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SELECTEDTOPICS

ControlledSubstances

NotFollowedonStateLawGroundsStatev.Jones,Hawai'i,July19,2001

Prosecutions
StrengthofEvidence

OriginalImageof90S.Ct.642(PDF)

CriminalLaw

90S.Ct.642

Turnerv.U.S.
SupremeCourtoftheUnitedStates

January20,1970
396U.S.398
90S.Ct.642
24L.Ed.2d610
SupremeCourtoftheUnitedStates

19701C.B.243 (Approx.23pages)Review
IndictmentandProofandVariance

InternalRevenue

JamesTURNER,Petitioner,
v.
UNITEDSTATES.

Offenses
StatutoryPresumptionofViolationofTransfer
TaxStatute

SecondarySources

No.190.
ArguedOct.15,1969.
DecidedJan.20,1970.
RehearingDeniedFeb.27,1970.

Whatconstitutesactualorconstructive
possessionofunregisteredor
otherwiseprohibitedfirearmin
violationof26U.S.C.A.sec.5861
133A.L.R.Fed.347(Originallypublishedin
1996)

See397U.S.958,90S.Ct.939.
DefendantwasconvictedintheUnitedStatesDistrictCourtfortheDistrictofNewJersey
ofviolatingnarcoticslawsandheappealed.TheUnitedStatesCourtofAppeals,Third
Circuit,404F.2d782,affirmedandcertiorariwasgranted.TheSupremeCourt,Mr.
JusticeWhite,heldthatstatutorypresumptionthatunexplainedpossessionofnarcotic
drugissufficienttoauthorizeconvictionfortraffickinginnarcoticsunlessdefendant
explainspossessiontosatisfactionofjurywasvalidinsofarasitpermittedjurytoinferthat
heroinpossessedinthiscountryisasmuggleddrugbutwasinvalidasappliedto
possessionofcocaine.TheCourtalsoheldthatstatuteprovidingthatabsenceof
appropriatetaxstampsshallbeprimafacieevidenceofviolationofstatutemakingit
unlawfultopurchase,dispenseordistributenarcoticdrugnotinorfromoriginalpackage
bearingtaxstampsauthorizedinferenceofpurchasingheroinbutwasnotsufficient
predicateforconcludingthatpetitionerwhopossessedsmallquantityofcocainewas
dispensing,distributingorpurchasingcocaine.

...Thisannotationcollectsandanalyzesthe
federalcaseswhereinthecourtshave
discussedordetermined,eitheringeneral
termsorinparticularinstances,what
constitutes"possession"offirearmswi...

Sufficiencyofevidencethatpossessor
ofmarijuanahadintenttodistributeit,
soastoviolate21U.S.C.A.sec.841(a)
(1)
79A.L.R.Fed.113(Originallypublishedin
1986)
...Thisannotationcollectsandanalyzesthe
federalcasesinwhichthecourtshave
discussedordecidedwhether,orunderwhat
circumstances,theevidence,inaprosecution
forviolating21U.S.C.A.84...

HarrisonNarcoticAct
39A.L.R.236(Originallypublishedin1925)

Affirmedinpartandreversedinpart.

...Thisannotationsupplementsthatin13
A.L.R.858.Section1oftheoriginalact,and
itsamendmentundertheRevenueActof
February24,1919,aresubstantiallysetoutin
thereportedcase(Linderv....

Mr.JusticeMarshalconcurredinthejudgment.
Mr.JusticeBlackandMr.JusticeDouglasdissented.

SeeMoreSecondarySources

WestHeadnotes(13)

Briefs

ChangeView
1

ControlledSubstances
Importation
Inconvictionundercountchargingdefendantwithknowinglyreceiving,
concealingandtransportingheroinwhichwasillegallyimportedandwhichhe
knewwasillegallyimported,itwasnecessaryforgovernmenttoproveeachof
thethreeelementsofcrimetosatisfactionofjurybeyondareasonabledoubt.
NarcoticDrugsImportandExportAct,2(c,f),21U.S.C.A.174.
156Casesthatcitethisheadnote

ControlledSubstances
Sale,distribution,delivery,transferor
trafficking
Statutetoeffectthatproofofpossessionofnarcoticdrugshallauthorize
convictionfortraffickinginunlawfullyimportednarcoticdrug,unlessdefendant
explainspossessiontosatisfactionofjury,authorizesbutdoesnotrequire
submissionofcasetojurywhengovernmentreliesonpossessionaloneand
authorizesbutdoesnotrequireinstructiontojurybasedonthestatuteand

BriefforthePetitioners
2004WL1799022
JohnD.ASHCROFT,AttorneyGeneral,etal.,
Petitioners,v.AngelMcClaryRAICH,etal.
SupremeCourtoftheUnitedStates
Aug.11,2004
...Theopinionofthecourtofappeals(Pet.
App.1a43a)isreportedat352F.3d1222.
Theorderofthedistrictcourtdenying
respondents'motionforapreliminary
injunction(Pet.App.44a69a)isrepo...

BRIEFFORTHEUNITEDSTATES
1991WL521244
Touby(Daniel&Lyrissa)v.U.S.
SupremeCourtoftheUnitedStates
Mar.27,1991
...Theopinionofthecourtofappeals(J.A.27
66)isreportedat909F.2d759.Theopinionof
thedistrictcourt(J.A.226)isreportedat710
F.Supp.551.Thejudgmentofthecourtof
appealswasent...

Appellee'sAnsweringBriefonTrial
Issues

convictiononbasisofpossessionalonedefendantisfreetochallengeeither
inferenceofillegalimportationorinferenceofhisknowledgeofthatfact,or
both.NarcoticDrugsImportandExportAct,2(c,f),21U.S.C.A.174.
151Casesthatcitethisheadnote
3

ControlledSubstances
Importation
Statutetoeffectthatpossessionofnarcoticdrugshallbedeemedsufficient
evidencetoauthorizeconvictionfortraffickinginillegallyimportednarcoticdrug
unlessdefendantexplainspossessiontosatisfactionofjury,isvalidinsofarasit
permitsthejurytoinferthatheroinpossessedinthiscountryisasmuggled
drug.NarcoticDrugsImportandExportAct,2(c,f),21U.S.C.A.174.
33Casesthatcitethisheadnote

ControlledSubstances
Sale,distribution,delivery,transferor
trafficking
Jurywasentitledtorelyoninstructionsthatitcouldinferfromaccused's
unexplainedpossessionofherointhatheknewthatheroinhepossessedhad
beenunlawfullyimported,inprosecutionforreceiving,concealingand
facilitatingtransportationandconcealmentofheroinwhileknowingthatthe
heroinhadbeenunlawfullyimportedintoUnitedStates.NarcoticDrugsImport
andExportAct,2(c,f),21U.S.C.A.174.
22Casesthatcitethisheadnote

ControlledSubstances
Possessoryoffenses
Court'sinstructionthatjurycouldinferfromaccused'sunexplainedpossession
ofherointhataccusedknewthattheheroinhepossessedhadbeenunlawfully
importeddidnotviolaterightofaccusedtobeconvictedoftraffickinginheroin
onlyonfindingofguiltbeyondreasonabledoubtanddidnotplace
impermissiblepressureuponhimtotestifyinhisowndefense.NarcoticDrugs
ImportandExportAct,2(c,f),21U.S.C.A.174.
121Casesthatcitethisheadnote

ControlledSubstances
Importation
Sincemuchmorecocaineislawfullyproducedinthiscountrythanissmuggled
intoit,statuteprovidingthatpossessionofnarcoticdrugissufficientto
authorizeconvictionfortraffickinginillegallyimportednarcoticdrugwasinvalid
asappliedtopossessionofcocainebypetitionerchargedwithreceiving,
concealingandfacilitatingtransportationandconcealmentofcocainewhile
knowingthatithadbeenunlawfullyimportedintoUnitedStates.Narcotic
DrugsImportandExportAct,2(c,f),21U.S.C.A.174.
63Casesthatcitethisheadnote

CriminalLaw

Indictmentorinformationingeneral

CriminalLaw
Elementsandincidentsofoffensedefinitions
Errorinindictmentchargingaccusedwithpossessingheroin,aswellas
purchasing,dispensinganddistributingthedrug,andsameerrorininstructions
washarmlesssincepossessionevidenceprovedthataccusedwasdistributing
heroin.NarcoticDrugsImportandExportAct,2(c,f),21U.S.C.A.17426
U.S.C.A.(I.R.C.1954)4704(a).
22Casesthatcitethisheadnote
8

IndictmentandInformation
Partofchargesufficienttoconstitute
offense
Generally,whenjuryreturnsguiltyverdictonindictmentchargingseveralacts
intheconjunctive,verdictstandsifevidenceissufficientwithrespecttoany
oneofactscharged.
283Casesthatcitethisheadnote

InternalRevenue

Weightandsufficiencyofevidenceingeneral

1992WL12011925
UNITEDSTATESOFAMERICA,Plaintiff
Appellee,v.RichardEdwardRUPLEY,Sr.,
DefendantsAppellants.
UnitedStatesCourtofAppeals,NinthCircuit.
Nov.18,1992
...I.WHETHERASIXTEENMONTHJURY
TRIALTHATRESULTEDINTHREENOT
GUILTYVERDICTSANDTWOHUNG
VERDICTSAFTERJURYDELIBERATIONS
FORSIXDAYSSATISFIEDTHE
DEFENDANTS'RIGHTTOAFAIRTRIAL.2.
WHETHER...
SeeMoreBriefs

TrialCourtDocuments
U.S.ofAmericav.ALSuqi
2013WL5890628
UNITEDSTATESOFAMERICA,v.
MohammadT.ALSUQI,Defendant.
UnitedStatesDistrictCourt,E.D.Virginia.
Oct.18,2013
...ThedefendantwasfoundguiltyonCounts
111,1623,32,33and34afterapleaofnot
guilty.Accordingly,thedefendantis
adjudicatedguiltyofthefollowingcounts
involvingtheindicatedoffenses...

U.S.v.Kim
2007WL4917617
UNITEDSTATESOFAMERICA,v.Christina
KYEONGHEEKIMAKAKyeongHeeKim
KyungKim.
UnitedStatesDistrictCourt,N.D.California.
Dec.17,2007
...THEDEFENDANT:[x]pleadedguiltyto
count(s):113,1541,4349,and51ofthe
SupersedingInformation.[]pleadednolo
contenderetocount(s)whichwasaccepted
bythecourt.[]wasfoundguiltyo...

U.S.v.Hanes
2006WL5388855
UNITEDSTATESOFAMERICA,v.Mark
HANES.
UnitedStatesDistrictCourt,N.D.California.
July28,2006
...USMNumber:[x]pleadedguiltytocount(s):
OneandTwooftheIndictment.[]pleaded
nolocontenderetocount(s)_whichwas
acceptedbythecourt.[]wasfoundguiltyon
count(s)_afterapleaof...
SeeMoreTrialCourtDocuments

Evidencethataccusedpossessedsome275glassinebagsofheroinwithout
revenuestampsattachedwassufficienttoconvicthimofdistributingheroinnot
inorfromoriginalstampedpackageandrenderedallegationsthathehad
knowinglypurchasedanddispensedsuchheroinirrelevanttovalidityof
conviction.NarcoticDrugsImportandExportAct,2(c,f),21U.S.C.A.174
26U.S.C.A.(I.R.C.1954)4704(a).
27Casesthatcitethisheadnote
10

CriminalLaw
ParticularInstructions
Evenifinstructionthatabsenceofappropriatetaxstampsshallbeprimafacie
evidenceofviolationofstatuteprohibitingdistributingheroinnotinorfrom
originalstampedpackagebypersoninwhosepossessiondrugsarefoundwas
improperlygiven,errorwasharmlessinviewofpossessionevidencewhichin
itselfestablishedanunlawfuldistributionofheroinnotinorfromoriginal
stampedpackage.NarcoticDrugsImportandExportAct,2(c,f),21U.S.C.A.
17426U.S.C.A.(I.R.C.1954)4704(a).
28Casesthatcitethisheadnote

11

InternalRevenue
Weightandsufficiencyofevidenceingeneral
Actofpossessingheroinisitselfsufficientproofthatpossessorhasnot
receiveditinorfromtheoriginalstampedpackageforpurposesofstatute
prohibitingpurchaseofnarcoticdrugnotinorfromoriginalpackagebearing
taxstamps.NarcoticDrugsImportandExportAct,2(c,f),21U.S.C.A.174
26U.S.C.A.(I.R.C.1954)4704(a).
15Casesthatcitethisheadnote

12

InternalRevenue
Weightandsufficiencyofevidenceingeneral
Barepossessionofcocainewasaninsufficientpredicateforconcludingthat
possessorwasdispensingordistributingitinviolationofstatuteprohibiting
dispensingordistributingitinviolationofstatuteprohibitingdispensingor
distributingnarcoticdrugnotinorfromoriginalpackagebearingtaxstamps.
NarcoticDrugsImportandExportAct,2(c,f),21U.S.C.A.17426U.S.C.A.
(I.R.C.1954)4704(a).
39Casesthatcitethisheadnote

13

InternalRevenue
Constitutionalandstatutoryprovisions
Statutoryprovisionmakingpossessionofunstampeddrugprimafacie
evidencethatdrugwaspurchasednotinorfromoriginalpackagebearingtax
stampsisinvalidwithrespecttococaine,precludingconvictionbasedonlyon
possession.NarcoticDrugsImportandExportAct,2(c,f),21U.S.C.A.
17426U.S.C.A.(I.R.C.1954)4704(a).
36Casesthatcitethisheadnote

AttorneysandLawFirms
**644*400JosiahE.DuBois,Jr.,Camden,N.J.,forpetitioner.
StevenR.Rivkin,Washington,D.C.,forClevelandBurgess,asamicuscuriae.
LawrenceG.Wallace,Washington,D.C.,forrespondent.

Opinion
Mr.JusticeWHITEdeliveredtheopinionoftheCourt.
Petitionerswasfoundguiltybyajuryonfourcountschargingviolationsofthefederal
narcoticslaws.Theissuebeforeusisthevalidityoftheprovisionsofs2oftheActof
February9,1909,35Stat.614,asamended,21U.S.C.s174and26U.S.C.s4704(a)
whichauthorizeaninferenceofguiltfromthefactofpossessionofnarcoticdrugs,inthis
caseheroinandcocaine.
*401Thechargesarosefromseizuresbyfederalnarcoticsagentsoftwopackagesof
nartotics.OnJune1,1967,TurnerandtwocompanionswerearrestedinWeehawken,

NewJersey,shortlyaftertheirautomobileemergedfromtheLincolnTunnel.Whilethe
companionswerebeingsearchedbutbeforeTurnerwassearched,thearrestingagents
sawTurnerthrowapackagetothetopeofanearbywall.Thepackagewasretrievedand
wasfoundtobeafoilpackageweighing14.68gramsandcontainingamixtureofcocaine
hydrochlorideandsugar,5%ofwhichwascocaine.Governmentagentsthereafterfound
atinfoilpackagecontainingheroinunderthefrontseatofthecar.Thispackageweighed
48.25gramsandcontainedamixtureofheroin,cinchonalalkaloid,mannitol,andsugar,
15.2%ofthemixturebeingheroin.Unlikethecocainemixture,theheroinmixturewas
packagedwithinthetinfoilwrappinginsmalldoubleglassingbagsinthesingletinfoil
packagetherewere11thesingleofbags,eachbundlecontaining25bags(atotalof275
bags).Therewerenofederaltaxstampsaffixedtothepackagecontainingthecocaineor
totheglassinebagsorouterwrapperenclosingtheheroin.
Petitionerwasindictedontwocountsrelatingtotheheroinandtwocountsrelatingtothe
cocaine.ThefirstcountchargedthatTurnerviolated21U.S.C.s174 1 *402byreceiving,
concealing,andfacilitatingthetransportationandconcealmentofheroinwhileknowing
thatthe**645heroinhadbeenunlawfullyimportedintotheUnitedStates.Thethird
countchargedthesameoffensewithregardtothecocaineseized.Thesecondcount
chargedthatpetitionerpurchased,possessed,dispensed,anddistributedheroinnotinor
fromtheoriginalstampedpackageinviolationof26U.S.C.s4704(a). 2 Thefourthcount
madethesamechargewithregardtothecocaine.
Atthetrial,theGovernmentpresentedtheevidenceoftheseizureofthepackages
containingheroinandcocainebutpresentednoevidenceontheoriginofthedrugs
possessedbypetitioner.Petitionerdidnottestify.WithregardtoCounts1and3,thetrial
judgechargedthejuryinaccordwiththestatutethatthejurycouldinferfrompetitioner's
unexplainedpossessionoftheheroinandcocainethatpetitionerknewthatthedrugshe
possessedhadbeenunlawfullyimported.WithregardtoCounts2and4,thetrialjudge
readtothejurythestatutoryprovisionmakingpossessionofdrugsnotinastamped
packageprimafacieevidencethatthedefendantpurchased,sold,dispensed,or
distributed*403thedrugsnotinorfromastampedpackage.Thejuryreturnedaverdict
ofguiltyoneachcount.Petitionerwassentencedtoconsecutivetermsof10years'
imprisonmentonthefirstandthirdcountsafiveyeartermonthesecondcountwasto
runconcurrentlywiththetermonthefirstcountandafiveyeartermonthefourthcount
wastorunconcurrentlywiththetermonthethirdcount.
OnappealtotheCourtofAppealsfortheThirdCircuit,petitionerarguedthatthetrial
court'sinstructionsontheinferencesthatthejurymightdrawfromunexplained
possessionofthedrugsconstitutedviolationsofhisprivilegeagainstselfincriminationby
penalizinghimfornottestifyingabouthispossessionofthedrugs.TheCourtofAppeals
rejectedthisclaimandaffirmed,findingthattheinferencesfrompossessionauthorized
bythestatuteswerepermissibleunderpriordecisionsofthisCourtandthattherefore
therewasnoimpermissiblepenaltyimposedonpetitioner'sexerciseofhisrightnotto
testify.404F.2d782(1968).AftertheCourtofAppeals'decisioninthiscase,thisCourt
heldthatasimilarstatutorypresumptionapplicabletothepossessionofmarihuanawas
unconstitutionalasnothavingasufficientrationalbasis.Learyv.UnitedStates,395U.S.
6,89S.Ct.1532,23L.Ed.2d57(1969).Wegrantedawritofcertiorariinthiscaseto
reconsiderinlightofourdecisioninLearywhethertheinferencesauthorizedbythe
statuteshereatissueareconstitutionallypermissiblewhenappliedtothepossessionof
heroinandcocaine.395U.S.933,89S.Ct.2001,23L.Ed.2d448.
I
Thestatutoryinferencecreatedbys174hasbeenupheldbythisCourtwithrespectto
opiumandheroin,YeeHemv.UnitedStates,268U.S.178,45S.Ct.470,69L.Ed.904
(1925)Roviarov.UnitedStates,353U.S.53,77S.Ct.623,1L.Ed.2d639(1957),as
wellasbyan*404unbrokenlineofcasesinthecourtsofappeals. 3 Similarly,inacase
involving**646morphine,thisCourthasrejectedaconstitutionalchallengetothe
inferenceauthorizedbys4704(g).Caseyv.UnitedStates,276U.S.413,48S.Ct.373,
72L.Ed.632(1928).
Learyv.UnitedStates,supar,dealtwithastatute,21U.S.C.s176a,providingthat
possessionofmarihuana,unlessexplainedtothejury'ssatisfaction,shallbedeemed
sufficientevidencetoauthorizeconvictionforsmuggling,receiving,concealing,buying,
selling,orfacilitatingthetransportation,concealment,orsaleofthedrug,knowingthatit
hadbeenillegallyimported.Referringtopriorcases 4 holdingthatastatuteauthorizing
theinferenceofonefactfromtheproofofanotherincriminalcasesmustbesubjectedto
scrutinybythecourtstopreventconvictionuponinsufficientproof,395U.S.,at37,89

S.Ct.,at1549,theCourtreadthosecasesas*405requiringtheinvalidationofthe
statutorilyauthorizedinferenceunlessitcanatleastbesaidwithsubstantialassurance
thatthepresumedfactismorelikelythannottoflowfromtheprovedfactonwhichitis
madetodepend.395U.S.,at36,89S.Ct.,at1548.Since,judgedbythisstandard,the
inferencedrawnfromthepossessionofmarihuanawasinvalid,itwasunnecessaryto
reachthequestionwhetheracriminalpresumptionwhichpassesmusterwhensojudged
mustalsosatisfythecriminalreasonabledoubtstandardifproofofthecrimechargedor
anessentialelementthereofdependsuponitsuse.'395U.S.,at36,89S.Ct.,at1548,n.
64.
WeaffirmTurner'sconvictionsunderss174and4707(a)withrespecttoheroin(Counts
1and2)butreversetheconvictionsunderthesesectionswithrespecttococaine(Counts
3and4).
II
1 Weturnfirsttotheconvictionfortraffickinginheroininviolationofs174.Count1
chargedTurnerwith(1)knowinglyreceiving,concealing,andtransportingheroinwhich
(2)wasillegallyimportedandwhich(3)heknewwasillegallyimported.SeeHarrisv.
UnitedStates,359U.S.19,23,79S.Ct.560,564,3L.Ed.2d597(1959).Forconviction,
itwasnecessaryfortheGovernmenttoproveeachofthesethreeelementsofthecrime
tothesatisfactionofthejurybeyondareasonabledoubt.Thejurywassoinstructedand
Turnerwasfoundguilty.
2 TheproofwasthatTurnerhadknowinglypossessedheroinsinceitisillegalto
importheroinortomanufactureithere, 5 hewasalsochargeablewithknowingthathis
heroinhadanillegalsource.Forallpracticalpurposes,thiswastheGovernment'scase.
Thetrialjudge,notingthattherewasnootherevidenceofimportation*406orofTurner's
knowledgethathisheroinhadcomefromabroad,followedtheusualpracticeand
instructedthejuryass174permits**647butdoesnotrequirethatpossessionofa
narcoticdrugissufficientevidencetojustifyconvictionofthecrimedefinedins174. 6
Thejury,however,evenifitbelievedTurnerhadpossessedheroin,wasnotrequiredby
theinstructionstofindhimguilty.Thejurywasinstructedthatitwasthesolejudgeofthe
factsandtheinferencestobedrawntherefrom,thatallelementsofthecrimemustbe
provedbeyondareasonabledoubt,andthattheinferenceauthorizedbythestatutedid
notrequirethedefendanttopresentevidence.Toconvict,thejurywasinformed,itmust
besatisfiedbythetotalityoftheevidenceirrespective*407ofthesourcefromwhichit
comesoftheguiltofthedefendant***.Thejurywasobligatedbyitsinstructionsto
assessforitselftheprobativeforceofpossessionandtheweight,ifany,tobeaccorded
thestatutoryinference.Ifitistrue,astheGvernmentcontends,thatheroinisnot
producedintheUnitedStatesandthatanyheroinpossessedheremusthaveoriginated
abroad,thejury,basedonitsownstoreofknowledge,maywellhavesharedthisview
andconcludedthatTurnerwasequallywellinformed.Alternatively,thejurymayhave
beenwithoutitsowninformationconcerningthesourcesofheroin,andmayhave
convictedTurnerinrelianceontheinferencepermittedbythestatute,perhapsreasoning
thatthestatuterepresentedanofficialdeterminationthatheroinisnotadomestic
product. 7
Whatevercoursethejurytook,itfoundTurnerguiltybeyondareasonabledoubtandthe
questiononreviewisthesufficiencyoftheevidence,ormoreprecisely,thesoundnessof
inferringguiltfromproofofpossessionalone.Sincethejurymigthhavereliedheavilyon
theinferencesauthorizedbythestatuteandincludedinthecourt'sinstructions,our
primaryfocusisonthevalidity**648oftheevidentiaryrulecontainedins174. 8
*408Weconcludefirstthatthejurywaswhollyjustifiedinacceptingthelegislative
judgmentifinfactthatiswhatthejurydidthatpossessionofheroinisequivalentto
possessingimportedheroin.Wehavenoreasonabledoubtthatatthepresenttime
heroinisnotproducedinthiscountryandthatthereforetheheroinTurnerhadwas
smuggledheroin.
Section174orasimilarprovisionhasbeenthelawsince1909. 9 For60years
defendantschargedunderthe*409statutehaveknownthatthesectionauthorizedan
inferenceofguiltfrompossessionalone,thattheinferenceisrebuttablebyevidencethat
theirheroinoriginatedhere,andthattheinferenceitselfissubjecttochallengeforlackof
sufficientconnectionbetweentheprovedfactofpossessionandthepresumedfactthat
theirswassmuggledmerchandise.Mobile,J.&K.C.R.Co.v.Turnipseed,219U.S.35,
43,31S.Ct.136,138,55L.Ed.78(1910).Giventhestatutoryinferenceandabsent
rebuttalevidence,asfarasadefendantisconcernedthes174crimeistheknowing

possessionofheroin.Hence,ifheistoavoidconviction,hefacestheurgentnecessity
eithertorebutortochallengesuccessfullythepossessioninferencebydemonstratingthe
factorthelikelihoodofadomesticsourceforheroin,notnecessarilybyhisowntestimony
butthroughthetestimony**649ofotherswhoarefamilarwiththetrafficindrugs,whether
governmentagentsorprivateexperts.Overtheyears,thousandsofdefendants,mostof
themrepresentedbyretainedorappointedcounsel,havebeenconvictedunders174.
Althoughtherewasopportunityineverycasetochallengeorrebuttheinferencebased
onpossession,wearecitedtonocase,andweknowofnone,wheresubstantial
evidenceshowingdomesticproductionofheroinhascometolight.Instead,theinference
authorizedbythesection,althoughfrequentlychallenged,hasbeenupheldinthisCourt
andincourtlesscasesinthedistrictcourtsandcourtsofappeals,thesecasesimplicitly
reflectingtheprevailingjudicialviewthatheroinisnotmadeinthiscountrybutratheris
importedfromabroad.Ifthisviewiserroneousandheroinisorhas*410beenproduced
inthiscountryincommercialquantities,itisdifficulttobelievethatresourcefullawyers
withadversaryproceedingsattheirdisposalwouldnotlongsincehavediscoveredthe
truthandplaceditonrecord.
Thisviewissupportedbyotherofficialsources.In1956,afterextensivehearings,the
SenateCommitteeontheJudiciaryfoundnoevidencethatheroinisproduced
commerciallyinthiscountry. 10 ThePresident'sCommissiononLawEnforcementand
AdministrationofJusticestatedin1967that(a)lltheherointhatreachestheAmerican
userissmuggledintothecountryfrom*411abroad,theMiddleEastbeingthereputed
primarypointoforigin. 11
Thefactorsunderlyingthesejudgmentsmaybesummarizedasfollows:First,itisplain
enoughthatitisillegalbothtoimportheroinintothiscountry 12 **650andtomanufacture
ithere 13 heroiniscontrabandandissubjecttoseizure. 14
Second,heroinisaderivativeofopiumandcanbemanufacturedfromopiumorfrom
morphineorcodeine,*412whicharealsoderivedfromopium. 15 Whetherheroincanbe
synthesizedisdisputed,butthereisnoevidencethatitisbeingsynthesizedinthis
country. 16
Third,opiumisderivedfromtheopiumpoppywhichcannotbegrowninthiscountry
withoutalicense. 17 Nolicensesareoutstandingforcommercialcultivation 18 and*413
thereisnoevidencethattheopiumpoppyisillegallygrownintheUnitedStates. 19
Fourth,thelawforbidstheimportationofanyopiumproductexceptcrude**651opium
requiredformedicalandscientificpurposes 20 importationofcrudeopiumforthe
purposeofmakingheroinisspecificallyforbidden. 21 Sizableamountsofcrudeopiumare
legallyimportedandusedtomakemorphineandcodeine. 22
Fifth,theflowoflegallyimportedopiumandoflegallymanufacturedmorphineand
codeineiscontrolledtootightlytopermitanysignificantpossibilitythatheroinis
manufacturedordistributedbythoselegallylicensedtodealinopium,morphine,or
codeine. 23
*414Sixth,therearerecurringtheftsofopium,morphine,andcodeinefromlegal
channelswhichcouldbeusedforthedomestic,clandestineproductionofheroin. 24 Itis
extremelyunlikelythatheroinwouldbemadefromcodeinesincetheprocessinvolved
producesanunmanageable,penetratingstenchwhichitwouldbeverydifficultto
conceal. 25 Clandestinemanufactureofheroinfromopiumandmorphinewouldnotbe
subjecttothisdifficultybut,evenontheextremelyunlikelyassumptionthatallopiumand
morphinestoleneachyearisusedtomanufactureheroin,theheroinsoproducedwould
amounttoonlyatinyfraction(lessthan1%)oftheillicitheroinillegallyimportedand
marketedhere. 26 Moreover,aclandestinelaboratory**652manufacturing*415heroin
hasnotbeendiscoveredinmanyyears. 27
3
4 Concededly,heroincouldbemadeinthiscountry,atleastintinyamounts.
ButtheoverwhelmingevidenceisthattheheroinconsumedintheUnitedStates*416is
illegallyimported.Topossessheroinistopossessimportedheroin.Whetherjudgedby
themorelikelythannotstandardappliedinLearyv.UnitedStates,supra,orbythe
moreexactingreasonabledoubtstandardnormallyapplicableincriminalcases,s174is
validinsofarasitpermitsajurytoinferthatheroinpossessedinthiscountryisa
smuggleddrug.Ifthejuryreliedonthes174instruction,itwasentitledtodoso. 28
GiventhefactthatlittleifanyheroinismadeintheUnitedStates,Turnerdoubtless
knewthattheheroinhehadcamefromabroad.Thereisnoproofthathehadspecific

knowledgeofwhosmuggledhisheroinorwhenorhowthesumugglingwasdone,butwe
areconfidentthathewasawareofthehighprobabilitythattheheroininhispossession
hadoriginatedinaforeigncountry.Cf.Learyv.UnitedStates,supra,395U.S.at45
53,89S.Ct.at15531557. 29
5 Itmaybethattheordinaryjurywouldnotalwaysknowthatheroinillegally
circulatinginthiscountryisnotmanufacturedhere.ButTurnerandotherswhosellor
distributeheroinareinaclassapart. 30 Such*417peoplehaveregularcontactwitha
drugwhichtheyknowcannotbelegallyboughtorsoldtheirlivelihooddependsonits
availability**653someofthemhaveactuallyengagedinthesmugglingprocess.The
price,supply,andqualityvarywidely 31 themarketfluctuateswiththeabilityofsmugglers
tooutwitcustomsandnarcoticsagentsathomeandabroad. 32 Thefactsconcerning
heroinareavailablefrommanysources,frequentlyinthepopularmedia.Common
sense(Learyv.UnitedStates,supra,395U.S.at46,89S.Ct.at1553)tellsusthat
thosewhotrafficinheroinwillinevitablybecomeawarethattheproducttheydealinis
smuggled, 33 unlesstheypracticeastudiedignorancetowhichtheyarenotentitled. 34
Wethereforehavelittledoubtthattheinferenceofknowledgefromthefactofpossessing
smuggledheroinisasoundonehencethecourt'sinstructionsontheinferencedidnot
violatetherightofTurnertobeconvictedonlyonafindingofguilt*418beyonda
reasonabledoubtanddidnotplaceimpermissiblepressureuponhimtotestifyinhisown
defense. 35 HisconvictiononCount1mustbeaffirmed.
III
Turningtothesames174presumptionwithrespecttococaine,wereachacontrary
result.InErwingv.UnitedStates,323F.2d674(C.A.9thCir.1963)Acaseinvolvinga
prosecutionfordealingincocaine,twoexpertshadtestified,onefortheGovernmentand
oneforthedefense.Itwasapparentfromthetestimonythatwhileitisillegaltoimport
cocaine,cocaleaves,fromwhichcocaineisprepared,arelegallyimportedforprocessing
intococainetobeusedformedicalpurposes.Therewasnoevidencethatsizable
amountsofcocaineareeitherlegallyimportedorsmuggled.Thetrialcourtinstructedon
thes174presumptionandconvictionfollowed,buttheCourtofAppealsfortheNinth
Circuitreversed,findingthepresumptioninsufficientlysoundtopermitconviction.
6 SupplementingthefactspresentedinErwing,supra,theUnitedStatesnow
assertsthatsubstantialamountsofcocainearesmuggledintotheUnitedStates.
However,muchmorecocaineislawfullyproducedinthiscountrythanissmuggledinto
thiscountry. 36 TheUnitedStates*419concedesthattheftsfromlegalsources,though
totalingconsiderably**654lessthanthetotalsmuggled, 37 arestillsufficientlylargeto
makethes174presumptioninvalidasappliedtoTurner'spossessionofcocaine. 38
Basedonourownexaminationofthefactsnowbeforeus,wereachthesame
conclusion.ApplyingthemorelikelythannotstandardemployedinLeary,supra,we
cannotbesufficientlysureeitherthatthecocainethatTurnerpossessedcamefrom
abroadorthatTurnermusthaveknownthatitdid.ThejudgmentonCount3mustbe
reversed. 39
IV
7 26U.S.C.s4704(a) 40 makesitunlawfultopurchase,sell,dispense,ordistributea
narcoticdrugnotinorfromtheoriginalpackagebearingtaxstamps.Inthiscase,Count2
chargedthatTurnerknowinglypurchased,dispensed,anddistributedheroin
hydrochloridenotinor*420fromtheoriginalstampedpackage. 41 Count4madethe
identicalchargewithrespecttococaine.Section4704(a)alsoprovidesthattheabsence
ofappropriatetaxstampsshallbeprimafacieevidenceofaviolationbythepersonin
whosepossessionthedrugsarefound.Thisprovisionwasreadbythetrialjudgetothe
jury.
8
9
10 TheconvictiononCount2withrespecttoheroinmustbeaffirmed.
SincetheonlyevidenceofaviolationinvolvingheroinwasTurner'spossessionofthe
drug,thejurytoconvictmusthavebelievedthisevidence.Butpartandparcelofthe
possessionevidenceandindivisiblylinkedwithit,wasthefactthatTurnerpossessed
some275glassinebagsofheroinwithoutrevenuestampsattached.Thisevidence,
withoutmore,solidlyestablishedthatTurner'sheroinwaspackagedtosupplyindividual
demandsandwasintheprocessofbeingdistributed,anactbarredbythestatute.The
generalruleisthatwhenajuryreturnsaguiltyverdictonanindictmentchargingseveral
actsintheconjunctive,asTurner'sindictmentdid,theverdictstandsiftheevidenceis
sufficientwithrespecttoanyoneoftheactscharged. 42 Heretheevidenceproved
Turnerwasdistributingheroin.Thestatusofthecasewithrespecttotheother
allegationsisirrelevanttothe*421validityofTurner'sconviction.So,too,theinstitution

onthepresumptionisbesidethepoint,since**655evenifinvalid,itwasharmleserror
thejurymusthavebelievedthepossessionevidencewhichinitselfestablisheda
distributionbarredbythestatute.
Moreover,eveniftheevidenceastopossessionisviewedasnotinitselfprovingthat
Turnerwasdistributingheroin,hisconvictionmustbeaffirmed.True,thestatutory
inference,whichonthisassumptionwouldassumecriticalimportance,couldnotbe
sustainedinsofarasitauthorizedaninferenceofdispensingordistributing(orofsellingif
thatacthadbeencharged),forthebarefactofpossessingheroinisfarshortofsufficient
evidencefromwhichtoinferanyoftheseacts.Cf.Totv.UnitedStates,319U.S.463,63
S.Ct.1241,87L.Ed.1519(1943)UnitedStatesv.Romano,382U.S.136,86S.Ct.279,
15L.Ed.2d210(1965).Buttheinferenceofpurchasinginorfromanunstampedpackage
isanothermatter.
11 Thosepossessingheroinhavesecureditfromsomesource.Theactofpossessing
isitselfsufficientproofthatthepossessorhasnotreceiveditinorfromtheoriginal
stampedpackage,sinceitissoextremelyunlikelythatapackagecontainingheroinwould
everbelegallystamped.Allheroinfoundinthiscountryisillegallyimported.Those
handlingnarcoticsmustregister 43 registeredpersonsdonotdealinheroinandonly
registeredimportersandmanufacturersarepermittedtopurchasestamps. 44 Forheroin
tobefoundinastampedpackage,stampswouldhavetobestolenandfixedtothe
heroincontainerandeventhenthestampswouldimmunizethetransactionsinthedrug
onlyfromprosecutionunders4704(a)allotherlawsagainsttransactionsinheroinwould
beunaffectedbythepresenceofthestamps.*422Therecanthusbenoreasonable
doubtthatonewhopossessesheroindidnotobtainitfromastampedpackage.
Evenso,obtainingheroinotherthanintheoriginalstampedpackageisnotacrimeunder
s4704(a).Ofthevariouswaysofacquiringheroin,e.g.,bygift,theft,bailmentor
purchase,onlypurchasingisproscribedbythesection.Sinceheroinisahighpriced
product, 45 itwouldbeveryunreasonabletoassumethatanysizablenumberof
possessorshavenotpaidforit,onewayoranother.Perhapsafewacquireitbygiftand
someheroinundoubtedlyisstolen,butmostusersmaybepresumedtopurchasewhat
theyuse.Thesamemaybesaidforthosewhosell,dispense,ordistributethedrug.
Thereisnoreasonabledoubtthatapossessorofheroinwhohaspurchaseditdidnot
purchasetheheroininorfromtheoriginalstampedpackage.Wethuswouldsustainthe
convictiononCount2onthebasisofapurchasenotinorfromastampedpackageeven
iftheevidenceofpackagingdidnotpointunequivocallytotheconclusionthatTurnerwas
distributingheroinnotinastampedpackage.
V
Finally,weconsiderthevalidityofthes4704(a)presumptionwithrespecttococaine.The
evidencewasthatwhileinthecustodyofthepolice,Turnerthrewawayatinfoilpackage
containingamixtureofcocaineandsugar,which,accordingtotheGovernment,isnot
theforminwhichcocaineisdistributedformedicinalpurposes. 46 Unquestionably,
possessionwasamplyprovedbytheevidence,whichthejurymusthavebelievedsinceit
returnedaverdictofguilty.Butthe*423evidencewithrespecttoTurner'spossessionof
cocainedoesnotsosurelydemonstratethatTurnerwasintheprocessofdistributingthis
drug.WouldthejuryautomaticallyandunequivocallyknowthatTurnerwasdistributing
cocainesimplyfromthefactthathehad**65614.68gramsofacocaineandsugar
mixture?True,hispossessionofheroinprovedthathewasdealingindrugs,buthavinga
smallquantityofacocaineandsugarmixtureisitselfconsistentwithTurner'spossessing
thecocainenotforsalebutexclusivelyforhispersonaluse.
12
13 SinceTurner'spossessionofcocainedidnotconstituteanactofpurchasing,
dispensing,ordistributing,theinstructionofthestatutoryinferencebecomescritical.Asin
thecaseofheroin,barepossessionofcocaineisaninsufficientpredicateforconcluding
thatTurnerwasdispensingordistributing.Asfortheremainingpossibleviolation,
purchasingotherthaninorfromtheoriginalstampedpackage,thepresumption,validas
toheroin,isinfirmastococaine.
Whileonecanbeconfidentthatcocaineillegallymanufacturedfromsmuggledcoca
leavesorillegallyimportedaftermanufacturingwouldnotappearinastampedpackage
atanytime,cocaine,unlikeheroin,islegallymanufacturedinthiscountry 47 andwe
haveheldthatsufficientamountsofcocainearestolenfromlegalchannelstorender
invalidtheinferenceauthorizedins174thatanycocainepossessedintheUnitedStates
issmuggledcocaine.Supra,at653654.Similarreasoningunderminesthes4704(a)
presumptionthatadefendant'spossessionofunstampedcocaineisprimafacieevidence

thatthedrugwaspurchasednotinorfromtheoriginalstampedcontainer.Thethiefwho
stealscocaineveryprobablyobtainsitinorfromastampedpackage.Thereisa
reasonablepossibilitythatTurner*424eitherstolethecocainehimselforobtaineditfrom
astampedpackageinpossessionoftheactualthief.Thepossibilityissufficientlyrealthat
aconvictionrestingonthes4704(a)presumptioncannotbedeemedaconvictionbased
onsufficientevidence.TotheextentthatCaseyv.UnitedStates,276U.S.413,48S.Ct.
373,72L.Ed.632(1928),isreadasgivinggeneralapprovaltothes4704(a)
presumption,itisnecessarilylimitedbyourdecisiontoday.Turner'sconvictiononCount
4mustbereversed.
Forthereasonsstatedabove,weaffirmthejudgmentofconvictionastoCounts1and2
andreversethejudgmentofconvictionastoCounts3and4.
Itissoordered.
JudgmentaffirmedastoCounts1and2andreversedastoCounts3and4.
Mr.JusticeMARSHALL,concurringinthejudgment.
IconcurinthejudgmentoftheCourt,affirmingpetitioner'sconvictiononCounts1and2
andreversinghisconvictiononCounts3and4.Insodoing,however,Icanagreewith
themajorityonCount2onlyinsofarasitconcludesthatevidenceofpossessionof275
glassinebagsofheroinprovdedbeyondareasonabledoubtthatTurnerwsadistributing
heroininviolationof26U.S.C.s4704(a).Thatsameevidencedoesnotestablishthatthe
hadpurchasedtheheroininviolationofthatstatute.
TheopinionoftheCourtestablishesconvincinglythevirtualcertaintythattheheroinin
Turner'spossessionhadbeenillegallyimportedintothecountry.Itwasthusproperwith
regardtoCount1forthetrialjudgetoinstructthejurorsineffectthatiftheyfoundthat
Turnerdidindeedpossessthedrug,theycouldinferthattheheroinhadbeenillegally
importedandimputeknowledgeofthatfacttoTurner.However,theinstructionthat
possessionisprimafacieevidenceofaviolationofs4704(a)isquitedifferent.Itmaybe
truethatmostpersonswhopossessheroinhavepurchaseditnotinorfromastamped
package.However,Turner*425himselfmaywellhaveobtainedtheheroininvolvedhere
inanyofanumberofwaysforexample,bystealingitfromanotherdistributor,orby
manufacturingorotherwiseacquiringitabroadand**657smugglingitintothiscountry.
Giventhedangersthatareinherentinanystatutorypresumptionorinference,someof
whicharesetoutinthedissentingopinionofMr.JusticeBLACK,Icannotagreewiththe
whollyspeculativeandconjecturalholdingthatbecauseTurnerpossessedheroinhe
musthavepurchaseditinviolationofs4704(a).
Mr.JusticeBLACK,withwhomMr.JusticeDOUGLASjoins,dissenting.
FewifanydecisionsofthisCourthavedonemorethanthisonetodaytoundercutand
destroythedueprocesssafeguardsthefederalBillofRightsspecificallyprovidesto
protectdefendantschargedwithcrimeinUnitedStatescourts.Amongtheaccused'sBill
ofRights'guaranteesthattheCourttodayweakensare:
1.Hisrightnottobecompelledtoanswerforacapitalorotherwiseinfamouscrime
unlessonapresentmentorindictmentofagrandjury
2.Therighttobeinformedofthenatureandcauseoftheaccusationagainsthim
3.Therightnottobecompelledtobeawitnessagainsthimself
4.Therightnottobedeprivedoflife,liberty,orpropertywithoutdueprocessoflaw
5.Therighttobeconfrontedwiththewitnessesagainsthim
6.Therighttocompulsoryprocessforobtainingwitnessesforhisdefense
7.Therighttocounseland
8.Therighttotrialbyanimpartialjury.
TheforegoingrightsareamongthosethattheBillofRightsspecificallyspellsoutandthat
dueprocess*426requiresthatadefendantchargedwithcrimemustbeaccorded.The
FramersofourConstitutionandBillofRightsweretoowise,toopragmatic,andtoo
familiarwithtyrannytoattempttosafeguardpersonallibertywithbroad,flexiblewords
andphraseslikefairtrial,fundamentaldecency,andreasonableness.Suchstretchy,
rubberliketermswouldhaveleftjudgesconstitutionallyfreetotrypeoplechargedwith
crimeunderwillo'thewispstandardsimprovisedbydifferentjudgesfordifferent

defendants.NeithertheDueProcessClausenoranyotherconstitutionallanguagevests
anyjudgewithsuchpower.OurConstitutionwasnotwritteninthesandstobewashed
awaybyeachwaveofnewjudgesblowninbyeachsuccessivepoliticalwindthatbrings
newpoliticaladministrationsintotemporarypower.Rather,ourConstitutionwas
fashionedtoperpetuatelibertyandjusticebymarkingclear,explicit,andlasting
constitutionalboundariesfortrials.Oneneedlooknofurtherthanthelanguageofthat
sacreddocumentitselftobeassuredthatdefendantschargedwithcrimearetobe
accordeddueprocessoflawthatis,theyaretobetriedastheConstitutionandthe
lawspassedpursuanttoitprescribeandnotunderarbitraryproceduresthataparticular
majorityofsittingjudgesmayseefittolabelasfairordecent.Iwholly,completely,and
permanentlyrejectthesocalledactivistphilosophyofsomejudgeswhichleadsthemto
construeourConstitutionasmeaningwhattheynowthinkitshouldmeanintheinterest
offairnessanddecencyastheyseeit.ThiscaseandtheCourt'sholdinginitillustrate
thedangersinherentinsuchanactivistphilosophy.
Commercialtrafficindeadlymind,soul,andbodydestroyingdrugsisbeyonddoubtone
ofthegreatestevilsofourtime.Itcripplesintellects,dwarfsbodies,paralyzesthe
progressofasubstantialsegmentof*427oursociety,andfrequentlymakeshopeless
andsometimesviolentandmurderouscriminalsofpersonsofallageswhobecomeits
victims.Suchconsequencescallforthemostvigorouslawstosuppressthetrafficaswell
asthemostpowerfulefforts**658toputthesevigorouslawsintoeffect.Unfortunately,
graveevilssuchasthenarcoticstrafficcantooeasilycausethreatstoourbasicliberties
bymakingattractivetheadoptionofconstitutionallyforbiddenshortcutsthatmight
suppressandblotoutmorequicklytheunpopularanddangerousconduct.Thatisexactly
thecourseIthinktheCourtissanctioningtoday.IshallnowsetoutinmoredetailwhyI
believethistobetrue.
Count1oftheindictmentagainstTurner,astheCourt'sopinionasserts,andasIagree,
chargedTurnerwith(1)knowinglyreceiving,concealing,andtransportingheroinwhich
(2)wasillegallyimportedandwhich(3)heknewwasillegallyimported.***For
conviction,itwasnecessaryfortheGovernmenttoproveeachofthesethreeelementsof
thecrimetothesatisfactionofthejurybeyondareasonabledoubt.Ante,at646.
TheCourtintheabovestatementismerelyreaffirmingthefundamentalconstitutional
principlethattheaccusedispresumedinnocentuntilheisprovedguiltyandthatthe
Government,beforeitcansecureaconviction,mustdemonstratetothejurybeyonda
reasonabledoubteachessentialelementoftheallegedoffense.Thisbasicprincipleis
clearlyreflectedinseveralprovisionsoftheBillofRights.TheFifthandSixth
Amendmentsprovidethatasapartofdueprocessoflawapersonheldforcriminal
prosecutionshallbechargedonapresentmentorindictmentofagrandjuryandthatthe
defendantshallbeinformedofthenatureandcauseoftheaccusation.Thepurposeof
theserequirements*428isobviouslytocompeltheGovernmenttostateanddefine
specificallywhatitmustproveinordertoconvictthedefendantsothathecanintelligently
preparetodefendhimselfoneachoftheessentialelementsofthecharge.Andtoaidthe
accusedinmakinghisdefensetothechargesthusdefined,theBillofRightsprovidesthe
accusedexplicitguaranteestheprivilegeagainstselfincrimination,therighttocounsel,
therighttoconfrontwitnessesagainsthim,andtocallwitnessesinhisownbehalfall
designedtoassurethatthejurywillasnearlyashumanlypossiblebeabletoconsider
fullyalltheevidenceanddeterminethetruthofeverycase.
Havinginvokedtheaboveprinciples,however,theCourtthenproceedstouphold
Turner'sconvictionunderCount1despitethefactthattheprosecutionintroduced
absolutelynoevidenceattrialontwoofthethreeessentialelementsofthecrime.To
showthisIthinkoneneedlooknofurtherthantheCourt'sownopinion.TheCourtsays:
TheproofwasthatTurnerhadknowinglypossessedheroinsinceitisillegaltoimport
heroinortomanufactureithere,hewasalsochargeablewithknowingthathisheroinhad
anillegalsource.Forallpracticalpurposes,thiswastheGovernment'scase.Ante,at
646.
Whatevercoursethejurytook,itfoundTurnerguiltybeyondareasonabledoubtandthe
questiononreviewisthesufficiencyoftheevidence,ormoreprecisely,thesoundnessof
inferringguiltfromproofofpossessionalone.Ante,at647.(Emphasisadded.)
ThesepassagesshowthattheGovernmentwhollyfailedtomeetitsburdenofproofat
trialontwooftheelementsCongressdeemedessentialtothecrimeitdefined.The
prosecutionintroducednoevidencetoproveeither*429(1)thattheheroininvolvedwas

illegallyimportedor(2)thatTurnerknewtheheroinwasillegallyimported.Theevidence
showedonlythatTurnerwasfoundinpossessionorheroin.
Idonotthinkareviewingcourtshouldpermittostandaconvictionaswholly**659lacking
inevidentiarysupportasisTurner'sconvictionunderCount1.Bozzav.UnitedStates,
330U.S.160,67S.Ct.645,91L.Ed.818(1947).SeealsoThompsonv.CityofLouisville,
362U.S.199,80S.Ct.624,4L.Ed.2d654(1960).Whentheevidenceofacrimeis
insufficientasamatteroflaw,astheevidencehereplainlyis,areversaloftheconviction
isinaccordwiththehistoricprinciplethatindependenttrialjudgesandindependent
appellatejudgeshaveamostimportantplaceunderourconstitutionalplansincethey
havepowertosetasideconvictions.UnitedStatesexrel.Tothv.Quarles,350U.S.11,
19,76S.Ct.1,6,100L.Ed.8(1955).IwouldthereforereverseTurner'sconvictionunder
Count1withoutfurtherado.Moreover,asthemajorityopinionandtherecordinthiscase
indicate,petitioner'sconvictionsunderCounts3and4arealsobasedupontotally
insufficientevidence,forasinCount1theprosecutionfailedtointroduceanyevidenceto
supportcertainessentialelementsofthecrimeschargedunderthesecounts.They,too,
shouldbereversedforlackofevidence.
TheCourtatemptstotakethestarknakednessoftheevidenceagainstTurneronthese
countsandclotheitinpresumptions'orinferences'authorizedby21U.S.C.s174and
26U.S.C.s4704(a).ApparentlytheCourtfeelsthattheGovernmentcanberelievedof
theconstitutionalburdenofprovingtheessentialelementsofitscasebyamere
congressionaldeclarationthatcertainevidenceshallbedeemedsufficienttoconvict.
SuchanideaseemstometobetotallyatvariancewithwhattheConstitutionrequires.
Congresscanundoubtedlycreatecrimesanddefinetheirelements,butitcannotunder
ourConstitutionevenpartiallyremove*430fromtheprosecutiontheburdenofprovingat
trialeachoftheelementsithasdefined.Thefundamentalrightofthedefendanttobe
presumedinnocentissweptawaytopreciselytheextentjudgesandjuriesrelyuponthe
statutorypresumptionsofguiltfoundin21U.S.C.s174and26U.S.C.s4704(a).And
eachoftheweaponsgivenbytheBillofRightstothecriminalaccusedtodefendhis
innocencetherighttocounsel,therighttoconfrontthewitnessesagainsthimandto
subpoenawitnessesinhisfavor,theprivilegeagainstselfincriminationisnullifiedtothe
extentthattheGovernmenttosecureaconvictiondoesnothavetointroduceany
evidencetosupportessentialallegationsoftheindictmentithasbrought.Itwouldbea
senselessandstupidthingfortheConstitutiontotakealltheseprecautionstoprotectthe
accusedfromgovernmentalabusesiftheGovernmentcouldbysomesleightofhand
trickwithpresumptionsmakenullitiesofthoseprecautions.Sucharesultwould
completelyfrustratethepurposeoftheFounderstoestablishasystemofcriminaljustice
inwhichtheaccusedeventhepoorestandmosthumblewouldbeabletoprotect
himselffromwrongfulchargesbyabigandpowerfulgovernment.Itislittlelessthan
fantasticeventoimaginethatthosewhowroteourConstitutionandtheBillofRights
intendedtohaveagovernmentthatcouldcreatecrimesofseveralseparateand
independentpartsandthenrelievethegovernmentofprovingaportionofthem.Of
course,withincertainbroadlimitsitisnotnecessaryforCongresstodefineacrimeto
includeanyparticularsetofelements.Butifitdoes,constitutionaldueprocessrequires
theGovernmenttoproveeachelementbeyondareasonabledoubtbeforeitcanconvict
theaccusedofthecrimeitdeliberatelyandclearlydefined.Turner'strialtherefore
remindsmemoreofDanielbeingcastintothelion'sdenthanitdoesofaconstitutional
proceeding.TheBible*431tellsusDanielwassavedbyamiracle,butwhenthisCourt
saysitsfinalwordinthiscasetoday,wecannotexpectamiracletosavepetitioner
Turner.
**660Iwouldhavemorehesitationinsettingasidethesejuryverdictsforinsufficiencyof
theevidencewereIconfidentthatthejuryhadbeenallowedtomakeafreeand
unhampereddeterminationofguiltorinnocenceasthejurytrialprovisionsofArticleIIIof
theConstitutionandtheSixthAmendmentrequire.Therighttotrialbyjuryincludesthe
righttohavethejuryandthejuryalonefindthefactsofthecase,includingthecruicalfact
ofguiltorinnocence.See,e.g.,UnitedStatesexrel.Tothv.Quarles,350U.S.11,15
19,76S.Ct.1,46,100L.Ed.8(1955).Thisrighttohavethejurydetermineguiltor
innocencenecessarilyincludestherighttohavethatbodydecidewhethertheevidence
presentedattrialissufficienttoconvict.Turner'sconvictionsoneachcountweresecured
onlyafterthejuryhadbeenexplicitlyinstructedbythetrialjudgethatproofofTurner's
merepossessionofheroinandcocaineshallbedeemedsufficientevidencetoauthorize
convictionunder21U.S.C.s174,andshallbeprimafacieevidenceofaviolationof26
U.S.C.s4704(a).App.1518.Inmyview,theseinstructionstothejuryimpermissibly
interferedwiththedefendant'sSixthAmendmentrighttohavethejurydeterminewhen
evidenceissufficienttojustifyafindingofguiltbeyondareasonabledoubt.

Theinstructionsdirectingthejurytopresumeguiltinthiscasewerenot,ofcourse,the
trialjudge'sowninspiration.Congress,inenactingthestatutorypresumptionspurporting
todefineandlimitthequantumofevidencenecessarytoconvict,hasinjecteditsown
viewsandcontrolsintotheguiltdetermining,factfindingprocessvestedbyour
ConstitutionexclusivelyintheJudicialBranchofourGovernment.TheFifthAmendment's
commandthatcasesbetriedaccordingtodue*432processoflawincludesthe
accused'srighttohavehiscasetriedbyajudgeandajuryinacourtoflawwithout
legislativeconstraintorinterference.Thesestatutorypresumptionsclearviolatethe
commandofthatAmendment.Congresscandeclareacrime,butitmustleavethetrialof
thatcrimetothecourts.SeeLearyv.UnitedStates,395U.S.6,55,89S.Ct.1532,1558,
23L.Ed.2d57(1969),(concurringinresult)andUnitedStatesv.Gainey,380U.S.63,
8485,85S.Ct.754,766767,13L.Ed.2d658(1965)(dissentingopinion).
Itismybeliefthatthesestatutorypresumptionsaretotallyunconstitutionalforyetanother
reason,anditisacriticallyimportantone.Asdiscussedearlier,theConstitutionrequires
thatthedefendantinacriminalcasebepresumedinnocentanditplacestheburdenof
provingguiltsquarelyontheGovernment.Statutorypresumptionssuchasthoseinvolved
inthiscaserobthedefendantofatleastpartofhispresumedinnocenceandcastupon
himtheburdenofprovingthatheisnotguilty.Thepresumptionin21U.S.C.s174makes
thisshiftintheburdenofproofexplicit.Itprovidesthatpossessionofnarcoticdrugsshall
bedeemedsufficientevidencetojustifyaconvictionunlessthedefendantexplainsthe
possessiontothesatisfactionofthejury.However,sofarasrobbingthedefendantofhis
presumptionofinnocenceisconcerned,itmakesnodifferencewhetherthestatute
explicitlysaysthedefendantcanrebutthepresumptionofguilt(asdoestheprovisionof
21U.S.C.s174justquoted),orwhetherthestatutesimplyusesthelanguageofprima
faciecaseandleavesimplicittheossibilityofthedefendant'srebuttingthepresumption
(asdoes26U.S.C.s4704(a)).Presumptionsofbothformstendtocoerceandcompel
thedefendantintotakingthewitnessstandinhisownbehalf,inclearviolationofthe
accused'sFifthAmendmentprivilegeagainstselfincrimination.Thisprivilegehasbeen
consistentlyinterpretedtoestablish*433thedefendant'sabsoluterightnottotestifyathis
owntrialunlesshefreelychoosestodoso.**661AsweobservedinMalloyv.Hogan,
378U.S.1,8,84S.Ct.1489,1493,12L.Ed.2d653(1964),theprivilegeisfulfilledonly
whenthepersonisguaranteedtheright***toremainsilentunlesshechoosestospeak
intheunfetteredexerciseofhisownwill***.Thedefendant'srighttofreeandunfettered
choiceinwhetherornottotestifyiseffectivelydestroyedbythecoerciveeffectofthe
statutorypresumptionsfoundin21U.S.C.s174and26U.S.C.s4704(a).SeeUnited
Statesv.Gainey,380U.S.63,7174,87,85S.Ct.754,759761,768(1965)
(dissentingopinions).Moreover,whenthedefendantdeclinestotestifyandthetrialjudge
statestothejuryashedidinthiscasethatevidenceofpossessionofnarcoticsshallbe
deemedsufficienttoconvictunlessthedefendantexplainsthepossessiontothe
satisfactionofthejury,suchaninstructionisnothinglessthanjudicialcommentuponthe
defendant'sfailuretotestify,apracticethatweheldviolativeoftheSelfIncrimination
ClauseinGriffinv.California,380U.S.609,95S.Ct.1229,14L.Ed.2d106(1965).
HowdoestheCourtrespondtothegraveconstitutionalproblemsraisedbythese
presumptionsofguilt?Itsaysonlythatthesepresumptionsare,initsview,reasonable
orfactuallysupportablebeyondareasonabledoubt.Inotherwords,theCourthas
concludedthatthepresumptionsarefairandapparentlythinksthatisasufficient
answer.Itmattersnottotoday'smajoritythattheevidencethatitcitestoshowthefactual
basisofthepresumptionswasneverintroducedatpetitioner'strial,andthatpetitioner
wasnevergivenanopportunitytoconfrontbeforethejurythemanyexpertwitnesses
nowarrayedagainsthiminthefootnotesoftheCourt'sopinion.Nordoesitapparently
mattertotheCourtthatthefactfindingroleitundertakestodayisconstitutionallyvested
notinthisCourtbutinthejury.IfCongresswantstomakesimplepossessionof*434
narcoticsanoffense,Ibelieveithaspowertodoso.ButthisCourthasnosuch
constitutionalpower.NorhasCongressthepowertorelievetheprosecutionofthe
burdenofprovingallthefactsthatitasalegislativebodydeemscrucialtotheoffensesit
creates.
Forthereasonsstatedhere,Iwouldwithouthesitationreversepetitioner'sconvictions
underCounts1,2,3,and4.

AllCitations
396U.S.398,90S.Ct.642,24L.Ed.2d610,19701C.B.243

Footnotes
1

Insofarashererelevant,thissectionprovides:
Whoeverfraudulentlyorknowinglyimportsorbringsanynarcoticdruginto
theUnitedStatesoranyterritoryunderitscontrolorjurisdiction,contrary
tolaw,orreceives,conceals,buys,sells,orinanymannerfacilitatesthe
transportation,concealment,orsaleofanysuchnarcoticdrugaftetbeing
importedorbroughtin,knowingthesametohavebeenimportedorbrought
intotheUnitedStatescontrarytolaw,orconspirestocommitanyofsuch
actsinviolationofthelawsoftheUnitedStates,shallbeimprisoned***.
Wheneverontrialforaviolationofthissectionthedefendantisshownto
haveortohavehadpossessionofthenarcoticdrug,suchpossessionshall
bedeemedsufficientevidencetoauthorizeconvictionunlessthedefendant
explainsthepossessiontothesatisfactionofthejury.Heroin,aderivativeof
opium,andcocaine,aproductofcocaleaves,arewithinthemeaningofthe
termnarcoticdrugasusedin21U.S.C.s174.See21U.S.C.s171(which
referstos3228(g)ofInt.Rev.Codeof1939,now26U.S.C.s4731(a)).

Itshallbeunlawfulforanypersontopurchase,sell,dispense,ordistribute
narcoticdrugsexceptintheoriginalstampedpackageorfromtheoriginal
stampedpackageandtheabsenceofappropriatetaxpaidstampsfrom
narcoticdrugsshallbeprimafacieevidenceofaviolationofthissubsection
bythepersoninwhosepossessionthesamemaybefound.
Thetermnarcoticdrugs'isdefinedtoincludederivativesofopiumand
productsofcocaleaves.26U.S.C.s4731(a).

Decisionsofthecourtsofappealsacceptingapplicationofthepresumption
topersonsfoundinpossessionofopium,morphine,orheroinincludeGee
Woev.UnitedStates,250F.428(C.A.5thCir.),cert.denied,248U.S.562,
39S.Ct.8,63L.Ed.422(1918)(smokingopium)CharleyToyv.United
States,266F.326(C.A.2dCir.),cert.denied254U.S.639,41S.Ct.13,65
L.Ed.452(1920)(smokingopium)Copperthwaitev.UnitedStates,37
F.2d846(C.A.6thCir.1930)(morphine)UnitedStatesv.Liss,105F.2d
144(C.A.2dCir.1939)(morphine)DearCheckQuongv.UnitedStates,82
U.S.App.D.C.8,160F.2d251(1947)(unspecifiednarcotics)Cellinov.
UnitedStates,276F.2d941(C.A.9thCir.1960)(heroin)Walkerv.United
States,285F.2d52(C.A.5thCir.1960)(heroin)UnitedStatesv.Savage,
292F.2d264(C.A.2dCir.),cert.denied,368U.S.880,82S.Ct.129,7
L.Ed.2d80(1961)(heroin)UnitedStatesv.Gibson,310F.2d79(C.A.2d
Cir.1962)(heroin)Lucerov.UnitedStates,311F.2d457(C.A.10thCir.
1962),cert.deniedsubnom.Maestasv.UnitedStates,372U.S.936,83
S.Ct.883,9L.Ed.2d767(1963)(heroin)Garciav.UnitedStates,373F.2d
806(C.A.10thCir.1967)(heroin).

EspeciallyTotv.UnitedStates,319U.S.463,63S.Ct.1241,87L.Ed.1519
(1943),UnitedStatesv.Gainey,380U.S.63,85S.Ct.754,13L.Ed.2d658
(1965),andUnitedStatesv.Romano,382U.S.136,86S.Ct.279,15
L.Ed.2d210(1965).

Seesupra,nn.12,13.

Underpriordecisions,principallyUnitedStatesv.Gainey,380U.S.63,85
S.Ct.754(1965),suchstatutoryprovisionsauthorizebutdonotrequirethe
trialjudgetosubmitthecasetothejurywhentheGovernmentrelieson
possessionalone,authorizebutdonotrequireaninstructiontothejury
basedonthestatute,andauthorizebutdonotrequirethejurytoconvict
basedonpossessionalone.Thedefendantisfreetochallengeeitherthe
inferenceofillegalimportationortheinferenceofhisknowledgeofthatfact,
orboth.Harrisv.UnitedStates,359U.S.19,23,79S.Ct.560,564(1959)
Roviarov.UnitedStates,353U.S.53,63,77S.Ct.623,629(1957)Yee
Hemv.UnitedStates,268U.S.178,185,45S.Ct.470,472(1925)United
Statesv.Peeples,377F.2d205(C.A.2dCir.1967)Chavezv.United
States,343F.2d85(C.A.9thCir.1965)Griegov.UnitedStates,298F.2d
845(C.A.10thCir.1962).Evenwhenthedefendantchallengesthevalidity
oftheinferenceasappliedtohiscase,theinstructiononthestatutory
inferenceisnormallygiven.See,e.g.,McIntyrev.UnitedStates,380F.2d
746(C.A.9thCir.),cert.denied,389U.S.952,88S.Ct.334,19L.Ed.2d360

(1967)UnitedStatesv.Peeples,supraVickv.UnitedStates,113
U.S.App.D.C.12,304F.2d379(1962)Griegov.UnitedStates,supra
Walkerv.UnitedStates,285F.2d52(C.A.5thCir.1960)UnitedStatesv.
Feinberg,123F.2d425(C.A.7thCir.1941),cert.denied,315U.S.801,62
S.Ct.626,86L.Ed.1201(1942).SeealsoErwingv.UnitedStates,323
F.2d674(C.A.9thCir.1963)Caudillov.UnitedStates,253F.2d513
(C.A.9thCir.),cert.deniedsubnom.Romerov.UnitedStates,357U.S.
931,78S.Ct.1375,2L.Ed.2d1373(1958).
7

InUnitedStatesv.Peeples,supra,thejury,afterdeliberatingforatime,
askedthejudgeaboutthepercentageofheroinintheUnitedStatesthatis
producedillegallyinthiscountry.Astherewasnoevidenceintherecord
concerningareasoftheworldwhereheroinisproduced,thejudgedeclined
toanswerthe***inquiry***.377F.2d,at208.Thedefendantwasfound
guiltybythejuryhowever,theCourtofAppealsreversedforreasonsnot
directlyrelatedtothetrialjudge'streatmentofthequestionabouttheorigins
ofheroinpossessedinthiscountry.

SeeLearyv.UnitedStates,395U.S.6,3132,89S.Ct.1532,1545
1546(1969)UnitedStatesv.Romano,supra,382U.S.,at138139,86
S.Ct.,at280281(1965)Baileyv.Alabama,219U.S.219,234235,31
S.Ct.145,148149,55L.Ed.191(1911).
Arguably,indeclaringpossessiontobeampleevidencetoconvictfor
traffickinginillegallyimporteddrugs,Congressineffecthasmade
possessionitselfacrimeasanincidenttoitspoweroverforeigncommerce.
Cf.Ferryv.Ramsey,277U.S.88,48S.T.443,72L.Ed.796(1928).Butthe
crimedefinedbythestatuteisnotpossessionandtheCourthasrejected
thisbasisforsustainingthisandsimilarstatutoryinferences.Learyv.
UnitedStates,supra,395U.S.at34,37,89S.Ct.,at1547,1548United
Statesv.Romano,supra,382U.S.at142144,86S.Ct.,at282284
Harrisv.UnitedStates,supra,359U.S.,at23,79S.Ct.,at564(1959)
Roviarov.UnitedStates,supra,353U.S.,at6263,77S.Ct.,at628
629Totv.UnitedStates,supra,319U.S.,at472,63S.Ct.,at1247.
TheCourthasalsorefusedtoacceptthesuggestionthatsincethesource
ofhisdrugsisperhapsmorewithinthedefendant'sknowledgethanthe
Government's,itviolatesnorightsofthedefendanttopermitconviction
basedonpossessionalonewhenthedefendantrefusestodemonstratea
legalsourceforhisdrugs.Learyv.UnitedStates,supra,395U.S.at32
34,89S.Ct.,at15461547.SeealsoTotv.UnitedStates,supra,319U.S.
at469470,63S.Ct.,at12451246.Thedifficultieswiththesuggested
approachareobvious:iftheGovernmentprovesonlypossessionandif
possessionisitselfinsufficientevidenceofeitherimportationorknowledge,
butthestatuteneverthelesspermitsconvictionwherethedefendant
choosesnottoexplain,theGovernmentisclearlyrelievedofitsobligationto
proveitscase,unaidedbythedefendant,andthedefendantismadeto
understandthatifhefailstoexplainhecanbeconvictedonlessthan
sufficientevidencetoconstituteaprimafaciecase.SeeTotv.United
States,supra,319U.S.at469,63S.Ct.,at1245.

Theoriginalprovision,applicabletoopiumandderivatives,wascontainedin
theActofFebruary9,1909,s2,35Stat.614.Itwasrevisedandextended
tocovercocaineandcocaleavesbytheActofMay26,1922,s1,42Stat.
596.Theprovisionestablishingthepresumptionwasadoptedwithout
extendeddiscussionordebateitwasconsciouslymodeledonaprovision
ofs3082oftheRevisedStatutes(nowin18U.S.C.s545),originatinginthe
SmugglingActof1866,s4,14Stat.179.SeeH.R.Rep.No.1878,60th
Cong.,2dSess.,12(1909)H.R.Rep.No.2003,60thCong.,2dSess.,1
(1909).SeealsoSandler,TheStatutoryPresumptioninFederalNarcotics
Prosecutions,57J.Crim.L.C.&P.S.71966).

10

In1955theSubcommitteeonImprovementsintheFederalCriminalCode
oftheSenateCommitteeontheJudiciaryheldhearingsthroughoutthe
countryontheillicitnarcoticstrafficinthiscountry.Thesubcommitteeheard
345witnesses,includinggovernmentofficials,lawenforcementofficers,and
addictsandnarcoticslawviolatorsthetestimonyheardcoversseveral
thousandpages.HeardingsonIllicitNarcoticsTrafficbeforethe
SubcommitteeonImprovementsintheFederalCriminalCodeoftheSenate

CommitteeontheJudiciary,84thCong.,1stSess.(1955)(hereinaftercited
as1955SenateHearings).Theevidencegatheredinthesehearingswas
thebasisofS.3760,84thCong.,2dSess.(1956).TheSenatebillcontained
asection(proposeds1402,Tit.18)verysimilartos174butapplicable
exclusivelytoherointhisproposedsectionincludedthes174presumption.
Anotherproposedsection(proposeds1403,Tit.18,enactedwithminor
changesandnowcodifiedin21U.S.C.s176b)authorizedspecial,severe
penaltiesforthesaleofunlawfullyimportedherointojuvenilesthissection
containedaprovisionthatpossessionofheroinwassufficienttoprovethat
theheroinhadbeenillegallyimported.SeeS.Rep.No.1997,84thCong.,2d
Sess.,30(1956)(proposedss1402,1403).Thepresumptionthatheroin
foundinthiscountryhasbeenillegallyimportedwasbasedonfindingsof
theCommitteethatforeignsourcessupplyallimportantquantitiesofheroin
circulatinginthiscountry,id.,at37andthesefindingswereinturnbased
onampleevidencepresentedtotheSubcommitteeonImprovementsinthe
FederalCriminalCode.See1955SenateHearings90(testimonyof
CommissionerAnslingeroftheFederalBureauofNarcotics).
11

President'sCommissiononLawEnforcementandAdministrationofJustice,
TaskForceReport:NarcoticsandDrugAbuse3(1967)(hereinaftercitedas
TaskForceReport).SeealsoU.N.CommissiononNarcoticDrugs,Report
oftheEighteenthSession,U.N.Doc.E/CN.7/455,p.15(1963)S.Jeffee,
NarcoticsAnAmericanPlan1214,6371(1966).

12

Title21U.S.C.s173makesitunlawfultoimportanynarcoticdrugexcept
amountsofcrudeopiumandcocaleavesnecessarytoprovideformedical
andlegitimateuses.Inaddition,formorethan45years,ithasbeen
unlawfultoimportopiumforthepurposeofmanufacturingheroin.Actof
June7,1924,43Stat.657(nowcodifiedin21U.S.C.s173).Though21
U.S.C.s513permitstheSecretaryoftheTreasurytoauthorizethe
importationofanynarcoticdrugfordeliverytogovernmentalofficialsorto
anypersonlicensedtousethedrugsforscientificpurposes,theSecretary
hasneverauthorizedtheimportationofanyheroinunderthisprovision.
BrieffortheUnitedStates18n.12.

13

TheNarcoticsManufacturingActof1960,74Stat.55,21U.S.C.ss501
517,prohibitsthemanufactureofnarcoticdrugsexceptunderalicense
issuedbytheSecretaryoftheTreasuryfortheproductionofanapproved
drug.Sinceheroinisnotconsideredusefulformedicalpurposes,no
productionformedicalusehasbeenauthorizedheroinusedinscientific
experimentationissuppliedentirelyfromquantitiesseizedbylaw
enforcementofficials.BrieffortheUnitedStates,17n.10.

14

21U.S.C.s173.SeeS.Rep.No.1997,84thCong.,2dSess.,7(1956).In
1956,allherointhenlawfullyoutstandingwasrequiredtobesurrendered.
ActofJuly18,1956,s201,70Stat.572(codifiedas18U.S.C.s1402).

15

Theclandestinemanufactureofheroinfromopiumormorphineissaidin
onereporttobechild'splay.Vaille&Bailleul,ClandestineHeroin
Laboratories,5U.N.BulletinonNarcotics,No.4,Oct.Dec.1953,pp.1.6.
Thepossibilityofproducingheroinfromcodeine(withayieldofabout22%)
wasfirstreportedinRapoport,Lovell,&Tolbert,ThePreparation
ofMorphineNmethylC14,73J.Am.Chem.Soc.5900(1951),andwas
verifiedinGates&Tschudi,TheSynthesisofMorphine,74J.Am.Chem.Soc.
1109(1952).TheBureauofNarcoticsandDangerousDrugsreportsthat
conversionofcodeineintomorphine(fromwhichheroinmaybeproduced)
isrelativelysimpleandrequiresinexpensiveequipmentbutproducesan
extremelynoxiousandpenetratingodorwhichwouldmakeconcealmentof
suchconversionoperationsvirtuallyimpossible.Supplemental
MemorandumfortheUnitedStates2.

16

TheBureauofNarcoticsandDangerousDrugsreportsthatitknowsofno
caseinwhichsyntheticheroinhasbeenproduceditreportsthat
experimentsindicatethatproductionofsyntheticmorphinewouldbe
extremelydifficult.BrieftheUnitedStates20n.17.AmicusBurgess
suggeststhepossibilityofsyntheticproductionofheroinbutcitesinsupport
onlyacaseinvolvinganunsuccessfulattempttosynthesizemorphine,

UnitedStatesv.Liss,137F.2d995(C.A.2dCir.),cert.denied,320U.S.
773,64S.Ct.78,88L.Ed.462(1943).BriefforClevelandBurgessas
AmicusCuriae11.
17

OpiumPoppyControlActof1942,56Stat.1045,21U.S.C.ss188188n.

18

Theregulationsprovidethatalicensetoproduceopiumpoppiesshallbe
issuedonlywhenitisdeterminedbytheDirectoroftheBureauofNarcotics
andDangerousDrugsthatmedicalandscientificneedsofthecountry
cannotbemetbytheimportationofcrudeopium.21CFRs303.5(a).
Importsofcrudeopiumhavebeensufficienttomeetalldomesticmedical
andscientificneedsandtheUnitedStatesisthereforenotanopium
producingcountry.Blum&Braunstein,MindAlteringDrugsandDangerous
BehaviorNarcotics,inTaskForceReportApp.A2,at40.SeealsoBrief
fortheUnitedStates23n.25.

19

Themostrecentreportedcaseinvolvingaprosecutionforunlawful
productionofopiumpoppiesisAzDinv.UnitedStates,232F.2d283
(C.A.9thCir.),cert.denied,352U.S.827,77S.Ct.39,1L.Ed.2d49(1956).
Unlikethecaseofmarihuana,seeLeary,supra,395U.S.at4243,89
S.Ct.at15511552,therearenoreportsofthediscoveryinthiscountryof
fieldsofopiumpoppiesrequiringdestruction.Thisfacttogetherwiththe
factsthatopiumpoppiesarehardtoconcealbecauseoftheircolorandthat
theharvestingofopiumisonlyeconomicallyfeasibleincountrieswithan
abundantsupplyofcheaplaborjustifiesaconclusionthatlittleifanyopium
poppyproductionisgoingoninthiscountry.SeeBrieffortheUnited
States,2123.

20

21U.S.C.s173.

21

Ibid.Seesupra,n.12.

22

In1966,theUnitedStatesimported173,951kilogramsofcrudeopiumin
thesameyear,715Kilogramsofmorphineand30,662kilgramsofcodeine
wereproducedfromimportedopium.U.S.TreasuryDepartment,Bureauof
Narcotics,TrafficinOpiumandOtherDangerousDrugs,ReportfortheYear
EndedDecember31,1967,p.41(1968).

23

Themanufactureofnarcoticdrugsisverycarefullycontrolledand
monitoredundertheNarcoticsManufacturingActof1960,74Stat.55,21
U.S.C.ss501517.Thesubsequentdistributionofnarcoticdrugsis
controlledandmonitoredunderthelawsenforcingthetaxesimposedon
thosedealinginnarcoticdrugs.26U.S.C.ss47014707,47214736,
47714776.

24

Becauseofthecontrolsandreportingrequirementsapplicabletothose
handlingnarcoticdrugs,seesupra,n.23,theBureauofNarcoticsand
DangerousDrugscancompileaccuratefiguresonthequantitiesofnarcotic
drugsstolenfromlegitimatechannels.From1964through1968,totaltheft
ofmedicalopiumperyearrangedfrom9.6kilogramsto12.9kilograms
theftsofmorphineforthesameperiodrangedfrom6.7kilogramsto10.2
kilogramsperyearannualtheftsofcodeineforthesameyearsran
between30.3kilogramsand81.8kilograms.BrieffortheUnitedStates44.
Onthepossibilityofclandestinemanufactureofheroinfromopium,
morphine,andcodeine,seesupra,n.15.

25

Seesupra,n.15.

26

Usingfiguresonthenumberofknownaddictsandtheaveragedailydose,
federalagenciesestimatethatroughly1,500kilogramsofheroinare
smuggledintotheUnitedStateseachyear.TaskForceReport6.The
BureauofNarcoticsandDangerousDrugsestimatesthatnomorethan
aboutonekilogramofheroincouldhavebeenproducedifalltheopium
stoleninanyrecentyearhadbeenclandestinelyconvertedintoheroin.The
largesttotalamountofmorphinestoleninarecentyearwouldhaveyielded
about10.2kilogramsofheroinifithadallbeenconvertedintoheroin.Brief
fortheUnitedStates19n.15.
Ifitwereassumedthatallstolencodeineisconvertedintoheroin,thefigure
forthepossibleclandestinedomesticproductionofheroinwouldbewell

over1%ofthetotalheroinmarketedinthiscountry.Codeinecanbemade
toyieldabout22%heroin.Seesupra,n.15.Applyingthisconversionrateto
thelargestannualamountofcodeinestoleninthelastfiveyears(81.8
kilograms,seesupra,n.24)wouldgiveafigureofabout18kilogramsfor
themaximumamountofherointhatmighthavebeenproducedfromstolen
codeineinanyrecentyear.Ontheassumptionthatallstolenopium,
morphine,andcodeineisconvertedintoheroin,theamountofheroin
domesticallyproducedfromstolenopiumanditsderivativeswouldamount
tonomorethanabout30kilograms,onlyabout2%ofthe1,500kilograms
ofheroinestimatedtobeillegallyimportedeachyear.Whethersucha
percentage,ratherthanthefigureoflessthan1%obtainedbyexcluding
codeinefromconsideration,wouldalterourconclusionsneednotbe
discussed,forthefactthattheconversionprocesscreatesastenchmakes
itunrealistictoassumethatstolencodeineisclandestinelyconvertedinto
heroin.Seesupra,n.15.
27

StatementbytheUnitedStatesDelegationontheIllicitTraffictothe
TwentythirdSessionoftheU.N.CommissiononNarcoticDrugs,January
1969,U.N.Doc.SD/E/CN.7/131AnnexA,p.3.Onerespectedworkon
narcoticsmakestheclaim,withoutfurtherelaboration,thatrecent
informationleadstotheconclusionthatsomeillicitlaboratoriesusedforthe
conversionofopiumormorphineintoheroinarelocatedintheUnited
States.D.Maurer&V.Vogel,NarcoticsandNarcoticAddiction64(3ded.
1967).However,thesamestatement,withoutelaboration,appearsinthe
1954editionofthework,D.Maurer&V.Vogel,NarcoticsandNarcotic
Addiction50,andthisfacttogetherwiththeabsenceofanycitedbasisfor
theclaimandthelackofsupportingevidenceelsewhereintheliterature
leadsustobelievethatthestatement,ifitwasevercorrect,isnolonger
accurate.

28

Itis,ofcourse,possibleforthesituationtochangeeitherthroughthe
developmentofasimplemethodofsynthesizingheroinorthroughthe
creationofsubstantialclandestineoperationsutilizingopiumormorphine
whichhasbeenillegallyimportedorwhich,thoughlegallyhere,hasbeen
stolen.

29

TheCourtinLeary,395U.S.,at46,89S.Ct.at1553n.93,employedthe
definitionofknowledgeinModelPenalCodes2.02(7)
ModelPenal
(proposedofficial
draft,1962):
Whenknowledgeofaparticularfactisanelementofanoffense,such
knowledgeisestablishedifapersonisawareofahighprobabilityofits
existence,unlessbeactuallybelievesthatitdoesnotexist.

30

Thoughthefederalnarcoticslawsareintermsapplicabletomost
possessorsofillicitdrugsregardlessofwhetherthepossessorisauserora
dealer,theenforcementeffortsoftheBureauofNarcoticsandDangerous
Drugsaredirectedtothedevelopmentofevidenceagainstmajorsources
ofsupply,wholesalepeddlers,interstateandinternationalviolators.
HearingsontheNarcoticRehabilitationActof1966beforeaSpecial
SubcommitteeoftheSenateCommitteeontheJudiciary,89thCong.,2d
Sess.,448(1966)(hereinaftercitedas1966SenateHearings)(testimonyof
CommissionerGiordanooftheFederalBureauofNarcotics).The
undisputedevidencethatTurnerpossessed275glassinebagsofheroin
clearlyshowsthatTurnerwasmorethanamereuserofheroinandwas
engagedinthedistributionofthedrug.

31

SeeTaskForceReport3.Seealso1955SenateHearings3889,4219.

32

Forexample,aseizureofalargeamountofpureheroininMontreal,
Canada,causedapanicinNewYorkCitythatlastedalmostthreemonths.
1966SenateHearings87.

33

Suchaconclusionisalsojustifiedwithregardtothoseusersandaddicts
whofrequentlypurchasesuppliesofheroinontheretailmarket.Such
personsareofcourseawareofthevariationsinpriceandavailabilityofthe
drugandofthefactthatthesuccessofantismugglingeffortsoflaw
enforcementofficialsaffectsthesupplyofheroinonthemarket.Seesupra,
thispageandnn.31,32.

34

SeeGriegov.UnitedStates,298F.2d845,849(C.A.10thCir.1962).

35

Thesamesituationmightpresentitselfiftherewerenostatutory
presumptionandaprimafaciecaseofconcealmentwithknowledgeof
unlawfulimportationweremadebytheevidence.Thenecessityofan
explanationbytheaccusedwouldbequiteascompellinginthatcaseasin
thisbuttheconstraintuponhimtogivetestimonywouldarisethereasit
ariseshere,simplyfromtheforceofcircumstancesandnotfromanyform
ofcompulsionforbiddenbytheConstitution.YeeHemv.UnitedStates,
268U.S.178,185,45S.Ct.470,472,69L.Ed.904(1925).

36

In1966,609kilogramsofcocainewereproduced.U.S.Treasury
Department,BureauofNarcotics,TrafficinOpiumandOtherDangerous
Drugs,ReportfortheYearEndedDecember31,1967,p.42(1968).Annual
seizuresofcocaineatportsandbordersfortheyears1963through1967
rangedfrom1.44kilogramsto17.71kilogramstheBureauofNarcoticsand
DangerousDrugsestimatesthatnomorethanabout10%ofcocainethatis
attemptedtobesmuggledintotheUnitedStatesisdiscoveredandseized
atportsandborders.BrieffortheUnitedStates31n.31.

37

From1963through1968,theamountofcocainestolenfromlegalchannels
annuallyrangedfrom2.8kilogramsto6.2kilograms.BrieffortheUnited
States44.

38

BrieffortheUnitedStates2832.

39

Sincetheillegalpossessor'sonlysourceofdomesticcocaineisthatwhichis
stolen,theUnitedStatesurgesthatthes174presumptionmaybevalid
withrespecttosellersfoundwithmuchlargeramountsofcocainethan
Turnerhad,amountswhich,itisclaimed,aretoolargetohavebeen
removedfromlegalchannelsandwhichmustthereforehavebeen
smuggled.BrieffortheUnitedStates31.Wefinditunnecessarytodeal
withtheseproblemsandpostponetheirconsiderationtoanotherday,
hopefullyuntilafterthefactshavebeenpresentedinanadversarycontext
inthedistrictcourts.

40

Seesupra,n.2.

41

TheindictmentchargedTurnerwithpossessingheroinaswellas
purchasing,dispensing,anddistributingthedrug.Theinstructionstothe
jurymadethesameerror.Noobjectionwasmadeinthetrialcourtandthe
issuewasnotraisedintheCourtofAppealsorinthisCourt.Theerrorwas
harmlessinanyeventsincethepossessionevidenceprovedthatTurner
wasdistributingheroin.Seeinfra,atthispage.

42

Crainv.UnitedStates,162U.S.625,634636,16S.Ct.952,954955,
40L.Ed.1097(1896)Smithv.UnitedStates,243F.2d385,389390
(C.A.5thCir.1956)Pricev.UnitedStates,150F.2d283(C.A.5thCir.
1945),cert.denied,326U.S.789,66S.Ct.473,90L.Ed.479(1946).See
alsoClaassenv.UnitedStates,142U.S.140,12S.Ct.169,35L.Ed.966
(1891)TheConfiscationCases,20Wall.92,104,22L.Ed.320(1874).

43

26U.S.C.ss4721,4722.Seealso26U.S.C.s4702(a)(2)(C).

44

26CFRss151.130,151.41.

45

Heroinisreportedtosellforaroundsperbagorpacket.TaskForce
Report3.

46

BrieffortheUnitedStates33.

47

Seesupra,n.36.

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