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ABSTRACT

India is a large country having huge resource of materials. If these local materials
are used properly, the cost of construction can be reduced. There are various type
of pavements which differ in their suitability in different environments. Each type
of pavement has its own merits and demerits. Despite a large number of seminars
and conference, still in India, 98% roads are having flexible pavements. A lot of
research has been made on use of Waste materials but the role of these materials is
still limited. So there is need to take a holistic approach and mark the areas where
these are most suitable. Pavement management is focused on the optimization of
expenditure on the road pavement to meet budgetary requirements and user
expectations. This requires a detailed knowledge of pavement behaviour
throughout the pavement life-cycle. Bitumen is an oil based substance. It is a
semisolid hydrocarbon product produced by removing the lighter fractions (such as
liquid petroleum gas, petrol and diesel) from heavy crude oil during the refining
process. As such, it is correctly known as refined bitumen. In North America,
bitumen is commonly known as asphalt cement or asphalt. While elsewhere,
asphalt is the term used for a mixture of small stones, sand, filler and bitumen,
which is used as a road paving material. At ambient temperatures bitumen is a
stable, semisolid substance. The vast majority of refined bitumen is used in
construction: primarily as a constituent of products used in pavement wearing
(surface) course and roofing applications Bituminous materials are also used for
stabilizing the other layers of flexible pavements. Bituminous mix consists of
coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, fillers and bitumen. To get some desirable
properties of the bitumen, it must added with some modifying agents, in this case it
is said to be modified bitumen