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DeclinedtoFollowbyU.S.v.Saborit,N.D.Iowa,June23,1997

BanksandBanking

OriginalImageof86F.3d1368(PDF)

FederalDepositInsuranceCorporation
DefendantConvictionofMisapplicationof
BankFunds

86F.3d1368

U.S.v.Giraldi
UnitedStatesCourtofAppeals,FifthCircuit.

CriminalLaw

June19,1996
86F.3d1368 (Approx.18pages)
UnitedStatesCourtofAppeals,

FifthCircuit.

UNITEDSTATESofAmerica,PlaintiffAppellee,AppellantCross
Appellant,
v.
AntonioGIRALDI,DefendantAppellant,AppelleeCrossAppellee.

BankerwasconvictedintheUnitedStatesDistrictCourt,SouthernDistrictofTexas,
FilemonB.Vela,J.,ofmoneylaundering,bankfraud,misapplicationoffundsand
conspiracy,andwassentencedto120monthsinprison,$850specialassessmentand
releaseon$700,000bondpendingappeal.Oncrossappeals,theCourtofAppeals,
RobertM.Parker,CircuitJudge,heldthat:(1)evidencesupportedconvictions(2)
prosecutor'sclosingargumentsdidnotrequirenewtrial(3)evidenceregardingbanker's
relationshipwithaccountholderotherthanclientwhowaslaunderingdrugmoneywas
admissibleaspartofconspiracy(4)districtcourtdidnotabuseitsdiscretioninrefusing
defendant'srequestedjuryinstructions(5)recordsupportedfourlevelsentencing
reductionfordefendant'sminimalroleinoffenseand(6)issuesraisedbydefendant
werenotfrivolous,soastocallintoquestionfindingmadeinsupportofreleasepending
appeal.
Affirmed.

ChangeView
CriminalLaw

ConstructionofEvidence

CriminalLaw
Reasonabledoubt
CourtofAppealsmustviewevidenceinlightmostfavorabletojuryverdictand
affirmifrationaltrieroffactcouldfindthatgovernmentprovedallessential
elementsbeyondreasonabledoubt.
6Casesthatcitethisheadnote
CriminalLaw
Circumstantialevidence
Ifevidenceviewedinlightmostfavorabletoprosecutiongivesequalornearly
equalcircumstantialsupporttotheoryofguiltandtheoryofinnocence,
convictionshouldbereversed.
1Casethatcitesthisheadnote
3

CriminalLaw
Evidenceconsideredconflictingevidence
Inreviewingforsufficiencyofevidence,CourtofAppealsconsiders
countervailingevidenceaswellasevidencethatsupportsverdict.

BanksandBanking
Conspiracy

s1117.Chargesinvolving
reasonabledoubtstandard,burdenof
proof,anddefenses

...Failuretoinstructthejuryonthereasonable
doubtstandardduringthepunishmentphase
ofatrialdoesnotimplicateconstitutionalrights
andshouldbeanalyzedunderthestandards
setforthinthe...

APPENDIXIIIJUDICIALOPINIONS
FDAEnforcementMan.AppendixIII
...No.74215SupremeCourtoftheUnited
States421U.S.65895S.Ct.19032d489
ArguedMarch1819,1975June9,1975Mr.
ChiefJusticeBurgerdeliveredtheopinionof
theCourt.Wegrantedcertiorar...

Whatconstituteswillfulmisapplication
ofbankfundsbybankofficeror
employeeinviolationof18U.S.C.A.
sec.656
51A.L.R.Fed.420(Originallypublishedin
1981)
...Thisannotationcollectsanddiscussesthe
federalcaseswhichdealwithprosecutions
under18U.S.C.A.656formisapplicationof
bankfunds.Thisannotationdiscussesonly
casesinvolvingmisapplica...

WestHeadnotes(23)

SecondarySources

26Tex.Jur.3dCriminalProcedure:PostTrial
Proceedings1117

No.9460602.
June19,1996.

Review
DefendantSubsequentSaleofCocaine
Trial
EssenceofGoodFaithDefenseInstruction

Prosecutions

Fraudandfalsepretensesingeneral

SeeMoreSecondarySources

Briefs
BriefofAppellantArceneauxOral
ArgumentNotRequested
2009WL7350959
UNITEDSTATESOFAMERICA,Appellee,v.
PaulRichardARCENEAUX,Appellant.
UnitedStatesCourtofAppeals,FifthCircuit
Dec.04,2009
...AppellantArceneauxdoesnotrequestoral
argumentherebecausetheissuesraisedin
thisappealarecapableofdecisionwithoutthe
necessityoforalargument.FN1.The
designationR.Ex.referstot...

BriefofAppellee
2001WL34384930
UNITEDSTATESOFAMERICA,Appellee,v.
FrankDemetricDICKERSON,Jr.,Appellant.
UnitedStatesCourtofAppeals,FourthCircuit.
Dec.19,2001
...I.Whetherthedefendant'sconvictionfora
conspiracyinMarylandthatwasseparateand
distinctfromanearlierconspiracyforwhich
thedefendantwasconvictedinFlorida
violatedtheDoubleJeopard...

Response/OpeningBriefoftheUnited
States

CurrencyRegulation
Moneylaundering
Therewassufficientevidencethatbankerknewclient'smoneywasdrug
moneytosupportbanker'sconvictionsformoneylaundering,bankfraud,
misapplicationoffundsandconspiracytherewerefalsehoodsinbanker's
memoregardingallegedreferralofclient,bankereitherpersonallymadeor
approvedfalsestatementsinbankingrecordsconcerningsourceoffunds
comingintoanduseoffundsflowingoutofclient'saccount,andbankermade
falsestatementstogovernmentagentinvestigatingirregularitiesinoneof
client'saccountsshortlyafterclient'sreporteddeath.FederalReserveAct,
25A,asamended,12U.S.C.A.63018U.S.C.A.1956.
1Casethatcitesthisheadnote
5

CriminalLaw
NewTrial
Standardofreviewfordenialofnewtrialisabuseofdiscretion.
1Casethatcitesthisheadnote

CriminalLaw
Weightandsufficiencyofevidenceingeneral
Onreviewofdenialofnewtrial,CourtofAppealsmustaffirmconvictionif
rationaljurycouldhavefoundelementsofcrimebeyondreasonabledoubt.
5Casesthatcitethisheadnote

CriminalLaw
Motionfornewtrial
Reviewofdenialofnewtrialdoesnotencompassweighingofevidenceor
judgingcredibilityofwitnesses.

CriminalLaw

Conspiracy,racketeering,andmoneylaundering

CriminalLaw
Falsepretensesandfraud
Prosecutor'scommentduringrebuttalportionoffinalargument,implying
nonexistenceofcoemployeeofindividualwhoallegedlyreferreddefendant
banker'sclientdidnotpresentdangerofmisleadingjuryastoexistenceof
coemployee,throughwhomreferralallegedlycame,givenreferringindividual's
extensivetestimonyaboutcoemployeeinprosecutionofbankerformoney
laundering,bankfraud,misapplicationoffundsandconspiracy.
1Casethatcitesthisheadnote

2001WL34102648
UNITEDSTATESOFAMERICA,
Plaintiff/Appellee,v.RalphE.WHITMORE,Jr.,
Defendant/Appellant.
UnitedStatesCourtofAppeals,NinthCircuit.
Feb.23,2001
...C12TABLEOFABBREVIATIONSC.R.
Clerk'sRecord(DocketNumber)GX
Government'sExhibitE.R.ExcerptofRecord
S.E.RSupplementalExcerptofRecordThe
governmentagreeswithdefendant's
statemento...
SeeMoreBriefs

TrialCourtDocuments
Statev.Acu%25na
2004WL5532186
TheStateofTexas,v.RobertAaron
ACU%25NA.
DistrictCourtofTexas.
Sep.10,2004
...NOWCOMEStheDefendant,ROBERT
ACUA,byandthrough,ALLENC.ISBELL,
hisattorneyofrecordonappeal,andpursuant
toTex.R.App.P.21.3,andinorderto
safeguardtherightsandprotectionsafforde...

UnitedStatesofAmericav.McGuire
2013WL11320217
UNITEDSTATESOFAMERICA,Plaintiff,v.
JasonA.MCGUIRE,Defendant.
UnitedStatesDistrictCourt,E.D.Michigan,
SouthernDivision.
Sep.18,2013
...DefendantJasonA.McGuirewasindicted
ononecountofconspiracytodefraudthe
governmentbymakingfalseclaimsand
twentyonecountsofaidingandabettingfalse,
fictitiousorfraudulentclaimsb...

InreCapmarkFinancialGroupInc.
2011WL6013698
InreCAPMARKFINANCIALGROUPINC.,et
al.,Debtors.
UnitedStatesBankruptcyCourt,D.Delaware.
Apr.15,2011
...FN1.ThisconstitutestheCourt'sfindingsof
factandconclusionsoflawunderBankruptcy
Rules7052and9014.Chapter111.Before
thecourtarecompetingmotionsrelatingtothe
claimsoftheDebtor...
SeeMoreTrialCourtDocuments

CriminalLaw
Inferencesfromandeffectofevidence
Prosecutor'sstatementsduringrebuttalportionoffinalargument,toeffectthat
coemployeeofindividualwhoallegedlyreferreddefendantbanker'sclientdid
notprovideletterofreferralforclient,wassoundinferencefromevidencein
prosecutionofbankerformoneylaundering,bankfraud,misapplicationof
fundsandconspiracyletterofreferralwhichprosecutorpointedoutwas
missingwasstatementthatcoemployeepersonallyknewthatclient'swealth
waslegitimate,andtherewasnoevidencethatcoemployeehadanypersonal
knowledgeofsourceofclient'swealth.

10

CriminalLaw
ReceptionandAdmissibilityofEvidence
CourtofAppealsreviewsquestionsconcerningadmissibilityofevidencefor
abuseofdiscretion.
1Casethatcitesthisheadnote

11

CriminalLaw

Conspiracy,racketeering,andmoneylaundering

CriminalLaw
Falsepretensesandfraud
Evidenceregardingbanker'srelationshipwithaccountholderwasrelevantand
admissibleaspartofconspiracyinprosecutionofbankerformoney
laundering,bankfraud,misapplicationoffundsandconspiracy,despitealleged
absenceofevidencethataccountholderwasdrugdealer,thathiswealthwas
illegitimate,orthathehadanyconnectiontoallegedconspiracytolaunder
drugproceedswithanotherclientofbankerthereweresimilaritiesinhistories
ofbothaccountholderandotherclientwhowaslaunderingdrugmoney,their
accountswerecrosscollateralized,andbankertookstepstoremovelink

betweenthemshortlyafterexecutionofsearchwarrantsforclient'srecords
pertainingtoclient'saccounts.

12

CriminalLaw
Failuretoinstruct
Standardofreviewonappealfromdenialofrequestedjuryinstructionis
whetherdistrictcourtabuseditsdiscretion.
5Casesthatcitethisheadnote

13

CriminalLaw
Refusalofrequests
Districtcourtabusesitsdiscretionindenyingrequestedjuryinstructionif:
instructionissubstantivelycorrectinstructionisnotsubstantivelycoveredin
chargegiventojuryandomissionofinstructionwouldseriouslyimpair
defendant'sabilitytopresenthisdefense.
3Casesthatcitethisheadnote

14

CriminalLaw
Mattersofdefense
Districtcourtdidnotabuseitsdiscretioninrefusingtosubmitspecificgood
faithinstructioninprosecutionformoneylaundering,bankfraud,
misapplicationoffundsandconspiracychargegivendetailedspecificintent,
anddefinedwillfullyandknowingly.
7Casesthatcitethisheadnote

15

CriminalLaw
Mattersofdefense
Districtcourtmayrefusetosubmitinstructionregardinggoodfaithifdefenseof
goodfaithissubstantiallycoveredbychargegivenanddefendanthashad
opportunitytoarguegoodfaithtojury.
6Casesthatcitethisheadnote

16

CriminalLaw
Elementsandincidentsofoffense
Therewasnoabuseofdiscretionindistrictcourt'sdenialofrequestedjury
instructioninprosecutionofbankerformisapplicationoffunds,which
instructionwouldhavestatedthatstatutedidnotpunishmereactsof
maladministrationornegligentuseofbankfundsunderinstructionsgiven,jury
couldnothavefoundbankerguiltymerelybecausehecommittedunintentional
ornegligentactsofmaladministration.FederalReserveAct,25A,as
amended,12U.S.C.A.630.

17

CriminalLaw

NecessityinGeneral

CriminalLaw
Purposeandeffectofevidence
Districtcourtdidnotabuseitsdiscretionindenyingrequestedjuryinstructionto
effectthatviolationofcivilstatuteorregulationisnotcriminaloffense,andthat
jurywasnottoconsiderevidenceconcerningcivilbankrecordsregulationsin
decidingwhetherdefendantbankercommittedchargedactsofmoney
laundering,bankfraud,misapplicationoffundsandconspiracy.

18

BanksandBanking
Prosecutions
Referencestobankingregulationsareappropriateincriminaltrialtoexplain
roleoffederalregulators,rulesbywhichbankisgoverned,andstakesinbank
fraudcase,butifregulationsaregiventoomuchemphasis,trialmaybe
impermissiblyinfected.

19

BanksandBanking
Misapplicationofbankfunds
Althoughdebtor'sknowledgeandabilitytorepayloanarerelevanttoissueof
requiredintentforpurposesofstatuteprohibitingmisapplicationofbankfunds,
theyarenotdispositiveofissue.FederalReserveAct,25A,asamended,12
U.S.C.A.630.
1Casethatcitesthisheadnote

20

SentencingandPunishment
Minororminimalparticipation
Insentencingbankerconvictedofmoneylaundering,bankfraud,
misapplicationoffundsandconspiracy,recordsupportedfourlevelreduction
forbanker'sminimalroleinoffensetherewasnoevidencethatbanker
benefittedfinanciallyfromschemeexceptinsensethatheenhancedhiscareer
atbankbybringinginlargeclient,whileothercodefendantslaunderedlarge
quantitiesofmoneyandthenwithdrewitfortheirpersonaluse.U.S.S.G.
3B1.2,18U.S.C.A.
2Casesthatcitethisheadnote

21

CriminalLaw
Sentencing
Standardofreviewofsentencingreductionforroleinoffenseisclearly
erroneousstandard.U.S.S.G.3B1.2,18U.S.C.A.
2Casesthatcitethisheadnote

22

SentencingandPunishment
Minororminimalparticipation
Downwardsentencingadjustmentfordefendant'sstatusasminimalparticipant
incriminalactivityisappropriatewheredefendantwassubstantiallyless
culpablethanaverageparticipant.U.S.S.G.3B1.2,18U.S.C.A.
1Casethatcitesthisheadnote

23

Bail
Substantialityofgroundsforreviewdelay
Issuesraisedbybankeronappealfromhisconvictionsformoneylaundering,
bankfraud,misapplicationoffundsandconspiracywerenotfrivoloussoasto
callintoquestiondistrictcourt'sfinding,insupportoforderfordefendant's
releasependingappeal,thatdefendanthaddemonstratedsubstantialquestion
oflaworfactlikelytoresultinreversalorreducedsentencedefendant's
sufficiencyofevidencechallengepresentedclosecase,anddefendantalso
raisedchallengestogovernment'sconductduringclosingargument,admission
ofevidence,andjuryinstructions.
1Casethatcitesthisheadnote

AttorneysandLawFirms
*1370ChristopherLeeMilner,GaryA.Udashen,Dallas,TX,forappellantGiraldi.
KathlynG.Snyder,PaulaC.Offenhauser,Asst.U.S.Attys.,GaynelleGriffinJones,U.S.
Atty.,Houston,TX,forappelleeU.S.
AppealsfromtheUnitedStatesDistrictCourtfortheSouthernDistrictofTexas.
BeforeBARKSDALE,DeMOSSandPARKER,CircuitJudges.

Opinion
ROBERTM.PARKER,CircuitJudge:
DefendantAppellantAntonioGiraldi(Giraldi)wasfoundguiltyafteramonthlongjury
trialof18countsofmoneylaundering,bankfraud,misapplicationoffundsand
conspiracy.Hewassentencedto120monthsinprison,$850specialassessmentand
releasedona$700,000bondpendingappeal.Giraldi'scodefendant,MariaLourdes
Reategui,wasconvictedduringthesametrial,appealed,butdismissedherappealafter
briefing. 1 Weaffirm.
FACTS
In1989,GiraldiwasaninternationalprivatebankerintheMexicomarketwith
approximatelytwoyearsofexperiencewhoworkedforBankersTrustCo.(BT)inNew
Yorkasarelationshipmanager.Hisjobwastorecruitandservicethebankaccountsof
wealthyMexicanindividuals.Hewasalsoresponsibleforscreeningpotentialclientsto
determineiftheirwealthwaslegitimate.
Giraldirecruiteda$2milliondepositfromanewclientnamedAguirreinJune1989,that
grewoverthenextseveralmonthsto$21million.ThereisnodisputethatAguirrewas

launderingdrugmoney.ThecentralquestionattrialandonappealiswhetherGiraldi
knewitwasdrugmoney.
GiraldiacceptedAguirreasaclientwithoutmeetinghim.Arelationshipmanagercould
acceptaclientthathedidnotknowandhadnotmetifthepotentialclienthadavery
strongrecommendationfromaknown,reputablesource.Giraldicirculatedaninteroffice
memorandum(theBenetmemo)atBTthatstatedthatAguirrehadbeenreferredby
AlbertoBenet,whosefamilyhadbeenTierIclientsofCitibankforover20years. 2
GiraldiwasacquaintedwithAlberto*1371Benet,awealthyMexicanbusinessmanand
generaldirectorofABSA,aMexicanfinancialservicescompany,byvirtueofhaving
handledtheBenetaccountsatCitibank,Giraldi'sformeremployer.Inordertogenerate
business,GiraldihadgivenBenetBTpromotionalliteratureandhis(Giraldi's)business
card.Benettestifiedthathehadnot,infact,referredAguirretoBT.Therewasevidence
thatthereferralmayhavecomefromanotherABSAemployee,LauraMachuca,whohad
receivedGiraldi'sliteraturefromBenet.Further,thestatementintheBenetMemothat
BenetandhisfamilyhadbeenTierIclients(thatisaclientwhohadatleast$10million
depositedwiththebank)atCitibankforover20yearswasfalse.TheBenetfamilyhadan
accountwithCitibankfrom1983thatwasworth$3million,andwasneverdesignateda
TierIclientduring19831987.BecauseGiraldihandledBenet'sCitibankaccount,he
wouldhaveknownthattheinformationinhismemowasfalse.
ThesignaturecardsignedbythethreeaccountholdersonAguirre'saccountandGiraldi
wasdated62789inNewYork.Giraldi'srecordsshowedthathewasinMexicoCity
thatdayandcouldnothavewitnessedthesignaturesoftheaccountholders.
EightmonthsafterAguirreopenedhisBTaccounts,GiraldiwasaskedtoresignfromBT.
HewenttoworkforAmericanExpressBankInternational(AEBI)andAguirremovedhis
accountstoAEBIshortlythereafter.
ThegovernmentalsointroducedevidencethatAguirrehadnolegitimatesourceof
wealth,whichGiraldiwouldhavediscoveredhadheinvestigatedhisbackground.Aguirre
workedasagasstationmanagerinMexico,wasunsophisticatedaboutfinancialmatters,
andhadnobankingreferencesthatshowedwealthpriorto1989.Giraldiputonthebank
formsthatAguirre'swealthwasderivedfromthesaleofMexicanranchland,aswellas
interestinacardealership,ranching,andagasstation.LaterAguirrepurchasedandran
ameatpackingplantwithpartofthemoneyfromtheaccountsatissueinthiscase.The
governmentintroducedinformationfromtrainingseminarsattendedbyGiraldithat
describedtypicalmoneylaunderingschemesthatparalleledthetechniquesusedto
manageAguirre'saccounts,althoughthesetechniqueswerenotperseillegal.
OtherevidenceshowedthatGiraldiandamyriadofotheremployeesfrombothbanks
metwithAguirreoveratwoyearperiod,andnooneeverquestionedhislegitimacy.
AguirrewasreporteddeadfollowingacarwreckinMarch1992.TheGovernmentimplies
thathedidnotdiebutwentintohidingtoavoidthelegalconsequencesofhisdrug
business.
SUFFICIENCYOFTHEEVIDENCE
A.Standardofreview
1
2
3 Giraldichallengesthesufficiencyofevidencetosustainthe
convictionsonall*1372counts.ThisCourtmustviewtheevidenceinthelightmost
favorabletothejuryverdictandaffirmifarationaltrieroffactcouldfindthatthe
governmentprovedallessentialelementsbeyondareasonabledoubt.UnitedStatesv.
Mackay,33F.3d489(5thCir.1994).Iftheevidenceviewedinthelightmostfavorableto
theprosecutiongivesequalornearlyequalcircumstantialsupporttoatheoryofguiltand
atheoryofinnocence,theconvictionshouldbereversed.Id.at493.Inreviewingfor
sufficiencyoftheevidence,weconsiderthecountervailingevidenceaswellasthe
evidencethatsupportstheverdict.UnitedStatesv.Wright,24F.3d732(5thCir.1994).
B.ProofofGiraldi'sknowledgeofillegalnatureoffunds
4 EachcountofconvictionrequiredthegovernmenttoprovethatGiraldiknewthat
Aguirre'sfundsweretheproceedsofsomeformofunlawfulactivity.Themoney
launderingconspiracyallegedinCount1andthesubstantivemoneylaunderingoffenses
inCounts2through11,under18U.S.C.1956,requireproofthat,
Whoever,knowingthatthepropertyinvolvedinafinancialtransaction
representstheproceedsofsomeformofunlawfulactivity...

Section1956alsorequiresproofthatthedefendantknewthetransactionwasdesignedin
wholeorinparttoconcealordisguisethenature,thelocation,thesource,theownership,
orthecontroloftheproceedsofspecifiedunlawfulactivity.Absentsufficientproofof
theseelements,theconvictionsonCounts1through11areinvalid.
ThebankfraudallegationschargedinCounts13and14requireproofthatGiraldi:
...knowinglyexecutedorattemptedtoexecuteaschemeorartifice
1)todefraudafinancialinstitutionor
2)toobtainanyofthemonies,funds,credits,assets,securitiesorotherproperty
ownedby,orunderthecustodyorcontrolof,afinancialinstitution,bymeansoffalse
orfraudulentpretenses,representationsorpromises...
Theschemeorartificeallegedinthebankfraudcountsoftheindictmentdescribesthe
introductionofdrugproceedsintothebankingsysteminamannerdesignedtoprovide
drugdealersaccesstoloans,whichisthesameillegalactivityallegedineachofthe
moneylaunderingcounts.Therefore,inordertosustainthebankfraudconvictions,there
mustbesufficientevidencethatGiraldiknowinglyandwillfullyintroducedthedrug
proceedsintothebanks.
Counts15through18allegedviolationof12U.S.C.630,bymisapplyingbankfunds
knowinglyandwillfully,withtheintenttoinjureanddefraudthebank,basedonfalseand
fraudulentpretensesandrepresentations.Thebank'smoneywasallegedlymisappliedby
loaningittothedrugdealers,whousedtheirdrugproceedsondepositascollateralfor
theloans.TheallegedfalseandfraudulentpretensesandrepresentationswereGiraldi's
statementsconcerningthesourceofAguirre'swealth.Itiswellestablishedthatthe
governmentmustprovethatGiraldiknowinglyparticipatedinthedeceptiveorfraudulent
transaction.SeeUnitedStatesv.Shaid,916F.2d984(5thCir.1990)cert.denied,502
U.S.1076,112S.Ct.978,117L.Ed.2d141(1992).
GiraldicontendsthattheevidencewasinsufficienttoestablishthatheknewAguirre's
fundsweretheproceedsofunlawfulactivity.ThereisnodirectevidenceofGiraldi's
knowledgethatAguirre'sfundswerederivedfromillegaldrugsales.Giraldicontendsthat
hemadeamistakebynotdiscoveringtheillegalsourceofAguirre'sfunds,andthatthe
government'sproofthathewasnegligentorthatheshouldhaveknownisnotsufficient
forconviction.
Thegovernmentanswersthatthecircumstantialevidencewassufficientforthejuryto
concludethatGiraldididinfactknoworwaswillfullyblindtothesourceofAguirre's
funds.ThisargumentissupportedbytheevidencethatGiraldiwasspecificallycharged
withinvestigatingandknowinghisclient,wasdishonestaboutthefactthathehadnot
followedtheprescribedprocedurespriortotakingtheinitialdeposit,failedtoproperly
papervarioustransactionsduringhisrelationshipwithAguirreandtookseveralactions
*1373tocontrolthedamageoncetheauthoritiesbegantoinvestigateAguirre'sholdings.
Afteracarefulreviewoftherecord,wehaveconcludedthattheevidenceissufficientto
sustainGiraldi'sconviction.
InadditiontothefalsehoodscontainedintheBenetmemo,Giraldieitherpersonally
madeorapprovedfalsestatementsinbankingrecordsconcerningthesourceoffunds
comingintoandtheuseoffundsflowingoutoftheAguirreaccount.Theevidence
revealedthatGiraldistatedthatAguirrewasinvested100percentindepositswithTexas
bankspriortoopeninghisBTaccounts.Theevidenceofwiretransfersthattrackedthe
sourceofthemoneyAguirredepositedshowedthatitcamefromcashdepositsintoand
temporaryplacementwithcurrencyexchangehousesratherthandepositswithTexas
banks.Likewise,thestatementsconcerningtheusetowhichfundsfromAguirre'sloans
andlettersofcreditwereputwerefalse.
Inadditiontothefalsestatementsinthebankrecords,Giraldimadefalsestatementsto
agovernmentagentnamedIgliowhowasinvestigatingirregularitiesinoneofAguirre's
accountsshortlyafterAguirre'sreporteddeath.Atthattime,thegovernmenthadseized
GreenMountain,anAEBIaccountforwhichGiraldiservedasaccountrepresentative,
pursuanttoacriminalinvestigationofRogelioRodriguez.Aguirre,Aguirre'swifeand
daughtereachownedaninterestinGreenMountainandRodriguezwaslistedasthe
fourthowner.ThisconversationwasrecordedwithoutGiraldi'sknowledgeandthe
recordingandtranscriptwereadmittedintoevidenceattrial.Duringthatconversation,
IglioaskedGiraldihowhegothookedupwithAguirre.GiraldiliedtoIglio,sayingthat

AguirrewasaclientofBanker'sTrustwhereheworkedearlier,andhadbeenreferredby
Banker'sTrust.IglioalsoaskedGiraldiabouttherelationshipbetweenRogelioRodriguez
andAguirre.GiraldiclaimedthatAguirrehadonlyrecentlymetRodriguez,whohad
neverhadanythingtodowithGreenMountain,exceptthatAguirrehadguaranteeda
$1.5millionletterofcreditforhimwithGreenMountain'sassets,becauseAguirrewasa
generous,naiveperson.Infact,Giraldi'srecords,admittedintoevidenceattrial,showed
thatAguirreandRodriguezwerepartnersinvariousenterprisesandthatoverlapping
ownershipbyGreenMountain,Aguirre,Rodriguezandsevenothertrustaccountsand
businessesformedacomplexweboffinancialrelationshipsthatGiraldi'staped
statementsomittedordenied.
InadditiontothefalsestatementsinbankrecordsandontheIgliotape,evidencewas
introducedconcerningGiraldi'sextensivebackgroundandexperienceininternational
banking.Hehadattendedbankertrainingseminarsthatoutlinedtypicalmoney
launderingschemesthatwereverysimilartothebankingpracticesthatGiraldiusedon
behalfofAguirre.Hehadbeentrainedandevenservedasatrainerinknowyourclient
practicesthat,hadtheybeenemployed,wouldhaveexposedAguirre'swealthas
illegitimate.
FurtherevidenceshowedthatthewifeofthedruglordAbregowasnamedontheoriginal
AguirreSwissbankaccountwithoutproperdocumentation.Whenproperdocumentation
wasrequested,shewithdrewfromownershipratherthanprovideit.Thegovernment
offeredthisascircumstantialevidencethatGiraldiknewthatthemoneyintheAguirre
accountswasnotlegitimate.
AlthoughthereisnorequirementthattheGovernmentprovideamotiveforthecharged
offense,therewasevidencethatthemotiveforGiraldi'scrimewasthepressureon
internationalbankerstorecruitnewclientsandtheconcomitantprofessionaland
monetarysuccessthatcomestothosewhoareabletoproduce.
Giraldioffersalternateexplanationsfortheevidenceattrial.HeclaimsthattheBenet
memowaspartlytrue,inthatthereferralcamethroughBenet'scolleagueLaura
Machuca,andthattherewasnoproofthatGiraldibelievedanythinginthememowas
falsewhenhemadeoutthememo.Theproblemwiththisexplanationisthatevenifthe
jurywerewillingtoassumeGiraldimadeamistakeabouttheoriginalreferral,hedidnot
correctitoncehetalkedtoBenetanddiscoveredthemistakeandevenrepeated*1374
theinformationinsubsequentbankingdocuments.Further,inaccurateinformationabout
thesizeofBenet'sdepositsandthelengthofhisrelationshipwithCitibankwasclearly
withinGiraldi'sknowledgeatthetimethememowaswrittenandwasnevercorrected.
Giraldivariouslydescribesawaytheevidenceasmemorylapses,misstatements,
sloppiness,carelessness,failureofGiralditobeawareofthefalsityofstatements,both
oralandwritten,andthatcertainpractices,suchasvaguepurposestatementsonloan
applications,werestandardprocedureininternationalbanking.
Thisisaclosecase.However,itisnotespeciallyremarkablegiventhatmentalstateis
almostalwaysprovedbycircumstantialevidencefromwhichthejurymustinferguilt
beyondareasonabledoubt.Viewedinthelightmostfavorabletotheprosecution,the
evidenceissufficienttosustainGiraldi'sconvictions.Arationaljurycouldhavefoundit
incrediblethatcarelessnessandhonestmistakescouldaccountforthecomplexityof
financialgerrymanderingrequiredtogiveAguirre'stransactionstheappearanceof
legitimacy.
Giraldi'sadditionalchallengestothesufficiencyoftheevidenceonthebankfraudand
misapplicationcountsarewithoutmerit.
GIRALDI'SMOTIONFORNEWTRIAL
A.Standardofreview
5
6
7 Thestandardofreviewforthedenialofanewtrialisabuseof
discretion.UnitedStatesv.Baytank(Houston),Inc.,934F.2d599(5thCir.1991).This
Courtmustaffirmtheconvictionifarationaljurycouldhavefoundtheelementsofthe
crimesbeyondareasonabledoubt.UnitedStatesv.Dula,989F.2d772,778(5thCir.),
cert.denied,510U.S.859,114S.Ct.172,126L.Ed.2d131(1993).Reviewdoesnot
encompassweighingtheevidenceorjudgingthecredibilityofwitnesses.Id.
B.Verdictcontrarytotheevidence
Giraldimovedforanewtrialarguingthattheverdictonallcountswascontrarytothe
greatweightoftheevidence.Giraldiadvancesnoadditionalargumentsinthisgroundof

errorbutaskstheCourttoperformthesufficiencyreviewunderthisadditionalstandard
andreverseintheinterestofjustice.Forthereasonsstatedabove,weconcludethata
rationaljurycouldhavefoundalloftheelementsofthecrimesbeyondareasonable
doubt.Therefore,thedistrictcourtdidnotabuseitsdiscretionindenyingGiraldi'smotion
fornewtrial.
C.Governmentmisconductduringclosingargument
8
9 Themotionformistrialalsocomplainedofgovernmentmisconductduring
closingargument.
Throughoutthetrial,thegovernmentemphasizedthefalsestatement,containedinthe
Benetmemo,thatBenetreferredAguirretothebank.Thedefense'stheorywasthatthe
referralcameindirectlyfromBenet,throughhiscoemployeeLauraMachuca.Duringthe
rebuttalportionoffinalargumentthegovernmentattorneysaid:
Let'sgobacktothismemorandum.Let'stalkaboutLauraMachuca....Theyaskedwhy
LauraMachucaisnothere.Youknowwhy?Becausethegovernmentallegesthatthis
wholethingisfalse.
Didyouseealetterofreferralfromanyoneinthiscase?Weshowedyouevery
document.Thereisnoletterofreferralhere.Doyouthinkthattherewasathereisa
LauraMachuca?DoyouthinkifLauraMachucahadanythingtodowiththisthatthere
wouldhavebeenaletterofreferralinthatfile?You'redoggonerightbecausethat
wouldhavehelpedintermsofcoveringupwhoMr.Aguirreis.Butyoudidn'tseea
letterofreferral,that'sbecausethisisn'ttrueeither.
AccordingtoGiraldi,thegovernment'sargumentamountedtoaclaimthatLaura
MachucahadnothingtodowithreferringAguirretoGiraldiandthatMachucadidnot
evenexist.Suchaclaim,ifmade,wasfalseandmisleading.Thegovernmenthadtaken
LauraMachuca'sdeposition.Inthatdeposition,MachucatestifiedthatBenetgave
Giraldi'stelephonenumbertoMachuca,whointurngaveittoAguirreinresponseto
*1375Aguirre'srequestforinformationaboutforeigninvestments.Thisdeposition
testimonywasnotadmittedintoevidence,andMachuca,aMexicancitizen,wasnot
availableunderthecourt'ssubpoenapower.
Thegovernmentrespondsthat1)theprosecutorwasnotchallengingtheexistenceof
Machuca,butwasinsteadchallengingtheexistenceofaletterofreferralfromMachuca
2)theprosecutorwasrespondingtodefensecounsel'sargument,takingthepositionthat
Machucadidnotdothethingsattributedtoherbythedefenseand,ifshedid,the
defensewouldhavepresenteddocumentaryevidenceintheformofaletterofreferral
and3)ifthecommentisconstruedaschallengingtheexistenceofMachuca,itwasa
rhetoricalquestionsuggestingthatshecouldnottestifytothefactsthedefenseimplied
shewould,rebuttingthedefenseinsinuationthatthegovernmenthadwithheldher
exculpatoryevidence.
Theprosecutor'scommentclearlyimpliesthatMachucadidnotexist.However,therewas
nodangerthatthejurywasmisledconcerningherexistence,givenBenet'sextensive
testimonyabouther.Theprosecutor'sotherpoint,thatMachucadidnotprovidealetter
ofreferralforAguirre,isasoundinferencefromtheevidence.Giraldi'sargumentis
basedonthefactthatMachucaprovidedAguirrewithGiraldi'sname,banknameand
businessnumber.Theletterofreferralwhichtheprosecutorpointedoutwasmissing
wasastatementthatMachucapersonallyknewthatAguirre'swealthwaslegitimate.
ThereisnoevidencethatMachucahadanypersonalknowledgeofthesourceof
Aguirre'swealth.
Giventhecontextwithinwhichthecommentwasmade,thedistrictcourt'sdenialof
Giraldi'smotionfornewtrialwasnotanabuseofdiscretion.
ADMISSIONOFEVIDENCECONCERNINGEXTRINSICMATTERS
10 Wereviewquestionsconcerningtheadmissibilityofevidenceforabuseof
discretion.UnitedStatesv.Hays,872F.2d582(5thCir.1989).
11 ThedistrictcourtadmittedevidenceregardingGiraldi'sbankingrelationshipwith
JoseChuchoCastellanos.GiraldimanagedCastellanos'sdepositsatBT,whichgrewin
198889from$750,000to$8million.WhenGiraldimovedfromBTtoAEBI,Castellanos
eventuallytransferredhisaccounttoAEBI.Giraldi'ssuccessoratBTbecamesuspicious
ofCastellanosbecausehecouldbereachedonlywithpagersandcodes.In1991,when
BTaskedCastellanosforidentification,suchasavalidpassportordriver'slicense,he
closedouttheremainderofhisBTaccount.AtAEBI,Castellanos'sandAguirre's

accountswerecrosscollateralized.Shortlyaftertheexecutionofsearchwarrantsfor
recordspertainingtoAguirre'saccounts,Giralditookstepstoremovethelinkbetween
thetwodepositors.Also,therewasadocumentthatstatedthatCastellanoshadbeen
referredbyaformerCitibankclient.Thegovernmentarguedthatstatementimpliedthat
Benetprovidedthereferral,whichhedidnot.
Giraldiarguesthattherewasnoevidencethat1)Castellanoswasadrugdealerorthat
hiswealthwasillegitimateor2)thatCastellanoshadanyconnectiontothealleged
conspiracytolaunderdrugproceedswithAguirre.HeasksthisCourttoconcludethat
therewasnorationalconnectionbetweenCastellanosandthechargedoffense,andthat
theevidenceshouldnothavebeenadmitted.GiraldireliesonUnitedStatesv.Hays,872
F.2d582(5thCir.1989),wherethisCourtreversedaconvictionbasedontheadmission
ofirrelevant,highlyprejudicialevidence.Healsoarguesthatimproperadmissionof
evidencemayconstituteaviolationofdueprocessundertheFifthAmendment,citing
Hillsv.Henderson,529F.2d397(5thCir.),cert.denied,429U.S.850,97S.Ct.139,50
L.Ed.2d124(1976).
Thesimilaritiesinthehistoriesofthetwodepositors,theircrosscollateralizedaccounts
andGiraldi'sreactiontothesearchwarrantallsupportthetrialcourt'sconclusionthat
theCastellanos'sevidencewasadmissibleaspartoftheconspiracy.Becauseitwas
neitherirrelevantnorimproper,Giraldi'sargumentsarewithoutmerit.
*1376JURYINSTRUCTIONS
Giraldicontendsthatthedistrictcourterredinrefusinghisrequestedjuryinstructions
concerning:a)goodfaithdefenseb)misapplicationmeansmorethan
maladministrationc)violationofcivilstatuteorregulationdoesnotnecessarilyconstitute
criminaloffenseandd)loanapprovalfordebtorwhotransfersloanproceedstothird
party.
12
13 Thestandardofreviewonappealfromthedenialofarequestedjury
instructioniswhetherthedistrictcourtabuseditsdiscretion.UnitedStatesv.Pennington,
20F.3d593,600(5thCir.1994).Thiscourtmustviewtheevidenceinthelightmost
favorabletoGiraldiindeterminingifthereissufficientevidentiaryfoundationfora
requestedinstruction.UnitedStatesv.Lewis,592F.2d1282,1286(5thCir.1979).The
districtcourtabusesitsdiscretionindenyingarequestedinstructionif:1)therequested
instructionissubstantivelycorrect(2)therequestedinstructionisnotsubstantially
coveredinthechargegiventothejuryand(3)theomissionoftheinstructionwould
seriouslyimpairthedefendant'sabilitytopresenthisdefense.UnitedStatesv.Storm,36
F.3d1289,1294(5thCir.1994),cert.denied,514U.S.1084,115S.Ct.1798,131L.Ed.2d
725(1995).
A.Goodfaithdefense
14 Giraldi'srequestedinstructionstatedthatgoodfaithisacompletedefense,
inconsistentwithknowinglyandwillfullycommittingtheoffensesallegedintheindictment.
Thedistrictcourtstatedthatitschargewouldincorporateinageneralsenseeverything
thatbothsideshadrequestedandwouldmakeeachcountsubjecttotherequirement
thatthetermknowinglyandwillfullybeproven.Thechargegivendefinedtheterm
knowinglyastheactwasdonevoluntarilyandintentionallyandnotbyaccidentor
mistake.Thetermwillfullywasdefinedastheactwascommittedvoluntarilyand
intentionally,thatyoudiditbecauseyouwantedtodoitandwithaspecificintenttodo
somethingthatthelawforbids.Also,thejurywasinstructedthattoconvictonthebank
fraudandmisapplicationcountstheyhadtofindthatGiraldiactedwithintenttoinjureor
defraud.
GiraldicitesaTenthCircuitcasewhichheldthattherefusaltogivetherequestedgood
faithinstructionisreversibleerroriftheevidencesupportedsuchaninstruction.United
Statesv.Haddock,956F.2d1534,1547(10thCir.),cert.denied,506U.S.828,113S.Ct.
88,121L.Ed.2d50(1992).ClearprecedentintheTenthCircuitholdsthatinstructions
thatdonomorethandefinewillfulnessandintenttoinjureordefrauddonot
adequatelyconveyagoodfaithdefensetothejury.Id.
15 TheFifthCircuithastakenadifferentroadonthisissue.Here,adistrictcourtmay
refusetosubmitaninstructionregardinggoodfaithifthedefenseofgoodfaithis
substantiallycoveredbythechargegivenandthedefendanthashadtheopportunityto
arguegoodfaithtothejury.UnitedStatesv.Storm,36F.3dat1294.Thechargegiven
here,(omittingspecificgoodfaithinstruction,butdetailingspecificintent,anddefining
willfullyandknowingly)wasnotanabuseofdiscretionunderFifthCircuitlaw.See
UnitedStatesv.Rochester,898F.2d971,978979(5thCir.1990).

B.Misapplicationmeansmorethanmaladministration
16 Giraldirequestedthefollowinginstructioninconnectionwiththemisapplication
counts.
Willfulmisapplication...meansmorethanmaladministration.Theactswith
which[Giraldiis]accused...areprohibitedmisapplicationsifmadeinbad
faith,notinthehonestexerciseofofficialdiscretion.Whenactionsare
performedingoodfaithandwithoutfraud,fortheactualorsupposed
advantageofthebank,thereisnocriminalresponsibilityonthepartofthe
bankofficer,althoughthetransactionmaybeinjudiciousandunsafe,and
eventhoughthetransactionresultsisalossordamagetothebank.The
statutedoesnotpunishmereactsofmaladministrationornegligentuseof
bankfunds.
Thedistrictcourtdeniedthisrequest.Thejurywasinstructedthat,inorderto*1377
convictonthemisapplicationcounts,ithadtofindthatGiraldiknowinglymisapplied
fundsbelongingtotheinstitutionandthatheactedwiththeintenttoinjureordefraudthe
bank.Thefollowingdefinitionswerethengiven:
Towillfullymisapplyabank'smoneyorpropertymeansanintentionalconversionof
suchmoneyorpropertytoone'sownuseandbenefit,orfortheuseandbenefitof
another,knowingthatonehadnorighttodoso.
Toactwiththeintenttodefraudmeanstoactwiththeintenttodeceiveorcheat
someone,ordinarilyforthepurposeofcausingsomefinance[sic]losstoanotheror
bringingaboutsomefinancialgaintooneself.
GiraldipresentedevidenceandargumentthattheerrorsonGiraldi'spaperworkwere
theresultofcarelessnessthatdidnotsatisfythemensreanecessaryforamisapplication
conviction.
InUnitedStatesv.Southers,583F.2d1302,13061307(5thCir.1978)thisCourtfound
thatitwasnoterrorforthedistrictcourttorefusearequestedinstructionthatspecified
thatmaladministrationandbadjudgmentwerenotcrimes,wherethecourt'sinstruction
onintentwascomprehensiveandacorrectstatementofthelaw.Here,asinSouthers,
thejurycouldnothavefoundGiraldiguiltyonthebasisoftheinstructionsgivenmerely
becausehecommittedunintentionalornegligentactsofmaladministration.Wefindno
abuseofdiscretioninthedistrictcourt'sdenialofGiraldi'srequestedmisapplication
instruction.
C.Violationofcivilstatuteorregulationdoesnotnecessarilyconstitutecriminaloffense
17 ThedistrictcourtdeniedthefollowingjuryinstructionrequestedbyGiraldi:
Youhaveheardtestimonythatthereisacivilbankingregulationrequiringfinancial
institutionstoretainarecordofeachextensionofcreditinexcessof$10,000which
identifiesthenatureorpurposeoftheextensionofcredit.Aviolationofacivilstatuteor
regulationisnotacriminaloffense.Suchaviolationwouldmerelysubjectaninstitution
or,insomecases,anindividual,tocivilpenaltieswhichisnotthesamethingasa
crime.
Youmustnotconsideranyevidenceconcerningcivilrecordingregulationsindecidingif
thedefendantcommittedtheactschargedintheindictment.Theonlyreasonthatthis
evidencewasadmittedisforthepurposeofdetermining,ifitdoesaidyour
determination,whetherornotthedefendantshadtheintentandpurposeofviolating
thelaw,aschargedintheindictment.Beforeyoumayconsidersuchevidence,you
mustfirstbeconvincedbeyondareasonabledoubtfromotherevidenceinthecase
thatthedefendantviolatedthelawaschargedintheindictment.Ifyouareso
convinced,thenthisevidencemaybeconsideredbyyou,ifyoubelieveithelpful,in
determiningwhetherornotthedefendanthadamotiveorintenttocommitthecrimes
allegedintheindictment.
Giraldicomplainsthatthegovernmentconstantlyintroducedevidenceandargument
concerningviolationofcivilregulations,andtherequestedinstructionwasanattemptto
dispelprejudicecreatedthereby.Healsoclaimsthattheinstructionisaproperstatement
ofthelaw,basedonUnitedStatesv.Cordell,912F.2d769,776(5thCir.1990).
18 ThegovernmentpointsoutthatGiraldididnotobjecttotheevidenceorargument
ofwhichhenowcomplains.UnitedStatesv.Christo,614F.2d486,492(5thCir.1980),
forbidsintroducingevidenceofcivilbankingstatuteviolationssolelyforthepurposeof

provingcriminalmisapplicationhowever,itdoesnotholdthatsuchevidencecannever
beintroducedinamisapplicationcase.UnitedStatesv.Stefan,784F.2d1093,1098
(11thCir.)(citedwithapprovalinUnitedStatesv.Saks,964F.2d1514,1523(5th
Cir.1992)),cert.denied,479U.S.1009,107S.Ct.650,93L.Ed.2d706(1986).
Referencestobankingregulationsareappropriateinacriminaltrialtoexplaintheroleof
federalregulators,therulesbywhichthebankisgoverned,andthestakesinabank
fraudcase.Whileobviously,eachcasedependsuponitsownfacts,iftheregulationsare
giventoomuchemphasis,thetrialmaybeimpermissiblyinfected.*1378Saks,964F.2d
at1523.Thegovernmentalsocontendsthattheportionoftherequestedinstructionsthat
statesthatthejurymaynotconsidertheevidenceindeterminingwhetherthecharged
actsoccurredisnotacorrectstatementofthelaw.Eveniftherequestedinstructions
werecorrect,thegovernmentcontendsthatthecourtdidnotabuseitsdiscretionin
denyingtherequestbecausetheevidencewasproperlyadmittedandusedattrial,and
thiswasnotacasewhereoveremphasisrequiredcorrectiveinstruction.Wefindthatthe
denialofthisrequestedinstructionwasnotanabuseofdiscretion.
D.Loanapprovalfordebtorwhotransfersloanproceedstothirdparty
19 ThedistrictcourtrefusedGiraldi'srequestedjuryinstructionthat,Youare
instructedthatyoumustacquit[Giraldi]ofviolationof12U.S.C.630,ifthepersonwho
signedthenoteknewthathewasexpectedtopayitandwasabletodoso.Giraldi
arguesthattherequestedinstructionisacorrectstatementofthelawunderUnited
Statesv.Gens,493F.2d216(1stCir.1974).
InUnitedStatesv.Parekh,926F.2d402,407n.8(5thCir.1991),thisCourtexplained
thatGensstoodforthepropositionthat[a]debtor'sfinancialabilitytorepaythenoteis
thusnecessarybutnotsufficienttorenderaloanlegitimate.Althoughthedebtor's
knowledgeandabilitytorepaytheloanarerelevanttotheissueoftherequiredintent,
theyarenotdispositiveoftheissue.Thereforetherequestedinstructionisnotacorrect
statementofthelawandthedistrictcourtdidnotabuseitsdiscretionbydenyingthe
request.
CUMULATIVEEFFECTOFERRORS
Giraldicontendsthatthecumulativeeffectoftheerrorsrequiresreversalofhis
convictions.Hepresentsnonewinformationorargumenttosupportthisgroundoferror.
Seeingnoerrortocumulate,werejectthisargument.
GOVERNMENT'SCROSSAPPEAL:SENTENCINGGUIDELINES
20 TheGovernmentcontendsthatthedistrictcourtmisappliedthesentencing
guidelinesbygivingGiraldia4levelreductionforhisroleintheoffense.
21 Thestandardofreviewforareductionforroleintheoffenseistheclearly
erroneousstandard.SeeUnitedStatesv.Watson,988F.2d544,550(5thCir.1993).
U.S.S.G.3B1.2statesthatadefendantmayreceiveadownwardadjustmentoffour
levelsifhewasaminimalparticipantinthecriminalactivity.Giraldi'sPresentenceReport
(PSR)didnotrecommendthathewasentitledtothesefourpointsandGiraldiobjected.
Thedistrictcourtawardedhimthefourpoints,saying,Itshouldn'tbe,butIwillgiveitto
him...andIwilltellyouwhyitshouldn'tbe.Simplybecauseofthenatureofhisrole,butI
canseetheschemeofthings.Thatisallright.Iwillgiveyouthosefourpoints.
22 Adownwardadjustmentunder3B1.2isappropriatewhereadefendantwas
substantiallylessculpablethantheaverageparticipant.UnitedStatesv.Gadison,8F.3d
186,197(5thCir.1993).Thegovernmentcontendsthatthedistrictcourt'sstatementson
therecordamounttoanacknowledgmentthattherewasnoevidentiarybasisunderthe
guidelinesforthedownwardadjustmentsandthatthereforethedistrictcourtdidnot
correctlyapplytheguideline.Further,thegovernmentcontendsthattherecorddoesnot
supportafindingthatGiraldiwasentitledtoadownwardadjustmentbecauseheplayed
anintegralroleinthemoneylaunderingconspiracy.
Giraldireadsthedistrictcourt'scommentsasfindingthattherewasabasisforthe
downwardadjustmentandarguesthattherecordsupportsthatfinding.Giventhatthere
wasnoevidencethatGiraldiandcodefendantReateguibenefittedfinanciallyfromthe
schemeexceptinthesensethattheyenhancedtheircareersatthebankbybringingina
largeclient,whiletheothercodefendantslaunderedlargequantitiesofmoneyandthen
withdrewitfortheirpersonal*1379use,minimalparticipantstatusissupportedbythe
record.
RELEASEPENDINGAPPEAL

TheGovernmentcontendsthatthedistrictcourterredinorderingGiraldi'srelease
pendingappealwithoutfindingthathehaddemonstratedasubstantialquestionof
laworfactlikelytoresultinreversalorareducedsentence.
23

Thegovernment'spositionisthatthedistrictcourtdidnotmaketherequisitefindingand
thattherewasnobasisonwhichthecourtcouldhavemadesuchafinding.
Giraldirespondsthatthedistrictcourtdidmaketherequisitefinding,quotingfromthe
record:
THECOURT:Idon'tfindthat[Giraldi]isaflightrisk.
ATTORNEY:Referringtothenextsection.Thestatue[sic]specificallysaystheCourt
mustalsofindtherearenoissuesthatcouldpossiblyresultinreversalofthetrial.
THECOURT:Idon'tfindso.
TheissuesraisedbyGiraldionappealarenotfrivoloussoastocallintoquestionthat
finding.
CONCLUSION
Fortheforegoingreasons,weaffirmGiraldi'sconvictionandsentence,aswellasthe
orderforhisreleasependingappeal.AFFIRMED.

AllCitations
86F.3d1368

Footnotes
1

GiraldiadoptedtheissuesandargumentscontainedinReategui'sbrief.
However,thatbriefaddsnothingofsignificancetoGiraldi'sappealandwe
willnotseparatelyaddresstheissuesraisedbyReategui.

ThebodyoftheBenetmemoreads:
FORYOURINFORMATIONWEAREESTABLISHINGANEW
RELATIONSHIPWITHMR.RICARDOAGUIRREFROMMONTERREY.
MR.AGUIRREWASREFERREDTOMEBYALBERTOBENET,
DIRECTOROFABSADIVISASCASADECAMBIOANDACCIONES
BURSATILESCASADEBOLSA.IHAVEKNOWNALBERTOFOR
MANYYEARSASHEANDHISFAMILYHAVEBEENTIER1CLIENTS
OFCITIBANKFOROVER20YEARS.
MR.AGUIRREISARANCHER/FARMER,OWNSSEVERAL
BUSINESSESSUCHASTWOFORDDEALERSHIPS(VERA
CRUZ/OAXACA)ANDSEVERALGASSTATIONS.ALBERTOBENET
HADTOLDHIMABOUTUSANDSPECIFICALLY,BTAG.THEREFORE,
MR.AGUIRREHASDECIDEDTOESTABLISHA$2,000,000U.S.$
ACCOUNTWITHUS.
IASKEDMR.AGUIRRETOCOMEANDMEETLOUISANDMENEXT
WEEKINTHED.F.TODISCUSSINVESTMENTSTRATEGYANDSET
UPADINNERFORTUES.EVENINGAT8:30P.M.HEALSOSAID
THATHEWOULDLIKETOREFEROTHERPOTENTIALCLIENTSTO
US.
ISPOKETOHIMABOUTATRUST/COMPANYANDHESAIDHEWAS
VERYINTERESTEDANDWEWOULDDISCUSSITFURTHERNEXT
WEEK.
INSTRUCTIONSTOTRANSFERTHE$2MMWEREGIVENTODAY
ANDWESHOULDBERECEIVINGTHEFUNDSBYTHEENDOFTHE
DAY.LAURAMACHUCAFROMABSADIVISASHASRECEIVEDALL
THEDOCUMENTATIONWHICHISBEINGSIGNEDTHISWEEK.WE
HAVEALREADYRECEIVEDAFAXOFTHESIG.CARDSANDIHAVE
ALSOREQUESTEDALETTEROFREFERRALFROMABSADIVISAS.
IWILLKEEPYOUPOSTEDONANYDEVELOPMENTSWITHTHIS
NEWCLIENT.

REGARDS,TONY

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