Sie sind auf Seite 1von 11

Computers in Human Behavior 37 (2014) 133143

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Computers in Human Behavior


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/comphumbeh

Online shopping drivers and barriers for older adults: Age and gender
differences
Jiunn-Woei Lian a,1, David C. Yen b,
a
b

Department of Information Management, National Taichung University of Science and Technology, 129 Sec. 3, San-min Rd., Taichung 40401, Taiwan
School of Economics and Business, 226 Netzer Administration Bldg., SUNY College at Oneonta, Oneonta, NY 13820, United States

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:
Available online 21 May 2014
Keywords:
Older adults
Online shopping
Unied Theory of Acceptance and Use of
Technology (UTAUT)
Innovation resistance theory

a b s t r a c t
The use of the Internet by older adults is growing at a substantial rate. They are becoming an increasingly
important potential market for electronic commerce. However, previous researchers and practitioners
have focused mainly on the youth market and paid less attention to issues related to the online behaviors
of older consumers. To bridge the gap, the purpose of this study is to increase a better understanding of
the drivers and barriers affecting older consumers intention to shop online. To this end, this study is
developed by integrating the Unied Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) and innovation resistance theory. By comparing younger consumers with their older counterparts, in terms of gender the ndings indicate that the major factors driving older adults toward online shopping are
performance expectation and social inuence which is the same with younger. On the other hand, the
major barriers include value, risk, and tradition which is different from younger. Consequently, it is notable that older adults show no gender differences in regards to the drivers and barriers.
2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction
The digital divide report conducted by the Taiwanese governments Research, Development and Evaluation Commission indicated that the number of older adults online has grown
dramatically since 2010 and the growth rate is strongest among
those between the ages of 51 and 60 (Research, Development
and Evaluation Commission, Executive Yuan, Taiwan, 2012). Not
surprisingly, other countries besides Taiwan have reported a similar situation (Zickuhr & Coordinator, 2010). The Pew Internet &
American Life Project 2010 report published by the Pew Research
Center (Zickuhr & Coordinator, 2010), noted that although the
young are more active online than their older counterparts, the
online skills of older adults are becoming more and more sophisticated like those of the young. In other words, older adults tend to
be increasingly active online in the future. Online activities are also
showing more similarity between the different age groups. A comparison of data published in 2008 and 2010 indicated that the age
group showing the highest increase in the use of online social communities (from 4% to 16%) was adults over age 74 (Zickuhr &
Coordinator, 2010).
Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 607 436 3458 (O); fax: +1 607 436 2543.
E-mail addresses: jwlian@nutc.edu.tw (J.-W. Lian), David.Yen@oneonta.edu
(D.C. Yen).
1
Tel.: +886 4 22196600 (O); fax: +886 4 22196311.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.04.028
0747-5632/ 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

These aforementioned reports show that as society ages, older


adults are becoming an important potential market for future
online shopping services. This phenomenon apparently requires
more attention to be paid by academics and practitioners. In fact,
an increasing number of todays industries are recognizing the
importance of older consumers as a potential market and thus,
designing/developing products and services specically for older
adults, including specialized mobile phones, store departments,
transportation, and nutrition. In the area of Electronic Commerce
(EC), however, fewer online shopping websites have been designed
with older adults in mind and have great potential for future
research (Wagner, Hassanein, & Head, 2010). Therefore, it is reasonable to say that most of the EC industry has not yet realized
the opportunities and the importance of this growing potential
market and requirements (Becker, 2004a, 2004b).
n academy, most extant academic literature assumes that young
people are the major market for Information and Communications
Technology (ICT) use (Selwyn, 2004). These studies are mainly
focused on young people and take their research samples from
the student population. In other words, the results of current studies may be insufcient as references for academics and practitioners to conduct future study in this subject area (Wagner et al.,
2010). Additionally, Iglesias-Pradas et al. (2013) indicated that
understanding the barriers and drivers for Business-to-Consumer
(B2C) users is critical for the development of e-commerce. In
practice, most online shopping operations also consider the young

134

J.-W. Lian, D.C. Yen / Computers in Human Behavior 37 (2014) 133143

to be their target market and ignore the potential of the older adult
market while focusing on the high pressure competition for younger online customers. Finally, Chen and Chan (2011) indicated that
although Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is useful to understand technology acceptance by older adults but it is insufcient,
additional variables are required to understand this issue better.
Therefore, innovation resistance related variables are employed in
present study. Based on the foregoing reasons, the purpose of this
study is to increase a better understanding of the drivers and barriers affecting older consumers intention to shop online in order to
ll up the research gap.
2. Literature review
2.1. Factors driving older adults to use e-commerce
Studies about the online behaviors of older adults are rare.
Related studies such as Reisenwitz et al. (2007) found that the
elderly in America (over age 65) who have a higher tendency
toward nostalgia will less frequently use the Internet or shop
online, and they get less enjoyment out of it. The study also indicated that personal innovativeness will affect online behaviors
such as use frequency, online shopping adoption, and use for pleasure. Older adults experiences on the Internet will affect their
evaluation of the risks involved with using the Internet. Kwon
and Noh (2010) studied online clothes-shopping behavior among
older American consumers (those born before 1964) and found
that consumers perceptions of product benets, price discount,
and nancial risk will affect their intention to shop for clothing
online. They also found that the older consumers perceptions of
risk and benets will be affected by their previous online shopping
experiences. However, it was noted that age and online experience
did not strongly affect online shopping intentions.
Integrating the TAM and the concept of trust, McCloskey (2006)
studied older Americans attitudes toward participating in e-commerce activities and found that website usefulness and user trust
(regarding the website) positively affects user behavior. In addition, ease of use also affects users perceptions of usefulness.
Finally, trust affects users perceptions of usefulness and ease of
use. This study found that the TAM model is still useful for understanding the online shopping usage, but the relationships between
the variables are different for older adults. Ryu, Kim, and Lee
(2009) also based their study on the TAM and integrated variables
pertinent to older adults in order to understand the critical factors
affecting the willingness of adults over 50 to participate in the
Video User-Created Content (Video UCC). They found that perceived benets, ease of participation, and enjoyment directly affect
participants behaviors. Variables specic to older adults which
also act as critical factors include health condition self-assessments, life course events, available resources, previous related
experiences, and computer anxiety.
Pfeil, Arjan, and Zaphiris (2009) compared online social community behaviors between younger (1319 years old) and older
(over 60) users and discovered a social capital divide between
these two groups. Compared with the older group, younger users
have more friends online and most of whom are peers (within
two years of the users age, plus or minus). On the other hand,
though older adults have fewer online friends, the age distribution
of those friends is wider. They also indicated that younger users
like to use a wider variety of media, express themselves more,
and use more negative words than their older counterparts (Pfeil
et al., 2009). Above literatures are summarized in Table 1. From
Table 1, we can nd that although many studies have engaged in
understanding computer and the Internet use by older adults
(Wagner et al., 2010), but fewer studies related to EC activities
are conducted.

Table 1
Factors driving older adults to use E-commerce.
Author(s)/
year

Online activities

Driver

McCloskey
(2006)
Reisenwitz
et al.
(2007)
Ryu et al.
(2009)

Participating in
e-commerce activities
Use the Internet and shop
online

Website usefulness, user trust,


ease of use
Higher tendency toward nostalgia,
personal innovativeness,
experiences on the Internet
Perceived benets, ease of
participation, and enjoyment

Pfeil et al.
(2009)
Kwon and
Noh
(2010)

Participate in the Video


User-Created Content
(Video UCC)
Online social community
Online clothes-shopping
behavior

Social capital divide


Consumers perceptions of product
benets, price discount, and
nancial risk

2.2. Barriers preventing older adults from using e-commerce


Previous studies regarding the behavior and intentions of older
adults regarding electronic commerce and online shopping are
from a drivers perspective. Research from the barriers perspective is rare (Kwon & Noh, 2010; Laukkanen, Sinkkonen, &
Laukkanen, 2008; Laukkanen et al., 2007; Molesworth & Suortti,
2002). Related studies are summarized below.
Based on innovation resistance theory, Molesworth and Suortti
(2002) found the following barriers such as usability, risk, tradition and image preventing users between the ages of 20 and 57
from buying high-involvement and high-cost products online.
Based on the same theory, Laukkanen et al. (2007) compared
the perceptions of different user age groups regarding mobile
banking. They found that users who are younger than 55 years
old regard usage and value to be the barriers against mobile
banking. On the other hand, users older than 55 years of age
deem usage, value, risk, tradition, and image as barriers. In
2008, Laukkanen et al. (2008) studied subjects aged 1865 and
divided non-adopters of an innovation (Internet banking) into
three groups and they are postponers, opponents, and rejecters.
They found that postponers have no signicant barriers causing
them to resist innovations. Opponents on the other hand nd risk,
tradition, and image to be barriers to the adoption of Internet
banking. Finally, rejecters have higher barriers than do the two
groups discussed above, with risk and tradition being the most
critical. Finally, Kwon and Noh (2010) also indicated that nancial
risk has a signicant effect onto older consumers perceptions
regarding online shopping.
3. Theoretical background
3.1. Unied Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT)
The understanding of user intentions and behaviors regarding
the acceptance and usage of new technology has been a longstanding, critical research topic in the eld of information management (Legris, Ingham, & Collerette, 2003). Commonly used
theoretical models include the TAM, the Theory of Reasoned Action
(TRA), the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), Diffusion of Innovation Theory, and DeLone and McLeans IS success model. In 2003,
Venkatesh et al. (2003) summarized previous literature pertaining
to IT acceptance and user behavior and proposed the Unied
Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) (Fig. 1). This
theory employed ten critical variables to explain user behavior
regarding information technology (IT). A longitudinal study was
employed to test and verify this model. The explanatory power
of their study was 70%. Among the variables were four antecedent
variables including performance expectation, effort expectation,

135

J.-W. Lian, D.C. Yen / Computers in Human Behavior 37 (2014) 133143

(5) Tradition: The tradition barrier comes into play when the
innovation changes the users existing culture and comes
into conict with it. The greater the conict, the stronger
the resistance.

Performance
Expectation
Effort
Expectation

Behavior
Intention

Use
Behavior

Social
Influence
Facilitating
Conditions

Gender

Age

Experience

Voluntariness of
Use

Fig. 1. Unied Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) (Venkatesh


et al., 2003).

social inuence, and facilitating conditions. Performance expectation is the level to which users expect that the IT will improve their
job performance. Effort expectation indicates the degree to which
users expect the IT will be easy to use and social inuence is the
degree to which the users peers expect them to use the new IT.
Finally, the facilitating conditions are the degree to which users
perceive that the organizational and technical infrastructure will
help them use the new IT.
3.2. Innovation resistance theory
Previous studies have paid more attention to the positive critical factors affecting user acceptance of innovations (e.g., Diffusion of Innovation Theory and TAM). Few scholars have focused
on the negative factors (Kleijnen, Lee, & Wetzels, 2009; Ram,
1987). In 1987, Ram proposed the Innovation Resistance Theory
(Ram, 1987). This theory employs the characteristics of the innovation, user characteristics, and marketing mechanisms to understand the reasons why users cannot accept an innovation. In a
subsequent study, Ram and Sheth (1989) indicated that changes
which raise conicts between tradition and innovation produce
barriers against the adoption of an innovation and thus increase
resistance to the innovation. These barriers can be divided into
two categories including functional and psychological. Functional
barriers include usage, value and risk and psychological ones
include tradition and image. These barriers are described in more
detail below.
(1) Usage: If the use of the innovative product is inconsistent
with the consumers past experiences, values, and acceptance requirements, and is incompatible with work and habits, the consumer will need a longer time to accept the
innovation.
(2) Value: When the consumer tries to assess the value difference between the innovative product and an existing product, the user will not be willing to accept the change
unless the innovative product provides a higher value than
does the existing product.
(3) Risk: When the user does not adequately understand the
innovative technology in the new product, the user cannot
assess the associated risks and uncertainties that will arise
after its use. This situation will ultimately lead to the refusal
of accepting the innovation.
(4) Image: An image-based barrier is produced when the user
has an unfavorable impression of the originating country,
brand, industry, or side effects of the innovation.

The theory introduced above can also be applied in the context


of electronic commerce. Related studies including Laukkanen
et al. (2007) focused on mobile banking and compared with the
differences occurred between young people and seniors, nding
that value is the critical barrier causing users to resist mobile
banking in general. Risk and image barriers will vary for different
age levels. Kuisma et al. (2007) also found that functional and
psychological barriers can explain users resistance toward Internet banking. Lian, Liu, and Liu (2012) applied this theory to
understanding user acceptance of online shopping and found that
value and image barriers are critical barriers causing users to
refuse shopping online. The above relationships will however,
vary depending on the product type. Finally, Lian and Yen
(2013) found that value and tradition are major barriers against
buying experience goods online.
4. Research method
Older adults information technology use behavior is a kind of
multi-disciplinary issues (Wagner et al., 2010). Mitzner et al.
(2010) also indicated that older adults attitudes toward information technology can be divided into positive and negative. Positive
is regarding as drivers and negative is regarding as barriers in this
study. Both positive and negative attitude can be understand older
adults information technology behavior completely. However,
many previous studies are focused on positive attitude (see Section 3.1), litter studies have focused negative attitude (see Section 3.2). Therefore, this present study integrates the UTAUT
model as driver perspective and innovation resistance theory as
barrier perspective. Based on these two theories, an integrated
model to understand the drivers and barriers affecting older adults
intentions to shop online is proposed. UTAUT integrated previous
common IS usage behavior related model to be an integrated one
(Venkatesh et al., 2003). Therefore it will be powerful and representative to understand our research issue than previous single
theory or model. Furthermore, in perspective of innovation adoption barrier, Ram (1987) indicated that besides adoption and diffusion perspectives more studies are required to understand
innovation resistance related issue. Innovation resistance theory
is one of the major theories to represent this viewpoint and had
been applied to understand innovativeness online service adoption

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

Drivers
Performance expectation
Effort expectation
Social influence
Facilitating conditions

H1-H4
Online shopping
intention

Gender

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

Barriers
Usage
Value
Risk
Tradition
Image

H5-H9

Fig. 2. Research model.

136

J.-W. Lian, D.C. Yen / Computers in Human Behavior 37 (2014) 133143

among mature consumers (Laukkanen et al., 2007). Therefore, it


also has it representative to investigate the barriers of older adults
toward online shopping adoption barriers.
Based on the UTAUT model the proposed drivers include performance expectation, effort expectation, social inuence, and facilitating conditions. Moreover, based on innovational resistance
theory, the proposed barriers may include usage, value, risk, image,
and tradition. The drivers will positively affect older adults intentions toward buying online. In contrast, the barriers will negatively
affect the older adults online shopping intentions. The research
model is illustrated in Fig. 2.
4.1. Research hypotheses
Research hypotheses about drivers and barriers for older adults
regarding online shopping are discussed in the following sections.
4.1.1. Drivers
A number of e-commerce studies have been conducted based
on the UTAUT model. Gupta, Dasgupta, and Gupta (2008) found
that performance expectation, effort expectation, social inuence,
and facilitating conditions affect users behavioral intentions
toward ICT in an e-government context. Similar ndings were
also found in a study conducted by Schaupp, Carter, and
McBride (2010). Chiu and Wang (2008) added the subjective task
value construct in their study of user intentions regarding the
continuing use of online learning. They found that the performance expectation and effort expectation are signicant variables. Similar studies conducted by Pynoo et al. (2011) which
focused on teacher acceptance of digital learning, and Qingfei,
Shaobo, and Gang (2008) which focused on user acceptance of
mobile commerce conrmed the importance of the four drivers
in the context of EC. Zhou, Lu, and Wang (2010) integrated the
Task Technology Fit (TTF) and UTAUT models to understand users
behavioral intentions toward mobile banking and found that,
with the exception of effort expectation, the other three drivers
have signicant effects. Based on the above discussion, the four
drivers belonging to UTAUT have sufcient explanatory power
in an EC environment context. Besides, Nagle and Schmidt
(2012) found that UTAUT can be applied to understand computer
acceptance by older adults. Pan and Marsh (2010) also conrm
the explanatory power of using UTAUT to analysis the use intention of the Internet for Chinese older adults. Finally, in the context of understanding the acceptance of assistive social agent
technology for older adults, UTAUT also has explanatory power
(Heerink et al., 2010). Therefore, UTAUT will be suitable to understand older adults acceptance toward online shopping.
Based on the above discussions, the following hypotheses are
proposed to understand the drivers of older adults behavioral
intentions toward online shopping.
H1a. Performance expectation will positively affect older adults
intentions to shop online.

H2a. Effort expectation will positively affect older adults intentions to shop online.

H3a. Social inuence will positively affect older adults intentions


to shop online.
H4a. Facilitating conditions will positively affect older adults
intentions to shop online.

4.1.2. Barriers
Based on innovation resistance theory, Ram and Sheth (1989)
indicated that usage is the major barrier for consumers. In the context of information technology, the usage barrier is highly related
to the innovations level of complexity and ease of use (Davis,
1989; Laukkanen et al., 2008). Therefore, consistency with the
users previous habits is a critical factor affecting the acceptance
of an innovation (Cruz et al., 2010). If a new IT service is too complex, users will resist using it (Joseph, 2010). Therefore, the usage
barrier will negatively affect older adults intentions to shop online.
If an innovation cannot offer the user a higher value, the value
barrier will reduce the users willingness to change and accept the
innovation (Ram & Sheth, 1989). Cruz et al. (2010) indicated that if
an innovation cannot provide a better service and value, users will
consider any change to their habits a waste and thus, refuse to adopt
the innovation. Therefore, the value barrier is likely to negatively
affect older adults intentions to shop online. Further, innovations
often entail a certain amount of risk. The higher the risk, the slower
the rate at which the innovation is diffused (Ram & Sheth, 1989).
Gerrard, Cunningham, and Devlin (2006) indicated that online shopping consumers who are unable to access the real product and pay
online perceive the risk as higher, particularly in comparison with
that of traditional brick and mortar stores. Since the information
technology literacy of older adults is generally lower than that of
younger users, older adult consumers are more likely to perceive
the risk as high. This study infers that a higher perceived risk reduces
the likelihood of an older adult adopting online shopping.
Furthermore, people who prefer self-serve online services will
have a lower tradition barrier. Older adults are generally more
familiar with traditional physical store service than with the virtual store service. Therefore, older adults are likely having a relatively higher tradition barrier than their younger counterparts,
and it will lead to a decrease in the intention to shop online.
Finally, users previous impressions of computers and the Internet
have an effect on their intentions to shop online. Since the personal
innovativeness of IT is generally lower for older adults than for
younger people (Hanson, 2010), therefore the image barrier is
likely to negatively affect older adults intentions to shop online.
Based on the discussion above, following hypotheses are proposed.
H5a. The usage barrier will negatively affect older adults intentions to shop online.

H6a. The value barrier will negatively affect older adults intentions to shop online.
H7a. The risk barrier will negatively affect older adults intentions
to shop online.
H8a. The tradition barrier will negatively affect older adults intentions to shop online.
H9a. The image barrier will negatively affect older adults intentions to shop online.
4.1.3. Gender and age effects
The online shopping reference model proposed by Chang,
Cheung, and Lai (2005) indicated that gender and age will affect
users intentions to shop online. A similar model was proposed
by Zhou, Dai, and Zhang (2007). Their online shopping acceptance
model indicated that consumer demographics will affect online
shopping intentions. Among these personal characteristics, age
and gender have been discussed by many studies (Bae & Lee,

J.-W. Lian, D.C. Yen / Computers in Human Behavior 37 (2014) 133143

137

2011; Fan & Miao, 2012; Garbarino & Strahilevitz, 2004; Nirmala &
Dewi, 2011; Passyn, Diriker, & Settle, 2011; Sangran, Siguaw, &
Guan, 2009; Sebastianelli, Tamimi, & Rajan, 2008; Sorce, Perotti,
& Widrick, 2005; Stafford, Turan, & Raisinghani, 2004; Van Slyke,
Comunale, & Belanger, 2002; Wu, 2003). Below, more details will
be provided in terms of these two variables.

H6b. The value barrier on older adults intentions to shop online


will be moderated by gender.

4.1.3.1. Gender effects. The gender gap in IT acceptance has been


well documented in prior studies (Bae & Lee, 2011; Fan & Miao,
2012; Garbarino & Strahilevitz, 2004; Nirmala & Dewi, 2011;
Sangran et al., 2009; Sebastianelli et al., 2008; Seock & Bailey,
2008; Stafford et al., 2004; Van Slyke, Belanger, Johnson, &
Hightower, 2010; Van Slyke et al., 2002; Wu, 2003). Following
are related ndings. Van Slyke et al. (2002) noted that, in general,
men are more likely to try a new IT than are women. In other
words, in comparison with females, males tend to have higher Personal Innovativeness of IT (PIIT) and online shopping is no exception (Bae & Lee, 2011; Sangran et al., 2009; Seock & Bailey, 2008;
Van Slyke et al., 2010). Sangran et al. (2009) indicated that men
and women have different motivations for shopping online. Van
Slyke et al. (2002) found that men like to shop online more than
woman do. Additionally, men have signicantly more positive perceptions regarding compatibility, complexity, relative advantage,
result demonstrability, and trust than woman do. Similar ndings
were also noted by Garbarino and Strahilevitz (2004) who indicated that woman have higher levels of perceived risk regarding
online shopping than men have. Therefore, a friends recommendation has a greater effect onto a womans intention to shop online
than it has for a mans. In other words, because women perceive
the risk of shopping online as high, recommendations from friends
will reduce that perceived risk and increase their intention to shop
online. Bae and Lee (2011) reported similar ndings. Fan and Miao
(2012) studied the effects of electronic word-of- mouth and found
that males and females have different online shopping behaviors.
Wu (2003) also found that, in comparison with women, men have
a relatively more positive attitude toward online shopping. Additionally, men and women have different preferences regarding different online shopping product types (Nirmala & Dewi, 2011;
Sebastianelli et al., 2008). Stafford et al. (2004) noted that this gender gap in the context of online shopping also exists across different cultures and nationalities.
From the above studies, it is noted that although these studies
have illustrated the gender differences in an e-commerce context,
most of them are focused on younger consumers. Based on their
ndings, this paper proposes the following hypotheses regarding
older adults. Additionally, UTAUT servers this gender effect as
moderating variable between antecedents and behavior intention.
Therefore, following hypotheses are inferred.

H8b. The tradition barrier on older adults intentions to shop


online will be moderated by gender.

H7b. The risk barrier on older adults intentions to shop online will
be moderated by gender.

H9b. The image barrier on older adults intentions to shop online


will be moderated by gender.
4.1.3.2. Age different. Sorce et al. (2005) found that signicant differences in online buying attitudes and behaviors exist between
consumers of different age levels (university students represented
younger consumers and university staffs represented older users).
Similarly, Wu (2003) also indicted that signicantly different attitudes toward online shopping exist between different age groups.
In her study, which sampled people between the ages of 15 and 40,
people in the 2125 and 3640 age groups had a more positive
attitude toward online shopping than did the rest. Stafford et al.
(2004) based their study on data from different national cultures
and found that younger people like to shop online more than older
people do. In other words, they conrmed that this phenomenon
exists even when national differences are taken into consideration.
Comparing different age and gender groups, Passyn et al. (2011)
found that different age groups (under 35 vs. 3550 vs. over 50)
have different perceptions towards online shopping.
The discussion above shows that, although many previous studies have investigated the effects of age level on user attitudes or
intentions toward online shopping, most studies focused on the
differences between adolescents and young adults (under 40 years
old). Little research has focused on adults over age 50. This present
study attempts to understand the differences between different
age levels (younger vs. older consumers). Therefore, based on the
results of the above studies, the following hypotheses are
proposed.
H10. Younger and older adult have different drivers to shop
online.

H11. Younger and older adult have different barriers to shop


online.
4.2. Respondents

H1b. The inuence of performance expectation on older adults


intentions to shop online will be moderated by gender.

H2b. The inuence of effort expectation on older adults intentions


to shop online will be moderated by gender.
H3b. The inuence of social inuence on older adults intentions to
shop online will be moderated by gender.
H4b. The inuence of facilitating conditions on older adults intentions to shop online will be moderated by gender.
H5b. The usage barrier on older adults intentions to shop online
will be moderated by gender.

A survey study was conducted to validate this proposed


research model. Two groups of subjects were included in this
study. Since college students are major Internet users worldwide,
our younger subjects were drawn from students in Taiwanese universities. On the other hand, older adult subjects were drawn from
students taking computer classes for seniors (known as Evergreen students in Taiwan) in Taiwan. According to the World
Health Organization (2013), there is no consistent denition of
older adults in different countries and contexts. In most developed countries, it is acceptable to include someone of 6065 years
old as an elder. In Africa, the acceptable age drops to 50. In 2012,
the Taiwanese governments Research, Development and Evaluation Commission published their digital divide report on Internet
usage in Taiwan which showed a clear boundary at age 50 (see
Table 2). Therefore, the working denition of older adults in this
paper is people over the age of 50. Subjects are from Evergreen

138

J.-W. Lian, D.C. Yen / Computers in Human Behavior 37 (2014) 133143

computer class members, because they are basically a computer


literate and have more experience on the Internet, making them
suitable for this study. Besides, based on the report proposed by
Taiwan Ministry of the Interior indicates that Evergreen Academy
is the most popular government welfare policy for older adults
(http://moe.senioredu.moe.gov.tw/). Therefore, the respondent
have its representative.

Table 3
Measurements.
Dimension

Variable

Item
number

Source

Driver

Performance
expectation
Effort expectation

et al.

Social inuence

Facilitating conditions

Venkatesh
(2003)
Venkatesh
(2003)
Venkatesh
(2003)
Venkatesh
(2003)

Usage barrier

et al.

Value barrier

Risk barrier

Tradition barrier

Image barrier

Laukkanen
(2008)
Laukkanen
(2008)
Laukkanen
(2008)
Laukkanen
(2008)
Laukkanen
(2008)

Online shopping
intention

4.3. Measurements
In total, ten variables were included in this research (see
Table 3). The four driver variables are performance expectation,
effort expectation, social inuence, and facilitating conditions.
Measurement items were modied from Venkatesh et al. (2003)
to be used in this study. The ve barrier variables include usage,
value, risk, tradition, and image and these were adopted from
Laukkanen et al. (2007). The measurement item for online shopping intention was developed by Venkatesh et al. (2003). All measurements used a ve point Likert scale varying from 1 (strongly
disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Higher values indicate higher drivers and lower barriers. Additionally, each variable was labeled and
abbreviated as follows: performance expectation (PE), effort expectation (EE), social inuence (SI), facilitating condition (FC), usage
barrier (UB), value barrier (VB), risk barrier (RB), tradition barrier
(TB), image barrier (IB), and intention (I)
For this research context, the questionnaire was designed especially for older adults. The draft was reviewed by a panel of three
experts in the area of Information Management and e-commerce,
and one expert in services for the elderly (vice present of a hospital
caring for the aged). After the panel validated the questionnaire, a
pilot test for older adults was conducted to build better reliability.
Based on the results of the pilot study, the questionnaire was
revised and nalized.

Barrier

Intention

et al.
et al.

et al.
et al.
et al.
et al.

Venkatesh et al.
(2003)

Groups

Age

Number (%)

Total

Older

5155
5660
6165
6670
7175
Over 75

48 (8.4)
143 (24.9)
136 (23.7)
117 (20.4)
80 (13.9)
50 (8.7)

574

Younger

Under 20
2125
2630
3035

66 (26.8)
176 (71.5)
2 (0.8)
2 (0.8)

246

Table 5
Age and gender distribution among respondents.
Gender

Age

Younger
%
Older
%

Total
%

Total

Female

Male

158
64.2
331
58.4
489
60.1

88
35.8
236
41.6
324
39.9

246
100
567
100
813
100

Table 6
Online shopping experience between different age groups.

5.1. Demographics

Online shopping experience

The largest age group in the older adult data set was located
between 5670 years old (69%). For the younger subject pool, the
largest age group was in the age range of 2125 (72%) (Table 4).

et al.

Table 4
Age distribution (exclude the missing value).

5. Data analysis and results


Data collection was conducted during from February to May,
2012. First, the instructor of each Evergreen computer class was
called and asked for help. Questionnaires were then distributed
to the contact person of each class which agreed to participate in
this study. The study was conducted during class time. After completing the questionnaire, all respondents received a gift as a token
of appreciation for their assistance. Similar process was conducted
with the university students.
In total, 1,437 questionnaires were distributed to the older
adult subjects. After invalid questionnaires were removed, this
study received a sum of 574 valid questionnaires from this subject
group for a valid response rate of 40%. Besides, this study also distributed 308 questionnaires to university students and received
246 valid questionnaires from younger subject pool. The valid
response rate was 80%. These two valid data groups were used in
the subsequent analysis.

Age level

Total
%

Younger
%
Older
%

No

Yes

20
8.1
362
75.6
382
52.7

226
91.9
117
24.4
343
47.3

Total

246
100
479
100
725
100

Table 2
Internet usage among different age levels in Taiwan.
Age

1519

2029

3039

4049

5059

Over 60

Percentage (%)

100

99.7

98.6

84.2

49.3

16.3

Similar to previous studies, the gender ratios for the two age
groups were both about 6:4 (Table 5). Therefore, these data can
be deemed to be representative of these two groups.

139

J.-W. Lian, D.C. Yen / Computers in Human Behavior 37 (2014) 133143

Between the different age groups, 91.9% of the younger group


had online shopping experience and as compared with 24.4% of
the older group (Table 6). Similar to the previous study, females
had a relatively more online shopping experience than their male
counterparts (Table 7). Overall, these features indicate that the
data set is a representative one.

Table 7
Online shopping experience between different genders.
Online shopping experience

Gender

Female
%
Male
%

Total
%

No

Yes

220
50.8
157
54.7
377
52.4

213
49.2
130
45.3
343
47.6

Total

433
100
287
100
720
100

5.2. Validity and reliability


Since measurements in this study were modied and/or
extended from previous studies, both validity and reliability
were tested. The acceptable threshold for composite reliability
(CR) value is >0.7 and for average variance extracted (AVE) is
>0.5. Additionally, Nunnally (1978) indicated that the minimum threshold for Cronbachs is 0.5 or 0.6, therefore the
threshold for Cronbachs alpha in this study is >0.6. Based
on the above criteria, all of the indexes in this study are
acceptable (Table 8). In other words, the measurements in this
study have acceptable individual item reliability (factor loading >0.5), composite reliability (CR > 0.7), and convergent
validity (AVE > 0.5).
Table 9 shows the discriminant validity among the employed
constructs. Since the diagonal values are larger than other related
values, the constructs show acceptable discriminant validity
(Table 9).

Table 8
Validity and reliability.
Variables

CR

Performance
expectation
Effort expectation
Social inuence
Facilitating conditions
Usage barrier
Value barrier
Risk barrier
Tradition barrier
Image barrier
Intention

AVE

Factor
loading

R2

Cronbachs

0.93

0.81

0.890.91

N/A

0.88

0.93
0.90
0.90
0.94
0.91
0.86
0.82
0.91
0.95

0.77
0.73
0.69
0.76
0.83
0.67
0.69
0.84
0.86

0.810.92
0.750.91
0.710.90
0.800.91
0.910.91
0.760.89
0.700.95
0.840.99
0.920.93

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
0.58

0.90
0.81
0.84
0.92
0.80
0.76
0.61
0.86
0.92

Table 9
Discriminant validity of the constructs.

PE
EE
SI
FC
UB
VB
RB
TB
IB
I

PE

EE

SI

FC

UB

VB

RB

TB

IB

0.9
0.65
0.50
0.55
0.62
0.66
(0.16)
0.28
0.22
0.66

0.88
0.45
0.68
0.69
0.60
(0.10)
0.28
0.33
0.51

0.85
0.45
0.51
0.53
(0.20)
0.04
(0.00)
0.52

0.83
0.62
0.53
(0.15)
0.17
0.26
0.47

0.87
0.69
(0.21)
0.18
0.21
0.59

0.91
(0.21)
0.24
0.16
0.68

0.82
0.14
0.21
(0.20)

0.83
0.56
0.28

0.92
0.15

0.93

Table 10
Analysis results.
Hypotheses

H1a: Performance expectation ? Intention


H1b: Moderating effect of H1a
H2a: Effort expectation ? Intention
H2b: Moderating effect of H2a
H3a: Social inuence ? Intention
H3b: Moderating effect of H3a
H4a: Facilitating conditions ? Intention
H4b: Moderating effect of H4a
H5a: Usage barrier ? Intention
H5b: Moderating effect of H5a
H6a: Value barrier ? Intention
H6b: Moderating effect of H6a
H7a: Risk barrier ? Intention
H7b: Moderating effect of H7a
H8a: Tradition barrier ? Intention
H8b: Moderating effect of H8a
H9a: Image barrier ? Intention
H9b: Moderating effect of H9a
*

p < 0.05.
p < 0.01.
***
p < 0.001.
**

Older adult (Model 1) R2 = 0.58

Younger (Model 2) R2 = 0.59

Support

Support

0.30
0.09
(0.00)
0.09
0.21
0.02
0.01
(0.36)
(0.04)
0.48
0.31
(0.25)
(0.08)
(0.03)
0.11
0.00
0.06
(0.04)

4.97***
0.37
0.03
0.35
3.18**
0.08
0.18
1.40
0.77
2.01*
5.01***
1.02
2.04*
0.25
2.41*
0.00
0.79
0.31

Y
N
N
N
Y
N
N
N
N
Y
Y
N
Y
N
Y
N
N
N

0.22
(0.56)
(0.04)
0.71
0.14
(0.14)
0.09
(0.29)
0.03
0.77
0.42
(0.28)
(0.01)
(0.09)
0.10
0.13
(0.03)
(0.18)

2.86**
1.69
0.51
2.08*
2.03*
0.66
1.10
0.81
0.36
1.73
4.40***
0.81
0.13
0.58
0.93
0.74
0.45
0.91

Y
N
N
Y
Y
N
N
N
N
N
Y
N
N
N
N
N
N
N

140

J.-W. Lian, D.C. Yen / Computers in Human Behavior 37 (2014) 133143

5.3. Results
A ve point Likert scale was used to measure the variables so
the values of all variables range between 1 and 5. A higher value
indicates that the respondent has higher drivers and lower barriers. Additionally, a higher value also means that the respondents
intention to shop online is stronger. In order to test the proposed
hypotheses, two partial least squares (PLS) (Ringle, Wende, &
Will, 2005) models were analyzed to verify the research hypotheses. Older adults data were employed in Model 1 and younger data
were used in Model 2. The analysis results are illustrated in
Table 10. From the model 1 we can nd that the major drivers
for older adults are performance expectation and social inuence.
The major barriers are value, risk and tradition. Additionally, for
younger, the drives are the same as older adults (H10 is not supTable 11
Drivers and barriers between different groups.
Older adult

Younger

Driver
(1) Performance expectation
(2) Social inuence

(1) Performance expectation


(2) Social inuence

Barrier
(1) Value barrier
(2) Risk barrier
(3) Tradition barrier

(1) Value barrier

ported). However, only value barrier is signicant for young people. Therefore, these two groups have different barriers for
shopping online (H11 is supported). Above results are summarized
in Tables 11 and 12.
Finally, about the moderating effect of different gender, it is not
very signicant in this study. Only usage barrier for older adults
and effort expectation for younger appears signicant effect
(Table 10).
Finally, in order to understand the age and gender difference
advanced, an independent sample t test was employed. The results
are summarized in Tables 13 and 14, respectively. From Table 13,
this study nds that, other than the social inuence and risk barrier, younger consumers have signicantly higher drivers and
lower barriers than do their older counterparts (p < 0.05). The analysis results show that both younger and older respondents perceive risk as the strongest barrier (its mean is the lowest among
the variables). This means that security is still a critical problem
for the online shopping industry.
About the gender difference among older adults, we can nd
that, compared with women, men have signicantly higher online
shopping drivers and lower barriers. The data analysis results are
summarized in Table 14.

5.4. Follow up interview

Table 12
Hypothesis testing results.
Hypothesis

Result

H1a: Performance expectation will positively affect older


adults intentions to shop online
H1b: The inuence of performance expectation on older adults
intentions to shop online will be moderated by gender
H2a: Effort expectation will positively affect older adults
intentions to shop online
H2b: The inuence of effort expectation on older adults
intentions to shop online will be moderated by gender
H3a: Social inuence will positively affect older adults
intentions to shop online
H3b: The inuence of social inuence on older adults
intentions to shop online will be moderated by gender
H4a: Facilitating conditions will positively affect older adults
intentions to shop online
H4b: The inuence of facilitating conditions on older adults
intentions to shop online will be moderated by gender
H5a: The usage barrier will negatively affect older adults
intentions to shop online
H5b: The usage barrier on older adults intentions to shop
online will be moderated by gender
H6a: The value barrier will negatively affect older adults
intentions to shop online
H6b: The value barrier on older adults intentions to shop
online will be moderated by gender
H7a: The risk barrier will negatively affect older adults
intentions to shop online
H7b: The risk barrier on older adults intentions to shop online
will be moderated by gender
H8a: The tradition barrier will negatively affect older adults
intentions to shop online
H8b: The tradition barrier on older adults intentions to shop
online will be moderated by gender
H9a: The image barrier will negatively affect older adults
intentions to shop online
H9b: The image barrier on older adults intentions to shop
online will be moderated by gender
H10: Younger and older adult have different drivers to shop
online
H11: Younger and older adult have different barriers to shop
online

Supported
Nonsupported
Nonsupported
Nonsupported
Supported
Nonsupported
Nonsupported
Nonsupported
Nonsupported
Supported

After the survey, this study conducted follow up interviews for


further discuss the implications and explanations of the survey
results. This study interviewed three older adults who have online
shopping experience and are not the respondents of previous survey. Table 15 summarizes their proles. All of them are students
from Evergreen computer class and aged between 6070 years
old. They are voluntary for the interviewing. All of the questions
are open end and they have sufcient time to express their opinions during the interview.
All of them indicated that the major driver for online shopping
is the convenience. Through online shopping they can compare the
price and browse the products easily and quickly, this is belonging
to performance expectation and value barrier in this study. Besides,
Case A and B indicated that the major reason they began to shop
online is subject to peer inuence. Case A is inuenced by her colleagues while case B is inuence by her family. Above driving
forces are belonging to social inuence. Their opinions conrm
the results of this study.
Table 13
Independent sample t test between different age groups.
Variables

Age

Mean

S.D.

Signicance

PE

Older
Younger
Older
Younger
Older
Younger
Older
Younger
Older
Younger
Older
Younger
Older
Younger
Older
Younger
Older
Younger
Older
Younger

574
246
574
246
574
246
574
246
574
246
574
246
574
246
574
246
574
246
574
246

3.29
3.80
3.22
3.93
3.17
3.17
3.30
3.77
3.32
3.80
3.32
3.74
2.21
2.23
2.33
3.04
2.59
3.55
3.32
3.64

0.79
0.74
0.75
0.81
0.78
0.75
0.77
0.78
0.69
0.70
0.77
0.80
0.70
0.90
0.65
0.77
0.75
0.99
0.76
0.79

0.00***

Supported
EE
Nonsupported
Supported

SI
FC

Nonsupported
Supported

UB
VB

Nonsupported
Nonsupported
Nonsupported
Nonsupported
Supported

RB
TB
IB
I

***

p < 0.05.

0.00***
0.96
0.00***
0.00***
0.00***
0.82
0.00***
0.00***
0.00***

J.-W. Lian, D.C. Yen / Computers in Human Behavior 37 (2014) 133143


Table 14
Independent sample t test between different genders among older adults.
Variables

Gender (elder)

Mean

S.D.

Signicance

PE

Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female

236
331
236
331
236
331
236
331
236
331
236
331
236
331
236
331
236
331
236
331

3.40
3.21
3.33
3.14
3.25
3.11
3.37
3.25
3.38
3.29
3.46
3.21
2.19
2.24
2.33
2.34
2.57
2.60
3.43
3.25

0.65
0.85
0.68
0.77
0.70
0.82
0.69
0.81
0.65
0.69
0.73
0.78
0.63
0.75
0.60
0.68
0.74
0.77
0.70
0.80

0.00***

EE
SI
FC
UB
VB
RB
TB
IB
I

***

0.00***
0.04***
0.05***
0.1
0.00***
0.43
0.83
0.59
0.01***

p < 0.05.

Table 15
Proles of the interview respondents.

Gender
Age
Online shopping
experience
Degree
Retired from
Most often to buy. . .

Case A

Case B

Case C

Female
60
Over ten years

Female
67
56 years

Male
61
Over ten years

Vocational high
school
Banking
3C products

Vocational high
school
University
3C products

Undergraduate
Government
Books

About the adoption barrier, three interviewees have various


opinions. Case A had employed in banking before retired, therefore
she have condence on online security. However, Case B has different viewpoint, she never pay online. She always employed cash on
delivery when shopping online. Case C suggest that although payment online is risking, but due to the convenience concern he can
take the risk to pay online. Above opinions are belonging to risk
barrier.
However, nobody pointed out the concern of tradition barrier.
This is very different from the survey result. The potential reason
is that the respondents have online shopping experience. In other
words, they are online shopping adopters, therefore they have litter tradition barrier toward online shopping.

6. Conclusion and discussions


6.1. Findings and contributions
With the conuence of the information technology era and the
progressively aging society, older adults become important potential customers for e-commerce. Many older adults have the time
and money to participate in various e-commerce activities, particularly after retirement. Previous studies also indicated that using
information technology can improve the quality of life for older
people (Hough & Kobylanski, 2009). For these reasons, older adults
are increasingly engaging in online activities including online
shopping, virtual communities, and online learning.
In the academic, more and more researchers engaged in this
research issue. Based on UTAUT model, Heerink et al. (2010) found
that this model can be used to understand older adults acceptance

141

of assistive social agent technology. Nagle and Schmidt (2012) also


employed this model to understand computer acceptance of older
adults. Based on TAM model, Pan and Marsh (2010) found that this
model can be applied to understand the Internet adoption toward
Chinese older adults. In the study conducted by Ryu et al. (2009),
they indicated that TAM model is useful to understand elder acceptance of Video user-created content.
Although many studies have contributed to this research area,
however limitations appeared in previous studies. First of all, most
of them applied single theory instead of composite theory. Wagner
et al. (2010) indicated that computer user by older adults is a kind
of multi-disciplinary phenomenon. Chen and Chan (2011) also
indicated that although TAM model is useful for understanding
older adult acceptance of information technology but additional
variables are required for better understanding this issue. Therefore, multi-disciplinary studies are required.
The second limitation of previous studies is that most of them
focused on driver factors instead of barriers. Although, IglesiasPradas et al. (2013) emphasized the importance of barriers and
drivers for B2C e-commerce, but older adults are not the focus of
this study.
Therefore, a study which integrates difference perspectives is
required for understanding the acceptance of online shopping by
older adults. Unlike previous studies, this study integrated UTAUT
model and innovation resistance theory to see the drivers and barriers of older adults toward online shopping. Finally, this study is
conducted in the context of Chinese culture, since Taiwan is
famous for its B2C online commerce which is ranked ve in the
area of business-to-consumer Internet use in the World
Economic Forum (WEF) The global information technology
report 2013. The experience of Taiwan can be referenced by other
developed and Asia countries.
An empirical study was conducted and the following major contributions and ndings can be made.
(1) For older adults, the major online shopping driving forces
are performance expectation and social inuence.
(2) For older adults, the major barriers to online shopping
include value, risk, and tradition.
(3) The moderating effects of gender difference are not signicant in this study.
(4) In the context of online shopping, younger consumers have
signicantly higher drivers and lower barriers than their
older counterparts have.
(5) Older adults experience more barriers to online shopping
than do the young; both experience the value barrier but
older adults may experience more the additional barriers
of risk and tradition.
Finally, the major contribution of this paper is proposed an integrated model to understand the drivers and barriers for older
adults in the context of online shopping. Therefore future research
may be needed to explore older adults perceptions and behaviors
regarding e-commerce with more in-depth rather than just inferring them based on the results of previous studies of the perceptions and behaviors of younger consumers. For practitioners,
businesses which wish to successfully capture the older-adult market must design and develop online shopping web sites that cater
to older adults instead of using the same criteria by which they
design their products and services for younger consumers.
6.2. Implications and limitations
Three academic implications of this study are inferred. First of
all, this study focuses on online shopping and indicates the drivers
and barriers across different groups. This study concludes that the

142

J.-W. Lian, D.C. Yen / Computers in Human Behavior 37 (2014) 133143

drivers are similar but the barriers are various across different age
group. If this nding will be the same in different online context,
we suggest that future research can focus on understanding older
adults acceptance of e-government or mobile commerce for
advance study and compare the difference between different
online services. Besides, the ndings suggest that UTAUT and innovation resistance theory have around 60% explanatory power to
understand user behavior toward EC activities. Therefore, if any
other factors affect older adults to resist new technology or other
moderators and transit variables exist among these relationships
are required for future research. Additionally, the moderating
effect of gender difference is not so signicant in this study, this
is different with previous literatures.
Secondly, one particular nding in this research that needs a
further study and discussion is the role of the risk barrier. Our survey nding indicates that this variable is signicant but the relationship is negative. Besides, in the follow up interview of the
three cases revealed that their risk perceptions toward online
shopping are various. Therefore, future studies can be conducted
to seek for more understanding of this issue from various dimensions of perceived risk such as facilitation risk, nancial risk, physical risk, psychosocial risk, performance risk, social risk, and time
risk (Pi & Sangruang, 2011).
Finally, although some proposed variables are insignicant in
the study. But we can nd that the relationships between antecedents and intentions are negative instead of expected positive, such
as effort expectation for both groups and usage barrier for older
adults. We suggest that future study should consider the computer
literacy of the respondents.
In application implications, Becker (2004a, 2004b) indicated
that the web sites for older adults require special design to overcome their physiological and psychological barriers. From the ndings of this study, effort expectation is not critical for online
shopping. In other words, older adults in Taiwan can accept the
user interface design of online shopping website. Besides, both performance expectation and social inuence are critical for research
sample therefore we suggest that cooperate with virtual or real
community marketing activities are still important for promotion.
Finally, this study analyses the gender and age differences toward
online shopping drivers and barriers, these differences can as a reference for future business plans of online marketing.
The major limitations of this study may be from our sample
which drew exclusively from older adult students in computer
classes in Taiwan. These subjects already had a certain degree of
understanding of computers and Internet applications. Therefore,
they cannot be generalized to represent all older adults. Future
research can/may expand the sample to include all older adults.
However, if the older adults have no basic computer knowledge
and skills, they are not the target of the study.
Furthermore, not all drivers and barriers to online shopping
were included in this research. Future studies can include more
variables to broaden the study scope in this subject area. Finally,
there are a variety of online activities, and future studies can focus
on activities other than online shopping in order to more fully
understand e-commerce as it applies to older adults.
Acknowledgments
The authors would like to thank the Ministry of Science and
Technology of Republic of China, Taiwan, for nancially supporting
this research under contract No. NSC 100-2410-H-025 -003.
Appendix A: Measurement Items
*:

Reversed items.

Performance expectation (adapted from Venkatesh et al., 2003)


1. Shopping online is helpful to me.
2. Online shopping allows me to buy more quickly.
3. Online shopping allows me to buy more efciency.
Effort expectation (adapted from Venkatesh et al., 2003)
1. When I interact with online shopping websites, they are always
clear and easy to understand.
2. I am familiar with online shopping and nd it very easy.
3. I feel that online shopping is easy to use.
4. Learning how to shop online is easy.
Social inuence (adapted from Venkatesh et al., 2003)
1. My friends think that I should shop online.
2. A person who is very important to me believes that I should
shop online.
3. Overall, many of my friends shop online.
Facilitating conditions (adapted from Venkatesh et al., 2003)
1. I have the hardware and software for online shopping.
2. I have the skill and knowledge for online shopping.
3. The experience of using online shopping is similar to using the
Internet.
4. When I have problems shopping online, someone can help me
solve them.
Usage barrier (adapted from Laukkanen et al., 2008)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

In my opinion, shopping online is easy.


In my opinion, shopping online is convenient.
In my opinion, online shopping services are fast.
In my opinion, the online shopping process is clear.
The system for changing my password and personal information in online shopping environments is convenient.
Value barrier (adapted from Laukkanen et al., 2008)

1. Buying online is economical.


2. In my opinion, buying online increases my ability to control
payment details and product information on my own.
Risk barrier (adapted from Laukkanen et al., 2008)
1. I fear that while I am buying online, the connection will be lost.
2. I fear that while I am buying online, I might type out the information of the product incorrectly.*
3. I fear that my username and password may be lost and end up
in the wrong hands.*
Tradition barrier (adapted from Laukkanen et al., 2008)
1. When I need to buy, I like the staff to provide services in a physical store.*
2. When I need to buy, I like online self-service.
Image barrier (adapted from Laukkanen et al., 2008)
1. In my opinion, new technology is often too complicated to be
useful.*
2. I have the impression that online shopping services are difcult
to use.

J.-W. Lian, D.C. Yen / Computers in Human Behavior 37 (2014) 133143

Intention (adapted from Venkatesh et al., 2003)


1. I intend to shop online in the future.
2. I predict I would shop online in the future.
3. I intent continue to shop online to improve convenience.

References
Bae, S., & Lee, T. (2011). Gender differences in consumers perception of online
consumer reviews. Electronic Commerce Research, 11(2), 201214.
Becker, S. A. (2004a). E-Government visual accessibility for older adult users. Social
Science Computer Review, 22(1), 1123.
Becker, S. A. (2004b). A study of web usability for older adults seeking online health
resources. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 11(4), 387406.
Chang, M. K., Cheung, W., & Lai, V. S. (2005). Literature derived reference models for
the adoption of online shopping. Information & Management, 42(4), 543559.
Chen, K., & Chan, A. H. S. (2011). A review of technology acceptance by older adults.
Gerontechnology, 10(1), 112.
Chiu, C. M., & Wang, E. T. G. (2008). Understanding web-based learning continuance
intention: The role of subjective task value. Information & Management, 45(3),
194201.
Cruz, P. et al. (2010). Mobile banking rollout in emerging markets: Evidence from
Brazil. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 28(5), 342371.
Davis, F. D. (1989). Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance
of information technology. MIS Quarterly, 13(3), 319340.
Fan, Y. W., & Miao, Y. F. (2012). Effect of electronic word-of-mouth on consumer
purchase intention: The perspective of gender differences. International Journal
of Electronic Business Management, 10(3), 175181.
Garbarino, E., & Strahilevitz, M. (2004). Gender differences in the perceived risk of
buying online and the effects of receiving a site recommendation. Journal of
Business Research, 57(7), 768775.
Gerrard, P., Cunningham, J. B., & Devlin, J. F. (2006). Why consumers are not using
Internet banking: A qualitative study. Journal of Services Marketing, 20(3),
160168.
Gupta, B., Dasgupta, S., & Gupta, A. (2008). Adoption of ICT in a government
organization in a developing country. Journal of Strategic Information Systems,
17(2), 140154.
Hanson, V. L. (2010). Inuencing technology adoption by older adults. Interacting
with Computers, 22(6), 502509.
Heerink, M. et al. (2010). Assessing acceptance of assistive social agent technology
by older adults: The Almere model. International Journal of Social Robotics, 2(4),
361375.
Hough, M., & Kobylanski, A. (2009). Increasing elder consumer interactions with
information technology. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 26(1), 3948.
Iglesias-Pradas, S. et al. (2013). Barriers and drivers for non-shoppers in B2C ecommerce: A latent class exploratory analysis. Computers in Human Behaviors,
29(2), 314322.
Joseph, R. C. (2010). Individual resistance to IT innovations. Communications of the
ACM, 53(4), 144146.
Kleijnen, M., Lee, N., & Wetzels, M. (2009). An exploration of consumer resistance to
innovation and its antecedents. Journal of Economic Psychology, 30(3), 344357.
Kuisma, T. et al. (2007). Mapping the reasons for resistance to Internet banking: A
means-end approach. International Journal of Information Management, 27(2),
7585.
Kwon, W. S., & Noh, M. (2010). The inuence of prior experience and age on mature
consumers perceptions and intentions of internet apparel shopping. Journal of
Fashion Marketing and Management, 14(3), 335349.
Laukkanen, T. et al. (2007). Innovation resistance among mature consumers. Journal
of Consumer Marketing, 24(7), 419427.
Laukkanen, P., Sinkkonen, S., & Laukkanen, T. (2008). Consumer resistance to
Internet banking: Postponers, opponents and rejecters. The International Journal
of Bank Marketing, 26(6), 440455.
Legris, P., Ingham, J., & Collerette, P. (2003). Why do people use information
technology? A critical review of the technology acceptance model. Information
& Management, 40(3), 191204.
Lian, J. W., Liu, H. M., & Liu, I. L. (2012). Applying innovation resistance theory to
understand user acceptance of online shopping: The moderating effect of
different product types. Computer Technology and Application, 3(2), 188193.
Lian, J. W., & Yen, D. C. (2013). To buy or not to buy experience goods online:
Perspective of innovation adoption barriers. Computers in Human Behavior,
29(3), 665672.
McCloskey, D. W. (2006). The importance of ease of use, usefulness, and trust to
online consumers: An examination of the technology acceptance model with
older customers. Journal of Organizational and End User Computing, 18(3), 4765.
Mitzner, T. L. et al. (2010). Older adults talk technology: Technology usage and
attitudes. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(6), 17101721.
Molesworth, M., & Suortti, J. P. (2002). Buying cars online: The adoption of the Web
for high-involvement, high-cost Purchases. Journal of Consumer Behavior, 2(2),
155168.
Nagle, S., & Schmidt, L. (2012). Computer acceptance of older adults. Work: A Journal
of Prevention, Assessment and Rehabilitation, 41(1), 35413548.

143

Nirmala, R. P., & Dewi, I. J. (2011). The effects of shopping orientations, consumer
innovativeness, purchase experience, and gender on intention to shop for
fashion products online. Gadjah Mada International Journal of Business, 13(1),
6583.
Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Pan, S., & Marsh, M. J. (2010). Internet use intention and adoption among Chinese
older adults: From the expanded technology acceptance model perspective.
Computers in Human Behavior, 26(5), 11111119.
Passyn, K. A., Diriker, M., & Settle, R. B. (2011). Images of online versus store
shopping: Have the attitudes of men and woman, young and old really
changed? Journal of Business & Economics Research, 9(1), 99110.
Pfeil, U., Arjan, R., & Zaphiris, P. (2009). Age Differences in online social networking
A study of user proles and the social capital divide among teenagers and old
users in MySpace. Computers in Human Behavior, 25(3), 643654.
Pi, S. M., & Sangruang, J. (2011). The perceived risks of online shopping in Taiwan.
Social Behavior and Personality, 39(2), 275285.
Pynoo, B. et al. (2011). Predicting secondary school teachers acceptance and use of
a digital learning environment: A cross-sectional study. Computers in Human
Behavior, 27(1), 568575.
Qingfei, M., Shaobo, J., & Gang, Q. (2008). Mobile commerce user acceptance study
in China: A revised UTAUT model. Tsinghua Science and Technology, 13(3),
257264.
Ram, S. (1987). A model of innovation resistance. Advances in Consumer Research,
14(1), 208212.
Ram, S., & Sheth, J. N. (1989). Consumer resistance to innovations: The
marketing problems and its solutions. The Journal of Consumer Marketing,
6(2), 514.
Reisenwitz, T. et al. (2007). The elderlys Internet usage: An updated look. Journal of
Consumer Marketing, 24(7), 406418.
Research, Development and Evaluation Commission, Executive Yuan, Taiwan, 2012.
Taiwan digital divide report 2012. <http://www.rdec.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=
4024389&ctNode=12062&mp=100> Accessed 29.11.13).
Ringle, C. M., Wende, S., & Will, A. (2005). SmartPLS 2.0, Hamburg. <http://
www.smartpls.de>.
Ryu, M. H., Kim, S., & Lee, E. (2009). Understanding the factors affecting online
elderly users participation in video UCC services. Computers in Human Behavior,
25(3), 619632.
Sangran, S., Siguaw, J. A., & Guan, C. (2009). A comparative study of motivational
differences for online shopping. The DATA BASE for Advances in Information
Systems, 40(4), 2842.
Schaupp, L. C., Carter, L., & McBride, M. E. (2010). E-le Adoption: A study of U.S.
taxpayers intentions. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(4), 636644.
Sebastianelli, R., Tamimi, N., & Rajan, M. (2008). Perceived quality of online
shopping: Does gender make a difference? Journal of Internet Commerce, 7(4),
445469.
Selwyn, N. (2004). The information aged: A qualitative study of older adults use of
information and communications technology. Journal of Aging Studies, 18(4),
369384.
Seock, Y. K., & Bailey, L. R. (2008). The inuence of college students shopping
orientations and gender differences on online shopping information searches
and purchase behaviours. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 32(2),
13121.
Sorce, P., Perotti, V., & Widrick, S. (2005). Attitude and age differences in online
buying. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 33(2),
122132.
Stafford, T. F., Turan, A., & Raisinghani, M. S. (2004). International and cross-cultural
inuences on online shopping behavior. Journal of Global Information Technology
Management, 7(2), 7087.
Van Slyke, C., Belanger, F., Johnson, R. D., & Hightower, R. (2010). Gender-based
differences in consumer e-commerce adoption. Communications of the
Association for Information Systems, 26(2), 1734.
Van Slyke, C., Comunale, C. L., & Belanger, F. (2002). Gender differences in
perceptions of web-based shopping. Communications of the ACM, 45(7),
8286.
Venkatesh, V. et al. (2003). User acceptance of information technology: Toward a
unied View. MIS Quarterly, 27(3), 425478.
Wagner, N., Hassanein, K., & Head, M. (2010). Computer use by older adults: A
multi-disciplinary review. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(5), 870882.
World Economic Forum (2013). The global information technology report. Geneva:
World Economic Forum.
World Health Organization (WHO) 2013. Denition of an older or elderly person
Proposed working denition of an older person in Africa for the MDS project.
<http://www.who.int/healthinfo/survey/ageingdefnolder/en/#>
Accessed
16.11.13.
Wu, S. I. (2003). The relationships between consumer characteristics and attitude
toward online shopping. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 21(1), 3744.
Zhou, L., Dai, L., & Zhang, D. (2007). Online shopping acceptance model A critical
survey of consumer factors in online shopping. Journal of Electronic Commerce
Research, 8(1), 4162.
Zhou, T., Lu, Y., & Wang, B. (2010). Integrating TTF and UTAUT to explain mobile
banking user adoption. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(4), 760767.
Zickuhr, K., & Coordinator, W., 2010. Generations 2010. Pew Internet & American Life
Project,
2010.
<http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/Generations2010.aspx> Accessed 23.11.13.