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Atomic Spectroscopy. (2016). 1st ed. [ebook] Andor.

Available at:
pdf [Accessed 17 Oct. 2016].
Becker, J. (2007). Inorganic mass spectrometry. Chichester, England: John Wiley &
Sons, p.30.
Harvey, D. (2016). Analytical Chemistry Textbook. California: LibreTexts library.
Hou, X. and T. Jones, B. (2000). Inductively Coupled Plasma/Optical Emission
Spectrometry. 1st ed. [ebook] Chichester: R.A. Meyers (Ed.), pp.94689485.
Available at:
%26Jones_2000.pdf [Accessed 18 Oct. 2016].
Moore, G. (1989). Introduction to inductively coupled plasma atomic emission
spectrometry. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Shinde, R. (2016). ICP-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. [online]
Available at: [Accessed 17 Oct. 2016].

In order to find the concentration of one atom from mixture,it need to undergo
certain process that is nebulization,removal of solvent,atomization,absorption
and emission.

In atomic emission, a sample is subjected to a high energy, thermal environment in

order to produce excited state atoms, capable of emitting light.

The design of apparatus for atomic emission spectrometer is similar to the apparatus for atomic
absorption. In fact, it is easy to adapt most flame atomic absorption spectrometers for
atomic emission by turning off the hollow cathode lamp and monitoring the difference in the
emission intensity when aspirating the sample and when aspirating a blank. Many atomic
emission spectrometers, however, are enthusiastic instruments considered to take
advantage of features unique to atomic emission, including the use of plasmas, arcs,
sparks, and lasers as atomization and excitation sources, and an enhanced capability for
multielemental study. Atomic emission requires a resources for converting a solid, liquid, or

solution analyte into a free gaseous atom. The same source of thermal energy usually
serves as the excitation source. The most common methods are flames and plasmas, both
of which are useful for liquid or solution samples. Solid samples may be analyzed by
dissolving in a solvent and using a flame or plasma atomizer. A plasma is a hot, partially
ionized gas that contains an abundant concentration of cations and electrons. The plasmas
used in atomic emission are formed by ionizing a flowing stream of argon gas, producing
argon ions and electrons. Argon gas were used in this experiment because argon has
highest purity. argon
A plasmas high temperature results from resistive heating as
the electrons and argon ions move through the gas. Because plasmas operate at much
higher temperatures than flames, they provide better atomization and a higher population of
excited states.((gambar))
The high temperature of the ICP also makes it capable of exciting refractory
elements, and reduces it less prone to matrix interferences.
Atomic emission spectroscopy is preferably suited for multielemental analysis because all
analytes in a sample are excited simultaneously. If the instrument includes a scanning
monochromator, it can be program to move rapidly to an analytes desired wavelength,
pause to record its emission intensity, and then move to the next analytes wavelength. This
sequential analysis allows for a sampling rate of 34 analytes per minute. ((gambar))

The major characteristic of this process is that each element releases energy
at specific wavelengths unusual to its atomic character. The energy transfer
for electrons when they fall back to ground state is unique to each element as
it depends upon the electronic configuration of the orbital. The energy transfer
is inversely proportional to the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation,
E = hc/ ... (where h is Planck's constant, c the velocity of light and is
wavelength), and hence the wavelength of light emitted is also
The wavelengths used in AES ranges from the higher part of the vacuum ultraviolet
(160 nm) to the boundary of visible light (800 nm). As borosilicate glass absorbs
light below 310 nm and oxygen in air absorbs light below 200 nm, optical lenses
and prisms are generally made-up from quartz glass and optical paths are displaced
or filled by a non absorbing gas such as Argon.