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# Experiment 2: Kinetics in Human Motion

## Department of Math and Physics

College of Science, University of Santo Tomas
Espaa, Manila Philippines

Abstract
Motion is a change in position of an
object with respect to time. Motion of a body
is observed by attaching a frame of
reference to an observer and measuring the
change in position of the body relative to
that frame. Kinetics in human motion is
measuring the rates of motion of a person
and his reaction time. Reaction time varies
from person to person and another
assumption in this experiment is that, the
longer the time the person walks, the
smaller the distance of each steps made.
1.

Introduction
In physics and engineering, kinetics is a
term for the branch of classical mechanics
that is concerned with the relationship
between the motion of bodies and its causes,
namely forces and torques. Since the mid20th century, the term "dynamics" (or
"analytical
dynamics")
has
largely
superseded "kinetics" in physics textbooks;
the term "kinetics" is still used in
engineering.
In plasma physics, kinetics refers to the
study of continua in velocity space. This is
usually in the context of non-thermal (nonMaxwellian) velocity distributions, or
processes that perturb thermal distributions.

## described with fluid equations.

plasmas are termed kinetic plasmas.

Such

## To draw the displacement versus

time graphs and velocity versus time
graphs for uniform motion and
uniformly accelerated motion and;
To determine ones normal reaction
time and his reaction time while
using cellphone

2. Theory
As mentioned, objectives include the
determination of a displacement versus time
graph and a velocity versus time graph for
both a uniform motion and uniformly
accelerated motion. Uniform motion implies
a situation where the speed is constant, or
does not change. This means that no
acceleration is happening, and that the speed
remains the same at all time and time
intervals. Uniformly accelerated motion
implies a situation where the speed is now
increasing at a constant rate. This means that
there is a constant acceleration, thus
increases velocity and displacement through
time.

## Along with these, concepts used in

Kinematics of Motion include displacement,
velocity, and acceleration. Displacement is
the movement of an object from its place or
position. Velocity, being a vector quantity,
shows the speed or magnitude of an object
in relation to a certain direction.
Acceleration is the rate of change in velocity
with respect to time. Therefore, a
displacement versus time graph shows the
change in displacement of an object through
time, while a velocity versus time graph
shows the change in velocity as time passes.
For Activity 3, the following equations were
used:
1. Ave Velocity = total distance travelled
total time travelled
or
Where

Vave = x
t

## x = total distance travelled

(change in distance)
t = total time travelled
(change in time)

2. Instantaneous Velocity
= (2) total distance travelled
total time travelled
or

Vinst = (2) x
t

## For Activity 4, the following equation was

used:
3.
Reaction Time (t) =

h
g

## Where t = reaction time, h = height (height

difference from 50cm mark), and g = 9.8m/

3. Methodology
The materials used in this experiment
include a meter stick, timer and a Vernier
Logger Pro. First, a position versus time
graph was presented on the computer screen.
The goal was to move in such a way that the
graph of ones motion matched to it. This
was done by moving to and fro with a
cardboard in front facing the sensor.
Forward motion resulted to a downward
line, while a backward motion gave an
upward one. Next, in the graphical analysis
of motion, one from the group walked in a
straight line for a total of 10 seconds. The
distance traveled per second was marked
and measured using a meter stick. The
instantaneous velocity at the end of each
time interval was computed as well as the
total displacement and average velocity. On
the last activity, a meter stick was held
vertically at the zero mark with the thumb
and index finger positioned at the 50cm
mark. It was then caught immediately as
soon as it was dropped. Reaction time was
then computed, with the height as the
distance between the 50cm mark and the
point where it was caught.
4. Results and Discussion
Activity 1
Graph 1 and table 1 show the total
displacement the student travelled in a
straight line within 10 seconds. It was
observed that as time increased, the
displacement per step relatively decreased.
Moreover,
average
velocity
and

## instantaneous velocity also decreased, as the

initial step presented an average velocity of
100 cm/sec. and an instantaneous velocity of
200 cm/sec, while the final step presented an
average velocity of 78.2 cm/sec, and an
instantaneous velocity of 156.4 cm/sec. This
change in velocity signifies that velocity is
not constant, indicating a shift or change in
acceleration between certain time intervals.
Total displacement, on the other hand,
increased since there was a constant motion
moving away from the point of origin. The
relative decrease in velocity, may it be
instantaneous or average, may be attributed
to physical fatigue, as strides or footsteps
slowly decrease in distance or length as time
passes. The longer the distance and time
travelled, the lower velocity was observed.
Despite this, the results were still close to
the best fit line, indicating that the
relationship or correlation between the
results are still close and precise as it
follows the original trend. The best fit line
represents the values that are most
acceptable, and thus the closer the results are
to the best fit line indicates that the results
are valid and acceptable. The same can be
observed and inferred with the instantaneous
velocity, as shown in graph 2.

Activity 2
.

## The picture shown in activity 2

presented a graph very similar to the given

## set of plots or points. This observation was

made as the logger pro detected the distance
and time at various instances, specifically
when the cardboard was moved away from
the sensor which showed an upward
movement in the graph, when the cardboard
was at rest which showed a flat horizontal
line in the graph, as well as when the
cardboard moved toward the sensor, which
indicated a downward movement in the
graph. When the cardboard was moved
away from the point of origin, this signified
a positive direction, indicating a constant
velocity, and that each time interval covered
the same distance. At the instance where the
cardboard was not moving, a flat line
indicated an absence of change in distance,
or in turn, no speed. The final motion of the
cardboard going towards the reference point
indicated a negative direction, in relation to
the first motion and direction. At this
instance, velocity was also constant.
Activity 4.
Table 2 shows the different reaction
times, as well as the distance of the meter
stick that had fallen prior to catching. As
observed, a smaller distance indicated a
shorter or faster reaction time. This indicates
that a quicker response allowed less distance
to fall prior to catching, evident with having
a reaction time of 0.16 seconds only allowed
0.12m of the meter stick to fall. However,
variables and results as shown in the table
differ greatly from one another as the trials
indicated above were conducted by different
individuals. Thus, reaction time varies from
person to person, and these may be
furthermore attributed to other factors that
may hinder a person from reacting quickly,
such as attentiveness, eyesight, etc. As for
ways to further improve the results of the
experiment, and for all activities, variables
that can be controlled should be maximized
so as to lessen the chances of having

different factors
outcome or result.

affecting

the

overall

5. Conclusion
The kinetic energy of an object is the energy
that it possesses due to its motion. Having
gained this energy during its acceleration,
the body maintains this kinetic energy unless
its speed changes because reaction time

## differs from person to person. If the gravity

is the only force acting on an object, the sum
of kinetic energy and gravitational energy is
constant. Increase in kinetic energy are
balanced by decreases in gravitational
energy, and vice versa.

7. References
Arborscicom. (2016). Arborscicom. Retrieved 6 September, 2016, from
http://www.arborsci.com/cool/the-importance-of-the-best-fit-line
Tutorvistacom. (2016). Tutorvistacom. Retrieved 6 September, 2016, from
http://formulas.tutorvista.com/physics/instantaneous-velocity-formula.html
Viceduau. (2016). Viceduau. Retrieved 6 September, 2016, from
http://resources.mhs.vic.edu.au/science/resources/graphing_information.htm