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Construction Cost Calculation

Guestlecture at Namibia University


of Science and Technology
m
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thomas Krause
Aachen University of Applied Sciences
Department of Civil Engineering
Construction Management
November 2016
based on a presentation of Prof.Dr.-Ing. Stefan Plaum
University of Applied Science Wiesbaden

Manufacturing Technology
Building site facilities - Planning

Construction Cost Calculation

Manufacturing Technology
Building site facilities - Planning

Construction Cost Calculation

Manufacturing Technology
Building site facilities - Planning

Construction Cost Calculation

Manufacturing Technology
Building site facilities Container Acc.

Construction Cost Calculation

Manufacturing Technology
Building site facilities Container Acc.
General requirements

Construction Cost Calculation

Manufacturing Technology
Building site facilities Container Acc.

Construction Cost Calculation

Manufacturing Technology
Building site facilities Container Acc.

Construction Cost Calculation

Manufacturing Technology
Building site facilities Traffic development
Outside building site
Connection to public roads
Insidie building site
Constructional needed ways
Bypass
Passage
Cul-de-sac

Construction Cost Calculation

Manufacturing Technology
Building site facilities Traffic development
Route planning has to be done in a way, that the building

process is not handicapped.

The road has to be constructed to withstand all possible

loads and stresses.

10

Construction Cost Calculation

Manufacturing Technology
Building site facilities Traffic development
Route Planning
Lorries can drive to their unload area
Lorries have to reach the pivoting range of the crane in
order to get unload by the crane
Distance between ways and the building in order to keep
space for storage and working areas
Proper safety distances to machinery, scaffolds,
Containers, excavated areas, etc.
11

Construction Cost Calculation

Manufacturing Technology
Building site facilities Electrical Power
The consumption if electricity has to be determined
Remarkable machinery
Cranes

Concrete compaction machines


Drilling maschines
Grinders
Buzzsaw
Compressor
Lighting
12

Etc.

Construction Cost Calculation

Manufacturing Technology
Building site facilities Water
Consumption of water per worker
20 to 30 ltr. per worker and day
Consumption of water for concrete and mortar
100 to 250 ltr. per m
Additional consumption
For clearence of machinery, moistening of concrete and formwork

13

etc. you have to add a percentage of 20 to 25 % to the total


consumption of water
Losses
Percentage of 10 to 20 % on top in order to compensate the losses
Construction Cost Calculation
of water

Manufacturing Technology
Building site facilities Storage and working

areas
In general for
Masonary
Bent Steel

Steel mat
Precast elements (steel or concrete)
Formwork
Steel beams or wooden beams
Pipes
14

Etc.

Construction Cost Calculation

Manufacturing Technology
Building site facilities Storage and working

areas
Storage areas shall
Have a vehicle access
Be placed in the cranes pivoting range

Be placed with a small distance to their point of use


Ensure, that the materials are not pollute or harmed
Ensure, that they can easily be picked up by the crane

15

Construction Cost Calculation

Manufacturing Technology
Building site facilities Storage and working

areas

16

Construction Cost Calculation

Manufacturing Technology
Building site facilities Storage and working

areas

17

Construction Cost Calculation

Manufacturing Technology
Building site facilities Storage and working

areas

18

Construction Cost Calculation

Manufacturing Technology
Cranes and Hoisting
Requirements
Pivoting range shall reach the whole construction site as

well as the storage areas


Necessary height is addicted to the height of the building
Necessary scope is addicted to the area of the
constrcution site
Necessary lifting force is addicted to the maximum loed
(e.g. the weight of a concrete bucket or precast elements)
Out of this the important properties are besides the type
of the crane its height, scope and lifting force
19

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Cranes and Hoisting
Cranes are the main hoisting machines in building

construction for the horizontal and the vertical


movement of loads
Depending on the requirements of the construction site
there are many different types of cranes available
They are classificated out of their different booms, their
different mobility and flexibility, their different
installation processes etc.
20

Construction Cost Calculation

Manufacturing Technology
Cranes and Hoisting
Types of cranes

Types of booms

Derrickcrane

Needle boom

Bridge Crane

Balance beam boom

Gantry Crane

Trolley boom

Cableway Crane

Buckling boom

Pontoon Crane
Cantilever Crane
Revolving tower Crane
Mobile truck crane
21

Climbing Crane

Construction Cost Calculation

Manufacturing Technology
Cranes and Hoisting
Gantry Crane
Similar to a bridge cr.
Supports are movable
on rails
Main usage:
Iron factories
Precastelement
factories
Narrow excavation
areas
22

Construction Cost Calculation

Manufacturing Technology
Cranes and Hoisting
Cableway Crane

23

Construction Cost Calculation

Manufacturing Technology
Cranes and Hoisting

24

Cableway Crane
Two steel or wooden towers with
a distance of 100 to 1000 m
Towers are connected with steel
ropes
In addition there is one steel rope
with a trolley for the load
movement
Facts:
Maximum load 2 to 200 to
Cost Calculation
Height 10 to 200 Construction
m

Manufacturing Technology
Cranes and Hoisting
Mobile truck Crane

25

Construction Cost Calculation

Manufacturing Technology
Cranes and Hoisting
Revolving tower Crane
Revolving on

the ground

26

Construction Cost Calculation

Manufacturing Technology
Cranes and Hoisting
Revolving tower Crane
Transportation

27

Construction Cost Calculation

Manufacturing Technology
Cranes and Hoisting
Revolving tower Crane
Installation

28

Construction Cost Calculation

Manufacturing Technology
Cranes and Hoisting
Revolving tower Crane
Revolving on

the top

29

Construction Cost Calculation

Manufacturing Technology
Cranes and Hoisting
Rules of thumb
Pouring of concrete with a crane: 15 20 workers

can be served by one crane


If the concrete is pumped, one crane can serve
about 25 30 workers
Performance of one crane in case of mounting
precast elements: 1000 to 1400 to per crane and
month
30

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Cranes and Hoisting
Rules of thumb
Pumping of concrete and usage of formwork

systems: one crane can tranport enough material to


construct 3000 4000 m building volume per
month
If all transport including the pouring of concrete
with a bucket are done by the crane, the building
volume per month decreases to 2000 m
31

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Cranes and Hoisting
Rules of thumb
Furthermore and in addition to the mentioned

rules above the number of cranes is addicted to the


construction time and the geometry of the building
Important notice:
Proper planning of the building site facilities in
order to reduce the necessary number of cranes

32

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks In general
For doing the necessary earthworks on a

construction site there are many different machines


required
Depending on the requirements of the construction
area you have to decide beforehand which types of
machines have to bu used to fulfill your contract

33

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks In general
Main conversion formulas for earthworks:
Keep always on your mind, that the volume of soil

to be excavated will increase from the volume of


the soil while it is staying in the ground (compact
mass) to the volume of the soil after being
excavated (loose mass).
Out of this fact, you have to enlarge the calculated
volume of the soil staying in the ground by a factor
for the loosening up.
34

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks In general
Main conversion formulas for earthworks:
Determination of the loose mass

(100 + % )
=
100
wherein
lm = loose mass
cm = compact mass
lf = loosening factor
3

35

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks In general
Main conversion formulas for earthworks:
Determination of the loose mass - Example

How much loose mass results out of 2000 m


compact mass of Granit. Loosening factor is given
with 65 %.

36

= 2000

100 + 65 %
100

Construction Cost Calculation

= 3300 [3 ]
Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks In general
Main conversion formulas for earthworks:
Determination of the compact mass

100
=
(100 + % )
wherein
lm = loose mass
cm = compact mass
lf = loosening factor
3

37

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks In general
Main conversion formulas for earthworks:
Determination of the compact mass - Example

How much compact mass results out of 1800 m


loose mass of a sand gravel mixture. Loosening
factor is given with 12 %.

38

= 1800

100

= 1607 [3 ]
(100 + 12 [%]

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks In general
Main conversion formulas for earthworks:
Remarkable loosening factors

39

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks In general
Main conversion formulas for earthworks:
Remarkable loosening factors

40

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks - Transport
Economical transport of excavated soil
Excavator

41

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks - Transport
Economical transport of excavated soil
Bulldozer

42

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks - Transport
Economical transport of excavated soil
Wheel loader

43

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks - Transport
Economical transport of excavated soil
Wheeled Bulldozer

44

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks - Transport
Economical transport of excavated soil
Dragline excavator

45

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks - Transport
Economical transport of excavated soil
Scraper

46

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks - Transport
Economical transport of excavated soil
Excavator-Lorry

47

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator

48

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
In general

Diesel Engine

Exhaust pipe

Hydraulic pump

Engine Cooler
Cabine
49

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
In general

Pathways

50

Hydraulik cylinders

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Booms

Longreach
Adjustable
Split
Monobloc
51

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Booms

Longreach

52

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Booms

Adjustable

53

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Booms

Adjustable

54

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Booms

Monobloc

55

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Booms

Monobloc

56

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Booms Digging arc

Monobloc

57

Construction Cost Calculation

Adjustable

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Shovels and

attachment parts

58

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Shovels and

attachment parts - Buckets


Rock-backhoe/
Deep digging bucket

59

Backhoe/ Deep
digging bucket

Construction Cost Calculation

Ditch bucket

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Shovels and

attachment parts - Buckets


Ditch bucket
adjustable

60

Drainage bucket

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Shovels and

attachment parts - Grippers

Poly-Gripper

61

Drainage Gripper

Construction Cost Calculation

Clamshell bucket

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Shovels and

attachment parts - Grippers

Round Gripper

62

Discharge
Gripper

Construction Cost Calculation

Log Gripper

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Shovels and

attachment parts - Specials

Hydraulic kammer

63

Magnet plate

Construction Cost Calculation

Reizahn

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Shovels and

attachment parts - Specials

Drill rig

64

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Shovels and

attachment parts

65

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Shovels and

attachment parts

66

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Main types of excavators Mini excavator

67

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Main types of excavators Mobile excavator

68

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Main types of excavators Mobile excavator

Claws

Shield

Undercarriage
69

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Main types of excavators Mobile excavator

Shield
70

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Main types of excavators Mobile excavator

Claws
71

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Main types of excavators Crawler excavator

72

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Main types of excavators Crawler excavator

Crawler track

73

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Main types of excavators Crawler excavator

74

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Calculation of Performance

Rule of Thumb Tabular form


Performance per 60 min/h, Volume of bucket 0,5 3,5 m [lm]
OCT

75

OC
/h

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Calculation of Performance

Precise determination of the performance - Formula

= /
wherein

76

Q = Performance in m/h [lm]


V = Volume of bucket in m [lm]
OC/h = Operation cycles/ hour
Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Calculation of Performance

Precise determination of the performance - Formula


An operation cycle equals the time, the excavator needs to
dig, pivot and dump
In general a operation cycle includes the following steps
1. Digging and filling of the bucket
2. Pivot to the dumping area
3. Dump
4. Pivot back to excavating area
77

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Calculation of Performance

Precise determination of the performance - Formula


The operation cycle of an excavator is influenced by many

parameters
An investigation of those parameters and their influence on

the operation cycle is essential for the applicable


determination of the performance of the excavator
78

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Calculation of Performance

OCT - Influencing parameters


1. Basic operation cycle time

Device category [hp]


up to 150 hp
150 to 350 hp
More than 350 hp
79

OCT [min]
0,25
0,30
0,35

Construction Cost Calculation

The basic
operation cycle
time is the time
needed for one
operation cycle
based on
optimum
conditions.
Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Calculation of Performance

OCT - Influencing parameters


2. Usage factors [in minutes per hour]
60 min/h = 1,00
55 min/h = 0,91
50 min/h = 0,83
45 min/h = 0,75
40 min/h = 0,67
80

The usage factor takes into account,


that a excavator could never work
the whole time of a day. This fact
depends e.g. on rest times of the
operator.

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Calculation of Performance

OCT - Influencing parameters


3. Additional time out of the soil class

81

Depending on
Soil class
Time [min] the hardness of
the soil or rock,
Easy detachable soil
0,000
which should be
Medium detachable soil
0,025
excavated, you
Hard detachable soil
0,045
have to take
Easy detachable rock
0,075
some additional
Hard detachable rock
Blast
time into
Construction Cost Calculation
account.
Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Calculation of Performance

OCT - Influencing parameters


4. Additional time out of digging depth and lift height

Digging depth + lift height


Up to 2,00 m
Up to 4,00 m
Up to 6,00 m
Up to 8,00 m
Up to 10,00 m
82

Time [min]
0,00
0,03
0,06
0,09
0,12

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Calculation of Performance

OCT - Influencing parameters


5. Additional time for dumping

Dumping conditions
Perfect, laterally dumping

no precise dumping,
pivoting range 60-90
Good, dumping on a lorry,
suitable dimension,
pivoting range 60-90
83

The performance
Time [min] of an excavator
depends
seriously on the
way of dumping.
0,00
Out of this, you
have to plan this
beforehand.
0,03

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Calculation of Performance

OCT - Influencing parameters


5. Additional time for dumping

Dumping conditions

Time [min]

Difficult, careful dumping

precise dumping,
pivoting range 90-180

84

0,06

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Calculation of Performance
Additional influencing parameters concerning performance
Filling factors of the bucket

Soil or Rock
Mixed grounds
Mixed rock and soil
Rock
Broken material
85

Filling factor [%]


110-130
90-120
50-90
80-95
Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Calculation of Performance
Additional influencing parameters concerning performance
Filling factors of the bucket

Soil or Rock
Sand, gravel (dry)
Sand, gravel (moist)
Clay (dry)
Clay (moist)
86

Filling factor [%]


85-95
90-110
80-100
100-120
Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator

Example 1
Given: Hydraulic excavator (164 hp)
Volume of bucket [vb] = 1,50 m
Dumping on a lorry, pivot range 60
Digging depth and lift height =4,00 m
Sand-gravel mixture, hard detachable
Filling factor [ff] = 110%
Usage factor = 0,67
Determine the performance of the excavator
87

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator

Example 1
Calculation:
1. Effective bucket capacity

110%
1,5
= 1,65 3
100

88

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator

Example 1
Calculation:
2. Operation cycle time

Basic operation cycle time =


Hard detachable soil =
Digging depth/lift height 4 m=
Dumping on a lorry =
OCT =
89

Construction Cost Calculation

0,300 min
0,045 min
0,030 min
0,030 min
0,405 min
Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator

Example 1
Calculation:
3. Operation cycles per hour
Usage factor = 0,67 =
OCT =

40 min
0,405 min

40
[ ]

= /

0,405
[]

90

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator

Example 1
Calculation:
4. Performance of the excavator
Effective bucket capacity =
Operation cycles per hour =

1,65 m [lm]
98 OC/h

1,65 98
= 161,70 3 []/

91

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator

Example 1
Calculation:
5. What does it mean?
The performance of the excavator has been
determined to 161.70 m [lm]/h
With taking account of a loosening factor of 12 %
for a sand-gravel mixture this performance
corresponds to a performance of 142,30 m [cm]/ h
92

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator

Example 1
Calculation:
5. What does it mean?
This means, with the given excavator it is possible to
dig a hole in the dimension of 11,00 m x 11,00 m x
1,20 m.
It will be roughly enough to do all excavation works
for a house with the dimensions of 10,00 m x 10,00
m in only one hour.
93

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator

Example 2
Given: Trenchlength = 1000 m
Construction time = 10 h
Cross section of the trench = 1,50 m
Sandy-loam, loosening = 30%
Usage factor = 50 min/h
Sought: Suitable excavator
94

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator

Example 2
Calculation:
1. Excavation length per hour

1000,00 []

= 100
10 [ ]

95

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator

Example 2
Calculation:
2. Loose mass per meter excavation

3
1,50 1,00 = 1,50
[]

3
1,50 1,30 = 1,95
[]

96

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator

Example 2
Calculation:
3. Amount of loose mass to be excavated in one hour

3
1,95
100 = 195
[]

97

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator

Example 2
Calculation:
4. Necessary performance of the excavator

3
3
195

= 234

0,83 [ ]

The excavator must have a performance of 234 m/h.


98

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator

Example 2
Calculation:
5. Choose of the excavator
Necessary performance = 234 m/h
Given:
Sondy-loam, filling factor = 125 %
Laterally dumping
Digging depth and lift height = 6,00 m
Medium detachable soil
99

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator

Example 2
Calculation:
5. Choose of the excavator
Performance per 60 min/h, Volume of bucket 0,5 3,5 m [lm]
OCT

100

OC
/h

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator

Example 2
Calculation:
5. Choose of the excavator

Out of the table:


OCT = 0,30 min
Volume of bucket = 1,50 m
Performance = 300 m/h
101

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator

Example 2
5. Choose of the excavator
Calculation:
a. Effective bucket capacity

125%
1,5
= 1,875 3
100

102

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator

Example 2
5. Choose of the excavator
Calculation:
b. Operation cycle time
Basic operation cycle time =
Medium detachable soil =
Digging depth/lift height 6 m=
OCT =
103

Construction Cost Calculation

0,300 min
0,025 min
0,060 min
0,385 min
Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator

Example 2
5. Choose of the excavator
Calculation:
c. Operation cycles per hour
Usage factor = 0,83 = 50 min
OCT =
0,385 min

50
[ ]

= /

0,385
[]

104

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator

Example 2
5. Choose of the excavator
Calculation:
d. Performance of the excavator
Effective bucket capacity =
Operation cycles per hour =

1,725 m [lm]
129 OC/h

1,875 129
= 241,875 3 []/

105

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator

Example 2
5. Choose of the excavator
Calculation:

Calculated performance =
is greater then
Necessary performance =

241,875 m/h [lm]


234,000 m/h [lm]

The chosen excavator is suitable


106

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Amusement

107

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Amusement

108

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Amusement

109

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Amusement

110

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Amusement

111

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Amusement

112

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Amusement

113

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Amusement

114

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Amusement

115

Construction Cost Calculation

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Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Amusement

116

Construction Cost Calculation

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Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Amusement

117

Construction Cost Calculation

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Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Amusement

118

Construction Cost Calculation

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Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Amusement

119

Construction Cost Calculation

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Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Amusement

120

Construction Cost Calculation

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Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Amusement

121

Construction Cost Calculation

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Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Excavator
Amusement

122

Construction Cost Calculation

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Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Wheel Loaders

123

Construction Cost Calculation

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Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Wheel Loaders

124

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Wheel Loaders
In general
Static tipping load
The static tipping load is the weight in the centre of

gravity of the payload in the shovel, at which the rear


wheels get off of the ground. It is measured at the
maximum steering angle.
Payload
The payload depends directly on the static tipping load.
The payload of wheel loaders must not exceed 50 % of
the static tipping load (dynamic tipping load).
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Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Wheel Loaders

126

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Wheel Loaders
In general
To determine the loading of the wheel loader, you have

to calculate the weight of the maximum filled shovel.


Therefore you need the bulk weight of your material.
Bulk weights in tonnes per m

127

Construction Cost Calculation

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Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Wheel loaders
Amusement

128

Construction Cost Calculation

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Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Wheel loaders
Amusement

129

Construction Cost Calculation

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Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Wheel loaders
Amusement

130

Construction Cost Calculation

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Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Wheel loaders
Amusement

131

Construction Cost Calculation

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Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Wheel loaders
Amusement

132

Construction Cost Calculation

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Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Wheel loaders
Amusement

133

Construction Cost Calculation

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Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Wheel loaders
Amusement

134

Construction Cost Calculation

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Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Wheel loaders
Amusement

135

Construction Cost Calculation

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Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Wheel loaders
Amusement

136

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Wheel loaders
Amusement

137

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Wheel loaders
Amusement

138

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Wheel loaders
Amusement

139

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Wheel loaders
Amusement

140

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Wheel loaders
Amusement

141

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Bulldozer

142

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Bulldozer
In general
Bulldozer are used in different stages of the earthworks.

143

Out of this, a strict seperation of their usage is not


possible. They can be deployed for detaching, loading,
transport and mounting (all disciplines of earthworks).
Transport
A bulldozer transports material by shifting it off .
Detaching
For an economic deployment in detaching with a
bulldozer, you need precise details about the material
Tobias Lupek B. Eng.
and the device. Construction Cost Calculation

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Bulldozer
In general
Bulldozer can shift off nearly every material with more or

less success. Remarkable parameters are:


Grain size: The greater the grain size, the harder the

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intrusion of the cutting blade. Furthermore the filling


factor of the shield will be lower. Bulldozer has to be
stronger.
Grain shape: Sharp edged material and flat grains do
not roll in front of the shield. Higher force has to be
Construction Cost Calculation
Tobias Lupek B. Eng.
applied.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Bulldozer
Shields

145

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Bulldozer
Shields S-Shield
Unbowed shield
Appropriate for all

sizes of bulldozers
Mostly used

146

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Bulldozer
Shields U-Shield
Shape like a U
Approptiate on bulldozer

with more than 260 hp


Out of the special shape
the shield capacity is enlarged
147

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Bulldozer
Shields Semi-U-Shield
In principal a unbowed shield

with bowed edges


Slightly U shaped
Shield gets more stabile and
can be used for harder deployments
Shield capacity is enlarged
Bulldozers with 130-260 hp
148

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Bulldozer
Amusement

149

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Bulldozer
Amusement

150

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Bulldozer
Amusement

151

Construction Cost Calculation

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Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Bulldozer
Amusement

152

Construction Cost Calculation

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Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Bulldozer
Amusement

153

Construction Cost Calculation

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Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Bulldozer
Amusement

154

Construction Cost Calculation

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Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Bulldozer
Amusement

155

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Bulldozer
Amusement

156

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Bulldozer
Amusement

1 150 000 N$
157

Construction Cost Calculation

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Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Bulldozer
Amusement

158

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Bulldozer
Amusement

159

Construction Cost Calculation

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Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Compaction

160

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Compaction
In general

Compaction of soil means

Reduction of void content


161

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Compaction
In general

Compaction of soil means

Reduction of void content


162

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Compaction
Different types of compaction devices

Smooth drum
roller

163

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Compaction
Different types of compaction devices

Rubber wheeled
roller

164

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Compaction
Different types of compaction devices

Padfoot
roller

165

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Compaction
Different types of compaction devices

Single drum
compactors

166

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Compaction
Different types of compaction devices

Tandem compactors

167

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Compaction
Performance
Depending on the type of drum and furthermore on the

type of compactor itself, the performance is varying


The performance of a compactor is measured by the
relation of the mass of compacted soil to the number of
passages
The performance as well as the compaction success is
influenced by the soil class as well as by the water content
of the soil
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Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Load and Carry/ Transportation

169

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Load and Carry/ Transportation
Deployed vehicles
Usage of heavy goods vehicles. The difference between a
normal lorry and a heavy goods vehicle is their much more
robust design. Thier velocity can reach up to 70 km/h. Out of
this, they are usable for Highspeed transports. Unfortunately
they have no permission to drive on official roads.
Usage of articulated dumptrucks (Dumper). Dumpers

are applicable, if there are high driving resistances. In such a


case they are replacing a normal lorry or even a heavy goods
vehicle.
170

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Load and Carry/ Transportation
Deployed vehicles
Usage of other devices such as wheel loaders, excavators,

scraper, bulldozer and so on. Economic efficiency has to be


investigated.

171

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Load and Carry/ Transportation
Dumping methods with a Dumper or a heavy

goods vehicle
End tipping

172

Side tipping

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Load and Carry/ Transportation
Mounting methods with a Dumper or a heavy

goods vehicle
Layer filling from
umcompacted transport ways

Layer filling from


compacted transport ways
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Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Load and Carry/ Transportation
Mounting methods with a Dumper or a heavy

goods vehicle

Layer filling from


uncompacted and e.g.
sloped transport ways

174

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Load and Carry/ Transportation
Amusement

175

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Load and Carry/ Transportation
Amusement

176

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Load and Carry/ Transportation
Amusement

177

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Load and Carry/ Transportation
Amusement

178

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Load and Carry/ Transportation
Amusement

179

Construction Cost Calculation

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Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Load and Carry/ Transportation
Amusement

180

Construction Cost Calculation

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Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Load and Carry/ Transportation
Amusement

181

Construction Cost Calculation

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Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Load and Carry/ Transportation
Amusement

182

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Load and Carry/ Transportation
Amusement

183

Construction Cost Calculation

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Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Load and Carry/ Transportation
Amusement

184

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Load and Carry/ Transportation
Amusement

185

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Load and Carry/ Transportation
Amusement

186

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Grader

187

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Grader
In general
A Grader is among other things deployed for the

maintenance of paths such as construction ways.


Furthermore its main usage is the production of precise

formation levels.

188

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Grader
In general
Because of their really compact design and their articulated

frame steering they possess a high manoeuvrability.


Thier permanent all-wheel-drive is adventageous for the

pushing and levelling performances.

189

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Grader
Amusement

190

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Grader
Amusement

191

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Grader
Amusement

192

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Scraper

193

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Scraper
In general
A scraper is a device to pick up and transport soil

It consists of the grab bucket, which can be filled with soil

and the pusher which is pulling the grab bucket


By letting down its loading flap while the grab bucket is

pulled by the pusher it gets filled


194

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Scraper
Amusement

195

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Scraper
Amusement

196

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Scraper
Amusement Dragline dozer

197

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.

Manufacturing Technology
Earthworks Scraper
Amusement Dragline dozer

198

Construction Cost Calculation

Tobias Lupek B. Eng.