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SEBU7876-07 August 2013 Operation and Maintenance Manual C280 Marine, Marine Auxiliary, and Petroleum Engines PKA

SEBU7876-07

August 2013

SEBU7876-07 August 2013 Operation and Maintenance Manual C280 Marine, Marine Auxiliary, and Petroleum Engines PKA 1-Up

Operation and Maintenance Manual

C280 Marine, Marine Auxiliary, and Petroleum Engines

PKA 1-Up (C280-8 Engine) NKB 1-Up (C280-16 Engine) SCB 1-Up (C280-6 Engine) A4F 1-Up (C280-16 Engine) TSJ 1-Up (C280-12 Engine) LDL 1-Up (C280-6 Engine) NDT 1-Up (C280-8 Engine) RDW 1-Up (C280-12 Engine) TDX 1-Up (C280-16 Engine)

SAFETY.CAT.COM

i05296198

Important Safety Information

Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to observe basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially hazardous situations before an accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards, including human factors that can affect safety. This person should also have the necessary training, skills and tools to perform these functions properly.

Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and could result in injury or death.

Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you verify that you are authorized to perform this work, and have read and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.

Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard warnings are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons.

The hazards are identified by the “Safety Alert Symbol” and followed by a “Signal Word” such as “DANGER”, “WARNING” or “CAUTION”. The Safety Alert “WARNING” label is shown below.

The Safety Alert “WARNING” label is shown below. The meaning of this safety alert symbol is

The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows:

Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.

The message that appears under the warning explains the hazard and can be either written or pictorially presented.

A non-exhaustive list of operations that may cause product damage are identified by NOTICElabels on the product and in this publication.

Caterpillar cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The warnings in this publication and on the product are, therefore, not all inclusive. You must not use this product in any manner different from that considered by this manual without first satisfying yourself that you have considered all safety rules and precautions applicable to the operation of the product in the location of use, including site-specific rules and precautions applicable to the worksite. If a tool, procedure, work method or operating technique that is not specifically recommended by Caterpillar is used, you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and for others. You should also ensure that you are authorized to perform this work, and that the product will not be damaged or become unsafe by the operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair procedures that you intend to use.

The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information that was available at the time that the publication was written. The specifications, torques, pressures, measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other items can change at any time. These changes can affect the service that is given to the product. Obtain the complete and most current information before you start any job. Cat dealers have the most current information available.

Cat dealers have the most current information available. When replacement parts are required for this product

When replacement parts are required for this product Caterpillar recommends using Cat re- placement parts.

Failure to follow this warning may lead to pre- mature failures, product damage, personal in- jury or death.

In the United States, the maintenance, replacement, or repair of the emission control devices and systems may be performed by any repair establishment or individual of the owner's choosing.

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Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Foreword

4

Safety Section

Safety Messages

5

General Hazard Information

8

Burn Prevention

11

Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention

12

Maintenance Interval Schedule (Standby)

74

Maintenance Interval Schedule (Prime)

75

Warranty Section

Warranty Information

131

Reference Information Section

Engine Ratings

132

Engine Performance and Performance Analysis

Report (PAR)

134

Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention . 14

Customer Service

Mounting and Dismounting

14

Reference Materials

Before Starting Engine

14

Index Section

Engine Starting

15

Index

Engine Stopping

15

Electrical System

15

Product Information Section

General Information

17

Product Identification Information

27

Operation Section

Lifting and Storage

29

Features and Controls

31

Engine Starting

50

Engine Operation

57

Cold Weather Operation

58

Engine Stopping

60

Maintenance Section

Refill Capacities

63

135

137

148

4

Foreword

SEBU7876

Foreword

Literature Information

This manual contains safety, operation instructions, lubrication and maintenance information. This manual should be stored in or near the engine area in a literature holder or literature storage area. Read, study and keep it with the literature and engine information.

English is the primary language for all Cat publications. The English used facilitates translation and consistency in electronic media delivery.

Some photographs or illustrations in this manual show details or attachments that may be different from your engine. Guards and covers may have been removed for illustrative purposes. Continuing improvement and advancement of product design may have caused changes to your engine which are not included in this manual. Whenever a question arises regarding your engine, or this manual, please consult with your Cat dealer for the latest available information.

Safety

This safety section lists basic safety precautions. In addition, this section identifies hazardous, warning situations. Read and understand the basic precautions listed in the safety section before operating or performing lubrication, maintenance and repair on this product.

Operation

Operating techniques outlined in this manual are basic. They assist with developing the skills and techniques required to operate the engine more efficiently and economically. Skill and techniques develop as the operator gains knowledge of the engine and its capabilities.

The operation section is a reference for operators. Photographs and illustrations guide the operator through procedures of inspecting, starting, operating and stopping the engine. This section also includes a discussion of electronic diagnostic information.

Maintenance

The maintenance section is a guide to engine care. The illustrated, step-by-step instructions are grouped by fuel consumption, service hours and/or calendar time maintenance intervals. Items in the maintenance schedule are referenced to detailed instructions that follow.

Use fuel consumption or service hours to determine intervals. Calendar intervals shown (daily, annually, etc.) may be used instead of service meter intervals if they provide more convenient schedules and approximate the indicated service meter reading.

Recommended service should be performed at the appropriate intervals as indicated in the Maintenance Interval Schedule. The actual operating environment of the engine also governs the Maintenance Interval Schedule. Therefore, under extremely severe, dusty, wet or freezing cold operating conditions, more frequent lubrication and maintenance than is specified in the Maintenance Interval Schedule may be necessary.

The maintenance schedule items are organized for a preventive maintenance management program. If the preventive maintenance program is followed, a periodic tune-up is not required. The implementation of a preventive maintenance management program should minimize operating costs through cost avoidances resulting from reductions in unscheduled downtime and failures.

Maintenance Intervals

Perform maintenance on items at multiples of the original requirement. Each level and/or individual items in each level should be shifted ahead or back depending upon your specific maintenance practices, operation and application. We recommend that the maintenance schedules be reproduced and displayed near the engine as a convenient reminder. We also recommend that a maintenance record be maintained as part of the engine's permanent record.

See the section in the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Records” for information regarding documents that are generally accepted as proof of maintenance or repair. Your authorized Cat dealer can assist you in adjusting your maintenance schedule to meet the needs of your operating environment.

Overhaul

Major engine overhaul details are not covered in the Operation and Maintenance Manual except for the interval and the maintenance items in that interval. Major repairs are best left to trained personnel or an authorized Cat dealer. Your Cat dealer offers a variety of options regarding overhaul programs. If you experience a major engine failure, there are also numerous after failure overhaul options available from your Cat dealer. Consult with your dealer for information regarding these options.

California Proposition 65 Warning

Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents are known to the State of California to cause cancer, birth defects, and other reproductive harm.

Battery posts, terminals and related accessories contain lead and lead compounds. Wash hands after handling.

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5

Safety Section

Safety Messages

Safety Section

i05202753

Safety Messages

SMCS Code: 1000; 7405

There may be several specific safety messages on your engine. The exact location and a description of the safety messages are reviewed in this section. Become familiar with all safety messages.

Ensure that all of the safety messages are legible. Clean the safety messages or replace the safety messages if the words cannot be read or if the illustrations are not visible. Use a cloth, water, and soap to clean the safety messages. Do not use solvents, gasoline, or other harsh chemicals. Solvents, gasoline, or harsh chemicals could loosen the adhesive that secures the safety messages. The safety messages that are loosened could drop off the engine.

Replace any safety message that is damaged or missing. If a safety message is attached to a part of the engine that is replaced, install a new safety message on the replacement part. Your Cat dealer can provide new safety messages.

part. Your Cat dealer can provide new safety messages. Do not operate or work on this

Do not operate or work on this engine unless you have read and understand the instructions and warnings in the Operation and Maintenance Man- ual. Failure to follow the instructions or heed the warnings could result in injury or death. Contact any Caterpillar dealer for replacement manuals. Proper care is your responsibility.

6

Safety Section

Safety Messages

SEBU7876

6 Safety Section Safety Messages SEBU7876 Illustration 1 g03332860

Illustration 1

g03332860

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Safety Section

Safety Messages

Engine Lifting (1)

The safety messages for engine lifting are located on the number three cylinder head and on the number four cylinder head.

three cylinder head and on the number four cylinder head. Illustration 2 g00299841 Improper lift rigging

Illustration 2

g00299841

on the number four cylinder head. Illustration 2 g00299841 Improper lift rigging can allow unit to

Improper lift rigging can allow unit to tumble causing injury and damage.

If improper equipment is used to lift the engine, injury and damage can occur. Use cables that are properly rated for the weight. Use a spreader bar and attach the cables according to the information on the warning label.

Engine Lifting (2)

The safety messages for engine lifting are located on the number one cylinder head and on the number two cylinder head.

one cylinder head and on the number two cylinder head. Illustration 3 g00299818 Improper lift rigging

Illustration 3

g00299818

on the number two cylinder head. Illustration 3 g00299818 Improper lift rigging can allow unit to

Improper lift rigging can allow unit to tumble causing injury and damage.

If improper equipment is used to lift the engine, injury and damage can occur. Use cables that are properly rated for the weight. Use a spreader bar and attach the cables according to the information on the warning label.

Hot Pressurized Fluid (3)

The safety message for hot pressurized fluid is located on the oil filter covers and on the fuel filter covers.

on the oil filter covers and on the fuel filter covers. Illustration 4 g00296929 Filter contains

Illustration 4

g00296929

and on the fuel filter covers. Illustration 4 g00296929 Filter contains hot pressurized fluid when engine

Filter contains hot pressurized fluid when engine is running.

To avoid personal injury, stop engine before re- moving filter cover.

Flash Fire (4)

The safety message for flash fire is located on the crankcase covers.

message for flash fire is located on the crankcase covers. Illustration 5 g00123185 Flash fire may

Illustration 5

g00123185

is located on the crankcase covers. Illustration 5 g00123185 Flash fire may result in personal injury,

Flash fire may result in personal injury, if crank- case covers are removed within fifteen minutes after emergency shut down. Do not restart engine until cause for shutdown has been corrected.

8

Safety Section General Hazard Information

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Centrifugal Oil Filters (5)

The safety message for the centrifugal oil filters is located on the centrifugal oil filter covers.

oil filters is located on the centrifugal oil filter covers. Illustration 6 g00123191 Do not remove

Illustration 6

g00123191

the centrifugal oil filter covers. Illustration 6 g00123191 Do not remove cover when centrifuge is pressurized.

Do not remove cover when centrifuge is pressurized.

The centrifugal oil filter contains hot pressurized fluid when the centrifuge is pressurized. Do not remove the cover when the centrifuge is pressurized.

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General Hazard Information

SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 7405

General Hazard Information SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 7405 Illustration 7 g00104545 Attach a “ Do Not

Illustration 7

g00104545

Attach a Do Not Operatewarning tag to the start switch or controls before the engine is serviced or repaired. These warning tags (Special Instruction, SEHS7332) are available from your Cat dealer. Attach the warning tags to the engine and to each operator control station. When appropriate, disconnect the starting controls.

Do not allow unauthorized personnel on the engine, or around the engine when the engine is being serviced.

Cautiously remove the following parts. To help prevent spraying or splashing of pressurized fluids, hold a rag over the part that is being removed.

• Filler caps

• Grease fittings

• Pressure taps

• Breathers

• Drain plugs

Use caution when cover plates are removed. Gradually loosen, but do not remove the last two bolts or nuts that are located at opposite ends of the cover plate or the device. Before removing the last two bolts or nuts, pry the cover loose in order to relieve any spring pressure or other pressure.

in order to relieve any spring pressure or other pressure. Illustration 8 g00702020 • Wear a

Illustration 8

g00702020

• Wear a hard hat, protective glasses, and other protective equipment, as required.

• When work is performed around an engine that is operating, wear protective devices for ears in order to help prevent damage to hearing.

• Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that can snag on controls or on other parts of the engine.

• Ensure that all protective guards and all covers are secured in place on the engine.

• Never put maintenance fluids into glass containers. Glass containers can break.

• Use all cleaning solutions with care.

• Report all necessary repairs.

Unless other instructions are provided, perform the maintenance under the following conditions:

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9

Safety Section General Hazard Information

• The engine is stopped. Ensure that the engine cannot be started.

• The protective locks or the controls are in the applied position.

• Disconnect the batteries when maintenance is performed or when the electrical system is serviced. Disconnect the battery ground leads. Tape the leads in order to help prevent sparks.

• When starting a new engine, make provisions to stop the engine if an overspeed occurs. If an engine has not been started since service has been performed, make provisions to stop the engine if an overspeed occurs. Shutting down the engine may be accomplished by shutting off the fuel supply and/or the air supply to the engine.

• Do not attempt any repairs that are not understood. Use the proper tools. Replace any equipment that is damaged or repair the equipment.

• Start the engine with the operator controls. Never short across the starting motor terminals or the batteries. This method of starting the engine could bypass the engine neutral start system and/or the electrical system could be damaged.

Pressurized Air and Water

Pressurized air and/or water can cause debris and/or hot water to be blown out which could result in personal injury.

The maximum air pressure for cleaning purposes must be reduced to 205 kPa (30 psi) when the air nozzle is deadheaded and used with effective chip guarding (if applicable) and personal protective equipment. The maximum water pressure for cleaning purposes must be below 275 kPa (40 psi).

When pressurized air and/or pressurized water is used for cleaning, wear protective clothing, protective shoes, and eye protection. Eye protection includes goggles or a protective face shield. Always wear eye protection for cleaning the cooling system.

Avoid direct spraying of water on electrical connectors, connections, and components. When using air for cleaning, allow the machine to cool to reduce the possibility of fine debris igniting when redeposited on hot surfaces.

Fluid Penetration

igniting when redeposited on hot surfaces. Fluid Penetration Illustration 9 g00687600 Always use a board or

Illustration 9

g00687600

Always use a board or cardboard when you check for a leak. Leaking fluid that is under pressure can penetrate body tissue. Fluid penetration can cause serious injury and possible death. A pin hole leak can cause severe injury. If fluid is injected into your skin, you must get treatment immediately. Seek treatment from a doctor that is familiar with this type of injury.

Containing Fluid Spillage

NOTICE Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are con- tained during performance of inspection, mainte- nance, testing, adjusting, and repair of the product. Be prepared to collect the fluid with suitable contain- ers before opening any compartment or disassem- bling any component containing fluids.

Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, “Cat Dealer Service Tool Catalog” or refer to Special Publication, PECJ0003, “Cat Shop Supplies and Tools Catalog” for tools and supplies suitable to collect and contain fluids on Cat products.

Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and mandates.

10

Safety Section General Hazard Information

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Static Electricity Hazard when Fueling with Ultra-low Sulfur Diesel Fuel

The removal of sulfur and other compounds in ultra- low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD fuel) decreases the conductivity of ULSD and increases the ability of ULSD to store static charge. Refineries may have treated the fuel with a static dissipating additive. Many factors can reduce the effectiveness of the additive over time. Static charges can build up in ULSD fuel while the fuel is flowing through fuel delivery systems. Static electricity discharge when combustible vapors are present could result in a fire or explosion. Ensure that the entire system used to refuel your machine (fuel supply tank, transfer pump, transfer hose, nozzle, and others) is properly grounded and bonded. Consult with your fuel or fuel system supplier to ensure that the delivery system complies with fueling standards for proper grounding and bonding.

with fueling standards for proper grounding and bonding. Avoid static electricity risk when fueling. Ultra-low sulfur

Avoid static electricity risk when fueling. Ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD fuel) poses a greater stat- ic ignition hazard than earlier diesel formulations with a higher sulfur contents. Avoid death or seri- ous injury from fire or explosion. Consult with your fuel or fuel system supplier to ensure the de- livery system is in compliance with fueling stand- ards for proper grounding and bonding practices.

Lines, Tubes, and Hoses

Do not bend or strike high-pressure lines. Do not install lines, tubes, or hoses that are damaged.

Repair any fuel lines, oil lines, tubes, or hoses that are loose or damaged. Leaks can cause fires.

Inspect all lines, tubes, and hoses carefully. Do not use bare hands to check for leaks. Always use a board or cardboard for checking engine components for leaks. Tighten all connections to the recommended torque.

Check for the following conditions:

• End fittings that are damaged or leaking

• Outer covering that is chafed or cut

• Wire that is exposed in reinforced hose

• Outer covering that is ballooning locally

• Flexible part of the hose that is kinked or crushed

• Armoring that is embedded in the outer covering

Ensure that all of the clamps, the guards, and the heat shields are installed correctly. Correct installation of these components will help to prevent these effects: vibration, rubbing against other parts and excessive heat during operation.

Inhalation

other parts and excessive heat during operation. Inhalation Illustration 10 g02159053 Exhaust Use caution. Exhaust fumes

Illustration 10

g02159053

Exhaust

Use caution. Exhaust fumes can be hazardous to your health. If you operate the equipment in an enclosed area, adequate ventilation is necessary.

Asbestos Information

Cat equipment and replacement parts that are shipped from Caterpillar are asbestos free. Caterpillar recommends the use of only genuine Cat replacement parts. Use the following guidelines when you handle any replacement parts that contain asbestos or when you handle asbestos debris.

Use caution. Avoid inhaling dust that might be generated when you handle components that contain asbestos fibers. Inhaling this dust can be hazardous to your health. The components that may contain asbestos fibers are brake pads, brake bands, lining material, clutch plates, and some gaskets. The asbestos that is used in these components is bound in a resin or sealed in some way. Normal handling is not hazardous unless airborne dust that contains asbestos is generated.

If dust that may contain asbestos is present, there are several guidelines that should be followed:

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11

Safety Section

Burn Prevention

• Never use compressed air for cleaning.

• Avoid brushing materials that contain asbestos.

• Avoid grinding materials that contain asbestos.

• Use a wet method in order to clean up asbestos materials.

• A vacuum cleaner that is equipped with a high efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) can also be used.

• Use exhaust ventilation on permanent machining jobs.

• Wear an approved respirator if there is no other way to control the dust.

• Comply with applicable rules and regulations for the work place. In the United States , use Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements. These OSHA requirements can be found in 29 CFR 1910.1001.

• Obey environmental regulations for the disposal of asbestos.

• Stay away from areas that might have asbestos particles in the air.

Softwrap

Keep the engine room ventilation operating at full capacity. Wear a particulate respirator that has been approved by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) . Wear appropriate protective clothing in order to minimize direct contact. Use good hygiene practices and wash hands thoroughly after handling Softwrap material. Do not smoke until washing hands thoroughly after handling Softwrap material. Clean up debris with a vacuum or by wet sweeping. Do not use pressurized air to clean up debris.

Reference: The applicable material safety data sheets can be found at the following web site by searching using part number or the name:

http://dsf2ws.cat.com/msds/servlet/

cat.cis.ecs.msdsSearch.controller.

UserIdentificationDisplayServlet

Dispose of Waste Properly

UserIdentificationDisplayServlet Dispose of Waste Properly Illustration 11 g00706404 Improperly disposing of waste can

Illustration 11

g00706404

Improperly disposing of waste can threaten the environment. Potentially harmful fluids should be disposed of according to local regulations.

Always use leakproof containers when you drain fluids. Do not pour waste onto the ground, down a drain, or into any source of water.

i00910250

Burn Prevention

SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 7405

Do not touch any part of an operating engine. Allow the engine to cool before any maintenance is performed on the engine. Relieve all pressure in the lubrication system, in the fuel system, or in the cooling system before any lines, fittings or related items are disconnected.

Coolant

When the engine is at operating temperature, the engine coolant is hot. The coolant is also under pressure. The radiator and all lines to the heaters or to the engine contain hot coolant. When pressure is relieved rapidly, the hot coolant can turn into steam.

Any contact with hot coolant or with steam can cause severe burns. Allow cooling system components to cool before the cooling system is drained.

Check the coolant level only after the engine has been stopped.

Do not step on the engine in order to remove the filler cap. Use a ladder, if necessary. Ensure that the filler cap is cool before removing the filler cap. Remove the filler cap slowly in order to relieve pressure.

Cooling system conditioner contains alkali. Alkali can cause personal injury. Do not allow alkali to contact the skin, the eyes, or the mouth.

12

Safety Section Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention

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Oils

Hot oil and hot components can cause personal injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to contact the skin.

Keep all of the exhaust manifold and turbocharger shields in place in order to protect components from oil spray if there is a failure of a line, a tube, or a seal.

Batteries

Electrolyte is an acid. Electrolyte can cause personal injury. Do not allow electrolyte to contact the skin or the eyes. Always wear protective glasses for servicing batteries. Wash hands after touching the batteries and connectors. Use of gloves is recommended.

Batteries give off combustible gases which can explode. Ensure proper ventilation for batteries that are in an enclosure. Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or battery circuit cable from the battery when the charging unit is operating. A spark can cause the combustible gases to ignite. Do not smoke when batteries are serviced.

Always thaw a frozen battery before jump starting the battery. Frozen batteries can explode.

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Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention

SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 7405

and Explosion Prevention SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 7405 Illustration 12 g00704000 Use of personal protection

Illustration 12

g00704000

Use of personal protection equipment (PPE) may be needed.

All fuels, most lubricants, and some coolant mixtures are flammable.

Always perform a Walk-Around Inspection, which may help you identify a fire hazard. Do not operate a product when a fire hazard exists. Contact your Cat dealer for service.

Flammable fluids that are leaking or spilled onto hot surfaces or onto electrical components can cause a fire. Fire may cause personal injury and property damage.

A flash fire may result if the covers for the engine

crankcase are removed within 15 minutes after an emergency shutdown.

Determine whether the engine will be operated in an environment that allows combustible gases to be drawn into the air inlet system. These gases could cause the engine to overspeed. Personal injury, property damage, or engine damage could result.

If the application involves the presence of

combustible gases, consult your Cat dealer for additional information about suitable protection devices.

Remove all flammable materials such as fuel, oil, and debris from the engine. Do not allow any flammable materials to accumulate on the engine.

All fluids that are captured in the fluid spill containment basin should be cleaned up immediately. Failure to clean up spilled fluids can cause a fire. Fire may cause personal injury and property damage.

Store fuels and lubricants in properly marked containers away from unauthorized persons. Store oily rags and any flammable materials in protective containers. Do not smoke in areas that are used for storing flammable materials.

Do not expose the engine to any flame.

Exhaust shields (if equipped) protect hot exhaust

components from oil or fuel spray in a line, a tube, or

a seal failure. Exhaust shields must be installed correctly.

Do not weld on lines or tanks that contain flammable fluids. Do not flame cut lines or tanks that contain flammable fluid. Clean any such lines or tanks thoroughly with a nonflammable solvent prior to welding or flame cutting.

Wiring must be kept in good condition. Properly route and attach all electrical wires. Check all electrical wires daily. Repair any wires that are loose or frayed before you operate the engine. Clean all electrical connections and tighten all electrical connections.

Eliminate all wiring that is unattached or unnecessary. Do not use any wires or cables that are smaller than the recommended gauge. Do not bypass any fuses and/or circuit breakers.

Arcing or sparking could cause a fire. Secure connections, recommended wiring, and properly maintained battery cables will help to prevent arcing or sparking.

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Safety Section Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention

Inspect all lines and hoses for wear or for deterioration. Properly route all hoses. The lines and hoses must have adequate support and secure clamps. Tighten all connections to the recommended torque. Leaks can cause fires.

Properly install all oil filters and fuel filters. The filter housings must be tightened to the proper torque.

The filter housings must be tightened to the proper torque. Illustration 13 g00704059 Use caution when

Illustration 13

g00704059

Use caution when you are refueling an engine. Do not smoke while you are refueling an engine. Do not refuel an engine near open flames or sparks. Always stop the engine before refueling.

Avoid static electricity risk when fueling. Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) poses a greater static ignition hazard than earlier diesel formulations with a higher Sulfur content. Avoid death or serious injury from fire or explosion. Consult with your fuel or fuel system supplier to ensure that the delivery system is in compliance with fueling standards for proper grounding and bonding practices.

standards for proper grounding and bonding practices. Illustration 14 g02298225 Gases from a battery can explode.

Illustration 14

g02298225

Gases from a battery can explode. Keep any open flames or sparks away from the top of a battery. Do not smoke in battery charging areas.

Never check the battery charge by placing a metal object across the terminal posts. Use a voltmeter or a hydrometer.

Improper jumper cable connections can cause an explosion that can result in injury. Refer to the Operation Section of this manual for specific instructions.

Do not charge a frozen battery. Charging a frozen battery may result in an explosion.

The batteries must be kept clean. The covers (if equipped) must be kept on the cells. Use the recommended cables, connections, and battery box covers when the engine is operated.

Fire Extinguisher

Make sure that a fire extinguisher is available. Be familiar with the operation of the fire extinguisher. Inspect the fire extinguisher and service the fire extinguisher regularly. Obey the recommendations on the instruction plate.

Ether

Ether is flammable and poisonous.

Use ether in well ventilated areas. Do not smoke while you are replacing an ether cylinder or while you are using an ether spray.

14

Safety Section Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention

SEBU7876

Do not store ether cylinders in living areas or in the engine compartment. Do not store ether cylinders in direct sunlight or in temperatures above 49 °C (120 °F). Keep ether cylinders away from open flames or sparks.

Dispose of used ether cylinders properly. Do not puncture an ether cylinder. Keep ether cylinders away from unauthorized personnel.

Do not spray ether into an engine if the engine is equipped with a thermal starting aid for cold weather starting.

Lines, Tubes, and Hoses

Do not bend high-pressure lines. Do not strike high- pressure lines. Do not install any lines that are bent or damaged.

Repair any lines that are loose or damaged. Leaks can cause fires. Consult your Cat dealer for repair or for replacement parts.

Check lines, tubes, and hoses carefully. Do not use your bare hand to check for leaks. Use a board or cardboard to check for leaks. Tighten all connections to the recommended torque.

Replace the parts if any of the following conditions are present:

• End fittings are damaged or leaking.

• Outer coverings are chafed or cut.

• Wires are exposed.

• Outer coverings are ballooning.

• Flexible parts of the hoses are kinked.

• Outer covers have embedded armoring.

• End fittings are displaced.

Make sure that all clamps, guards, and heat shields are installed correctly in order to prevent vibration, rubbing against other parts, and excessive heat.

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Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention

SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 7405

Support the component properly when work beneath the component is performed.

Unless other maintenance instructions are provided, never attempt adjustments while the engine is running.

Stay clear of all rotating parts and of all moving parts. Leave the guards in place until maintenance is performed. After the maintenance is performed, reinstall the guards.

Keep objects away from moving fan blades. The fan blades will throw objects or cut objects.

When objects are struck, wear protective glasses in order to avoid injury to the eyes.

Chips or other debris may fly off objects when objects are struck. Before objects are struck, ensure that no one will be injured by flying debris.

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Mounting and Dismounting

SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 7405

Inspect the steps, the handholds, and the work area before mounting the engine. Keep these items clean and keep these items in good repair.

Mount the engine and dismount the engine only at locations that have steps and/or handholds. Do not climb on the engine, and do not jump off the engine.

Face the engine in order to mount the engine or dismount the engine. Maintain a three-point contact with the steps and handholds. Use two feet and one hand or use one foot and two hands. Do not use any controls as handholds.

Do not stand on components which cannot support your weight. Use an adequate ladder or use a work platform. Secure the climbing equipment so that the equipment will not move.

Do not carry tools or supplies when you mount the engine or when you dismount the engine. Use a hand line to raise and lower tools or supplies.

i03560601

Before Starting Engine

SMCS Code: 1000

NOTICE For initial start-up of a new or rebuilt engine, and for start-up of an engine that has been serviced, make provision to shut the engine off should an overspeed occur. This may be accomplished by shutting off the air and/or fuel supply to the engine.

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Safety Section

Engine Starting

SEBU7876 15 Safety Section Engine Starting Engine exhaust contains products of combustion which may be harmful

Engine exhaust contains products of combustion which may be harmful to your health. Always start and operate the engine in a well ventilated area and, if in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to the outside.

Inspect the engine for potential hazards.

Do not start the engine or move any of the controls if there is a DO NOT OPERATEwarning tag or similar warning tag attached to the start switch or to the controls.

Before starting the engine, ensure that no one is on, underneath, or close to the engine. Ensure that the area is free of personnel.

If equipped, ensure that the lighting system for the engine is suitable for the conditions. Ensure that all lights work properly, if equipped.

All protective guards and all protective covers must be installed if the engine must be started in order to perform service procedures. To help prevent an accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work around the parts carefully.

Do not bypass the automatic shutoff circuits. Do not disable the automatic shutoff circuits. The circuits are provided in order to help prevent personal injury. The circuits are also provided in order to help prevent engine damage.

See the Service Manual for repairs and for adjustments.

Engine Starting

i02136012

SMCS Code: 1000

If a warning tag is attached to the engine start switch or to the controls, DO NOT start the engine or move the controls. Consult with the person that attached the warning tag before the engine is started.

All protective guards and all protective covers must be installed if the engine must be started in order to perform service procedures. To help prevent an accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work around the parts carefully.

If there is a possibility that unburned gas remains in the exhaust system, refer to the purge procedure in this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine Starting” topic in the Operation Section.

Start the engine from the operator's compartment or from the engine start switch.

Always start the engine according to the procedure that is described in the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine Starting” topic in the Operation Section. Knowing the correct procedure will help to prevent major damage to the engine components. Knowing the procedure will also help to prevent personal injury.

To ensure that the jacket water heater (if equipped) and/or the lube oil heater (if equipped) is working properly, check the water temperature and the oil temperature during heater operation.

Engine exhaust contains products of combustion which can be harmful to your health. Always start the engine and operate the engine in a well ventilated area. If the engine is started in an enclosed area, vent the engine exhaust to the outside.

Engine Stopping

i01032808

SMCS Code: 1000

To avoid overheating of the engine and accelerated wear of the engine components, stop the engine according to this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine Stopping” topic (Operation Section).

Use the Emergency Stop Button (if equipped) ONLY in an emergency situation. DO NOT use the Emergency Stop Button for normal engine stopping. After an emergency stop, DO NOT start the engine until the problem that caused the emergency stop has been corrected.

On the initial start-up of a new engine or an engine that has been serviced, make provisions to stop the engine if an overspeed condition occurs. This may be accomplished by shutting off the fuel supply and/or the air supply to the engine.

i01032810

Electrical System

SMCS Code: 1000; 1400

Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or battery circuit cable from the battery when the charging unit is operating. A spark can cause the combustible gases that are produced by some batteries to ignite.

Check the electrical wires daily for wires that are loose or frayed. Tighten all loose electrical wires before the engine is operated. Repair all frayed electrical wires before the engine is started.

Grounding Practices

Proper grounding is necessary for optimum engine performance and reliability. Improper grounding will result in uncontrolled electrical circuit paths and in unreliable electrical circuit paths.

16

Safety Section

Electrical System

SEBU7876

Uncontrolled electrical circuit paths can result in damage to main bearings, to crankshaft bearing journal surfaces, and to aluminum components. Uncontrolled electrical circuit paths can also cause electrical activity that may degrade the engine electronics and communications.

Ensure that all grounds are secure and free of corrosion.

The engine alternator must be grounded to the negative -battery terminal with a wire that is adequate to carry the full charging current of the alternator.

For the starting motor, do not attach the battery negative terminal to the engine block.

Ground the engine block with a ground strap that is furnished by the customer. Connect this ground strap to the ground plane.

Use a separate ground strap to ground the battery negative terminal for the control system to the ground plane.

If rubber couplings connect the steel piping of the cooling system and the radiator, the piping and the radiator can be electrically isolated. Ensure that the piping and the radiator are continuously grounded to the engine. Use ground straps that bypass the rubber couplings.

SEBU7876

17

Product Information Section Model View Illustrations

Product Information Section

General Information

i05377072

Model View Illustrations

SMCS Code: 1000

The illustrations show various typical features of a C280 Series Engine. The illustrations do not show all of the engine configurations that are available.

show all of the engine configurations that are available. Illustration 15 View of the right side

Illustration 15

View of the right side of the C280 Engine with Front Mounted Turbocharger

(1) Shield for the exhaust manifold (2) Cover for the high performance aftercooler (3) Lifting eyes (4) Engine crankcase breathers (5) Air shutoff

(6) Exhaust bypass (7) Cover for the turbocharger (8) Engine oil filters (9) Drain valves for the oil filters (10) Engine oil level gauge (11) Engine oil filler tube

(12) Centrifugal engine oil filter (13) Circuit breaker box (14) Expansion relief valves for the crankcase (15) Engine control module (16) Fuel filters

g03357869

18

General Information Model View Illustrations

SEBU7876

18 General Information Model View Illustrations SEBU7876 Illustration 16 View of the left side of the

Illustration 16

View of the left side of the C280 Engine with Front Mounted Turbocharger

(17) Engine starting motors (air starting) (18) Drain valve for the engine oil pan (19) Integral relay valve for the air starting system

(20) Air pressure regulator for the engine starting motors (21) Screen for the air pressure system (22) Fuel priming pump

g03345398

SEBU7876

19

General Information Model View Illustrations

SEBU7876 19 General Information Model View Illustrations Illustration 17 View of the front of the C280

Illustration 17

View of the front of the C280 Engine

(23) Turbochargers (24) Engine oil cooler (remote location)

(25) Water drains

(26) Prelube pump for engine oil

g03345635

(27) Guard for engine crankshaft damper

20

General Information Model View Illustrations

SEBU7876

20 General Information Model View Illustrations SEBU7876 Illustration 18 Right Side View of a C280-16 Engine

Illustration 18

Right Side View of a C280-16 Engine With Rear Mounted Turbochargers

(1) Turbocharger (2) Exhaust (3) Air shutoff (4) Engine crankcase breathers

(5) Aftercooler cover (6) Exhaust manifold shield (7) Prelube pump (8) Crankcase explosion relief valves

g03403385

(9) Prelube pump (10) Circuit breaker box (11) Engine control module (12) Engine oil drain

SEBU7876

21

General Information Product Description

SEBU7876 21 General Information Product Description Illustration 19 Left Side View of a C280-16 Engine With

Illustration 19

Left Side View of a C280-16 Engine With Rear Mounted Turbochargers

(13) Engine oil filters (14) Fuel filters (15) Air starting motors

(16) Centrifugal oil filters (17) Engine oil level gauge (18) Engine oil filler

(19) Fuel transfer pump

g03403386

i05377092

Product Description

SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 4491

C280 Series Engines are intended for use in these applications:

• Petroleum

• Marine

• Marine Auxiliary

The engines are rated from 900 rpm to 1000 rpm.

Engine Service Life

Engine efficiency and maximum utilization of engine performance depend on the adherence to proper operation and maintenance recommendations. This adherence includes use of the recommended lubricants, fuels, and coolant/antifreezes.

For the engine maintenance that is required, see this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule” (Maintenance Section).

22

General Information Product Description

SEBU7876

Engine Specifications

Table 1

 

C280 Series Engine Specifications

 

Item

C280-06

C280-08

C280-12

C280-16

Operating rpm

 

900 to 1000

 

Low idle rpm

 

300 to 500

 

Cylinders and arrangement

In-line 6

In-line 8

50 degree vee 12

50 degree vee 16

Bore

 

280 mm (11 inch)

 

Stroke

 

300 mm (11.8 inch)

 

Displacement per cylinder

 

18.7 L (1127 cubic inches)

 

Total displacement

110.8 L (6764 cubic inches)

147.8 L (9018 cubic inches)

222 L (13,530 cubic inches)

296 L (18,036 cubic inches)

   

13:1

Compression ratio

 

12.6:1 (1)

 

Aspiration

 

TA

Rotation (flywheel end)

 

Standard rotation is counterclockwise. Clockwise rotation is optional.

 

Fuel Delivery

 

Electronic Unit Injectors

 

Fuel

See this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Refill Capacities and Recommendations” (Maintenance Section).

Method of starting

 

Air starting motors Electric starting motors

 

Maximum allowable ex- haust back pressure

 

254 mm (10 inch of H 2 O)

 

Maximum allowable inlet air restriction

 

3.7 kPa (15 inches of H 2 O)

 

(1) C280-16 Up-rate with front mounted turbocharger.

Engine Design

C280-06Engine

with front mounted turbocharger. Engine Design C280-06Engine Illustration 20 C280-06 Engine design (A) Exhaust valves

Illustration 20

C280-06 Engine design

(A)

Exhaust valves

(B)

Inlet valves

(C)

Flywheel

g00486404

SEBU7876

23

General Information Product Description

C280-08Engine

23 General Information Product Description C280-08Engine Illustration 21 C280-08 Engine design g00486405

Illustration 21

C280-08 Engine design

g00486405

C280-16Engine

21 C280-08 Engine design g00486405 C280-16Engine Illustration 23 C280-16 Engine design g00279792 (A)

Illustration 23

C280-16 Engine design

g00279792

(A)

Exhaust valves

(A)

Exhaust valves

(B)

Inlet valves

(B)

Inlet valves

(C)

Flywheel

(C)

Flywheel

C280-12Engine

valves (C) Flywheel (C) Flywheel C280-12Engine Illustration 22 C280-12 Engine design (A) Exhaust valves

Illustration 22

C280-12 Engine design

(A)

Exhaust valves

(B)

Inlet valves

(C)

Flywheel

g00279793

24

General Information Product Description

SEBU7876

Drives and Gear Trains

Front Drives

Description SEBU7876 Drives and Gear Trains Front Drives Illustration 24 Standard rotation (A) Standard front

Illustration 24

Standard rotation

(A)

Standard front drive

(B)

Optional front drive

(1)

Jacket water pump

(2)

Aftercooler and oil cooler pump

(3)

Auxiliary water pump

(4)

Engine oil pump

(5)

Optional scavenge oil pump

(6)

Fuel transfer pump

(7)

Scavenge oil pump

g02935577

Table 2 lists the speed of the components that are shown in Illustration 24 .

Table 2

Front Drives For C280 Series Engines

Component

Speed (1)

Jacket water pump

2522

Aftercooler and oil cooler pump

2522

Scavenge oil pump

1627

Engine oil pump

1524

Fuel transfer pump

1995

(continued)

(Table 2, contd)

Front Drives For C280 Series Engines

Front Drives For C280 Series Engines

Optional scavenge oil pump

Auxiliary water pump

1524

2230

(1) The speed of the component is listed for an engine that is oper- ating at 1000 rpm. For an engine that is operating at 900 rpm, multiply the speed of the component by .9. For an engine that is operating at 750 rpm, multiply the speed of the component by

.75.

Illustration 25 shows the fluid flow of the Optional front drive.

25 shows the fluid flow of the Optional front drive. Illustration 25 (1) Water outlet (2)

Illustration 25

(1) Water outlet (2) Water inlet (3) Oil outlet (4) Oil inlet

g02935580

SEBU7876

25

General Information Product Description

Engine Front Gear Train

Information Product Description Engine Front Gear Train Illustration 26 C280 Series Engine front gear train (1)

Illustration 26

C280 Series Engine front gear train

(1) Crankshaft (2) Idler (3) Idler (4) Jacket water pump (5) Aftercooler and oil cooler pump (6) Scavenge oil pump or auxiliary pump (7) Engine oil pump

Table 3 lists the number of teeth for the gears in Illustration 26 .

Table 3

g00268306

Front Gear Train For C280 Series Engines

Gear

Number Of

Teeth

(1) Crankshaft

96

(2) Idler

68

(3) Idler

67

(4) Jacket water pump

38

(5) Aftercooler and oil cooler pump

38

(6) Scavenge oil pump

59

(7) Engine oil pump

63

Engine Rear Gear Train

Illustration 27 shows the relationship of the rear gear train for the C280-06 Engine and the C280-08 Engine.

gear train for the C280-06 Engine and the C280-08 Engine. Illustration 27 (1) Crankshaft (2) Large

Illustration 27

(1) Crankshaft (2) Large cluster idler (3) Small cluster idler (4) Camshaft

Illustration 28 shows the relationship of the rear gear train for the C280-12 Engine and the C280-16 Engine.

g00291364

for the C280-12 Engine and the C280-16 Engine. g00291364 Illustration 28 (1) Crankshaft (2) Large cluster

Illustration 28

(1) Crankshaft (2) Large cluster idler (3) Small cluster idler (4) Camshaft

(5) Idler

Table 4 lists the number of teeth for the gears in illustrations 27 and in 28 .

Table 4

g00268312

Rear Gear Train For C280 Series Engines

Gear

Number Of Teeth

(1) Crankshaft

81

(2) Large Cluster Idler

90

(3) Small Cluster Idler

45

(4) Camshaft

81

(5) Idler

81

26

General Information Product Description

SEBU7876

Reference Weights

Table 5

 

Approximate Engine Weights

 

Dry weight of the engine with attachments

C280-06 Engine

C280-08 Engine

C280-12 Engine

C280-16 Engine

15680

kg (34500 lb)

19000

kg (41800 lb)

25140

kg (55300 lb)

29950

kg (65900 lb)

Table 6

 

Approximate Weights Of Serviceable Parts

 

Component

C280-06 Engine

C280-08 Engine

C280-12 Engine

C280-16 Engine

Cylinder block

4180

kg (9200 lb)

5584 kg (12300 lb)

6646 kg (14620 lb)

8630

kg (18986 lb)

Bearing cap

 

65

kg (144 lb)

 

Crankshaft

1782

kg (3920 lb)

2288 kg (5034 lb)

2091 kg (4600 lb)

2602 kg (5724 lb)

Flywheel assembly

 

491 kg (1080 lb)

 

486 kg (1071 lb)

492

kg (1084 lb)

Crankshaft vibration damper

183 kg (405 lb)

267 kg (588 lb)

269 kg (588 lb)

486

kg (1071 lb)

Cylinder head assembly

 

235

kg (517 lb)

196

kg (433 lb)

Cylinder liner

 

128

kg (282 lb)

100

kg (221 lb)

Piston assembly

 

36

kg (77 lb)

 

Piston pin

 

19

kg (42 lb)

 

Piston rod assembly

 

57

kg (125 lb)

 

Turbocharger

 

401

kg (883 lb)

 

Aftercooler core (1)

 

36

kg (80 lb)

73 kg (161 lb)

104 kg (229 lb)

Unit injector

 

12

kg (27 lb)

 

Front housing

 

258

kg (568 lb)

 

Rear housing

 

222

kg (488 lb)

456 kg (1003 lb)

 

Used air cleaner element

 

35

kg (78 lb)

29 kg (64 lb)

 

(1) The weight is listed for a single-stage aftercooler. A two-stage aftercooler and an aftercooler with a deep core are also available.

Table 7

 

Approximate Weights Of Package Generator Sets

 

Item

C280-06 Engine

C280-08 Engine

C280-12 Engine

C280-16 Engine

Engine (1)

15680

kg (34500 lb)

19000

kg (41800 lb)

25140

kg (55300 lb)

29950

kg (65900 lb)

Generator (2)

8270

kg (18200 lb)

10640

kg (23400 lb)

13640

kg (30000 lb)

17820

kg (39200 lb)

Module

1360 kg (3000 lb)

1410 kg (3100 lb)

1480 kg (3260 lb)

1650

kg (3630 lb)

Mounting base

7820

kg (17200 lb)

8640

kg (19000 lb)

 

n/a

Mounting base (2)

8170

kg (17970 lb)

9750

kg (21450 lb)

10250

kg (22550 lb)

14070

kg (30950 lb)

Coupling (2)

 

590 kg (1300 lb)

 

720 kg (1580 lb)

980 kg (2160 lb)

Total

33160

kg (72960 lb)

38450

kg (84768 lb)

 

n/a

Total (2)

34070

kg (74970 lb)

41390

kg (91050 lb)

51230

kg (112690 lb)

64470 kg (141840 lb)

(1)

(2)

The weights of the engines that are listed includes attachments that are mounted on the engines. The engine weights are dry weights. Double bearing generator

SEBU7876

27

Product Identification Information Plate Locations and Film Locations

Product Identification Information

i04812743

Plate Locations and Film Locations

SMCS Code: 1000; 4450

Engine Identification

Cat engines are identified with serial numbers, with performance specification numbers, and with arrangement numbers. In some of the cases, modification numbers are used. These numbers are shown on the Serial Number Plate and the Information Plate that are mounted on the engine.

Cat dealers need these numbers in order to determine the components that were included with the engine. This information permits accurate identification of replacement part numbers.

Engine Information Plate

of replacement part numbers. Engine Information Plate Illustration 29 (1) Engine information plate g02935657

Illustration 29

(1) Engine information plate

g02935657

Plate Illustration 29 (1) Engine information plate g02935657 Illustration 30 g02935876 The engine information plate is

Illustration 30

g02935876

The engine information plate is located between the last two crankcase covers on the right-hand side of the engine.

Serial Number Plate

covers on the right-hand side of the engine. Serial Number Plate Illustration 31 (2) Engine serial

Illustration 31

(2) Engine serial number plate

g02935658

28

Product Identification Information Reference Information

SEBU7876

Identification Information Reference Information SEBU7876 Illustration 32 g00123229 The serial number plate is located

Illustration 32

g00123229

The serial number plate is located between the last two crankcase covers on the right-hand side of the engine.

i01419795

Reference Information

SMCS Code: 1000; 4450

Identification of the items in Table 8 may be needed in order to obtain parts and service. Some of the numbers are on the engine Serial Number Plate and/ or Information Plate. Locate the information for your engine. Record the information on the appropriate space in Table 8 . Make a copy of this list for a record. Retain the information for future reference.

The top level part numbers in the Parts Manual for the engine are listed with the engine arrangement number. Occasionally, an arrangement may be slightly modified before the product is shipped from the factory. In these cases, a modification number indicates that the arrangement has been modified.

The packaging arrangement may also be called a pricing arrangement or a customer arrangement. This is the total package with attachments and options that are not included in the engine arrangement.

The performance specification can be used by your Caterpillar dealer with the Technical Marketing Information system. Before the engine leaves the factory, the engine performance is tested. Detailed performance data is recorded. The performance specification number can be used for obtaining the data.

Table 8

Reference Numbers

Engine Model

Engine Serial Number

Engine Arrangement Number

(continued)

(Table 8, contd)

Packaging Arrangement

Engine Low Idle rpm

Engine Power Rating

Engine Full Load rpm

Performance Specification Number

Governor Group Number

Turbocharger

Primary Fuel Filter

Secondary Fuel Filter

Engine Oil Filter

Air Cleaner

Capacity of the Lubrication System

Capacity of the Cooling System

SEBU7876

29

Operation Section

Product Lifting

Operation Section

Lifting and Storage

Product Lifting

SMCS Code: 7000; 7002

i05379025

and Storage Product Lifting SMCS Code: 7000; 7002 i05379025 Illustration 33 g03403864 Typical lifting eye locations

Illustration 33

g03403864

Typical lifting eye locations on a C280-16 Engine.

Use a hoist to remove heavy components. Some removals require lifting fixtures in order to obtain proper balance and safety.

fixtures in order to obtain proper balance and safety. Illustration 34 g00902989 NOTICE Never bend the

Illustration 34

g00902989

NOTICE Never bend the eyebolts and the brackets. Only load the eyebolts and the brackets under tension. Remem- ber that the capacity of an eyebolt is less as the angle between the supporting members and the object be- comes less than 90 degrees.

When it is necessary to remove a component at an angle, only use a link bracket that is properly rated for the weight.

To lift the engine ONLY, attach anchor shackles to the lifting eyes that are on the engine. The lifting eyes are designed and installed for the specific engine arrangement. Alterations to the lifting eyes and/or the engine make the lifting eyes and the lifting fixtures obsolete. If alterations are made, ensure that proper lifting devices are provided. Consult your Cat dealer for information regarding fixtures for proper engine lifting. Use an adjustable lifting beam to lift the entire engine. All supporting members (chains and cables) should be parallel to each other. The chains and cables should be perpendicular to the top of the object that is being lifted. Follow the instructions that are on the engine lifting warning labels:

instructions that are on the engine lifting warning labels: Illustration 35 g01231066 1. Use proper spreader

Illustration 35

g01231066

1. Use proper spreader bar, as shown.

30

Lifting and Storage Product Storage

SEBU7876

2. Attach two proper rated cables to spreader bar from engine lift shackles.

rated cables to spreader bar from engine lift shackles. Illustration 36 g01231042 The Do Not Lift

Illustration 36

g01231042

The Do Not Lift films are applied to various locations on the product. Do NOT use these locations to lift the product.

Engine Lifting with a Generator

NOTICE Do not use the engine lifting eyes to remove the en- gine and generator together.

A lifting plate is provided with the package generator

set. Instructions for lifting the package generator set are stamped on the lifting plate.

Consult your Cat dealer for information regarding proper fixtures and lifting devices.

Generator set packages will not be level if you lift the unit with a single lifting point. A counterweight can be added between the package frame rails whenever the application requires frequent relocation of the unit. For complete information about adding the counterweight, consult your Cat dealer.

The single point lifting eye is secured from the factory

before the enclosure is shipped. The correct orientation of the single point lifting eye will allow you

to look through the eye when you stand at the side of

the enclosure. The lifting eye may stretch when the package is lifted. This stretch may cause the locking

nuts to loosen. Loosening could cause the lifting eye

to swivel. Ensure that the lifting eye is correctly

oriented on the packaged generator set. Ensure that the lifting eye is tightened to the correct torque before you lift the packaged generator set.

Product Storage

i02425915

SMCS Code: 7002

If the engine will not be started for several weeks, the lubricating oil will drain from the cylinder walls and from the piston rings. Rust can form on the cylinder liner surface. Rust on the cylinder liner surface will cause increased engine wear and a reduction in engine service life.

To help prevent excessive engine wear, use the following guidelines:

• Complete all of the lubrication recommendations that are listed in this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule” (Maintenance Section).

• If freezing temperatures are expected, check the cooling system for adequate protection against freezing. See this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Refill Capacities and Recommendations” (Maintenance Section).

If an engine is out of operation and if use of the engine is not planned, special precautions should be made. If the engine will be stored for more than one month, a complete protection procedure is recommended.

For more detailed information on engine storage, see Special Instruction, SEHS9031, “Storage Procedure For Caterpillar Products”.

Your Caterpillar dealer can assist in preparing the engine for extended storage periods.

SEBU7876

31

Features and Controls Alarms and Shutoffs

Features and Controls

i05393709

Alarms and Shutoffs

SMCS Code: 7400

Setpoints for Alarms and Shutoffs

Alarms and shutoffs are activated by critical operating temperatures, pressures, levels, or speeds.

Engines are equipped with alarms in order to alert the operator if undesirable operating conditions occur. When an alarm is activated, corrective measures must be made before damage to the engine can occur.

Shutoffs are set at more critical operating setpoints than alarms. Any problem that causes the engine to shut off must be corrected before the engine is restarted.

Table 9 lists the alarms and shutoffs that are available and the corresponding suggested setpoints. Some of the conditions that cause an alarm will also cause the engine to be derated.

When the SHUTDOWN PRTN OVERRIDEswitch is in the ON position, no shutoff or derate will occur unless one of the following conditions occurs:

• An overspeed condition exists

• The EMERGENCY STOPswitch is activated.

Note: Some of the items that are listed in Table 9 are optional.

Table 9

 

Alarms and Shutoffs for C280 Engines (Distillate Fuel)

 

Condition

Parameter

Application

Setpoint for

Setpoint for

 

Alarm

Shutoff

 

Cooling System

High

 

Temperature regulator 38° C (100° F)

45° C (113° F)

61° C (142° F)

Low

Aftercooler and oil cooler water pump pressure (outlet)

-

70

kPa (10 psi) (1)

-

Low

Auxiliary water pump pressure (outlet)

-

70

kPa (10 psi) (1)

-

Low

Coolant level

-

 

Level

-

Low

Jacket water pump pressure (outlet)

-

70

kPa (10 psi) (1)

-

High

Jacket water coolant temperature (outlet)

-

103 °C (217 °F)

109 °C (228 °F)

Minimum

Jacket water coolant temperature (inlet) and engine oil temperature (inlet)

-

2 °C (4 °F) (2)

-

differential

 

Exhaust

 

(continued)

32

Features and Controls Alarms and Shutoffs

SEBU7876

(Table 9, contd)

 

Alarms and Shutoffs for C280 Engines (Distillate Fuel)

 

Condition

Parameter

 

Application

Setpoint for

Setpoint for

   

Alarm

 

Shutoff

High

Exhaust port temperature deviation

 

-

50 °C (90 °F) differ- ence from the aver- age temperature of all of the cylinders

 

-

High

Turbocharger exhaust inlet (before turbine)

 

-

630

°C (1166 °F)

 

-

High

Turbocharger exhaust inlet (before turbine)

High Output rating

650

°C (1202 °F)

 

-

High

Exhaust port temperature

 

-

 

(3)

 

-

 

Fuel

High

Fuel filter differential pressure

 

-

75

kPa (11 psi)

 

-

Low

Fuel pump pressure (outlet)

The engine speed is less than 650 rpm.

140

kPa (20 psi) (4)

 

-

Low

Fuel pump pressure (outlet)

The engine speed is greater than 650 rpm.

260

kPa (38 psi) (4)

 

High

Fuel temperature (inlet)

 

-

66

°C (151 °F)

72

°C (162 °F)

 

Inlet Air

High

Air filter differential pressure (restriction)

 

-

3.7

kPa (.54 psi)

 

-

High

Inlet manifold air pressure (boost pressure)

 

-

 

(5)

 

-

High

Inlet manifold air temperature

50

°C (122 °F) aftercooler and oil

92

°C (198 °F)

98

°C (208 °F)

cooler water temperature regulator

   

High

Inlet manifold air temperature

50

°C (122 °F) aftercooler and oil

78

°C (172 °F)

98

°C (208 °F)

cooler water temperature regulator (with a High Performance Aftercooler)

   

High

Inlet manifold air temperature

32

°C (90 °F) aftercooler and oil cooler

75

°C (167 °F)

98

°C (208 °F)

water temperature regulator

   

High

Inlet manifold air temperature

32

°C (90 °F) aftercooler and oil cooler

61

°C (142 °F)

98

°C (208 °F)

water temperature regulator (with a High Performance Aftercooler)

   
 

Lubrication

High

Crankcase pressure

 

-

0.6

kPa (.09 psi)

1 kPa (.15 psi)

High

Engine oil temperature

 

-

92

°C (198 °F)

98

°C (208 °F)

Low

Engine oil level

 

-

50

mm (2 inch)

 

-

 

above the inlet for the oil suction

 

Low

Engine oil pressure

The engine speed is less than 650 rpm.

120

kPa (17 psi) (6)

105

kPa (15 psi)

Low

Engine oil pressure

The engine speed is less than 650 rpm.

320

kPa (46 psi) (6)

260

kPa (38 psi)

(continued)

SEBU7876

33

Features and Controls Alarms and Shutoffs

(Table 9, contd)

 

Alarms and Shutoffs for C280 Engines (Distillate Fuel)

 

Condition

Parameter

Application

Setpoint for

Setpoint for

Alarm

Shutoff

High

Engine oil filter differential pressure

-

70 kPa (10 psi)

165 kPa (24 psi)

High

Detection of oil mist

-

Presence of oil mist in the crankcase

N/A

Metal particle detection

-

Presence of metal particles in the oil lines

 

Miscellaneous

High

Overspeed

-

-

113 % of rated rpm

Low

Air starting motor supply pressure

Vane

750 kPa (109 psi)

-

Low

Turbine

515 kPa (75 psi)

-

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

An optional setpoint is 0.07 kPa times the engine rpm. The minimum difference between the two temperatures must be greater than 2 °C (4 °F). For example, a jacket water coolant temperature inlet of 90 °C minus a lube oil temperature inlet of 85 °C is an acceptable difference of 5 °C. An alarm for the temperature of the exhaust port is specific to the particular project. The primary alarm for exhaust temperature is the exhaust inlet to the turbocharger. An optional setpoint is 0.4 kPa times the engine rpm. The setpoint is determined by adding 30 kPa to the maximum test specification from the dynamometer. An optional setpoint is 0.5 kPa times the engine rpm.

Table 10

 

Alarms and Shutoffs for C280-12/16 (5060bkw) and C280-16 (5600bkw) A4 Based Engines

 

Condition

Parameter

Application (1)

Setpoint for Alarm (Alarm Default State)

Setpoint for Derate (Derate Default State)

Setpoint for Shutoff (Shutdown Default State)

 

Cooling

High

Engine Coolant

C280-16 5600 bkw

103° C (217° F) - AL- WAYS ON (2)

106° C (223° F) - ON

109° C (228° F) - ON

Temperature

C280-12/16 5060 bkw

103° C (217° F) - ON

 

Engine Coolant

       

Low

Temperature

80° C (176° F) - ON

-

-

Low

Engine Coolant Inlet Pressure

 

Map - ON

-

-

Low

Engine Coolant Level

 

Switch - ON

-

-

 

Aftercooler Coolant

C280-16 5600 bkw

45° C (113° F) - ON

48° C (118° F) - ON

61° C (142° F) - OFF

High

Temperature

C280-12/16 5060 bkw

39° C (102° F) - ON

42° C (108° F) - ON

55° C (131° F) - OFF

 

Aftercooler Coolant

       

Low

Pressure

Map - On

-

-

 

Exhaust

 

Turbine Inlet

C280-16 5600 bkw

660° C (1220° F) - ON

661° C (1222° F) - ON

690° C (1274° F) - ON

High

Temperature

C280-12/16 5060 bkw

630° C (1166° F) - ON

631° C (1168° F) - ON

660° C (1220° F) - ON

High

Turbine Inlet Tempera- ture Differential

 

100° C (212° F) - ON

-

-

High

Exhaust Port Tempera- ture (1-20)

 

580° C (1076° F) - ON

-

600° C (1112° F) - OFF

(continued)

34

Features and Controls Alarms and Shutoffs

SEBU7876

(Table 10, contd)

High

Exhaust Port Tempera- ture Deviation (1-20)

 

75° C (167° F) - ON

 

- 125° C (257° F) - OFF

Low

Exhaust Port Tempera- ture Deviation (1-20)

 

125° C (257° F) - ON

 

- 200° C (392° F) - OFF

   

C280-16 5060 bkw/5600 bkw

30,000 RPM - ALWAYS

30,100 RPM - ON

31,000 RPM - ON

High

Turbine Shaft Speed

 

-

ON (2)

C280-12 5060 bkw

34,000 RPM - ALWAYS

34,100 RPM - ON

35,500 RPM - ON

     

-

ON (2)

High

Turbine Shaft Speed Differential

 

3 percent - ON (3)

   
 

Fuel

High

Fuel Filter Restriction

 

75

kPa (11 psi) - ON

-

-

Low

Fuel Pressure

 

Map - ON

-

-

 

Inlet Air

High

Intake Manifold Air Temperature

 

61° C (142° F) - AL- WAYS ON (2)

62° C (144° F) - ON

71° C (160° F) - OFF

High

Crankcase Pressure

 

0.6 kPa (0.09 psi) - ON

-

1 kPa (0.15 psi) - ON

 

Lubrication

 

High

Engine Oil Temperature

 

92° C (198° F) - AL- WAYS ON (2)

92° C (198° F) - ON

98° C (208° F) - ON

Low

Engine Oil Pressure

 

Map - ALWAYS ON (2)

-

Map - ON

High

Engine Oil Filter Restriction

 

70

kPa (10 psi) - ON

-

-

 

Miscellaneous

 
     

990 RPM - ALWAYS ON

 

1017 RPM - ALWAYS

C280-16 5600 bkw

 

(2)

-

ON (2)

High

Engine Overspeed

 

113 percent or Rated - ALWAYS ON (2)

 

115 percent of Rated -

C280-12/16 5060 bkw

-

ALWAYS ON (2)

(1)

(2)

(3)

Empty cell implies setting is applicable to both engines Not Configurable Enabled at Turbo Speeds Greater than 15,000 RPM.

Shut down Procedure For the Oil Mist Detector

If a shutdown occurs due to excessive oil mist, use the following procedure.

Note: Instructions from the Service Manual, “Disassembly and Assembly” module will be necessary in order to perform this procedure. 1. After the shutdown, inspect the control system for other alarm conditions. Compare the timing of the shutdown to the activation of the alarm. Ensure that the shutdown was initiated by the oil mist detector.

2. Inform the master engineer that the engine is unavailable.

3. Inspect the display of the oil mist detector in order to ensure that the shutdown is genuine. The green Readyindicator is OFF and the red Alarmindicator is FLASHING. Inspect the display for other faults.

4. After verifying the cause of the shutdown, shut off the air supply to the starting motor. This procedure will prevent accidental starting.

5. Open the cylinder pressure valves (Keine valves) for all of the cylinders.

SEBU7876

35

Features and Controls Alarms and Shutoffs

SEBU7876 35 Features and Controls Alarms and Shutoffs Guards must be in place prior to operating

Guards must be in place prior to operating barring device motor.

Remove all hand tools prior to operating barring device motor.

NOTICE Do not use an impact wrench to operate the barring device. The use of an impact wrench will cause gear tooth failure.

6. Operate the prelube pump and the barring device. If the flywheel will rotate freely, rotate the engine for two complete revolutions (720 degrees). Lock the barring device.

7. Deactivate the prelube pump.

Lock the barring device. 7. Deactivate the prelube pump. Flash fire may result in personal injury,

Flash fire may result in personal injury, if crank- case covers are removed within fifteen minutes after emergency shut down. Do not restart engine until cause for shutdown has been corrected.

8. After the engine has been shut down for 15 minutes, remove all of the crankcase covers. The oil mist detector monitors each section of the crankcase. First investigate the section with the fault condition.

Note: Measure the temperatures quickly before the bearings can cool is important. This procedure will provide the most accurate indication of the operating temperatures of the bearings. Step 9 can be efficiently performed by two people: one person measures the temperatures, and one person records the temperatures.

9. Use a 123-6700 Laser Infrared Thermometer. Record all three temperatures for the small end bearing and for the large end bearing of each connecting rod. Record the temperatures for the front, the center, and the rear of each bearing.

Note: Lower temperatures can be expected for a shutdown during partial load operation.

a. The temperature of any small end bearing should not exceed the average temperature of all of the small end bearings by more than 15 °C (60 °F). The temperature of any large end bearing should not exceed the average temperature of all of the large end bearings by more than 15 °C (60 °F).

b. The maximum temperature of any bearing after full load operation should not exceed 105 °C (221 °F).

10. Ensure that the large end bearings of the

connecting rods can move freely. Normally, the rods can be moved slightly. Move the rods back and forth along the crankshaft journal.

11. If the following conditions occur, perform Steps 11.a. and 11.b.:

• The temperatures are within the specifications that are listed in Steps 9.a. and 9.b

• A closer visual inspection shows no damage to the following components: pistons, cylinder liners, piston pins, main bearings and gear trains.

a. Remove the oil filters. For instructions, see this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine Oil Filter - Change” topic (Maintenance Section).

b. Cut the oil filters open with a utility knife. Inspect the pleats of the filter material for debris. The type of debris that is found will indicate components that require further inspection.

12. If the temperatures of the bearings exceed the

specifications that are listed in Steps 9.a. and 9.b., remove the components that are affected. Perform a full inspection of the components.

13. When the engine is in satisfactory condition,

perform a complete inspection of the oil mist detector. For instructions, see the literature that is

provided by the OEM of the detector.

NOTICE Do not operate the engine starting motor until the bar- ring group pinion gear is fully disengaged from the fly- wheel ring gear. Serious damage to the engine could result.

14. Start the engine according to this Operation and

Maintenance Manual, “Engine Starting” topic (Operation Section). Operate the engine at low idle rpm for 10 minutes. If the oil mist detector causes another shutdown, repeat this entire procedure.

36

Features and Controls Control Panel

SEBU7876

15. After the engine has operated with no problem for

10 minutes, stop the engine. Immediately remove all of the crankcase covers. Measure the temperatures of the connecting rod bearings. This procedure will verify the correct operation of the engine.

16. Resume normal operation.

Control Panel

SMCS Code: 7451

i05393433

Cat Alarm and Protection Control Panel

Note: For additional information on Cat Alarm and Protection Control Panel refer to Systems Operation,

UENR2430.

Control Panel refer to Systems Operation, UENR2430. Illustration 37 Cat Alarm and Protection Control Panel (1)

Illustration 37

Cat Alarm and Protection Control Panel

(1) Direct control unit panel (DCU) (2) AUX 1 POWERlamp

(3) AUX 2 POWERlamp

(4)

COMMON SHUTDOWNlamp

g03402526

SEBU7876

37

Features and Controls Control Panel

(5) GENERAL ALARMlamp (6) EMERGENCYswitch

(7) SPEED CONTROLswitch switch (9) ENGINE CONTROLswitch (8) GOVERNOR CONTROL

“ ENGINE CONTROL ” switch (8) “ GOVERNOR CONTROL ” Illustration 38 Switches on the inside

Illustration 38

Switches on the inside panel of the control panel

(10)

(11) CRANK OVERRIDEswitch (12) MANUAL RUN/STOPswitch

LOCAL THROTTLEswitch

(13) LOW IDLEswitch (14) ENGINE PRTN OVERRIDEswitch (15) PRELUBE OVERRIDEswitch

g03409900

(16) MANUAL PRELUBEswitch

38

Features and Controls Control Panel

SEBU7876

38 Features and Controls Control Panel SEBU7876 Illustration 39 DCU Panel (17) LCD screen (18) “

Illustration 39

DCU Panel

(17) LCD screen (18) POWERindicator lamp (19) ALARMlist (20) STARTswitch

(21) STOPswitch (22) Context-sensitive menu switches (soft switches) (23) SCROLL DOWNswitch

Marine Monitoring System II Control Panel

Note: For additional information on the Marine Monitoring System II Control Panel, refer to Systems Operation Troubleshooting Testing and Adjusting, RENR2490, “Marine Monitoring System II”.

(24) SCROLL UPswitch (25) MENUswitch

g03409723

SEBU7876

39

Features and Controls Engine Speed Control

SEBU7876 39 Features and Controls Engine Speed Control Illustration 40 Marine Monitoring System II Control Panel

Illustration 40

Marine Monitoring System II Control Panel

(1) Monitor (2) Messenger display

(3) ENGINE SPEEDgauge (tachometer) (4) SUMMARY SHUTDOWNindicator

(5)

(6) STARTING AIR PRESSUREgauge

(7) CONTROL FAILUREindicator

SUMMARY ALARMindicator

(8) SPEED SWITCH FAILUREindicator (9) ENGINE HOURSmeter (10) ENGINE PRELUBEindicator (11) EMERGENCY STOPbutton (12) OFF/RESET, LOCAL, and REMOTEswitch (13) FUEL CONTROLswitch

g01167136

(14) HORN SILENCE and LAMP TESTswitch (15) PRELUBE, RUN, and STARTswitch (16) GOVERNOR CONTROLswitch (17) GOVERNORswitch (18) SPEED CONTROLswitch

i04812303

Engine Speed Control

SMCS Code: 1915

Dual Dynamic Operation of Engine (Marine Propulsion)

The ADEM governor is set up to provide a variable speed control (default). The ADEM governor is also set up to provide a constant speed control (selected through input to ADEM control). The variable speed control is the default configuration that is used to propel the vessel.

A second group of governor gains are used with the constant speed control. The second group of governor gains are selected by the dual dynamic select switch. Constant speed control is desired when an electric propulsion system is used with dynamic positioning.

To use constant speed control, set the following parameters for this feature to work properly:

40

Features and Controls Gauges and Indicators

SEBU7876

• Determine a known constant speed for the application. The constant speed value is then programmed in the ADEM . This value is entered with the Electronic Technician (ET) for the parameter Engine Governor Desired Constant Speed. The default value is set at the rated speed.

• Tune the ADEM control for proper operation. The following governor gain parameters are used to tune the engine for proper operation: Governor Gain Factor #2, Governor Minimum Stability Factor #2and Governor Maximum Stability Factor #2.

Caterpillar recommends a validation of the preset parameters during commissioning procedure. The parameters that have been set at the factory may need adjusting.

Global Throttle Select and Global Throttle PWM Input Features (Marine Propulsion)

The global throttle is available with dual dynamics in order to allow a third throttle input. This feature allows the user to change the throttle input from variable speed control to a load share module. This feature also allows the user to synchronizer the module when constant speed is desired. The global throttle input is selected by grounding the Global Throttle Selectinput to the ADEM control.

For more information on engine speed governing, refer to System Systems Operation/Testing And Adjusting and Adjusting, RENR5083, C280 Marine Engines.

i05377111

Gauges and Indicators

SMCS Code: 7450

Gauges provide indications of engine performance. Ensure that the gauges are in good working order. Determine the normal operating range by observing the gauges over a time.

Noticeable changes in gauge readings can indicate potential gauge or engine problems. Problems may also be indicated by gauge readings that change even if the readings are within specifications. Determine and correct the cause of any significant change in the readings. Consult your Cat dealer for assistance.

Your engine may not have the same gauges or all of the gauges that are described.

NOTICE If no oil pressure is indicated, STOP the engine. The engine will be damaged from operating without oil pressure.

Engine Oil Pressure – This gauge indicates the pressure of the engine oil. The pressure will be highest after a cold engine is started. The pressure will decrease as the engine warms up. The pressure will increase when the engine rpm is increased. The pressure will stabilize when the engine rpm is stable.

Oil Filter Differential Pressure – This gauge indicates the difference in pressure between the inlet side and the outlet side of the engine oil filters. As the oil filter elements become plugged, the pressure will increase. Replace the engine oil filter elements when the oil filter differential pressure reaches 103 kPa (15 psi).The pressure will stabilize when the engine rpm is stable. Engine Oil Temperature – This gauge

Engine Oil Temperature – This gauge indicates the engine oil temperature after the oil has passed through the oil cooler. The oil cooler is thermostatically controlled. The oil temperature is controlled by an 85 °C (185 °F) temperature regulator that is in contact with the oil. The pump for the aftercooler and the oil cooler pumps coolant for the engine oil.

Crankcase Pressure – This gauge indicates the pressure that is inside the crankcase. Changes in the pressure may indicate problems with the following components:

crankcase breathers, pistons, piston rings and cylinder liners.

Aftercooler and Oil Cooler Water Temperature – This gauge indicates the temperature of the coolant at the inlet to the aftercooler and oil cooler circuit. The water temperature is regulated by water temperature regulators. If the cooling system cannot remove enough heat from the water, then the engine cannot be cooled properly. An oil temperature that exceeds the normal oil temperature may indicate that a problem has occurred in the lubrication system and/or the cooling system. Those problems may involve the following components: water temperature regulators, oil coolers, cylinder heads, cylinder liners, pistons and bearings.

following components: water temperature regulators, oil coolers, cylinder heads, cylinder liners, pistons and bearings.
following components: water temperature regulators, oil coolers, cylinder heads, cylinder liners, pistons and bearings.
following components: water temperature regulators, oil coolers, cylinder heads, cylinder liners, pistons and bearings.
following components: water temperature regulators, oil coolers, cylinder heads, cylinder liners, pistons and bearings.

SEBU7876

41

Features and Controls Gauges and Indicators

Jacket Water Coolant Temperature – This gauge indicates the temperature of the engine coolant at the outlet for the jacket water. The temperature may vary according to the load. The temperature should never be allowed to exceed the boiling temperature of the pressurized cooling system. The jacket water coolant temperature is regulated to a temperature of 90 °C (194 °F) at the inlet for the jacket water.

If the engine is operating above the normal temperature range, perform the following procedure:

normal temperature range, perform the following procedure: 1. Reduce the load and/or the engine rpm. 2.

1. Reduce the load and/or the engine rpm.

2. Inspect the cooling system for leaks.

3. Determine if the engine must be shut down immediately or if the engine can be cooled by reducing the load and/or the rpm.

Inlet Manifold Air Temperature – This gauge indicates the inlet manifold air temperature after the aftercooler. As the inlet air increases in temperature the following conditions occur: expansion of the air, less oxygen in the cylinders and less power. If the temperature of the inlet air is too high during full speed and load operation, the engine may consume excessive fuel.engine can be cooled by reducing the load and/or the rpm. Inlet Manifold Air Pressure –

Inlet Manifold Air Pressure – This gauge indicates the air pressure (turbocharger boost pressure) in the air inlet manifold after the aftercooler. The pressure depends on the engine rating, the load, and the operating conditions. To establish the normal inlet manifold air pressure, compare the data from the gauge to the data from the engine commissioning and look for trends.

Air Restriction – This gauge indicates the difference in air pressure between the inlet side and the engine side of the air filter element. The air restriction is measured at the air inlet to the turbocharger. As the air filter element becomes plugged, the difference in pressure between the two sides of the air cleaner element will increase. For optimum engine performance, clean the elements or replace the elements when the air restriction reaches 2.5 kPa (10 inches of H 2 O). Maximum air restriction is 3.7 kPa (15 inches of H 2 O).

Turbocharger Exhaust Inlet Temperature – This gauge indicates the temperature of the exhaust gas at the inlet of the turbocharger.

of the exhaust gas at the inlet of the turbocharger. Exhaust Port Temperature – This gauge
of the exhaust gas at the inlet of the turbocharger. Exhaust Port Temperature – This gauge
of the exhaust gas at the inlet of the turbocharger. Exhaust Port Temperature – This gauge

Exhaust Port Temperature – This gauge indicates the temperature of the exhaust gas from each individual cylinder. The temperature is measured at the exhaust port of each cylinder head. The exhaust temperature will vary slightly between the cylinders. Individual cylinder exhaust temperatures should not vary by more than 50 °C (122 °F) from the average of all of the cylinder exhaust temperatures.

Tachometer – This gauge indicates the engine rpm.the average of all of the cylinder exhaust temperatures. NOTICE To help prevent engine damage, never

Tachometer – This gauge indicates the engine rpm. NOTICE To help prevent engine damage, never exceed

NOTICE To help prevent engine damage, never exceed the high idle rpm. An overspeed can result in serious damage to the engine. The engine can be operated at high idle without damage, but the engine should never be allowed to exceed the high idle rpm.

Note: The high idle rpm and the full load rpm are stamped on the Information Plate.

and the full load rpm are stamped on the Information Plate. Engine Hours – This meter

Engine Hours – This meter indicates the total number of clock hours of operation for the engine.

the total number of clock hours of operation for the engine. Fuel Pressure – This gauge

Fuel Pressure – This gauge indicates the fuel pressure to the engine from the fuel filter. The fuel pressure will decrease as the fuel filter differential pressure increases. A decrease in fuel pressure usually indicates a plugged fuel filter.

Fuel Filter Differential Pressure – This gauge indicates the difference in fuel pressure between the inlet side and the outlet side of the fuel filters. As the fuel filter elements become plugged, the difference in pressure between the two sides of the fuel filter increases. Replace the fuel filter elements when the fuel filter differential pressure reaches 69 kPa (10 psi).

Note: The following gauges are optional. These gauges may be mounted on a gauge panel or in a remote location.

Oil Scavenge Pump Outlet Pressure – This gauge indicates the oil pressure from the outlet of the oil scavenge pump. Oil scavenge pumps supply the engine with lube oil from a remote tank. These pumps are used in applications with limited space for the engine.

For information about marine transmissions, refer to the literature that is provided by the OEM of the marine transmission or the vessel.

about marine transmissions, refer to the literature that is provided by the OEM of the marine
about marine transmissions, refer to the literature that is provided by the OEM of the marine

42

Features and Controls Sensors and Electrical Components

SEBU7876

Transmission Oil Temperature – This gauge indicates the temperature of the oil that is in the transmission. The measurement depends on the temperature of the water and the quantity of the water that is pumped through the transmission oil cooler.and Controls Sensors and Electrical Components SEBU7876 Transmission Oil Pressure – This gauge indicates the oil

Transmission Oil Pressure – This gauge indicates the oil pressure in the marine transmission. The measurement depends on the temperature of the oil and the quantity of the oil that circulates through the transmission lubrication system.water that is pumped through the transmission oil cooler. Note: An optional gauge can be provided

Note: An optional gauge can be provided in order to indicate the oil pressure of other driven equipment. For information about the driven equipment, refer to the literature that is provided by the OEM of the driven equipment.

i05391355

Sensors and Electrical Components

SMCS Code: 1900; 7400

Sensor Locations

Different applications may have different sensors. Some of the sensors are optional. The following illustrations show the locations of sensors for C280 Engines. For both the in-line engines and the vee engines, most of the sensors have the same location. For sensors that are at different locations, the differences are shown.

that are at different locations, the differences are shown. Illustration 41 (1) Turbine speed sensor (2)

Illustration 41

(1) Turbine speed sensor (2) Magnetic pickups

g00509557

Turbine speed sensor (1) – The rpm of the turbine wheel is detected by a speed sensor. The sensor is inside of the turbocharger housing.

Magnetic pickups (2) – The rpm of the flywheel ring gear is detected by magnetic pickups. The

information is sent to the Engine Control Module (ECM). An overspeed will cause an engine shutdown.

Module (ECM). An overspeed will cause an engine shutdown. Illustration 42 (3) Oil temperature sensor (4)

Illustration 42

(3) Oil temperature sensor (4) Unfiltered oil pressure sensor (5) Filtered oil pressure sensor (6) Jacket water pressure sensor (7) Oil pressure sensor

g00509590

Oil temperature sensor (3) – A sensor in the oil temperature regulator housing helps to monitor the oil temperature. Excessive oil temperature can cause an alarm or a shutdown.

Unfiltered oil pressure sensor (4) – This sensor is located before the oil filters. The pressure of the unfiltered oil is compared to the pressure of the filtered oil. Oil filter differential pressure is calculated from the difference between the pressure before the filters and the pressure after the filters. High differential pressure can cause an alarm or a shutdown.

Filtered oil pressure sensor (5) – This sensor is located after the oil filters. The pressure of the filtered oil is compared to the pressure of the unfiltered oil. Oil filter differential pressure is calculated from the difference between the pressure before the filters and the pressure after the filters. High differential pressure can cause an alarm or a shutdown.

Jacket water pressure sensor (6) – Jacket water pressure is detected by a pressure sensor that is located on the elbow at the outlet of the jacket water pump. Low jacket water pressure will activate an alarm.

Oil pressure sensor (7) – The engine oil pressure is monitored by a pressure sensor. Low oil pressure can cause an alarm or a shutdown.

SEBU7876

43

Features and Controls Sensors and Electrical Components

43 Features and Controls Sensors and Electrical Components Illustration 43 Left side of view of the

Illustration 43

Left side of view of the C280-16 Engine with rear mounted turbocharger.

(8) Filtered fuel pressure sensor (9) Unfiltered fuel pressure sensor (10) Jacket water outlet temperature sensor

(11) Inlet manifold air pressure sensor (12) Fuel temperature sensor (13) Aftercooler water temperature sensor

g00510011

(14) Exhaust temperature sensor (15) Metal particle detector (16) Starting air pressure sensor

Note: A vee engine is used to show the sensor locations in Illustrations 43 and 44 . The vee engines and the in-line engines have different locations for the sensors that detect these parameters: inlet manifold air pressure (11), inlet manifold air temperature (18) and aftercooler water temperature (13).

Filtered fuel pressure sensor (8) – The sensor for detecting the fuel pressure of the filtered fuel is located after the fuel filters. Low fuel pressure will activate an alarm.

Unfiltered fuel pressure sensor (9) – The sensor for detecting the fuel pressure of the unfiltered fuel is located after the fuel filters. Fuel filter differential pressure is calculated from the difference between the pressure before the filters and the pressure after the filters. High differential pressure will activate an alarm.

Jacket water outlet temperature sensor (10) – Jacket water outlet temperature is measured before the water temperature regulators. A high temperature can cause an alarm or a shutdown.

Inlet manifold air pressure sensor (11) – On vee engines, the sensor for inlet manifold air pressure is located behind a cylinder head (Illustration 43 ). On in-line engines, the sensor is located on the side of

the engine (Illustration 44 ). High inlet manifold air pressure will activate an alarm.

Fuel temperature sensor (12) – A sensor for fuel temperature is located on the rear of the fuel filters. Excessive fuel temperature can activate an alarm or a shutoff.

Aftercooler water temperature sensor (13) – The sensor for aftercooler water temperature is located before the aftercooler. For vee engines, see Illustration 43 . For in-line engines, see Illustration 44 . High aftercooler water temperature can cause an alarm or a shutdown.

Exhaust temperature sensor (14) – Exhaust temperatures are measured from the exhaust port of each cylinder (Illustration 43 ). An alarm is activated if the exhaust temperature from any cylinder deviates excessively from the average temperature of all of the cylinders.

Metal particle detector (15) – A metal particle detector is mounted near the oil pump (Illustration 43 ). Excessive metal particles in the oil can cause an alarm or a shutdown.

Starting air pressure sensor (16) – A sensor for measuring starting air pressure is located in the air

44