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Vibration and Control

A two-step approach for damage Identification in plates


YZ Fu, JK Liu, ZT Wei and ZR Lu
Journal of Vibration and Control published online 13 November 2014
DOI: 10.1177/1077546314557689
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Article

A two-step approach for damage


Identification in plates

Journal of Vibration and Control


114
! The Author(s) 2014
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DOI: 10.1177/1077546314557689
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YZ Fu, JK Liu, ZT Wei and ZR Lu

Abstract
This paper presents a two-step approach based on modal strain energy and response sensitivity analysis to identify the
local damages in isotropic plates with moderate thickness. The first step focuses on detection of damage location.
The local damage is simulated by a reduction in the elemental Youngs modulus of the plate. It is determined from the
modal strain energy change ratio approach. A method to weaken the vicinity effect is proposed to reduce the false
alarms in the localization of damage. In the second step, an approach based on response sensitivity-based finite element
model updating is used to further identify the locations and extents of the local damages in time domain. The identified
results are obtained iteratively with Tikhonov regularization using the measured structural dynamic responses. Two
numerical examples are investigated to illustrate the correctness and efficiency of the proposed method. Both single and
multiple damages can be identified successfully and the effect of measurement noise on the identification
results is investigated. Good identified results can be obtained from the short time histories of a few number of
measurement points.

Keywords
Damage identification, plate; modal strain energy change, response sensitivity, model updating, time domain

1. Introduction
As an important type of structural component, plate
appears in a broad range of engineering applications,
including aerospace, automotive, civil and mechanical
engineering. Development of an early damage detection
method for plates is of great importance in maintaining
the integrity and safety of the whole structures.
Techniques based on vibration have been widely
developed for structural damage identication and
health monitoring in the last few decades. By examining
changes in the dynamic properties of a structure,
Doebling et al. (1998) brought about a comprehensive
review of the damage detection methods. Zou et al.
(2000) reviewed the progress on structural condition
monitoring and damage identication for composite
structures. Worden et al. (2008) summarized that a
review of nonlinear dynamics applications to structural
health monitoring.
Generally speaking, damage detection requires a
mathematical model of the structure in conjunction
with experimental modal parameters of the structure.
The identication approaches are mainly based on the

following aspects: the changes in the natural frequencies (Cawley and Adams, 1979; Khiem and Lien, 2004),
mode shapes and their derivatives (Pandey et al., 1991;
Stubbs and Kim, 1996), measured dynamic exibility
(Pandey and Biswas, 1994; Doebling et al., 1996;
Jaishi and Ren, 2006), or frequency response function
(Liu et al., 2009; Huang et al., 2012). Shi et al. (1998)
developed the modal strain energy change ratio-based
damage detection algorithm which examples that the
ratio is the signicant indicator to damage location.
Later, an improvement was made by Shi et al. (2002)
based on the elemental modal strain energy change
before and after the occurrence of damage in a structure. The algorithm includes the analytical stiness and

Department of Applied Mechanics, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou,


Guangdong Province, PR China
Received: 12 May 2014; accepted: 18 September 2014
Corresponding author:
ZR Lu, Department of Applied Mechanics, Sun Yat-sen University,
Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 510006, PR China.
Email: lvzhr@mail.sysu.edu.cn

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mass matrices of the system in the damage quantication. It reduces signicantly the modal truncation error
and the nite-element modeling error from higher analytical modes in the computation, and thus improves
the convergence properties.
In addition to approaches in frequency domain,
there have been large amount of studies on nondestructive methods for structural damage detection
in time domain. Cattarius and Inman (1997) made
use of the time histories of vibration response of the
structure to identify damage in smart structures. Lu
and Law (2007a) proposed a structural damage identication approach based on response sensitivity analysis
in time domain. Research focusing on some other properties of structural vibration provided an impressive
view on damage detection. An and Ou (2014) presented
a signal energy change-based damage localization
approach for beam structures using the accelerations
on measured nodes.
Most of the techniques for damage identication
mentioned above are related to one-dimensional (1D)
structures, for example, beams and trusses, etc. While
the research on two-dimensional (2D) plate-like structures is relatively fewer in the literature concerning
damage identication. Cawley and Adams (1979) developed a damage detection algorithm for plate structures
from frequency shifts. Cornwell et al. (1999) extended
the modal energy method to detect damage in plate
structures. Li et al. (2002) presented a strain mode technique for damage identication in plate-like structures.
Yam et al. (2002) conducted a sensitivity analysis on
static and dynamic response parameters for damage
identication in plate-like structures. Basing on changes
in uniform load surface, Wu and Law (2005) presented
damage identication in plate structures. Yoon et al.
(2005) extended the gapped-smoothing method to
identify damages in 2D plate-like structures, which
was originally developed for damage detection in 1D
structures. Bayissa and Haritos (2007) presented a new
damage-sensitive parameter which was based on bending moment response power spectral density for
damage identication in 2D plate-like structures.
Coppotelli et al. (2007) identied structural damage
using a sensitivity approach with output-only data.
Qiao et al. (2008) developed a new combined static/
dynamic technique for improved damage detection of
laminated composite plates. The promise of the technique is that the abnormality of dynamic response due
to damage may become more pronounced and easier to
be detected under the sustaining static load. Fan and
Qiao (2009) presented a 2D continuous wavelet transform-based damage detection algorithm using
Dergauss 2 d wavelet for plate-type structures.
Kazemi et al. (2010) proposed a two-stage procedure
to localize various faults and their corresponding

severity in thin plate structures. Xiang and Liang


(2012) presented a two-step approach for detecting
multiple damages in the plates. Wavelet transform to
the modal shape was used to detect locations of local
damage and Wavelet nite element model combined
with particle swarm optimization was utilized to evaluate the damage severities.
More recently, a damage identication method for
plate structures on the basis of response sensitivity
based model updating has been proposed by Fu et al.
(2013). Local damage in plates can be identied successfully from a few number of acceleration measurement. However, when the plate is discretized into a
large number of nite elements, it is very timeconsuming in the process of model updating. And the
accuracy of identied results is not very satisfactory. To
avoid such disadvantage, this paper deals with a twostage method for damage identication. In the rst
step, the modal strain energy change ratio (MSECR)
is utilized to determine the locations of the local damages in the plate, and a method is proposed to reduce
the false alarms arising from the vicinity eect. The
damaged elements determined from the rst step are
regarded as suspicious ones. In the second step, the
response sensitivity-based nite element model updating approach is applied to quantify the extent for those
suspicious damaged elements. As the number of
unknowns in the model updating is reduced dramatically, the computation time for damage identication
reduces a lot. A cantilevered plate and a two-span continuous plate are studied to illustrate the correctness
and eciency of the proposed method. In the numerical
simulations, both single damage and multiple damages
in the plates can be identied successfully. The eects of
measurement noise and measurement point on the identied results are investigated.

2. Theory for damage identification


2.1. Finite element model of the plate structure
The equation of motion for an isotropic moderate thick
plate structure under the external excitation force after
nite element discretization can be expressed as Fu
et al. (2013)
Md Cd_ Kd Pt

Where M, K and C are the system mass, stiness and


d_ and d are the acceldamping matrices respectively, d,
eration, velocity and displacement vectors of the structure, Pt is the vector of external force. Rayleigh
damping model is assumed in the study, i.e.,
C 1 M 2 K, where 1 and 2 are constants to be
determined from two given damping ratios that

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corresponding to two unequal modal frequencies of


vibration. Newmark direct integration method is used
to calculate the forced vibration response of the plate.

2.2. Damage indicator from modal strain energy


change ratio
The eigen-value equation for the undampled system of
equation (1) can be expressed as
K(i li M(i

where K and M are the system stiness and mass matrices of the plate, li and (i the ith eigenvalue and eigenvector, respectively.
The modal strain energy of intact and damaged
structure of jth element in ith mode can be dened as
MSEij (Ti Kj (i ,

MSEdij (di Kj (di

3a; 3b

where MSEij and MSEdij are the intact and damaged


MSEs respectively, which both are the functions of
the jth intact elemental stiness matrix and the undamaged or damaged state of the ith mode shape.
Proved by Shi et al. (1998), the MSECR can be used
as an eective indicator to locate the damages. It can be
expressed as
MSECRij

MSEdij  MSEij
MSEij

structure locating at the pth element. If one selects


the jth element, the relations of MSECRj and
MSECRp are listed as follow. (1) If j p, the value of
MSECRj will be the largest one. (2) If j 6 p, but the jth
element is adjacent to the damaged element p, i.e., it
shares some same nodes with the pth element, the
MSECRj value will be much smaller than that of the
rst case, but still larger than the third case. This will
lead to false alarm in damage localization although it is
not a real damaged one. We call it vicinity eect in
this study. (3) If the jth element is far away from the pth
element, the value of MSECRj will be quite small. (4) If
two damages are adjacent, each MSECR value will be
larger than that for the sole damage case. And the value
of MSECR can be calculated similar to the single
damage case.

2.3. Weakening vicinity effect (WVE)


As stated above, the problem of false alarm exists in the
damage localization. A treatment to MSECR is proposed to reduce the vicinity eect in this paper.
Figure 2 shows the typical result of damage localization
from the original MSECR method. One can nd that
the damaged element is surrounded by a group of adjacent elements whose MSECR values are relatively small
compared to that of damaged elements but still quite

where j and i denote the element number and mode


number respectively. When only taking the rst m
modes into consideration, the MSECRj of the jth element is treated as the average of MSECRij for the rst m
modes.
MSECRj

m
1X
MSECRij
m i1

Shi et al. (1998) have proved that the following properties do exist in MSECR which can be shown in
Figure 1. Suppose there is only one damage in the

Figure 2. Vicinity effect of MSECR in damaged element.

Figure 1. Damaged element p and target element j.

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large compared to the elements far away from damaged


element.
For each element in the nite element model of the
plate, the following steps demonstrate how the weakening vicinity eect can be conducted. We rst nd
the minimum value of MSECR around an element
chosen, i.e.

Mininum min MSECRup , MSECRdown ,

MSECRleft , MSECRright

where MSECRup , MSECRdown , MSECRleft , MSECRright


mean the MSECR values of elements that are above,
beneath, left to, right to the current element respectively. As to damaged element, the values of
MSECRup , MSECRdown , MSECRleft , MSECRright are
comparatively large and the minimum in equation (6)
is still positive. But as to any intact element, including
the elements around the damaged one, its minimum
value can be much smaller than that of damaged element and even negative. As illustrated in Figure 2,
Element A is one of the elements adjacent to the
damaged one, and Element B is one of those adjacent
to Element A, which is far away from the damaged one.
Then the MSECR value of current element can be set to

where @d=@E
i , @d=@Ei , @d=@Ei are the acceleration, velocity and displacement sensitivities concerning the
Youngs modulus of the ith element. As the global stiness matrix K is the function of the damage parameter
Ei , we can obtain the partial derivative @K=@Ei directly.
The fourth and fth terms in equation (8) can be moved
@d=@E

from the left to the right side. Letting D


i,
_
_
D @d=@Ei , D @d=@Ei , equation (8) can be
rewritten as
CD
_ KD 2
MD

@K _ @K
d
d
@Ei
@Ei

As the dynamic responses of the system have been


obtained from equation (1), the response sensitivities
can be obtained by direct integration of equation (9).

2.5. Objective function for the model updating


problem
In the inverse analysis, in order to identify the local
damages in the system, a dynamic response sensitivity-based nite element model updating approach (Lu
and Law, 2007b) is used. The objective function for the
model updating is to minimize the residual between the
measured and calculated structural dynamic responses

MSECRnew MSECR  ! Mininum  1  ! 7


where ! represents the weighting factor between 0 to 1.
To obtain a better weakening result, ! is taken as 0.15.
The eect of dierent values of w on the weakening
result is compared in the numerical simulation. It can
be discovered that the minimum value of Element A
relies on Element B, which will bring a considerable
decrease to MSECR value of Element A from equation
(7). The same operation on the overall elements leads to
drops on the MSECR values of all elements, and according to the new elemental MSECR value, the vicinity
eect of the damaged element will eciently be
decreased. It should be pointed out that for the case of
two adjacent damages, the MSECRnew value of each
damage can also be calculated from equation (7).

2.4. Dynamic response sensitivity concerning the


damage parameter
Assume that local damage only relates to the loss in
stiness and the loss in mass is ignored.
Dierentiating both sides of equation (1) with respect
to the damage parameter, i.e., Youngs modulus of the
ith element, we have
M

@d
@d_
@d
@K _ @K
C
K
2
d0
d
@Ei
@Ei
@Ei
@Ei
@Ei

min ga

l X
nt 
T 

1X
^ ij  Rij
^ ij  Rij W R
R
2 j1 i1

10

where l is the number of measurement locations, nt is


the number of time instances of the measured data. a
is the vector of unknown damage parameters
1 , 2 , . . . , N T to be identied, N is the number of
suspicious damaged element, R is the vector of calculated response of the structure from a known set of Ei
^ is the vector of measured response. W is the
and R
weighting matrix.

2.6. Identification of damage parameters from


model updating
Penalty function method is usually applied to modal
sensitivity with a truncated Taylor series expansion of
the unknown parameters (Friswell and Mottershead,
1995). The truncated series of the dynamic responses
of the system parameter  are used for deducing the
sensitivity-based formulation in this paper. The identication problem can be expressed as follows to nd the
vector a, enabling an optimal match between the calculated response and the measured response, i.e.
^
QR R

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where the selection matrix Q is a matrix with elements


of zeros or ones, matching the corresponding degrees of
freedom measured response components. Vector R can
be calculated from equation (1) for a given set of a
where
k
^ k  Qk Rk d^  d k
d k R
cal

12

is the dierence between the measured and calculated


responses at the kth iteration.
The increment vector of the elemental Youngs
modulus, "Ek , of the kth iteration, can be obtained
from the following equation, using the penalty function
method (Friswell and Mottershead, 1995)
S k "Ek "d k

@d1 ti
6 @E1
6 @d2 ti
6 @E
6 1

Stti

6 .
6 .
6
6 .
6 @di ti
6 @E1
6
6 .
6 ..
4

@dl ti
@E1

@d1 ti
@E2
@d2 ti
@E2

..
.
@di ti
@E2

..
.
@dl ti
@E2








@d1 ti
@Ei
@d2 ti
@Ei

..
.
@di ti
@Ei

..
.
@dl ti
@Ei

Ek1 Ek "Ek








@d1 ti
@EN 7
@d2 ti 7
7
@EN 7

.. 7
7
. 7
7
@di ti 7
@EN 7
7
.. 7
. 7
5

14

@dl ti
@EN

The number of measured response must be larger


than the number of unknown parameters. Like many
other inverse problems, the matrix ST S is ill conditioned and equation (13) is an ill-conditioned problem.
In order to provide upper or lower bounds in the
objective function to the solution, the damped leastsquares method (DLS) (Hansen, 1994) can be used to
solve equation (13) which is expressed as
"Ek S kT S k lIS kT "d k

15

where l is the non-negative damping (regularization)


coecient governing the participation of least-squares
error in the solution. The solution of equation (15)
equals to the minimizing the function
2 
2

 
J "Ek , l S k "Ek  "d k  l"Ek 

16

17

The dynamic response and response sensitivity Sk1


also can be recalculated once Ek1 has been calculated
from equation (17). The convergence is achieved when
the following criterion is met
 k1

E
 Ek 
 k
 Tol:
E 

13

S k is a time-varying response sensitivity matrix at the


kth iteration with a dimension of N  l, at time t ti ,
the sensitivity matrix is shown in equation (14), N is the
number of the unknown damage parameter, which is
equal to the number of the nite element, l is the
number of measured data points.
2

with the second term in equation (16) providing bounds


to the solution. Tikhonov regularization approach
(Tikhonov, 1963) is used in this paper to obtain the
optimal regularization parameter, which utilize
L-curve (Hansen, 1994) as an optimal function.
Then the updated Youngs modulus vector Ek1 , of
the kth iteration can be obtained in the next iteration as
follows

18

In this study, the tolerance Tol is taken as 1  108 .


The convergence of this computation strategy has been
testied by Li and Chen (2003) in the estimation of
wind load and system parameters simultaneously.
Although the uniqueness of the solution is not examined in this work, other algorithms to identify both the
unknown forces and system parameters, such as Ling
and Haldar (2004) and Shi et al. (2000), also do not
warrant a unique solution. They are dependent on the
eectiveness of minimization of the objective function
not falling into the local minimum. The uniqueness of
the problem is still an unsolved problem remaining for
further study.

3. Numerical simulations
3.1. A cantilevered plate
Several studies related to damage identication for a
steel cantilevered plate are done in this numerical example. The dimensions of the plate under study are
1000 mm  1000 mm  60 mm as shown in Figure 3.
The physical material properties of the plate are:
Youngs modulus E 210 GPa, mass density
 7:8  103 kg=m3 and Poissons ratio  0:3. The
nite element model of the plate was established by
employing the MATLAB software package. The plate
was discretized into 100 four-node Reissner-Mindlin
plate elements. The rst six natural frequencies of the
plate are 10.0, 325.92, 783.03, 2004.61, 2530.02 and
2851.78 Hz, respectively. An impulsive force acts at
the 121st node of the plate in the global z direction with


Ft 103 t  0:02N

0:02s 5 t  0:04s

Ft 103 0:06  tN

0:04s 5 t  0:06s

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Figure 3. A cantilever steel plate ((1), (2), . . . , (121) denote node number of FEM; 1,2, . . . ,100 denote element number).

Table 1. Comparison on the value of weighting factor.


Scenario

Interval

The selected
value of !

Figure of the
weakening result

1
2
3
4

00.30
0.300.60
0.600.90
0.901.00

0.15
0.45
0.75
0.95

Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure

4
5
6
7

to obtain the forced vibration response of the plate. In


the calculation of the dynamic response, the time increment is 0.0005 second and the time duration of the
excitation loading is 1.0 second. The two damping coefcients used for calculating Rayleigh damping matrix
are both assumed to be 0.01.
Study Case 1: eect of the value of weighting factor
In this case, we intend to investigate the eect of the
value of weighting factor ! on the identied results
from the improved MSECR method. Again, three
local large damages, which locate at the 46th, 55th
and 56th elements with a reduction in Youngs modulus
by 3%, 4% and 5%, respectively. Then, four scenarios
of the selected value of ! as listed in Table 1 are

Figure 4. Localization of multiple damages from improved


MSECR method (! 0:15, noise free).

studied, and the identied results from the


improved MSECR method with dierent values of !
are shown in Figures 47. The eect of dierent values
of ! on the weakening result is compared to prove that
! should be selected as 0.15 to obtain a better weakening result.

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Figure 5. Localization of multiple damages from improved


MSECR method (! 0:45, noise free).

Figure 7. Localization of multiple damages from improved


MSECR method (! 0:95, noise free).

Figure 6. Localization of multiple damages from improved


MSECR method (! 0:75, noise free).

Figure 8. Localization of a single damage from MSECR method


(noise free).

Study Case 2: identication of a single damage


In this case, single damage identication is studied
for the plate. A local damage is simulated by a reduction of 5% in Youngs modulus in the 46th element.
The rst six natural frequencies of the damaged plate
are 10.00, 325.90, 782.80, 2003.80, 2528.66 and
2851.56 Hz, respectively. This indicates the local
damage has very little impact on the natural
frequencies.
The modal strain energies of 100 dierent elements
of the plate for damaged structures are calculated at
rst and then, the indicator MSECR is evaluated to
identify the location of damage. Figure 8 shows the
value of MSECR for each element and Figure 9
shows the elemental MSECR value after WVE

treatment. One can nd the 46th element has been identied as a damaged one from the improved MSECR. In
the second step response sensitivity-based approach is
used to identify the extent of the damaged element. As
the damage location has been determined in the rst
step, we only need the elemental Youngs modulus of
the damaged element. As shown in Table 2, three acceleration measurements adjacent to the 46th element are
used in the identication. The identied result converged after 3 iterations and is shown in Figure 10.
The optimal regularization parameter lopt is calculated
to be 9:5753  1017 . A comparison is made for the
computational time needed when using the proposed
method and the original response sensitivity method

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Table 3. Comparison on the computational time.
Cases

Proposed method

Original response
sensitivity method

1
6

13 minutes 53 seconds
58 minutes 16 seconds

128 minutes 32 seconds


610 minutes 27 seconds

Figure 9. Localization of a single damage from improved


MSECR method (noise free).

Table 2. Measurement points for damage identification.


Study cases

Measurement points

Cases
Cases
Cases
Cases

Node 50, node 51, node 62


Node 51, node 71, node 73
Node 37, node 62, node 82
Node 67, node 70, node 77, node 80,
node 130, node 133, node 140, node 143

2
3
46
78

Figure 10. Identification of a single local damage (noise free).

as shown in Table 3, which is conducted using the same


personal computer with Intel(R), Core(TM) i5-2400,
CPU@3.1 GHz, RAM 4.0GB. One can nd that the
running time for the proposed method is much less

Figure 11. Localization of adjacent small damages from MSECR


method (noise free).

than the original response sensitivity method. This


shows the eciency of the proposed method.
Study Case 3: identication of adjacent small damages
In this case, the reduced damage problem having
three local adjacent small damages can be identied
in the plate, which locate at the 46th, 55th and 56th
elements with a reduction in Youngs modulus by
3%, 4% and 5%, respectively.
The original MSECR method and the improved
MSECR method using WVE of the plate with adjacent
small damages are shown in Figures 11 and 12. One can
nd that the initial position in the 46th, 55th and 56th
elements has been localized more accurately from the
improved MSECR method using WVE.
Three acceleration measurements adjoin the initial
position as shown in Table 2 are utilized for the identication from the proposed method. These three small
local damages in the plate have been identied successfully after three iterations as shown in Figure 13. The
optimal regularization parameter lopt is found to be
1:5385  1011 . The eectiveness of the proposed
method can be further proved by this case.
Study Case 4: identication of multiple damages
In this case, multiple local damages are studied.
Three local damages are assumed to occur at the

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Figure 12. Localization of adjacent small damages from


improved MSECR method (noise free).

Figure 13. Identification of adjacent small local damages (noise


free).

34th, 47th and 75th elements with a reduction in


Youngs modulus by 15%, 12% and 10%, respectively.
Figures 14 and 15 show the damage localization
results from the MSECR method and the improved
MSECR method. It can be seen that the locations of
three damages have been identied successfully from
the improved MSECR method.
Three acceleration measurements adjacent to the
damaged elements as shown in Table 2 are utilized
to identify the damage extents. The three local damages in the plate have been identied with good
accuracy after 10 iterations as shown in Figure 16.
The optimal regularization parameter lopt is found to
be 7:2881  1012 . Figure 17 shows the evolution of

Figure 14. Localization of multiple damages from MSECR


method (noise free).

Figure 15. Localization of multiple damages from improved


MSECR method (noise free).

the reduction in the elemental Youngs modulus with


iterations for all 100 elements of the plate. This indicates the results begin to converge after three iterations which prove the eciency of the proposed
method.
Study Case 5: eect of measurement noise
In practice, the measured response data will usually
be contaminated by noise. The accuracy of damage
identication might be inuenced by the existence of
the noise. In the numerical simulation, the calculated
acceleration is added by a normally distributed random
error with zero mean and a unit standard deviation, in

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3.2. A two-span continuous plate


A two-span continuous plate is studied as another example, as schematically shown in Figure 21. The plate
under study is simply supported at the left and right
sides, which has the dimension 2000 mm
2000 mm  80 mm. The physical material properties of
the plate are: Youngs modulus E 25 GPa, mass density  2:8  103 kg=m3 and Poissons ratio  0:2. In
the nite element, the plate was discretized into two hundred 4-node Reissner-Mindlin plate elements. Two
impulsive forces are assumed to excite the plate. The
rst one is assumed to act at the 112nd node in the negative global z direction with the expression of

Figure 16. Identification of multiple local damages (noise free).

order to simulate the eect of measurement noise. It


can be shown as
  

ij ij 1 Ep  Noise j max

19

d^ d cal Ep  Noise  vard cal

20

where ij and ij are the mode shape components of the
jth mode at ith degree of freedom with noise and without noise, respectively; d^ is the vectors of measured
structural acceleration response; Ep is the noise level;
Noise is standard normal distribution
 vector with zero
mean and unit standard deviation; j max is the largest
absolute value of component in the jth mode shape;
var is the variance of the time history.
The last case is re-examined and 2% noise levels are
included to the calculated modeshapes and acceleration
responses to simulate the measured modeshapes and
accelerations. Figures 18 and 19 show the damage
localization results with noise from the MSECR
method and the improved MSECR method. When
the measurement noise is included, there will be some
false alarms in the damage localization.
It should be pointed out that from Figure 19, one
can nd that elements 20 and 28 are also suspicious
damaged, thus in the model updating procedure, the
stiness parameters of these two elements are also
included. Figure 20 shows the identied results with
noisy measurements. The identied results converged
after ve iterations with a max identied error 1.81%
in the 34th element with the optimal regularization parameter lopt equal to 3:5760  1016 . This shows the
robustness of the proposed method.

Ft 105 t  0:02N
Ft 105 0:06  tN

0:02s 5 t  0:04s
:
0:04s 5 t  0:06s

The second one is assumed to act at the 164th node in


the negative global z direction with the expression of


Ft 105 t  1:02N
5

Ft 10 1:06  tN

1:02s 5 t  1:04s
1:04s 5 t  1:06s

In calculating the dynamic response, the time increment


and duration is 0.0002 second and 2 seconds, respectively. The rst six natural frequencies of the intact plate
is 44.05, 60.47, 64.68, 77.51, 115.55, and 126.83 Hz,
respectively.
Study Case 6: identication of multiple damages
with no noise
In this case, eight local damages are introduced into
the plate, which locate at the 64th, 67th, 74th, 77th,
124th, 127th, 134st and 137th elements with a reduction
in the Youngs modulus by 15%, 10%, 15%, 8%, 15%,
12%, 20% and 10%, respectively.
Figures 22 and 23 show the damage positions of the
plate from original MSECR method and the improved
MSECR. It can be seen that all the positions have been
localized accurately from the improved MSECR
method, but there are many false alarms from the original MSECR method.
Eight acceleration measurements adjacent to the
damaged elements are used in the damage identication
as listed in Table 2. The identied results converged
after ve iterations. All the extents of the eight local
damages have been identied successfully. The identied results are shown in Figure 24. The optimal regularization parameter lopt is found to be 8:3249  1015 .
A comparison is made for the computational time
needed when using the proposed method and the original response sensitivity method as shown in Table 3.
This study indicates the proposed method is eective
for damage identication in a multi-span plate.

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Figure 17. Identification results of multiple local damages for each iteration (noise free).

Figure 18. Localization of multiple damages from MSECR


method (2% noise).

Figure 19. Localization of multiple damages from improved


MSECR method (2% noise).

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Study Case 7: identication of multiple damages with


measurement noise
The last case is re-studied but 2% noise is assumed
to include to the calculated modeshapes and accelerations. The same acceleration measurements as the
last study case are used in the damage identication.
Figures 25 and 26 present the damage localization
results from the MSECR method and the improved
MSECR method. It can be seen that there are some
false alarms in the damage positions from the improved
MSECR method due to the eect of noise. It should be
indicated that from Figure 26, one can see that elements
36, 44, 144 and 157 are also suspicious damaged, thus

in the model updating procedure, the stiness parameters of these four elements are also included.
The nal identied results for damage quantication
are obtained after six iterations with a max identied

Figure 22. Localization of multiple damages from MSECR


method in a two-span plate (noise free).

Figure 20. Identification of multiple damages (2% noise).

Figure 23. Localization of multiple damages from improved


MSECR method in a two-span plate (noise free).

Figure 21. Sketch of a two-span plate ((1), (2), . . . , (231) denote node number of the FEM; 1,2, . . . ,200 denote element number)
(Dimensions not scaled).

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Figure 24. Multiple damage identification in a two-span plate


(noise free).

Figure 27. Multiple damages identification in a two-span plate


(2% noise).

4. Conclusions

Figure 25. Localization of multiple damages from MSECR


method in a two-span plate (2% noise).

In this study, the coupling of modal strain energy and


response sensitivity is investigated for local identication in plate type structures. In the rst step, an
approach based on modal strain energy change ratio
is presented to locate the damage in plate structures.
And a method to reduce the false alarms caused by
vicinity eect is proposed to improve the original
MSECR method. In the second step, an approach
based on dynamic response sensitivity-based nite
element model updating is introduced to quantify the
local damages. Two numerical examples studied in this
contribution prove the eectiveness of the proposed
method in identifying both single and multiple damages
in the plates from several acceleration measurements.
This indicates that the proposed method has potential
for practical application.

Funding

Figure 26. Localization of multiple damages from improved


MSECR method in a two-span plate (2% noise).

error 1.32% in the 124st element with the optimal regularization parameter lopt is found to be 9:5344  1012 .
Figure 27 shows even with 2% noise level, all the local
damages have been identied with good accuracy.

This work is supported by the National Natural Science


Foundation of China (grant numbers 11172333 and
11272361), the Fundamental Research Funds for the
Central Universities (grant number 13lgzd06), Doctoral
Program Foundation of Ministry of Education of China
(grant number 20130171110039), the Guangdong Province
Science and Technology Program (grant number
2012A030200011), and the General Financial Grant from
the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (grant number
2013M531893). Such nancial aids are gratefully
acknowledged.

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