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# Energy Saving Measures

Filter Cleaning
Heat Removal Capacity Decreases according to the Formulae :Q dirty
CFM dirty
=
Q clean CFM clean

1
6

where

## Qdirty = Heat Removal Capacity of the air-conditioner system using a dirty

filter
QCLEAN = Heat Removal Capacity of the air-conditioner system using a clean
filter
CFMdirty = Air Flow Rate through the evaporator coil using a dirty filter
CFMclean = Air Flow Rate through the evaporator coil using a clean filter

Implications of a dirty filter :1. Energy consumed by a HVAC system can increase up to 10% .
2. Pre Mature compressor or motor fault .
3. Since there is a decrease in the heat exchange capacity of the
evaporator coil due to poor air flow rate , there are chances of icing
on the evaporator coil .

## Economics :Considering a 2 TON AC which consumes 2.4 units of power in an hour

Average Working Hours = 8
Energy Consumed in a day = 19.2
Total No. of working days in a month = 20
Total No. of Operational Months in an year = 4
For an AC with a clean Filter
Energy Consumed in an year = 2.4x8x20x4 = 1536 units for a 2 ton AC

## For an AC with a dirty filter

Assuming Increase in energy consumption = 5% (range = 0-10%)
Net energy consumption = 1536 + 0.05x1536 = 1612.8 units
Increase in energy consumption =1612.8 - 1536 =76.8 units
Cost of electricity in THAPAR UNIVERSITY = Rs 7.9/unit
Increase in electricity bill = 7.9x76.8 = Rs 606.72 For a 2 Ton AC
= 7.9x38.4 = RS 303.36 For a 1 Ton AC

## References :ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

http://web.ornl.gov/~webworks/cppr/y2001/rpt/27190.pdf

Thermostat Setting
For 1 degree increase in thermostat set point, energy consumption
decreases by 1.5-2-5%.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1308283/pdf/jaba000410059.pdf

## Economics:Initial Thermostat settings = 20C

Final Thermostat Settings = 24C
Change in temperature = 4C
Decrease in Energy Consumption = 6-10%
Energy Saving considering a 6% decrease in energy consumption =
0.06x1536 = 92.16 units.
Money saved = Rs7.9*92.16 = Rs728

Programmable Thermostat :-

## According to Energy Star possible energy saving from a programmable

thermostat is 10-30%.There primary function is to adjust the building
temperature according to a series of programmed settings that result at
different times of the day . A programmable thermostat allows reduction
of these losses by allowing the temperature difference to be reduced at
times when the reduced amount of heating or cooling would not be
objectionable.

Economics
Cost of programmable thermostat = Rs2500 Rs4000
For a 2 Ton A.C. Energy Consumption in a season =1536 units .
Considering a 10% saving in energy = 153.6 units .
Cost of Electricity = Rs7.9/unit
Money saved = 153.6x7.9 = Rs1213.44
Simple Payback = 3500/1440 = 2years and 11 months For a 2 Ton AC

https://www.energystar.gov/ia/partners/prod_development/revisions/downl
Reference EPA 2013, Energy Star

AIR SEALING
Energy Protection Agency(EPA) estimates that users can save an average
of 15% on heating and cooling by air sealing their homes.
Exfiltration/Infiltration Heat Gained :- Heat gained inside the building due
to cracks ,small holes .
Heat Gained Due to Doors and Windows :- Heat gained due to large
openings such as doors and windows .
Reference = https://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?
c=home_sealing.hm_improvement_methodology

## Economics :Using IBR(institute of Boiler and Radiator Manufactures) Methodology .

Heat Gained Due to Exfiltration/Infiltration through the Cracks ,small
Leaks ,etc .
Exfiltration heat gained = Room Volume x T x ACH x Infiltration Factor
ACH = Air change per hour

## Considering a room with the following Parameters:Length = 20 feet

Height = 10 Feet
Outside Temperature = 95 F
Inside Temperature = 77 F

## For Room with Only one door = Exfiltration Factor = 0.018

ACH(Air Changes Per Hour) for 0.018 = 1
Exfiltration heat Loss = 20 x 10 x 12 x(95-77) x 0.018 x 1 = 776 BTU/hr
Tonnage Capacity of A.C = 2 Ton = 24000BTU/hr
Decrease In Capacity because of a single leak = 776/24000 = 3.5 %

Reference =

Open Doors And Windows:Heat Lost/Gained = C.F.M x 1.08 x Temperature Difference(in Fahrenheit)
C.F.M = Air Flow from the open door/window

C.F.M. =

gH(T a- Te)
1
( HWCd )
3
Te

## H = Height Of the Door

W = Width of the door
Cd = Discharge Coefficient = 0.6 for Sharp Openings
Te = External Temperature (Kelvin)
Ta = Internal temperature (Kelvin)
g = acceleration constant = 32.2 ft/sec2

## Door Physical Properties

1
2

Height = 8 feet
Width = 3 Feet
External Temperature = 308 K = 95 F
Internal temperature = 298 K = 77 F

## C.F.M. = 1/3 x (8 x 3 x 0.6)(32.2 x 8 x 10/308)0.5 = 13.88 ft3/sec = 13.88 x

60 = 832.89 C.F.M.
Q = 931.2 x 1.08 x (95-77) = 16191.4 btu/hr
Heat Gained = 16191.38/12000 = 1.35 Ton

## For an open Window

Window Physical Properties
Height = 5 feet
Width = 2 Feet
External Temperature = 308 K = 95 F
Internal temperature = 298 K = 77 F

## C.F.M. = 1/3 x (5 x 2 x 0.6)(32.2 x 5 x 10/308)0.5 = 4.5726 ft3/sec = 4.5726

x 60 = 274.358 C.F.M.
Q = 274.3587 x 1.08 x (95-77) = 5333.5 btu/hr
Heat Gained = 5333.5/12000 = 0.4444 Ton
For two windows = 0.8888 Ton

Reference = http://members.questline.com/Article.aspx?
articleID=21224&accountID=1289&nl=11875

False Ceiling :
Length = 10
Height =14
Volume = 1820
For a 2 Ton Ac Energy Consumption = 1536 units
Length = 10
New Height =10
Volume = 1300

## For a 1.5 Ton AC Energy Consumption = 1.8x8x4x20 = 1152 uniits

Money Saved = Rs7.5 x (1536-1152) = Rs2880
Cost of POP based False Ceiling = Rs70/sq. feet
For 13x10 Sq.feet
Cost = Rs70x130 = Rs9100
Simple Payback Period = 9100/2880 = 3 years and 2 months

Ceiling Fan (Can be used for providing Localized Cooling for a single
person such as research laboratories and head office )

Energy Saving = 5%
Total Units = 1280
Units saved = 64 unitsEnergy Consumed by the fan = 0.067 x 8 x 20 x 4 =
Money Saved = Rs480
Simple Payback = 1500/480 = 3 Years and 2 months

Reference http://www.nytimes.com/1991/05/25/news/a-fan-for-all-tastesand-all-seasons-too.html