrangement, power can be extracted from or fed
to the rotor circuit and the generator can be magnetized
from either the stator circuit or the rotor circuit. Basically
two methods of speed control can be applied to the
induction generator, namely rotor resistance control and
back to back converter control. The effective scheme for
limited variable speed system is back to back converter used
doubly-fed configuration. Fig. 4 shows this topology, the

stator is directly connected to the grid, while the rotor is


connected via slip rings to the converter. The gear ratio is
set so that the nominal speed of the induction generator
corresponds to the middle value of the rotor-speed range of
the turbine. This is done to minimize the size of the inverter,
which will vary with rotor-speed range. A step up
transformer is required between the line side converter and
utility, to match the voltage ratio between the stator and
rotor in the machine. This [38] configuration with two
converters offers many advantages. The main features of
this configuration are listed below:

Fig. 3. General arrangement of limited variable-speed system with Doublyfed configuration.

1. Reduced converter cost, as they have to be rated for


slip power only (typically about 0.25 pu).
2. Converter on the rotor side enables both positive and
negative slip power control through control of rotor current
in phase magnitude and frequency. This allows both sub
synchronous and super-synchronous operation.
3. DC link capacitor acts as a source of reactive power,
which in a way can control power factor on the stator side.
4. Line side converter has ability to work as active filter,
apart from maintaining unity power factor operation and
regulating dc bus voltage.
5. Reduced cost and weight of inverter filter and EMI
filters (to about 0.25pu of total system power). Inverter
harmonics represent a fraction of total system harmonics.
6. System efficiency is better, due to reduced losses in
the converters.
Important developments in the technology of doubly-fed
system occurred in last two decades. With the advances in
power electronic devices and digital signal processors, it is
now feasible to implement complex algorithms such as field
oriented control etc easily. This had lead to new
technologies or grid connected generators using doubly-fed
configuration.
D. According to the orientation of turbines:
A wind turbine is a rotating machine which converts the
kinetic energy in wind into mechanical energy. If the
mechanical energy is used directly by machinery, such as a
pump or grinding stones, the machine is usually called a
windmill There are two great classes of wind turbines,
horizontal and vertical axis machines:[17,18]
1) Horizontal Axis wind turbines (HAWT)
In horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT), the axis of
rotation is parallel to the direction of the wind. There may
be many designs of the horizontal axis windmills.
Depending upon the number of blades these may be

354

International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, Vol. 1, No. 4, October 2010
ISSN: 2010-0264

their design and eliminates the problem imposed by


gyroscopic forces on the rotor of conventional machines as
the turbines yaw into the wind. The vertical axis rotation
also permits mounting the generator and gear at the ground
level.[19] On the negative side VAWT requires guy wires
attached to the top for the support, which may limit its
application particularly for the offshore sites.

classified as single-bladed, double-bladed, three-bladed,


multi-bladed and bicycle-bladed. [12,17]Depending upon
the orientation of the blades with respect to wind direction
these may be classified as up-wind and down-wind type. As
the wind changes direction, all horizontal axis in the wind
machines have some means for keeping the rotor in to wind.
Consequently, either the entire wind machine and its tower,
or the top of the wind machine where the rotor is attached
must change its position relative to the wind. On smaller
wind machines, such as the farm windmill the tail vane
keeps the rotor pointed in to wind regardless of changes in
wind direction. Both tail vanes and fan tails use forces in the
wind itself to orient the rotor upwind of the tower. They
passively change the orientation of the wind turbine with
respect to changes in the wind direction without the use of
human or electrical power. Down wind rotors dont need
tail vanes or fantails. Instead the blades are swept slightly
down wind, giving the spinning rotor the shape of a shallow
cone with its apex at the tower. This coning of the blades
causes the rotor to inherently orient itself down wind.
Advantages of
(HAWT)[11,12]

Axis

wind

turbines

Variable blade pitch, which gives the turbine blades


the optimum angle of attack. Allowing the angle of
attack to be remotely adjusted gives greater control, so
the turbine collects the maximum amount of wind
energy for the time of day and season.
The tall tower base allows access to stronger wind in
sites with wind shear. In some wind shear sites, every
ten meters up, the wind speed can increase by 20% and
the power output by 34%.

Disadvantages of
(HAWT)[11,12]

Horizontal

Advantages of Vertical Axis wind turbines (VAWT)[11,12]

Horizontal

Axis

wind

turbines

HAWTs have difficulty operating in near ground


turbulent winds.

The tall towers and blades up to 90 meters long are


difficult to transport. Transportation can now cost 20%
of equipment costs.

Tall HAWTs are difficult to install, needing very tall


and expensive cranes and skilled operators.

Massive tower construction is required to support the


heavy blades, gearbox, and generator.

Tall HAWTs may affect airport radar.

Their height makes them obtrusively visible across


large areas, disrupting the appearance of the landscape
and sometimes creating local opposition.

Downwind variants suffer from fatigue and structural


failure caused by turbulence.

HAWTs require an additional yaw control mechanism


to turn the blades toward the wind.
2) Vertical Axis wind turbines (VAWT)
In vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT), the axis of
rotation is perpendicular to the direction of wind. These
machines are also called as cross-wind axis machines. Main
designs of vertical axis machines are Savonious rotor and
Darrieus rotor. The principal advantages of VAWT over
conventional HAWT are that VAWT are omni directional,
i.e. they accept the wind from any direction. This simplifies

No massive tower structure is needed.


As the rotor blades are vertical no yaw mechanism is
needed.

A VAWT can be located nearer the ground, making it


easier to maintain the moving parts.

VAWTs have a higher airfoil pitch angle, giving


improved aerodynamics while decreasing drag at low
and high pressures.

Straight bladed VAWT designs with a square or


rectangular crossection have a larger swept area for a
given diameter than the circular swept area of HAWTs.

VAWTs have lower wind startup speeds than HAWTs.


Typically, they start creating electricity at 6 m.p.h. (10
km/h).

VAWTs usually have a lower tip speed ratio and so are


less likely to break in high winds.

VAWTs may be built at locations where taller


structures are prohibited.

VAWTs do not need to turn to face the wind if the


wind direction changes.

VAWT blades are easily seen and avoided by birds.


Disadvantages of Vertical Axis wind turbines
(VAWT)[11,12]

Most VAWTs produce energy at only 50% of the


efficiency of HAWTs in large part because of the
additional drag that they have as their blades rotate
into the wind.

VAWTs do not take advantage of the stronger wind at


higher elevation.

Most VAWTs have low starting torque, and may


require energy to start the turning.

A VAWT that uses guy wires to hold it in place puts


stress on the bottom bearing as all the weight of the
rotor is on the bearing. Guy wires attached to the top
bearing increase downward thrust in wind gusts.
Solving this problem requires a superstructure to hold
a top bearing in place to eliminate the downward
thrusts of gust events in guy wired models.

While VAWTs' parts are located on the ground, they


are also located under the weight of the structure above
it, which can make changing out parts near impossible
without dismantling the structure if not designed
properly.
III. GENERAL REQUIREMENT OF GRID INTERCONNECTION
Thirty six states in US have adopted, and several
Canadian provinces are considering adopting net metering
programs, under which a utility customer can install a small
on-site renewable power generator and sell electricity to the
utility at the same rate at which he purchases it from the

355

International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, Vol. 1, No. 4, October 2010
ISSN: 2010-0264

utility. Net metering programs have substantially improved


the economy of small distributed resources (DR), including
wind power. Although standards exist for large power
plants connected to electric power systems, they fail to
address special requirements for distributed resources. To
provide guidelines for all stakeholders including utilities,
independent power producers, users and equipment
manufacturers, efforts are being made, both in Canada and
internationally, to develop interconnection standards.
Supported by Natural Resources Canada and Industry
Canada, Electro-Federation Canada is developing Canadian
guidelines for connecting small distributed resources to
grids [8].
The guidelines will mainly address the interconnection
issues of inverter based small power generators such as
photovoltaic, wind, fuel cells and micro turbines. IEEE
Standards Coordinating Committee 21 on Fuels,
Photovoltaic, Dispersed Generation, and Energy Storage
had formed working groups to develop IEEE P1547, the
Draft Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources
with Electric Power Systems, and P1589, the Draft Standard
for Conformance Tests Procedures for Equipment
Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power
Systems (EPS).[9]. The major interconnection requirements
for distributed resources can be summarized in the
following three categories: general specifications, safety and
protection, and power quality.
A. General Requirements
Voltage Regulation: A DR shall not cause the voltage at
the Point of Common Coupling (PCC, see Figure 1) to go
outside of Range A specified by Standard ANSI C84.1(or
CSA CAN3-C235-83) [7]. For a 120/240V system, this
specifies a maximum voltage of 126/252V and a minimum
voltage of 114/226V.[9]
Synchronization: When synchronizing, a DR shall not
cause more than +/-5% of voltage fluctuation at the PCC.
Monitoring: A DR of 250 kW or larger shall have
provisions for monitoring connection status and real and
reactive power output at the DR connection.
Isolation Device: A readily accessible, lockable, visiblebreak isolation device shall be located between the DR and
the EPS.
B. Safety and Protection Requirements
Voltage Disturbances: At abnormal voltages, a DR
shall cease to energize the EPS within the specified clearing
time.
Frequency Disturbances: A DR shall cease to energize
the EPS if the frequency is outside the range 59.3-60.5 Hz.
Loss of Synchronism: A DR of 250 kW or larger shall
have loss of synchronism protection function.
Reconnection: A DR may reconnect to the power system
5 min. after the EPS voltage and frequency return to normal.
Unintentional Islanding: A DR shall cease to energize
the EPS within 2 sec. of the formation of an island.[10]
C. Power Quality Requirements
Harmonics: The total demand distortion of a DR, which
is defined as the total rms harmonic current divided by the

maximum demand load current, shall be less than 5%. Each


individual harmonic shall be less than the specified level.
DC Current Injection: A DR shall have a dc current
injection of less than 0.5% of its rated output current.
Flicker: A DR shall not create objectionable flicker for
other customers on the area EPS.
IV. PROBLEMS RELATED WITH GRID CONNECTIONS
In Europe, substantial wind penetration exists today and
will only increase over time. The impacts on the
transmission network are viewed not as an obstacle to
development, but rather as obstacles that must be overcome.
High penetration of intermittent wind power (greater than
20 percent of generation meeting load) and may affect the
network in the following ways and has to be studied in
detail:
A. Poor grid stability
For economic exploitation of wind energy, a reliable grid
is as important as availability of strong winds. The loss of
generation for want of stable grid can be 10% to 20% and
this deficiency may perhaps be the main reasons for low
actual energy output of WEGs compared to the predicted
output in known windy areas with adequate wind data.[22]
B.

Low-frequency operation
Low frequency operation affects the output of WEGs in
two ways. Many WEGs do not get cut-in, when the
frequency is less than 48 Hz (for standard frequency of 50
Hz) through wind conditions are favorable, with consequent
loss in output [22].This deficiency apart, the output of
WEGs at low frequency operation is considerably reduced,
due to reduced speed of the rotor. The loss in output could
be about 5 to 10% on the account of low frequency
operation.
C. Impact of low power factor
WEGs fitted with induction generators need reactive
power for magnetizing. Normally in conventional energy
systems, generators apart from supplying active power will
be supplying a reactive power. But in case of WEGs fitted
with induction generators, instead of supplying reactive
power to the grid, they absorb reactive power from grid,
which undoubtedly is a strain on the grid. Suitable reactive
power compensation [23] may be required to reduce the
reactive power burden on the grid.
D. Power flow
It is to be ensured that the interconnecting transmission
or distribution lines will not be over-loaded. This type of
analysis is needed to ensure that the introduction of
additional generation will not overload the lines and other
electrical equipment. Both active and reactive power
requirements should be investigated.
E. Short circuit
It is required to determine the impact of additional
generation sources to the short circuit current ratings of
existing electrical equipment on the network.

356

International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, Vol. 1, No. 4, October 2010
ISSN: 2010-0264

F. Power Quality
Fluctuations in the wind power may have direct impact
on the quality of power supply. As a result, large voltage
fluctuations may result in voltage variations outside the
regulation limits, as well as violations on flicker and other
power quality standards.
V. AUTONOMOUS POWER SYSTEMS
Hybrid power systems use local renewable resource to
provide power. Village hybrid power systems can range in
size from small household systems (100 Wh/day) to ones
supplying a whole area (10s MWh/day). They combine
many technologies to provide reliable power that is tailored
to the local resources and community. Potential components
include: PV, wind, micro-hydro, river-run hydro, biomass,
batteries and conventional generators.[23] The different
kinds of electrical power generators that might be used to
feed power into a hybrid power system can be connected to
the grid in several different ways shown in figure.4(a), (b),
(c) below.[39]

Figure.5 Power density vs. energy density for different energy storage
devices

Generally, in an autonomous hybrid power system, the


wind/hydro power generators are the main constituents of
the system and are designed to operate in parallel with local
diesel grids to improve the reliability of system. The main
reasons are to obtain economic benefit of no fuel
consumption by wind/hydro turbines, enhancement of
power capacity to meet the increasing demand, to maintain
the continuity of supply in the system, etc. As wind is
highly fluctuating in nature and it will affect the quality of
supply considerably and even may damage the system in the
absence of proper control mechanism.
VI. ECONOMICS OF WIND POWER SYSTEMS

a) Centralized AC-bus model

b) Distributed AC-bus model

c) Centralized DC-bus model


Figure.4 Different Connection of Hybrid Power System with the grid

Energy storage devices, such as supercapacitors,


flywheels, and also electrochemical batteries, are still under
development. This means that in the near future their power
densities and energy density capabilities are going to be
improved. An estimation of the expected power/energy
capabilities for these devices in the near future is shown in
figure 5.

The purpose of all types of energy generation ultimately


depends on the economics. Renewable in general and wind
in particular have seen generation costs falling over recent
years. It is estimated that wind power in many countries is
already competitive with fossil fuel and nuclear power if
social/environmental costs are considered.[23] Installed cost
of wind system is the cost of wind turbine, land, tower, and
its accessories and it accounts less any state or federal tax
credits. This tax credit may be base on how much wind
energy is pumped into the grid or it may be percentage of
installed cost. Maintenance cost of wind system is normally
very small and annual maintenance cost may be about 2% of
total system cost .The cost of financing to purchase the wind
system can add significantly to overall cost of wind system.
In addition there may be some hidden costs like property tax,
insurance of wind system and any accident caused from the
wind system, etc. On the other hand income from the wind
system is the product of annual energy output and per unit
cost of electricity. One of the chief advantages of generating
electricity from wind system over conventional means is
that fuel (wind) is free. The bulk of cost of wind system
occurs once. On the other hand conventional generation
consumes nonrenewable fuels whose cost continues to
escalate. Research and development is going on to make
wind power competitive with fossil fuel and nuclear power
in strict sense, without taking into account of wind powers
social factors such as environment benefits. Efforts are
being made to reduce the cost of wind power by design
improvement, better manufacturing technology, finding new
sites for wind systems, development of better control
strategies (for output and power quality control),
development of policy and instruments, human resource
development, etc.[23]

357

International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, Vol. 1, No. 4, October 2010
ISSN: 2010-0264

VII. LATEST TREND OF WIND POWER GENERATION FROM


OFF SHORE SITES
In Europe, offshore projects are now springing up off the
coasts of Denmark, Sweden, UK, France, Germany,
Belgium, Irelands, Netherlands, and Scotland with
approximate installed capacity of more than 250 MW.
Recently, GE installed a wind turbine of largest capacity of
3.6 MW, having the rotor diameter of 104 meter for off
shore sites. The next generation of off shore wind turbine
will generally fall in the range of 3.5 to 5 MW. Largest off
shore wind plant at Horns Rev of 160 MW installed
capacity consisting of 80 turbines each of 2 MW capacity
[33]. It is situated 54 km from the transmission network.
Plant gets disconnected in case of grid faults, but it
reconnects after few seconds the fault has disappeared.
Some of the wind power plants control functions are
controlled centrally for the entire plant, where as others are
managed by individual turbine. Reactive power can be
controlled centrally or for each turbine, depending on the
limits for intake and consumption. Each turbine has its own
frequency control. In addition, the reactive power can be
controlled locally so that wind power plants total
consumption/intake of reactive power is kept within 16
MVAr at the 34 kV side of wind farm transformer if the
central control is not connected.
VIII. CASE STUDY OF WIND DEVELOPMENT IN THE FIVE
LEADING COUNTRIESThe worlds five leading countries in terms of installed
wind power capacity are: Germany, Spain, United States,
Denmark and India.
Germany: The installed wind power capacity was 48
MW in 1990. It increased to 12 GW in 2002, the largest
amount of installed capacity in the world. According to
industry associations, installed capacity increased to 16.6
GW in 2004.7 Electricity productions from wind turbines
was 18.5 TWh in 2003, more than 3% of Germanys
electricity production. Industry sources estimate electricity
production at 22.6 TWh in 2004. One-third of the worlds
installed wind power is in Germany. In 2002 there were
about 16 000 wind turbines, mostly situated in northern
Germany near the border with Denmark. The impetus for
the German wind power market was the 100 MW
Programme initiated in 1989, which was expanded to 250
MW in 1991. This programme provided grants as well as
remuneration under the Electricity Feed-in Law. The 1991
Feed-in Law is considered the driving force behind the rapid
increase in wind power in Germany. It provided renewable
energy producers up to 90% of the retail price of electricity
for every kWh generated. The Renewable Energy Sources
Act 2000 further strengthened market deployment by
providing an incentive production payment for the first five
years of operation followed by a decreasing output payment
in subsequent years. Investment support provides up to 80%
of total investment costs at low interest rates. Rapid
deployment of wind power is also attributed to changes in
codes that awarded wind farms the same legal rights as
fossil and nuclear power plants. Wind turbines are largely
connected to the grid at low and medium voltages. With the

advent of the feed-in tariffs in 1991 and the spurt of wind


developments that followed, the transmission system
operators had concerns about grid integration reliability and
cost issues. They looked to the government for a solution.
The Renewable Energy Sources Act 2000 consequently
provided for a burden sharing between all network operators
and allocation to their customers. This solution is estimated
to currently add about 12 per year to the average
household electricity bill. The significant growth of onshore
wind power led to collaboration between the transmission
system operators and German research institutions to
develop advanced forecasting and modeling tools for wind
power. Subsequently, the expected extension offshore led to
a more fundamental review of grid extension and upgrade
needs, which culminated in a joint research effort between
German research institutions, grid operators and the
electricity supply industry. German researchers are also
significantly involved in international and European
research programmes on grid integration matters. The
German Government has a target of 20% share of renewable
energy in electricity generation between 2015 and 2020.
Most of this is expected to come from wind power.
Concerns about network integration and infrastructure
capacity to accommodate some 37 GW of wind power by
2015 were the impetus for a federal government and
industry joint-financed report released in February 2005,
Energy Planning for the Integration of Wind Energy in
Germany on Land and Offshore into the Electricity Grid.8
It finds that reinforcement and extension of the grid and
technical solutions for reliability are preconditions for
achieving the envisaged wind power development and
avoiding 20 to 40 million tons of CO2 emissions in 2015. It
would entail about 850 kilometers of new high-voltage lines
and 400 km of grid upgrades at an estimated cost of 1.1
billion. The study cautions that implementation could be
stymied by the planning and legal authorization process for
transmission lines. The study suggests that the additional
cost for the expansion of wind power will be 0.39 0.49
cents per kWh in 2015 for a residential consumer.
Spain: The installed wind power capacity was 2 MW in
1990. It increased to 4.8 GW in 2002, the second largest in
the world. According to industry associations, installed
capacity increased to 8.2 GW in 2004. Electricity
production from wind turbines was 11.5 TWh in 2003.
Industry sources estimate electricity production at 14 TWh
in 2004, about 4% of Spains electricity production. Strong
growth is attributed to local manufacturing of turbines and
policy support through feed-in tariffs and low-interest loans.
An important impetus has come from regional governments
that support the construction of factories and the creation of
local jobs. Three Spanish companies are among the worlds
ten largest manufacturers of wind turbines. Favorable
lending arrangements, in which banks guarantee the cash
flow of the project thereby reducing risks, have been very
effective in increasing wind power. The incentive structures
have favored large wind developments that are connected to
the high voltage transmission network. Weak grid
infrastructure in some areas has inhibited the development
of wind farms. This led to a comprehensive review of
358

International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, Vol. 1, No. 4, October 2010
ISSN: 2010-0264

transmission and distribution requirements by the grid


operator, which is concerned about system impacts from
more large-scale wind farms and the costs of integration. At
present, Spains transmission system interconnections with
neighboring countries are weak so opportunities afforded
through power pools are limited.
United States: The installed wind power capacity was 1
911 MW in 1990. It increased to 4.4 GW in 2002, the third
largest in the world. According to industry associations,
installed capacity increased to 6.7 GW in 2004. Electricity
production from wind turbines was 11.5 TWh in 2003.
Wind power experienced two distinct periods of growth in
the United States. The Public Utility Regulatory Act
(PURPA) in 1978 required utilities to offer long-term power
purchase contracts to private power developers that were
based on the utilities avoided generation costs. There were
also federal and state tax incentives. Most of the early
development occurred in California where utilities had high
marginal costs. In the late 1990s there was a second period
of growth spurred by a combination of federal tax incentives
and policies adopted in several states, e.g., renewable
portfolio standards. The new generation of wind turbine
technology available by then further supported the interest
of utilities. In Texas nearly 1 000 MW of wind power
development were installed in 2001, in part to meet the
states renewable energy portfolio standard. Voluntary
green power marketing programmes have also encouraged
wind power developments, which represent a significant
share of the green power sold in the United States. One of
the federal incentives, the production tax credit (PTC)
dating back to 1992, has been allowed to expire several
times. Its on-again - off-again nature has resulted in boomand-bust cycles for new installed capacity. The PTC was
revived late in 2004 and set to expire at the end of 2005,
which therefore is expected to be a record year for newly
installed capacity. To date, intermittency, per se, has not
been an obstacle to wind projects in the United States. Wind
power developments have been largely in remote areas and
connected to high voltage transmission networks. However,
access to transmission networks and pricing for intermittent
resources has been a hurdle. In 2004, the Federal Energy
Regulatory Commission proposed modifications in the
wholesale electricity market structure that would eliminate
penalties associated with winds variable output when it
does not result in increased costs to the system. This
proposal is currently under consideration. With significant
growth anticipated, the wind energy and electric power
industries, research institutions and the federal government
are working collaboratively to address issues related to the
integration of larger amounts of wind power, including cojoining wind farms with hydropower plants. As an example
of this type of innovation and integrated resource
management, in 2002 the Bonneville Power Administration
(BPA) undertook an extensive R&D effort to evaluate the
costs and opportunities associated with integrating wind
energy into the federal Columbia River hydropower system.
In May 2004, BPA launched two new services that will use
the flexibility of the hydro system to integrate wind energy
into its control area on behalf of electric utilities in the US
Pacific Northwest region.

Denmark: The installed wind power capacity was 343


MW in 1990. It increased to 2.9 GW in 2002, the fourth
largest in the world. Wind turbine capacity represented
21.8% of Denmarks electricity supply in 2002. According
to industry associations, installed capacity increased to 3.1
GW in 2004, but only 2 MW were added that year. Offshore
capacity was 214 MW in 2002, up from 50 MW in 2001.
Electricity production from wind turbines was 5.5 TWh in
2003, about 16% of Denmarks electricity production.
Industry sources estimate electricity production at 6.6 TWh
in 2004, about 19% of electricity production. In Denmark,
each MW of capacity produces an average of 2 129 MWh a
year much more than the world average. Denmark has
successfully and flexibly employed both demand pull and
technology push policy instruments to achieve its wind
power targets. For example, the Ris National Laboratory
established a test station in 1978 for wind turbines that was
responsible for type approvals that were a precondition for
obtaining plant and production subsidies. Ris functioned
as a technological service centre for the nascent Danish
wind turbine industry, whose individual companies at that
point did not have the resources to undertake technological
development. Government RD&D has been directed
towards basic research rather than actual turbine or
component development and had enjoyed a relatively stable
level of support. The technological developments led to
significant growth in demand for wind turbines in the 1990s
in both domestic and export markets. Within Denmark, the
technological advances were coupled with market
deployment strategies building on a policy combination of
feed-in tariffs and subsidies for installation costs. Utilities
were required to connect private wind turbines to the grid.
An agreement was established between utilities, government
and wind turbine owners in the early wind power
development period. Among other features, it established
the grid connection rules, and particularly who should pay.
Grid integration costs are paid by the network and allocated
to all customers. The Danish Government supported wind to
help achieve energy goals and other policy objectives, e.g.,
industrial development and rural employment. Investments
were made in RD&D and learning in a niche market to
improve technology cost and performance. Through the
development years, the Danish state financed the additional
costs involved. Following liberalization of the electricity
market and reflecting the maturing of the wind power
technology, the economic commitment shifted to consumers.
The support scheme is being reorganized and following a
transition period, wind turbines will have to produce on
market terms, but with a bonus that capitalizes on the
environmental and societal benefits of wind power.
Denmark has the highest penetration of wind power in its
electricity supply systems of any country. About 93% of the
wind generation is fed into the distribution networks. Wind
farms in Denmark are generally small clusters in the 10-20
MW range and are widely dispersed across the country,
which means lower volatility of output in the short-term and
therefore less need for balancing power. With this profile,
the variations in output are less than for very large and
isolated wind farms and therefore more manageable for
network operators. In addition, wind power in combination
359

International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, Vol. 1, No. 4, October 2010
ISSN: 2010-0264

with combined heat and power generation, which is


widespread in Denmark, provides some of the needed power
regulation flexibility as the district heating systems can be
used as a short-term energy buffer. As well, the Danish
transmission system has strong interconnections with
Germany and the Nordic countries and participation in the
Nordpool power market is an important means for selling
excess capacity and purchasing additional balancing power
as and when needed. Danish network operators, utilities,
government and research institutions are active in
international and European collaborative research on grid
integration matters.
India: According to the India Wind Association, the
installed wind power capacity was 30 MW in 1990. It
increased to 2 117 MW in 2002, the fifth largest in the
world. Installed capacity increased to 3 000 MW in 2004.
The first wind power development was a government
supported demonstration plant in 1986. India had notable
wind power developments by the late 1990s, largely due to
incentives such an accelerated depreciation allowance of
capital costs and exemptions from excise duties and sales
taxes, and regionally administered feed-in tariffs. A tax
rebate of 80% on the income from power generation for the
first ten years of operation has encouraged commercial
investment, as has the attraction of power supply for use in
businesses. Since the first demonstration plant, some 2 052
MW of installed wind capacity has been developed by
commercial interests. In some cases they are not well
integrated as the wind turbines produce more power that the
weak distribution system can handle. The government
Centre of Wind Energy Technology (C-WET) in Chennai is
a specialized institution for research and development,
standardization, testing and certification, along with
resource assessment. Ris National Laboratory provided
technical assistance for its establishment. With rapid growth
in wind power development in the 1990s, the capacity of the
grids in the wind farm regions in TamilNadu and Gujarat
was insufficient to accommodate the wind power. It caused
frequent outages of the grid and reduced the return from the
wind farms. In 1998, Ris and C-WET collaborated on a
research project to study wind power integration in weak
grids in India. India has developed indigenous wind energy
equipment manufacturing with a capacity of about 1 000
MW per year.

Islands)
Italy

1,718

2,123

2,726

France

757

1,567

2,454

United Kingdom

1,332

1,963

2,389

10

Portugal

1,022

1,716

2,150

11

Canada

683

1,459

1,856

12

Netherlands

1,219

1,560

1,747

13

Japan

1,061

1,394

1,538

14

Austria

819

965

982

15

Greece

573

746

871

16

Australia

708

817

824

17

Ireland

496

745

805

18

Sweden

510

572

788

19

Norway

267

314

333

20

New Zealand

169

171

322

21

Egypt

145

230

310

22

Belgium

167

193

287

23

Taiwan

104

188

282

24

Poland

83

153

276

25

Brazil

29

237

247

26

South Korea

98

173

191

27

Turkey

20

51

146

28

Czech Republic

28

50

116

29

Morocco

64

124

114

30

Finland

82

86

110

31

Ukraine

77

86

89

32

Mexico

88

87

33

Costa Rica

71

74

74

34

Bulgaria

36

70

35

Iran

23

48

66
65

36

IX. UTILIZATION OF WIND POWER


TABLE-1

Hungary

18

61

Rest of Europe

129

163

Rest of Americas

109

109

Rest of Asia

38

38

Rest of Africa &


Middle East

31

31

Rest of Oceania

12

12

World total (MW)

59,091

74,223

TABLE-2

Installed windpower capacity (MW)[25,26,27]


Ra
nk

Nation

2005

2006

2007

Germany

18,415

20,622

22,247

United States

9,149

11,603

16,818

Spain

10,028

11,615

15,145

India

4,430

6,270

8,000

China

1,260

2,604

6,050

Denmark (& Faeroe

3,136

3,140

3,129

360

93,849

International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, Vol. 1, No. 4, October 2010
ISSN: 2010-0264

TABLE-3

while wind turbine production has expanded to many


countries all over the world.
There are now many thousands of wind turbines
operating, with a total capacity of 73,904 MW of which
wind power in Europe accounts for 65% (2006). Wind
power was the fastest growing energy source at the end of
2004. World wind generation capacity more than
quadrupled between 2000 and 2006. 81% of wind power
installations are in the US and Europe, but the share of the
top five countries in terms of new installations fell from
71% in 2004 to 62% in 2006.
In 2007, the countries with the highest total installed
capacity were Germany, the United States, Spain, India, and
China (see chart).
By 2010, the World Wind Energy Association expects
160GW of capacity to be installed worldwide,[50] up from
73.9 GW at the end of 2006, implying an anticipated net
growth rate of more than 21% per year.
X. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF WIND POWER
Compared to the environmental effects of traditional
energy sources, the environmental effects of wind power are
relatively minor. Wind power consumes no fuel, and emits
no air pollution, as do fossil fuel power sources. The energy
consumed to manufacture and transport the materials used
to build a wind power plant is equal to the new energy
produced by the plant within a few months of operation.
Garrett Gross, a scientist from UMKC in Kansas City,
Missouri states, "The impact made on the enviroment is
very little when compared to what is gained." The initial
carbon dioxide emission from energy used in the installation
is "paid back" within about 9 months of operation for off
shore turbines.

TABLE-4

Table 2,3,4 above shows Annual Wind Power Generation (TWh) / Total
electricity consumption(TWh)[28,29,30,31] for the year 2005,2006&2007
respectively.

The modern wind power industry began in 1979 with the


serial production of wind turbines by Danish manufacturers
Kuriant, Vestas, Nordtank, and Bonus. These early turbines
were small by today's standards, with capacities of 20 to 30
kW each. Since then, they have increased greatly in size,

Danger to birds and bats is often the main complaint against


the installation of a wind turbine. However, studies show
that the number of birds killed by wind turbines is negligible
compared to the number that die as a result of other human
activities, and especially the environmental impacts of using
non-clean power sources. Bat species appear to be at risk
during key movement periods. Almost nothing is known
about current populations of these species and the impact on
bat numbers as a result of mortality at wind power locations.
Offshore wind sites 10 km or more from shore do not
interact with bat populations. While a wind farm may cover
a large area of land, many land uses such as agriculture are
compatible, with only small areas of turbine foundations and
infrastructure made unavailable for use.
Aesthetics have also been a concern. The Massachusetts
Cape Wind project was delayed for years mainly because of
aesthetic concerns. Wind power consumes no fuel for
continuing operation, and has no emissions directly related
to electricity production. Operation does not produce carbon
dioxide, sulfur dioxide, mercury, particulates, or any other
type of air pollution, as do fossil fuel power sources. Wind
power plants consume resources in manufacturing and
construction. During manufacture of the wind turbine, steel,
concrete, aluminum and other materials will have to be
made and transported using energy-intensive processes,
361

International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, Vol. 1, No. 4, October 2010
ISSN: 2010-0264

generally using fossil energy sources. The initial carbon


dioxide emissions "pay back" is within about 9 months of
operation for off shore turbines.[34]
Unlike fossil fuel and nuclear power stations, which
circulate or evaporate large amounts of water for cooling,
wind turbines do not need water to generate electricity.
However, leaking lubricating oil or hydraulic fluid running
down turbine blades may be scattered over the surrounding
area, in some cases contaminating drinking water areas.
Clearing of wooded areas is often unnecessary. Farmers
commonly lease land to companies building wind farms. In
the U.S., farmers may receive annual lease payments of two
thousand to five thousand dollars per turbine. The land can
still be used for farming and cattle grazing[35]
As the number of offshore wind farms increase and move
further into deeper water, the question arises if the ocean
noise that is generated due to mechanical motion of the
turbines and other vibrations which can be transmitted via
the tower structure to the sea, will become significant
enough to harm sea mammals. Tests carried out in Denmark
for shallow installations showed the levels were only
significant up to a few hundred metres. However, sound
injected into deeper water will travel much further and will
be more likely to impact bigger creatures like whales which
tend to use lower frequencies than porpoises and seals. A
recent study found that wind farms add 80110 dB to the
existing low-frequency ambient noise (under 400 Hz),
which could impact baleen whales communication and
stress levels, and possibly prey distribution [36]While some
tourism officials predict wind farms will damage tourism,
some wind farms have themselves become tourist attractions.
[37].
Impact on wildlife- Danger to birds is often the main
complaint against the installation of a wind turbine.
However, studies show that the number of birds killed by
wind turbines is negligible compared to the number that die
as a result of other human activities such as traffic, hunting,
power lines and high-rise buildings, the [38]introduction of
feral and roaming domestic cats and especially the
environmental impacts of using non-clean power sources.
For example, in the UK, where there are several hundred
turbines, about one bird is killed per turbine per year;
10 million per year are killed by cars alone. In the United
States, turbines kill 70,000 birds per year, compared to
57 million killed by cars, 97.5 million killed by collisions
with plate glass, and hundreds of millions killed by cats. An
article in Nature stated that each wind turbine kills on
average 0.03 birds per year, or one kill per thirty turbines.
XI. CONCLUSIONS
An attempt has been made in this paper to discusses
number of issues related to the power generation from
WECs, i.e. factors affecting wind power, their classification,
choice of generators, main design considerations in wind
turbine design, problems related with grid connections,
wind-diesel autonomous hybrid power systems, reactive
power control of wind system, environmental aspects of
power generation, latest trend of wind power generation
from off shore sites. Today wind power accounts for about

0.4% of worlds electricity demand. And there is a target


estimated by EWEA to reach wind power generation nearly
12% of the worlds electricity supply by 2020, which needs
strong political commitment worldwide wind energy
industry could install an estimated 1200, 000 MW by 2020,
which needs global exploitation of available wind potential
and to generate power from off shore sites.
REFERENCES
[1]

Gipe, P. (1995) Wind power, Chelsea Green Publishing Company,


Post Mills, Vermount, USA.
[2] Rai, G.D. (2000) Non conventional energy sources, Khanna
Publishers, 4th Edition, New Delhi (India)
[3] Hunter, R., and Elliot, G. (1994) Wind-diesel systems, a guide to the
technology and its implementation, Cambridge University Press,
Great Britain.
[4] Wind Power: Capacity Factor, Intermittency, and what happens when
the wind doesnt blow? Retrieved 24 January 2008.
[5] Wind Power in Ontario these wind farms have capacity factors of
about 28 to 35%. International Energy Agency, Wind Annual report
2000, May 2001.
[6] The power of multiples: Connecting wind farms can make a more
reliable and cheaper power source" (2007-11-21).
[7] R. Mittal, K.S. Sandhu and D.K. Jain ,Sustainable Growth Through
Wind Energy for Distributed Generation, Proceddings of National
conference on Current Trends in Electrical Engineering-08, Bhatinda,
2008,pp-35-38.
[8] Archer, C. L.; Jacobson, M. Z. (2007), "Supplying Baseload Power
and Reducing Transmission Requirements by Interconnecting Wind
Farms", Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology (American
MeteorologicalSociety)46(11):17011717,
[9] Vries, E.D. (2002) On a grand scale: the worlds largest commercial
wind prototypeRenewable Energy World, Vol. 5, No. 5, pp. 70-75.
[10] National Electrical Manufactureers Association,ANSI C 84.11995,Electrical Power System and Equipment-VoltagRegulation,1995
[11] Draft Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with
Electric Power Systems, IEEE std. P1547/07.
[12] Ahmad Y Hassan, Donald Routledge Hill (1986). Islamic Technology:
An illustrated history, p. 54. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521-42239-6.
[13] Donald Routledge Hill, "Mechanical Engineering in the Medieval
Near East", Scientific American, May 1991, p. 64-69. (cf. Donald
Routledge Hill, Mechanical Engineering
[14] Bansal, R.C., Bhatti, T.S., and Kothari, D.P. (2002) On some of the
design aspects of wind energy conversion systems, Int. Journal of
Energy Conversion and Management, Nov. Vol. 43, No. 16, pp. 21752187.
[15] Johnson, G.L. (1978) Economic design of wind electric generators,
IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, March/April,
Vol. PAS-97, No. 2, pp. 554-562.
[16] Jayadev, T.S. (1976) Windmills stage a comeback, Nov., IEEE
Spectrum, pp. 45-49..International Journal of Emerging Electric Power
Systems Vol. 3 [2005], No. 2, Article 1070
[17] Muller, S., Deicke, M., and Doncker, R.W.D. (2002) Doubly fed
induction generator systems, IEEE Industry Applications Magzine,
May/June, pp. 26- 33.
[18] Singh, B. (1995) Induction generator-a prospective, Electric
Machines and Power Systems, Vol. 23, pp. 163-177.
[19] Rajveer Mittal, K.S.Sandhu, D.K.Jain ,Controlled Operation of
Variable Speed Driven PMSG for Wind Energy Conversion System,
published in WSEAS Transactions on Systems, issue 2, vol.8, 2009,
pp-189-199.
[20] Rajveer Mittal, K.S.Sandhu, D.K.Jain ,Ride-through Capability of
Grid Interfaced Variable Speed Driven PMSG for Wind Energy
Conversion System, published in an International conference on
Energy
&
Envirionment,
March-19-21,
2009
held
at
Chandigarh(ENVIROENERGY-2009) pp-406-412
[21] Bansal, R.C., Bhatti, T.S., and Kothari, D.P. (2001) Some aspects of
grid
connected
wind
electric
energy
conversion
system,Interdisciplinary Journal of Institution on Engineers (India),
May, Vol. 82, pp. 25-28.
[22] Saad-Saund, Z., Lisboa, M.L., Ekanayka, J.B., Jenkins, N. and Strbac,
G. (1998) Application of Statcoms to Wind farms, IEE proceedings-

362

International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, Vol. 1, No. 4, October 2010
ISSN: 2010-0264

[23]
[24]
[25]
[26]
[27]
[28]
[29]
[30]
[31]
[32]
[33]
[34]

[35]
[36]
[37]
[38]

Generation, Transmission and Distribution, Sept. Vol. 145, No. 5, pp.


511-516.
Beurskens, J. and Jensen, P.H. (2001) Economics of wind
energyprospects and directions, Renewable Energy World, Vol. 4, No.
4, pp. 103-121.
Bonefeld, J. and Jensen, J.N. (2002) Horns Rev- 160 MW offshore
wind, Renewable Energy World, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 77-87.
"Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC) statistics" (PDF).
"European Wind Energy Association (EWEA) statistics" (PDF)
Global installed wind power capacity (MW) Global Wind Energy
Council 6.2.2008
http://www.sp.com.cn/sjdl/sjdltj/sjdltj0612.htm
http://www.sp.com.cn/sjdl/sjdltj/sjdltj0512.htm
Energy Information Administration - International Electricity
Generation Data
International Electricity Consumption
The World Factbook - Rank Order - Electricity - consumption
Vestas: Life Cycle Assessments (LCA)". Retrieved on 2008-02-13.
RENEWABLE ENERGY Wind Powers Contribution to Electric
Power Generation and Impact on Farms and Rural Communities
(GAO-04-756). United States Government Accountability Office
(September 2004). Retrieved on 2006-04-21.
"Ocean Noise: What We Learned in 2006"". Acoustic Ecology
Institute. Retrieved on 2008-01-15
"Tourism blow for windfarm". Sunday Mirror (2003-05-30). Retrieved
on 2008-09-06.
C V Nayar, Stand Alone Wind/Diesel/Battery Hybrid Energy
Systems, Wind Engineering Journal, Vol.21, No.1, pp 13-19, 1997
"Cats Indoors! The American Bird Conservancy's Campaign for Safer
Birds and Cats". National Audubon Society. Retrieved on 2008-08-25.

BIOGRAPHIES
Rajveer Mittal received his B.E degree in Electrical
Engineering from R.E.C, Kurukshetra ,Haryana, India in
1987, the M.E degree in Electrical Engineering
(Instrumentation & Control) from Delhi College of
Engineering, Delhi University, Delhi, India in 2003, and is currently
pursuing the Ph.D. degree in the research area of Power Quality Studies of
Wind Energy Systems of Electrical Engineering from N.I.T, Kurukshetra ,
Haryana, India. Currently, he is working as a Asst.Prof. in EEE Department
with the Maharaja Agrasen Institute of Technology, Rohini, Delhi under
GGSIP University , Delhi, India. His research interests include power
quality, motor drives, and Renewable energy.

Dr.K.S.Sandhu received the B.Sc. Engg. (Electrical), M.


Sc. (Electrical) and PhD (Electrical Machines) degrees from
Regional Engineering College, Kurukshetra University,
India in 1981, 1985 and 2001, respectively. He joined the
Electrical Engineering Department of Regional Engineering
College, Kurukshetra, as Lecturer in January 1983. Currently, he is
Professor in Electrical Engineering Department, National Institute of
Technology, Kurukshetra India His areas of interest include electrical
machines, wind energy conversion, power quality, power systems and
artificial intelligence

Dr.D.K.Jain received his B.Tech, M.Tech and Ph.D.


degree in Electrical Engineering from R.E.C, Kurukshetra,
India. Currently, he is working as Director Guru Prem Sukh
Memorial College of engineering under GGSIP University,
Delhi, India. His research interests include electric power
quality, motor drives, and renewable energy systems.

363