A Two Step Approach for Damage Identification in Plates

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A Two Step Approach for Damage Identification in Plates

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Vibration and Control

YZ Fu, JK Liu, ZT Wei and ZR Lu

Journal of Vibration and Control published online 13 November 2014

DOI: 10.1177/1077546314557689

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Article

Identification in plates

114

! The Author(s) 2014

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DOI: 10.1177/1077546314557689

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Abstract

This paper presents a two-step approach based on modal strain energy and response sensitivity analysis to identify the

local damages in isotropic plates with moderate thickness. The first step focuses on detection of damage location.

The local damage is simulated by a reduction in the elemental Youngs modulus of the plate. It is determined from the

modal strain energy change ratio approach. A method to weaken the vicinity effect is proposed to reduce the false

alarms in the localization of damage. In the second step, an approach based on response sensitivity-based finite element

model updating is used to further identify the locations and extents of the local damages in time domain. The identified

results are obtained iteratively with Tikhonov regularization using the measured structural dynamic responses. Two

numerical examples are investigated to illustrate the correctness and efficiency of the proposed method. Both single and

multiple damages can be identified successfully and the effect of measurement noise on the identification

results is investigated. Good identified results can be obtained from the short time histories of a few number of

measurement points.

Keywords

Damage identification, plate; modal strain energy change, response sensitivity, model updating, time domain

1. Introduction

As an important type of structural component, plate

appears in a broad range of engineering applications,

including aerospace, automotive, civil and mechanical

engineering. Development of an early damage detection

method for plates is of great importance in maintaining

the integrity and safety of the whole structures.

Techniques based on vibration have been widely

developed for structural damage identication and

health monitoring in the last few decades. By examining

changes in the dynamic properties of a structure,

Doebling et al. (1998) brought about a comprehensive

review of the damage detection methods. Zou et al.

(2000) reviewed the progress on structural condition

monitoring and damage identication for composite

structures. Worden et al. (2008) summarized that a

review of nonlinear dynamics applications to structural

health monitoring.

Generally speaking, damage detection requires a

mathematical model of the structure in conjunction

with experimental modal parameters of the structure.

The identication approaches are mainly based on the

following aspects: the changes in the natural frequencies (Cawley and Adams, 1979; Khiem and Lien, 2004),

mode shapes and their derivatives (Pandey et al., 1991;

Stubbs and Kim, 1996), measured dynamic exibility

(Pandey and Biswas, 1994; Doebling et al., 1996;

Jaishi and Ren, 2006), or frequency response function

(Liu et al., 2009; Huang et al., 2012). Shi et al. (1998)

developed the modal strain energy change ratio-based

damage detection algorithm which examples that the

ratio is the signicant indicator to damage location.

Later, an improvement was made by Shi et al. (2002)

based on the elemental modal strain energy change

before and after the occurrence of damage in a structure. The algorithm includes the analytical stiness and

Guangdong Province, PR China

Received: 12 May 2014; accepted: 18 September 2014

Corresponding author:

ZR Lu, Department of Applied Mechanics, Sun Yat-sen University,

Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 510006, PR China.

Email: lvzhr@mail.sysu.edu.cn

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mass matrices of the system in the damage quantication. It reduces signicantly the modal truncation error

and the nite-element modeling error from higher analytical modes in the computation, and thus improves

the convergence properties.

In addition to approaches in frequency domain,

there have been large amount of studies on nondestructive methods for structural damage detection

in time domain. Cattarius and Inman (1997) made

use of the time histories of vibration response of the

structure to identify damage in smart structures. Lu

and Law (2007a) proposed a structural damage identication approach based on response sensitivity analysis

in time domain. Research focusing on some other properties of structural vibration provided an impressive

view on damage detection. An and Ou (2014) presented

a signal energy change-based damage localization

approach for beam structures using the accelerations

on measured nodes.

Most of the techniques for damage identication

mentioned above are related to one-dimensional (1D)

structures, for example, beams and trusses, etc. While

the research on two-dimensional (2D) plate-like structures is relatively fewer in the literature concerning

damage identication. Cawley and Adams (1979) developed a damage detection algorithm for plate structures

from frequency shifts. Cornwell et al. (1999) extended

the modal energy method to detect damage in plate

structures. Li et al. (2002) presented a strain mode technique for damage identication in plate-like structures.

Yam et al. (2002) conducted a sensitivity analysis on

static and dynamic response parameters for damage

identication in plate-like structures. Basing on changes

in uniform load surface, Wu and Law (2005) presented

damage identication in plate structures. Yoon et al.

(2005) extended the gapped-smoothing method to

identify damages in 2D plate-like structures, which

was originally developed for damage detection in 1D

structures. Bayissa and Haritos (2007) presented a new

damage-sensitive parameter which was based on bending moment response power spectral density for

damage identication in 2D plate-like structures.

Coppotelli et al. (2007) identied structural damage

using a sensitivity approach with output-only data.

Qiao et al. (2008) developed a new combined static/

dynamic technique for improved damage detection of

laminated composite plates. The promise of the technique is that the abnormality of dynamic response due

to damage may become more pronounced and easier to

be detected under the sustaining static load. Fan and

Qiao (2009) presented a 2D continuous wavelet transform-based damage detection algorithm using

Dergauss 2 d wavelet for plate-type structures.

Kazemi et al. (2010) proposed a two-stage procedure

to localize various faults and their corresponding

(2012) presented a two-step approach for detecting

multiple damages in the plates. Wavelet transform to

the modal shape was used to detect locations of local

damage and Wavelet nite element model combined

with particle swarm optimization was utilized to evaluate the damage severities.

More recently, a damage identication method for

plate structures on the basis of response sensitivity

based model updating has been proposed by Fu et al.

(2013). Local damage in plates can be identied successfully from a few number of acceleration measurement. However, when the plate is discretized into a

large number of nite elements, it is very timeconsuming in the process of model updating. And the

accuracy of identied results is not very satisfactory. To

avoid such disadvantage, this paper deals with a twostage method for damage identication. In the rst

step, the modal strain energy change ratio (MSECR)

is utilized to determine the locations of the local damages in the plate, and a method is proposed to reduce

the false alarms arising from the vicinity eect. The

damaged elements determined from the rst step are

regarded as suspicious ones. In the second step, the

response sensitivity-based nite element model updating approach is applied to quantify the extent for those

suspicious damaged elements. As the number of

unknowns in the model updating is reduced dramatically, the computation time for damage identication

reduces a lot. A cantilevered plate and a two-span continuous plate are studied to illustrate the correctness

and eciency of the proposed method. In the numerical

simulations, both single damage and multiple damages

in the plates can be identied successfully. The eects of

measurement noise and measurement point on the identied results are investigated.

2.1. Finite element model of the plate structure

The equation of motion for an isotropic moderate thick

plate structure under the external excitation force after

nite element discretization can be expressed as Fu

et al. (2013)

Md Cd_ Kd Pt

d_ and d are the acceldamping matrices respectively, d,

eration, velocity and displacement vectors of the structure, Pt is the vector of external force. Rayleigh

damping model is assumed in the study, i.e.,

C 1 M 2 K, where 1 and 2 are constants to be

determined from two given damping ratios that

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Fu et al.

vibration. Newmark direct integration method is used

to calculate the forced vibration response of the plate.

change ratio

The eigen-value equation for the undampled system of

equation (1) can be expressed as

K(i li M(i

where K and M are the system stiness and mass matrices of the plate, li and (i the ith eigenvalue and eigenvector, respectively.

The modal strain energy of intact and damaged

structure of jth element in ith mode can be dened as

MSEij (Ti Kj (i ,

3a; 3b

MSEs respectively, which both are the functions of

the jth intact elemental stiness matrix and the undamaged or damaged state of the ith mode shape.

Proved by Shi et al. (1998), the MSECR can be used

as an eective indicator to locate the damages. It can be

expressed as

MSECRij

MSEdij MSEij

MSEij

the jth element, the relations of MSECRj and

MSECRp are listed as follow. (1) If j p, the value of

MSECRj will be the largest one. (2) If j 6 p, but the jth

element is adjacent to the damaged element p, i.e., it

shares some same nodes with the pth element, the

MSECRj value will be much smaller than that of the

rst case, but still larger than the third case. This will

lead to false alarm in damage localization although it is

not a real damaged one. We call it vicinity eect in

this study. (3) If the jth element is far away from the pth

element, the value of MSECRj will be quite small. (4) If

two damages are adjacent, each MSECR value will be

larger than that for the sole damage case. And the value

of MSECR can be calculated similar to the single

damage case.

As stated above, the problem of false alarm exists in the

damage localization. A treatment to MSECR is proposed to reduce the vicinity eect in this paper.

Figure 2 shows the typical result of damage localization

from the original MSECR method. One can nd that

the damaged element is surrounded by a group of adjacent elements whose MSECR values are relatively small

compared to that of damaged elements but still quite

number respectively. When only taking the rst m

modes into consideration, the MSECRj of the jth element is treated as the average of MSECRij for the rst m

modes.

MSECRj

m

1X

MSECRij

m i1

Shi et al. (1998) have proved that the following properties do exist in MSECR which can be shown in

Figure 1. Suppose there is only one damage in the

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element.

For each element in the nite element model of the

plate, the following steps demonstrate how the weakening vicinity eect can be conducted. We rst nd

the minimum value of MSECR around an element

chosen, i.e.

Mininum min MSECRup , MSECRdown ,

MSECRleft , MSECRright

mean the MSECR values of elements that are above,

beneath, left to, right to the current element respectively. As to damaged element, the values of

MSECRup , MSECRdown , MSECRleft , MSECRright are

comparatively large and the minimum in equation (6)

is still positive. But as to any intact element, including

the elements around the damaged one, its minimum

value can be much smaller than that of damaged element and even negative. As illustrated in Figure 2,

Element A is one of the elements adjacent to the

damaged one, and Element B is one of those adjacent

to Element A, which is far away from the damaged one.

Then the MSECR value of current element can be set to

where @d=@E

i , @d=@Ei , @d=@Ei are the acceleration, velocity and displacement sensitivities concerning the

Youngs modulus of the ith element. As the global stiness matrix K is the function of the damage parameter

Ei , we can obtain the partial derivative @K=@Ei directly.

The fourth and fth terms in equation (8) can be moved

@d=@E

i,

_

_

D @d=@Ei , D @d=@Ei , equation (8) can be

rewritten as

CD

_ KD 2

MD

@K _ @K

d

d

@Ei

@Ei

obtained from equation (1), the response sensitivities

can be obtained by direct integration of equation (9).

problem

In the inverse analysis, in order to identify the local

damages in the system, a dynamic response sensitivity-based nite element model updating approach (Lu

and Law, 2007b) is used. The objective function for the

model updating is to minimize the residual between the

measured and calculated structural dynamic responses

where ! represents the weighting factor between 0 to 1.

To obtain a better weakening result, ! is taken as 0.15.

The eect of dierent values of w on the weakening

result is compared in the numerical simulation. It can

be discovered that the minimum value of Element A

relies on Element B, which will bring a considerable

decrease to MSECR value of Element A from equation

(7). The same operation on the overall elements leads to

drops on the MSECR values of all elements, and according to the new elemental MSECR value, the vicinity

eect of the damaged element will eciently be

decreased. It should be pointed out that for the case of

two adjacent damages, the MSECRnew value of each

damage can also be calculated from equation (7).

damage parameter

Assume that local damage only relates to the loss in

stiness and the loss in mass is ignored.

Dierentiating both sides of equation (1) with respect

to the damage parameter, i.e., Youngs modulus of the

ith element, we have

M

@d

@d_

@d

@K _ @K

C

K

2

d0

d

@Ei

@Ei

@Ei

@Ei

@Ei

min ga

l X

nt

T

1X

^ ij Rij

^ ij Rij W R

R

2 j1 i1

10

the number of time instances of the measured data. a

is the vector of unknown damage parameters

1 , 2 , . . . , N T to be identied, N is the number of

suspicious damaged element, R is the vector of calculated response of the structure from a known set of Ei

^ is the vector of measured response. W is the

and R

weighting matrix.

model updating

Penalty function method is usually applied to modal

sensitivity with a truncated Taylor series expansion of

the unknown parameters (Friswell and Mottershead,

1995). The truncated series of the dynamic responses

of the system parameter are used for deducing the

sensitivity-based formulation in this paper. The identication problem can be expressed as follows to nd the

vector a, enabling an optimal match between the calculated response and the measured response, i.e.

^

QR R

11

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Fu et al.

of zeros or ones, matching the corresponding degrees of

freedom measured response components. Vector R can

be calculated from equation (1) for a given set of a

where

k

^ k Qk Rk d^ d k

d k R

cal

12

responses at the kth iteration.

The increment vector of the elemental Youngs

modulus, "Ek , of the kth iteration, can be obtained

from the following equation, using the penalty function

method (Friswell and Mottershead, 1995)

S k "Ek "d k

@d1 ti

6 @E1

6 @d2 ti

6 @E

6 1

Stti

6 .

6 .

6

6 .

6 @di ti

6 @E1

6

6 .

6 ..

4

@dl ti

@E1

@d1 ti

@E2

@d2 ti

@E2

..

.

@di ti

@E2

..

.

@dl ti

@E2

@d1 ti

@Ei

@d2 ti

@Ei

..

.

@di ti

@Ei

..

.

@dl ti

@Ei

Ek1 Ek "Ek

@d1 ti

@EN 7

@d2 ti 7

7

@EN 7

.. 7

7

. 7

7

@di ti 7

@EN 7

7

.. 7

. 7

5

14

@dl ti

@EN

than the number of unknown parameters. Like many

other inverse problems, the matrix ST S is ill conditioned and equation (13) is an ill-conditioned problem.

In order to provide upper or lower bounds in the

objective function to the solution, the damped leastsquares method (DLS) (Hansen, 1994) can be used to

solve equation (13) which is expressed as

"Ek S kT S k lIS kT "d k

15

coecient governing the participation of least-squares

error in the solution. The solution of equation (15)

equals to the minimizing the function

2

2

J "Ek , l S k "Ek "d k l"Ek

16

17

also can be recalculated once Ek1 has been calculated

from equation (17). The convergence is achieved when

the following criterion is met

k1

E

Ek

k

Tol:

E

13

kth iteration with a dimension of N l, at time t ti ,

the sensitivity matrix is shown in equation (14), N is the

number of the unknown damage parameter, which is

equal to the number of the nite element, l is the

number of measured data points.

2

to the solution. Tikhonov regularization approach

(Tikhonov, 1963) is used in this paper to obtain the

optimal regularization parameter, which utilize

L-curve (Hansen, 1994) as an optimal function.

Then the updated Youngs modulus vector Ek1 , of

the kth iteration can be obtained in the next iteration as

follows

18

The convergence of this computation strategy has been

testied by Li and Chen (2003) in the estimation of

wind load and system parameters simultaneously.

Although the uniqueness of the solution is not examined in this work, other algorithms to identify both the

unknown forces and system parameters, such as Ling

and Haldar (2004) and Shi et al. (2000), also do not

warrant a unique solution. They are dependent on the

eectiveness of minimization of the objective function

not falling into the local minimum. The uniqueness of

the problem is still an unsolved problem remaining for

further study.

3. Numerical simulations

3.1. A cantilevered plate

Several studies related to damage identication for a

steel cantilevered plate are done in this numerical example. The dimensions of the plate under study are

1000 mm 1000 mm 60 mm as shown in Figure 3.

The physical material properties of the plate are:

Youngs modulus E 210 GPa, mass density

7:8 103 kg=m3 and Poissons ratio 0:3. The

nite element model of the plate was established by

employing the MATLAB software package. The plate

was discretized into 100 four-node Reissner-Mindlin

plate elements. The rst six natural frequencies of the

plate are 10.0, 325.92, 783.03, 2004.61, 2530.02 and

2851.78 Hz, respectively. An impulsive force acts at

the 121st node of the plate in the global z direction with

Ft 103 t 0:02N

0:02s 5 t 0:04s

Ft 103 0:06 tN

0:04s 5 t 0:06s

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Figure 3. A cantilever steel plate ((1), (2), . . . , (121) denote node number of FEM; 1,2, . . . ,100 denote element number).

Scenario

Interval

The selected

value of !

Figure of the

weakening result

1

2

3

4

00.30

0.300.60

0.600.90

0.901.00

0.15

0.45

0.75

0.95

Figure

Figure

Figure

Figure

4

5

6

7

the calculation of the dynamic response, the time increment is 0.0005 second and the time duration of the

excitation loading is 1.0 second. The two damping coefcients used for calculating Rayleigh damping matrix

are both assumed to be 0.01.

Study Case 1: eect of the value of weighting factor

In this case, we intend to investigate the eect of the

value of weighting factor ! on the identied results

from the improved MSECR method. Again, three

local large damages, which locate at the 46th, 55th

and 56th elements with a reduction in Youngs modulus

by 3%, 4% and 5%, respectively. Then, four scenarios

of the selected value of ! as listed in Table 1 are

MSECR method (! 0:15, noise free).

improved MSECR method with dierent values of !

are shown in Figures 47. The eect of dierent values

of ! on the weakening result is compared to prove that

! should be selected as 0.15 to obtain a better weakening result.

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MSECR method (! 0:45, noise free).

MSECR method (! 0:95, noise free).

MSECR method (! 0:75, noise free).

(noise free).

In this case, single damage identication is studied

for the plate. A local damage is simulated by a reduction of 5% in Youngs modulus in the 46th element.

The rst six natural frequencies of the damaged plate

are 10.00, 325.90, 782.80, 2003.80, 2528.66 and

2851.56 Hz, respectively. This indicates the local

damage has very little impact on the natural

frequencies.

The modal strain energies of 100 dierent elements

of the plate for damaged structures are calculated at

rst and then, the indicator MSECR is evaluated to

identify the location of damage. Figure 8 shows the

value of MSECR for each element and Figure 9

shows the elemental MSECR value after WVE

treatment. One can nd the 46th element has been identied as a damaged one from the improved MSECR. In

the second step response sensitivity-based approach is

used to identify the extent of the damaged element. As

the damage location has been determined in the rst

step, we only need the elemental Youngs modulus of

the damaged element. As shown in Table 2, three acceleration measurements adjacent to the 46th element are

used in the identication. The identied result converged after 3 iterations and is shown in Figure 10.

The optimal regularization parameter lopt is calculated

to be 9:5753 1017 . A comparison is made for the

computational time needed when using the proposed

method and the original response sensitivity method

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Table 3. Comparison on the computational time.

Cases

Proposed method

Original response

sensitivity method

1

6

13 minutes 53 seconds

58 minutes 16 seconds

610 minutes 27 seconds

MSECR method (noise free).

Study cases

Measurement points

Cases

Cases

Cases

Cases

Node 51, node 71, node 73

Node 37, node 62, node 82

Node 67, node 70, node 77, node 80,

node 130, node 133, node 140, node 143

2

3

46

78

personal computer with Intel(R), Core(TM) i5-2400,

CPU@3.1 GHz, RAM 4.0GB. One can nd that the

running time for the proposed method is much less

method (noise free).

shows the eciency of the proposed method.

Study Case 3: identication of adjacent small damages

In this case, the reduced damage problem having

three local adjacent small damages can be identied

in the plate, which locate at the 46th, 55th and 56th

elements with a reduction in Youngs modulus by

3%, 4% and 5%, respectively.

The original MSECR method and the improved

MSECR method using WVE of the plate with adjacent

small damages are shown in Figures 11 and 12. One can

nd that the initial position in the 46th, 55th and 56th

elements has been localized more accurately from the

improved MSECR method using WVE.

Three acceleration measurements adjoin the initial

position as shown in Table 2 are utilized for the identication from the proposed method. These three small

local damages in the plate have been identied successfully after three iterations as shown in Figure 13. The

optimal regularization parameter lopt is found to be

1:5385 1011 . The eectiveness of the proposed

method can be further proved by this case.

Study Case 4: identication of multiple damages

In this case, multiple local damages are studied.

Three local damages are assumed to occur at the

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improved MSECR method (noise free).

free).

Youngs modulus by 15%, 12% and 10%, respectively.

Figures 14 and 15 show the damage localization

results from the MSECR method and the improved

MSECR method. It can be seen that the locations of

three damages have been identied successfully from

the improved MSECR method.

Three acceleration measurements adjacent to the

damaged elements as shown in Table 2 are utilized

to identify the damage extents. The three local damages in the plate have been identied with good

accuracy after 10 iterations as shown in Figure 16.

The optimal regularization parameter lopt is found to

be 7:2881 1012 . Figure 17 shows the evolution of

method (noise free).

MSECR method (noise free).

iterations for all 100 elements of the plate. This indicates the results begin to converge after three iterations which prove the eciency of the proposed

method.

Study Case 5: eect of measurement noise

In practice, the measured response data will usually

be contaminated by noise. The accuracy of damage

identication might be inuenced by the existence of

the noise. In the numerical simulation, the calculated

acceleration is added by a normally distributed random

error with zero mean and a unit standard deviation, in

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10

A two-span continuous plate is studied as another example, as schematically shown in Figure 21. The plate

under study is simply supported at the left and right

sides, which has the dimension 2000 mm

2000 mm 80 mm. The physical material properties of

the plate are: Youngs modulus E 25 GPa, mass density 2:8 103 kg=m3 and Poissons ratio 0:2. In

the nite element, the plate was discretized into two hundred 4-node Reissner-Mindlin plate elements. Two

impulsive forces are assumed to excite the plate. The

rst one is assumed to act at the 112nd node in the negative global z direction with the expression of

Figure 16. Identification of multiple local damages (noise free).

can be shown as

ij ij 1 Ep Noise j max

19

20

where ij and ij are the mode shape components of the

jth mode at ith degree of freedom with noise and without noise, respectively; d^ is the vectors of measured

structural acceleration response; Ep is the noise level;

Noise is standard normal distribution

vector with zero

mean and unit standard deviation; j max is the largest

absolute value of component in the jth mode shape;

var is the variance of the time history.

The last case is re-examined and 2% noise levels are

included to the calculated modeshapes and acceleration

responses to simulate the measured modeshapes and

accelerations. Figures 18 and 19 show the damage

localization results with noise from the MSECR

method and the improved MSECR method. When

the measurement noise is included, there will be some

false alarms in the damage localization.

It should be pointed out that from Figure 19, one

can nd that elements 20 and 28 are also suspicious

damaged, thus in the model updating procedure, the

stiness parameters of these two elements are also

included. Figure 20 shows the identied results with

noisy measurements. The identied results converged

after ve iterations with a max identied error 1.81%

in the 34th element with the optimal regularization parameter lopt equal to 3:5760 1016 . This shows the

robustness of the proposed method.

Ft 105 t 0:02N

Ft 105 0:06 tN

0:02s 5 t 0:04s

:

0:04s 5 t 0:06s

the negative global z direction with the expression of

Ft 105 t 1:02N

5

Ft 10 1:06 tN

1:02s 5 t 1:04s

1:04s 5 t 1:06s

and duration is 0.0002 second and 2 seconds, respectively. The rst six natural frequencies of the intact plate

is 44.05, 60.47, 64.68, 77.51, 115.55, and 126.83 Hz,

respectively.

Study Case 6: identication of multiple damages

with no noise

In this case, eight local damages are introduced into

the plate, which locate at the 64th, 67th, 74th, 77th,

124th, 127th, 134st and 137th elements with a reduction

in the Youngs modulus by 15%, 10%, 15%, 8%, 15%,

12%, 20% and 10%, respectively.

Figures 22 and 23 show the damage positions of the

plate from original MSECR method and the improved

MSECR. It can be seen that all the positions have been

localized accurately from the improved MSECR

method, but there are many false alarms from the original MSECR method.

Eight acceleration measurements adjacent to the

damaged elements are used in the damage identication

as listed in Table 2. The identied results converged

after ve iterations. All the extents of the eight local

damages have been identied successfully. The identied results are shown in Figure 24. The optimal regularization parameter lopt is found to be 8:3249 1015 .

A comparison is made for the computational time

needed when using the proposed method and the original response sensitivity method as shown in Table 3.

This study indicates the proposed method is eective

for damage identication in a multi-span plate.

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11

Figure 17. Identification results of multiple local damages for each iteration (noise free).

method (2% noise).

MSECR method (2% noise).

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measurement noise

The last case is re-studied but 2% noise is assumed

to include to the calculated modeshapes and accelerations. The same acceleration measurements as the

last study case are used in the damage identication.

Figures 25 and 26 present the damage localization

results from the MSECR method and the improved

MSECR method. It can be seen that there are some

false alarms in the damage positions from the improved

MSECR method due to the eect of noise. It should be

indicated that from Figure 26, one can see that elements

36, 44, 144 and 157 are also suspicious damaged, thus

in the model updating procedure, the stiness parameters of these four elements are also included.

The nal identied results for damage quantication

are obtained after six iterations with a max identied

method in a two-span plate (noise free).

MSECR method in a two-span plate (noise free).

Figure 21. Sketch of a two-span plate ((1), (2), . . . , (231) denote node number of the FEM; 1,2, . . . ,200 denote element number)

(Dimensions not scaled).

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Fu et al.

13

(noise free).

(2% noise).

4. Conclusions

method in a two-span plate (2% noise).

response sensitivity is investigated for local identication in plate type structures. In the rst step, an

approach based on modal strain energy change ratio

is presented to locate the damage in plate structures.

And a method to reduce the false alarms caused by

vicinity eect is proposed to improve the original

MSECR method. In the second step, an approach

based on dynamic response sensitivity-based nite

element model updating is introduced to quantify the

local damages. Two numerical examples studied in this

contribution prove the eectiveness of the proposed

method in identifying both single and multiple damages

in the plates from several acceleration measurements.

This indicates that the proposed method has potential

for practical application.

Funding

MSECR method in a two-span plate (2% noise).

error 1.32% in the 124st element with the optimal regularization parameter lopt is found to be 9:5344 1012 .

Figure 27 shows even with 2% noise level, all the local

damages have been identied with good accuracy.

Foundation of China (grant numbers 11172333 and

11272361), the Fundamental Research Funds for the

Central Universities (grant number 13lgzd06), Doctoral

Program Foundation of Ministry of Education of China

(grant number 20130171110039), the Guangdong Province

Science and Technology Program (grant number

2012A030200011), and the General Financial Grant from

the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (grant number

2013M531893). Such nancial aids are gratefully

acknowledged.

References

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