Sie sind auf Seite 1von 55

SteelSteel DesignDesign

LRFDLRFD BridgeBridge DesignDesign WorkshopWorkshop JuneJune 12,12, 20072007

YihongYihong GaoGao,, PP

E.,E.,

BridgeBridge DesignerDesigner

KevinKevin Western,Western, P.E.,P.E., Asst.Asst. StateState BridgeBridge EngineerEngineer

BridgeBridge DesignerDesigner KevinKevin Western,Western, P.E.,P.E., Asst.Asst. StateState BridgeBridge EngineerEngineer
BridgeBridge DesignerDesigner KevinKevin Western,Western, P.E.,P.E., Asst.Asst. StateState BridgeBridge EngineerEngineer

TopicsTopics

Topics Topics AASHTOAASHTO LRFDLRFD SpecificationSpecification UpdatesUpdates MnDOTMnDOT SteelSteel BridgeBridge

AASHTOAASHTO LRFDLRFD SpecificationSpecification UpdatesUpdates MnDOTMnDOT SteelSteel BridgeBridge DesignDesign PolicyPolicy andand DesignDesign ExampleExample UpdatesUpdates GlobalGlobal StabilityStability SystemSystem HorizontallyHorizontally CurvedCurved BridgeBridge DesignDesign

AASHTOAASHTO LRFDLRFD SpecificationSpecification UpdatesUpdates

SignificantSignificant revisionsrevisions toto ArticlesArticles 6.106.10 andand 6.116.11 forfor flexureflexure ofof
SignificantSignificant revisionsrevisions toto ArticlesArticles 6.106.10
andand 6.116.11 forfor flexureflexure ofof straightstraight steelsteel
girdersgirders

2004:2004: 33 rdrd EditionEdition ofof DesignDesign SpecificationsSpecifications

2005:2005: InterimInterim SpecificationsSpecifications toto 33 rdrd EditionEdition

UnifiedUnified provisionsprovisions forfor straightstraight andand horizontallyhorizontally curvedcurved steelsteel girdersgirders

AASHTOAASHTO LRFDLRFD SpecificationSpecification UpdatesUpdates

NewNew AppendicesAppendices inin 33 rdrd EditionEdition DesignDesign SpecificationsSpecifications AppendixAppendix AA
NewNew AppendicesAppendices inin 33 rdrd EditionEdition DesignDesign
SpecificationsSpecifications
AppendixAppendix AA

AllowsAllows flexuralflexural resistanceresistance toto bebe greatergreater thanthan MM yy forfor composite/noncomposite/non--compositecomposite sectionssections inin negativenegative flexuralflexural inin straightstraight II--girdergirder bridgesbridges

AppendixAppendix BB

AllowsAllows momentsmoments redistributionredistribution overover thethe pierpier inin straightstraight II--girdergirder bridgesbridges

AASHTOAASHTO LRFDLRFD SpecificationSpecification UpdatesUpdates

AppendixAppendix AA oror BB isis notnot toto bebe usedused forfor curvedcurved oror boxbox girdergirder bridges.bridges.
AppendixAppendix AA oror BB isis notnot toto bebe usedused forfor
curvedcurved oror boxbox girdergirder bridges.bridges.

AppendixAppendix BB shallshall alsoalso notnot bebe usedused wherewhere skewskew isis moremore thanthan 1010 oo oror therethere areare staggeredstaggered crosscross--framesframes atat piers.piers.

AppendixAppendix CC providesprovides detaileddetailed flowchartsflowcharts forfor designdesign process.process.

MnDOTMnDOT PolicyPolicy UpdatesUpdates

MaterialsMaterials 50W.50W.
MaterialsMaterials
50W.50W.

UseUse weatheringweathering steelsteel forfor rolledrolled beams,beams, plateplate beams,beams, andand diaphragmsdiaphragms onon allall steelsteel bridges.bridges. TypicalTypical steelsteel forfor MnDOTMnDOT bridgesbridges isis GradeGrade

HPSHPS 70W70W shallshall bebe usedused withwith cautioncaution becausebecause ofof thethe limitedlimited availability.availability.

MaterialsMaterials

PaintPaint SystemSystem
PaintPaint SystemSystem

EndEnd ofof beamsbeams atat expansionexpansion jointsjoints LowLow levellevel waterwater crossingcrossing EnvironmentEnvironment withwith highhigh humidityhumidity AestheticAesthetic requirementrequirement

PaintingPainting ofof weatheringweathering steelsteel willwill bebe consideredconsidered underunder thethe followingfollowing conditions:conditions:

PlatePlate SizeSize SelectionSelection

GeneralGeneral rulesrules
GeneralGeneral rulesrules

NSBNSBAA GGuuidelinesidelines 1/161/16 inchinch incrementsincrements forfor thicknessthickness upup toto 11 inchinch 1/81/8 inchinch incrementsincrements forfor thicknessthickness 11”” toto 2.52.5”” 1/41/4 inchinch incrementsincrements forfor thicknessthickness 2.52.5”” toto 44”” MinimizeMinimize numbernumber ofof plateplate sizessizes

PlatePlate SizeSize SelectionSelection

FlangeFlange platesplates
FlangeFlange platesplates

TryTry bottombottom flangeflange widthwidth greatergreater thanthan toptop flangeflange width.width. TryTry samesame thicknessthickness forfor toptop andand bottombottom flangeflange overover thethe pier.pier. KeepKeep toptop andand bottombottom flangeflange atat aa constantconstant widthwidth overover entireentire girdergirder length,length, wherewhere practical.practical. ProvideProvide aa buttbutt splicesplice whenwhen moremore thanthan 10001000 poundspounds ofof steelsteel cancan bebe saved.saved.

PlatePlate SizeSize SelectionSelection

PlatePlate girdergirder exampleexample
PlatePlate girdergirder exampleexample

PlatePlate SizeSize SelectionSelection

WebWeb platesplates DetermineDetermine webweb thicknessthickness firstfirst toto satisfysatisfy shearshear
WebWeb platesplates
DetermineDetermine webweb thicknessthickness firstfirst toto satisfysatisfy shearshear
requirementsrequirements withoutwithout intermediateintermediate stiffeners.stiffeners.

ReduceReduce webweb thicknessthickness byby 1/161/16 inchinch increments.increments. CalculateCalculate webweb steelsteel weightweight savedsaved andand numbernumber ofof stiffenersstiffeners added.added. TheThe costcost ofof oneone addedadded stiffenerstiffener isis roughlyroughly equalequal toto 15001500 poundspounds ofof webweb steel.steel.

FinalizeFinalize thethe webweb thicknessthickness byby balancingbalancing outout webweb steelsteel savedsaved andand stiffenersstiffeners added.added.

PlatePlate SizeSize SelectionSelection

WebWeb plateplate ofof designdesign exampleexample Computer Run Thickness of Web (in) Steel Saved (LB) Int.
WebWeb plateplate ofof designdesign exampleexample
Computer
Run
Thickness of Web
(in)
Steel Saved
(LB)
Int. Stiffener
(no.)
1
3/4
-
0
2
11/16
5200
2
3
5/8
+5200
+2
4
9/16
+5200
+4

DesignDesign ConsiderationsConsiderations

DesignDesign DetailsDetails
DesignDesign DetailsDetails

ForFor structurestructure stiffnessstiffness calculation,calculation, useuse compositecomposite sectionssections (steel(steel beambeam plusplus deck)deck) throughoutthroughout entireentire bridge.bridge.

ForFor stressstress calculation,calculation, useuse steelsteel beambeam plusplus deckdeck forfor positivepositive flexureflexure andand useuse steelsteel beambeam plusplus rebarrebar forfor negativenegative flexure.flexure.

DesignDesign ConsiderationsConsiderations

PositivePositive flexureflexure
PositivePositive flexureflexure

MnDOTMnDOT limitslimits flexuralflexural resistanceresistance upup toto thethe firstfirst yieldyield forfor allall straightstraight II--girdergirder bridges.bridges. ThereThere isis nono needneed toto checkcheck sectionsection compactnesscompactness forfor compositecomposite sectionsection inin positivepositive moment.moment.

DesignDesign ConsiderationsConsiderations

NegativeNegative FlexureFlexure
NegativeNegative FlexureFlexure

MnDOTMnDOT doesdoes NOTNOT permitpermit useuse ofof AppendixAppendix AA (negative(negative momentmoment capacitycapacity greatergreater thanthan MM yy )) oror AppendixAppendix BB (moment(moment redistribution)redistribution) forfor anyany bridgesbridges includingincluding straightstraight II--girdergirder bridgesbridges ThereThere isis nono needneed toto checkcheck webweb slendernessslenderness ratioratio oror flangeflange inertiainertia ratio.ratio.

SpliceSplice DesignDesign

SpliceSplice plateplate sizesize selectionselection
SpliceSplice plateplate sizesize selectionselection

TryTry flangeflange splicesplice plateplate sizessizes wherewhere thethe differencedifference betweenbetween thethe crosscross sectionalsectional areasareas ofof innerinner platesplates andand thatthat ofof outerouter platesplates isis withinwithin 10%.10%. InIn addition,addition, trytry flangeflange splicesplice plateplate sizessizes wherewhere thethe totaltotal areaarea ofof bothboth innerinner andand outerouter splicesplice platesplates isis equalequal toto oror greatergreater thanthan thatthat ofof flangeflange plate.plate.

SpliceSplice DesignDesign

ConnectionConnection designdesign
ConnectionConnection designdesign

WhereWhere splicesplice platesplates areare 3/83/8 inchinch thickthick oror greater,greater, connectionsconnections maymay bebe designeddesigned assumingassuming threadsthreads areare excludedexcluded fromfrom thethe shearshear plane.plane.

ConnectionConnection ofof StiffenerStiffener toto TensionTension FlangeFlange

CurvedCurved bridgesbridges BoltedBolted stiffenerstiffener toto tensiontension flangeflange connectionconnection
CurvedCurved bridgesbridges
BoltedBolted stiffenerstiffener toto tensiontension flangeflange connectionconnection
(fatigue(fatigue categorycategory B)B) shallshall bebe used.used.
StraightStraight bridgesbridges
WeldedWelded stiffenerstiffener toto tensiontension flangeflange connectionconnection
(fatigue(fatigue categorycategory CC’’)) isis allowed.allowed.
FatigueFatigue resistanceresistance ofof basebase materialmaterial shallshall bebe
checked.checked.

StoolStool andand CamberCamber

StoolStool HeightHeight ResidualResidual CamberCamber
StoolStool HeightHeight
ResidualResidual CamberCamber

WithoutWithout residualresidual camber,camber, CONSTANTCONSTANT stoolstool heightheight (between(between thethe bottombottom ofof thethe deckdeck andand toptop ofof thethe web)web) shouldshould bebe used.used.

ResidualResidual cambercamber shallshall bebe providedprovided withwith straightstraight gradesgrades andand lengthslengths inin excessexcess ofof 100100 feet.feet.

DeckDeck PlacementPlacement SequenceSequence GuidelinesGuidelines

BackgroundBackground
BackgroundBackground

MnDOTMnDOT requiresrequires showingshowing thethe deckdeck placementplacement sequencesequence onon thethe planplan forfor continuouscontinuous steelsteel bridgesbridges withwith spanspan lengthslengths greatergreater thanthan 150150 feet.feet.

MoreMore deckdeck crackscracks havehave occurredoccurred recentlyrecently onon steelsteel bridges.bridges.

DeckDeck PlacementPlacement SequenceSequence GuidelinesGuidelines

ForFor continuouscontinuous steelsteel bridgesbridges withwith spansspans betweenbetween 150150 andand 200200 feet:feet:
ForFor continuouscontinuous steelsteel bridgesbridges withwith spansspans
betweenbetween 150150 andand 200200 feet:feet:

TheThe 11 stst pourpour startsstarts fromfrom abutmentabutment toto aboutabout 0.60.6 pointpoint ofof firstfirst span;span;

TheThe 22 ndnd pourpour startsstarts fromfrom aboutabout 0.60.6 pointpoint ofof adjacentadjacent spanspan andand proceedproceed towardtoward andand terminateterminate atat endend ofof previousprevious placement.placement. RepeatRepeat thisthis patternpattern forfor allall interiorinterior spans;spans;

TheThe lastlast pourpour shallshall startstart fromfrom endend ofof bridgebridge toto thethe endend ofof previousprevious placement.placement.

DeckDeck PlacementPlacement SequenceSequence GuidelinesGuidelines

TheThe followingfollowing figurefigure illustratesillustrates thethe deckdeck placementplacement sequencesequence forfor
TheThe followingfollowing figurefigure illustratesillustrates thethe deckdeck
placementplacement sequencesequence forfor aa 33 spanspan bridge.bridge.
Pour 1
Pour 2
Pour 3
1
2
3
0.6L 2
0.6L 1

DeckDeck PlacementPlacement SequenceSequence GuidelinesGuidelines

ConstructionConstruction jointsjoints atat eacheach pointpoint ofof deaddead loadload contraflexurecontraflexure
ConstructionConstruction jointsjoints atat eacheach pointpoint ofof deaddead loadload
contraflexurecontraflexure pointpoint shallshall bebe shownshown inin thethe deckdeck
placementplacement plan;plan;

PositivePositive momentmoment spansspans shallshall bebe pouredpoured priorprior toto pouringpouring negativenegative momentmoment area;area;

ForFor continuouscontinuous steelsteel bridgesbridges withwith spanspan lengthslengths greatergreater thanthan 200200 feetfeet

LongerLonger spanspan betweenbetween pointspoints ofof contraflexurecontraflexure shallshall bebe placedplaced beforebefore shortershorter adjacentadjacent span.span.

DeckDeck PlacementPlacement SequenceSequence GuidelinesGuidelines

4
4

TheThe followingfollowing figurefigure illustratesillustrates thethe deckdeck placementplacement sequencesequence forfor aa 44 spanspan bridge.bridge. TheThe goalgoal isis toto minimizeminimize upwardupward deflectionsdeflections inin previouslypreviously placedplaced spans.spans.

2 5 4 5 1 5 3 M+ M- M+ M- M+ M- M+
2
5
4
5
1
5
3
M+
M-
M+
M-
M+
M-
M+

DeckDeck PlacementPlacement SequenceSequence GuidelinesGuidelines

PositivePositive momentmoment pourspours inin adjacentadjacent spansspans shallshall bebe separatedseparated byby 7272
PositivePositive momentmoment pourspours inin adjacentadjacent spansspans
shallshall bebe separatedseparated byby 7272 hours;hours;

DuringDuring construction,construction, pourspours cancan bebe combinedcombined ifif aa pourpour raterate ofof 60%60% ofof thethe spanspan lengthlength perper hourhour isis maintained;maintained;

ForFor unusualunusual spanspan lengthlength configurations,configurations, BridgeBridge OfficeOffice shallshall bebe contactedcontacted forfor additionaddition informationinformation onon locationslocations ofof transversetransverse joints.joints.

DeckDeck PlacementPlacement SequenceSequence GuidelinesGuidelines

Placement Sequence Sequence Guidelines Guidelines AlwaysAlways checkcheck beambeam stressesstresses andand

AlwaysAlways checkcheck beambeam stressesstresses andand possiblepossible upliftuplift atat supportssupports basedbased onon deckdeck placementplacement sequence.sequence.

TheThe cambercamber diagramdiagram cancan bebe developeddeveloped withoutwithout consideringconsidering thethe deckdeck placementplacement sequence.sequence.

ErectionErection RequirementsRequirements

Erection Erection Requirements Requirements

ErectionErection RequirementsRequirements

Erection Erection Requirements Requirements ForFor allall steelsteel bridgebridge spansspans overover traffic,traffic,

ForFor allall steelsteel bridgebridge spansspans overover traffic,traffic, thethe followingfollowing changeschanges havehave beenbeen addedadded toto currentcurrent specialspecial provisions.provisions.

TheThe girdersgirders shallshall bebe temporarilytemporarily anchored/bracedanchored/braced priorprior toto diaphragmdiaphragm placement.placement.

WhenWhen erectederected bridgebridge spansspans areare overover activeactive traffic,traffic, aa certifiedcertified erectionerection planplan shallshall bebe submitted.submitted.

TwoTwo oror moremore adjacentadjacent girdersgirders shallshall bebe erectederected andand bracedbraced inin accordanceaccordance withwith thethe erectionerection planplan beforebefore operationsoperations cancan bebe suspended.suspended.

AdditionalAdditional ErectionErection requirementsrequirements

ForFor curvedcurved steelsteel bridgesbridges TemporaryTemporary bentsbents areare typicallytypically required.required.
ForFor curvedcurved steelsteel bridgesbridges
TemporaryTemporary bentsbents areare typicallytypically required.required.

TheThe locationslocations ofof temporarytemporary bentsbents shallshall bebe identifiedidentified onon thethe plan.plan.

SoftwareSoftware

Software Software DesignersDesigners shouldshould validatevalidate thatthat computercomputer softwaresoftware isis

DesignersDesigners shouldshould validatevalidate thatthat computercomputer softwaresoftware isis updatedupdated toto currentcurrent AASHTOAASHTO LRFDLRFD Specifications.Specifications. DesignersDesigners shouldshould confirmconfirm thatthat MnDOTMnDOT requirementsrequirements cancan bebe addressedaddressed byby thethe software.software.

GlobalGlobal StabilityStability forfor aa 22 oror 33--GirderGirder SystemSystem

RequirementsRequirements forfor checkingchecking globalglobal stability:stability: AA twotwo oror threethree
RequirementsRequirements forfor checkingchecking globalglobal
stability:stability:
AA twotwo oror threethree girdergirder systemsystem
SpansSpans overover 100100 feetfeet

GlobalGlobal StabilityStability

BucklingBuckling modemode
BucklingBuckling modemode

Plan view: Global System Buckling

GlobalGlobal StabilityStability forfor aa 22 oror 33--GirderGirder SystemSystem

ReasonsReasons forfor checkingchecking globalglobal stability:stability:
ReasonsReasons forfor checkingchecking globalglobal stability:stability:

TwoTwo--girdergirder systemsystem isis weakweak inin laterallateral torsiontorsion rigidityrigidity priorprior toto deckdeck placement.placement.

EndEnd diaphragmsdiaphragms dodo notnot typicallytypically provideprovide adequateadequate rigidityrigidity toto restrainrestrain crosscross--sectionsection fromfrom distortiondistortion forfor longlong spanspan bridges.bridges.

GlobalGlobal StabilityStability

TwoTwo typestypes ofof bracingbracing considered:considered: LateralLateral bracingbracing ofof beamsbeams
TwoTwo typestypes ofof bracingbracing considered:considered:
LateralLateral bracingbracing ofof beamsbeams
TorsionalTorsional bracingbracing ofof beamsbeams
TwoTwo designdesign criteriacriteria forfor bracingbracing check:check:

StiffnessStiffness requirementsrequirements StrengthStrength requirementsrequirements

Stiffness Stiffness requirements requirements Strength Strength requirements requirements

GlobalGlobal StabilityStability

ReferenceReference
ReferenceReference

FundamentalsFundamentals ofof BeamBeam BracingBracing byby JosephJoseph Yura,Yura, UniversityUniversity ofof TexasTexas atat AustinAustin AISCAISC SteelSteel ConstructionConstruction Manual,Manual, 1313 thth EditionEdition MnDOTMnDOT LRFDLRFD BridgeBridge DesignDesign ManualManual willwill bebe updatedupdated toto includeinclude informationinformation onon globalglobal stabilitystability requirements.requirements.

GlobalGlobal StabilityStability ProblemProblem

DesignDesign SolutionsSolutions forfor BridgeBridge 8203282032 TemporaryTemporary groundground anchoranchor
DesignDesign SolutionsSolutions forfor BridgeBridge 8203282032
TemporaryTemporary groundground anchoranchor braces.braces.
AdditionalAdditional bottombottom flangeflange windwind bracingbracing
system.system.

AdditionalAdditional toptop flangeflange bracingbracing system.system. (rebar(rebar isis tiedtied toto additionaladditional shearshear studs)studs)

Br.Br. 8203282032

TieTie downdown cablescables beforebefore additionaladditional laterallateral bracingbracing
TieTie downdown cablescables beforebefore additionaladditional laterallateral bracingbracing

Br.Br. 8203282032

TopTop additionaladditional rebarrebar connectionsconnections
TopTop additionaladditional rebarrebar connectionsconnections

Br.Br. 8203282032

BottomBottom bracingbracing systemsystem (at(at farfar end)end)
BottomBottom bracingbracing systemsystem (at(at farfar end)end)

TopicsTopics

Topics Topics AASHTOAASHTO LRFDLRFD SpecificationsSpecifications UpdatesUpdates MnDOTMnDOT SteelSteel BridgeBridge

AASHTOAASHTO LRFDLRFD SpecificationsSpecifications UpdatesUpdates MnDOTMnDOT SteelSteel BridgeBridge DesignDesign PolicyPolicy andand DesignDesign ExampleExample UpdatesUpdates GlobalGlobal StabilityStability SystemSystem HorizontallyHorizontally CurvedCurved BridgeBridge DesignDesign

HorizontallyHorizontally CurvedCurved SteelSteel GirdersGirders

Horizontally Curved Curved Steel Steel Girders Girders DiaphragmDiaphragm layoutlayout atat pierspiers

DiaphragmDiaphragm layoutlayout atat pierspiers DiaphragmDiaphragm layoutlayout inin spanspan AnalysisAnalysis FlangeFlange andand webweb plateplate sizesize selectionselection DiaphragmDiaphragm designdesign

HorizontallyHorizontally CurvedCurved SteelSteel GirdersGirders

DiaphragmDiaphragm layoutlayout atat pierspiers
DiaphragmDiaphragm layoutlayout atat pierspiers

WithWith littlelittle oror nono skew,skew, runrun diaphragmdiaphragm alongalong CLCL pierpier WithWith largerlarger skews,skews, needneed aa diaphragmdiaphragm atat bearingbearing pointpoint DiaphragmDiaphragm lineline cancan bebe discontinuousdiscontinuous inin pierpier regionregion

HorizontallyHorizontally CurvedCurved SteelSteel GirdersGirders

DiaphragmDiaphragm layoutlayout inin spanspan GenerallyGenerally aboutabout aa 2020--2525 ftft spacingspacing
DiaphragmDiaphragm layoutlayout inin spanspan
GenerallyGenerally aboutabout aa 2020--2525 ftft spacingspacing
ContinuousContinuous acrossacross bridgebridge
SpaceSpace awayaway fromfrom abutmentabutment bearingbearing
stiffenersstiffeners byby aa minimumminimum ofof 33 feetfeet

HorizontallyHorizontally CurvedCurved SteelSteel GirdersGirders

Horizontally Horizontally Curved Curved Steel Steel Girders Girders

HorizontallyHorizontally CurvedCurved SteelSteel GirdersGirders

AnalysisAnalysis PastPast practicepractice VV--LoadLoad DescusDescus StraightStraight girdergirder withwith
AnalysisAnalysis
PastPast practicepractice
VV--LoadLoad
DescusDescus
StraightStraight girdergirder withwith reducedreduced allowableallowable
PresentPresent

BSDI,BSDI, DescusDescus,, MDX,MDX, STAADSTAAD IncludeInclude deckdeck inin thethe analysisanalysis ifif possiblepossible

AreAre currentcurrent methodsmethods betterbetter thanthan thethe past?past?

HorizontallyHorizontally CurvedCurved SteelSteel GirdersGirders

Horizontally Curved Curved Steel Steel Girders Girders InIn pastpast wewe diddid notnot ““ finefine tunetune

InIn pastpast wewe diddid notnot ““finefine tunetune”” analysisanalysis asas wewe seemseem toto dodo todaytoday ThisThis finefine tuningtuning createscreates issuesissues with:with:

UnevenUneven flangeflange sizessizes betweenbetween beamsbeams StifferStiffer diaphragmsdiaphragms withwith biggerbigger connectionsconnections FabricationFabrication concerns/difficultiesconcerns/difficulties

HorizontallyHorizontally CurvedCurved SteelSteel GirdersGirders

Horizontally Curved Curved Steel Steel Girders Girders WeWe recommendrecommend thethe followingfollowing

WeWe recommendrecommend thethe followingfollowing processprocess forfor designingdesigning curvedcurved steelsteel bridges:bridges:

RunRun aa straightstraight girdergirder withwith reducedreduced allowableallowable (about(about 90%90% FF yy )) UseUse thosethose girdergirder sizessizes forfor youryour initialinitial modelmodel withwith appropriateappropriate diaphragmdiaphragm spacingspacing ModifyModify allall beamsbeams sizessizes ifif stressesstresses areare tootoo highhigh oror tootoo lowlow UseUse thisthis ‘‘draftdraft designdesign’’ asas startingstarting pointpoint

HorizontallyHorizontally CurvedCurved SteelSteel GirdersGirders

FlangeFlange plateplate sizesize groupinggrouping
FlangeFlange plateplate sizesize groupinggrouping

KeepKeep atat leastleast twotwo girdersgirders withwith thethe samesame flangeflange sizesize GroupGroup asas muchmuch asas possiblepossible (2(2 toto 44 groups)groups) ItIt’’ss finefine toto understressunderstress aa fewfew beamsbeams

ItIt keepskeeps thethe diaphragmsdiaphragms fromfrom takingtaking moremore loadload thanthan neededneeded

HorizontallyHorizontally CurvedCurved SteelSteel GirdersGirders

WebWeb sizesize andand intermediateintermediate stiffenersstiffeners
WebWeb sizesize andand intermediateintermediate stiffenersstiffeners

UseUse criteriacriteria forfor straightstraight girdersgirders AtAt pierpier oror abutmentabutment supports,supports, aa fewfew additionaladditional stiffenersstiffeners cancan allowallow aa thinnerthinner webweb SometimesSometimes aa smallersmaller webweb inin thethe spanspan andand aa largerlarger oneone atat thethe pierpier isis thethe bestbest solutionsolution

AlsoAlso useuse forfor straightstraight girdersgirders

HorizontallyHorizontally CurvedCurved SteelSteel GirdersGirders

DiaphragmsDiaphragms
DiaphragmsDiaphragms

WeldWeld detailsdetails ofof diaphragmdiaphragm connectionsconnections shallshall bebe consideredconsidered asas FatigueFatigue CategoryCategory EE AllowAllow 15%15% overstressoverstress forfor fatiguefatigue BentBent plateplate vs.vs. crosscross frameframe AASHTOAASHTO angleangle bracingbracing requirementsrequirements

5x55x5 angleangle hashas maxmax thicknessthickness ofof ½½ in.in.

HorizontallyHorizontally CurvedCurved SteelSteel GirdersGirders

ConnectConnect diaphragmdiaphragm angleangle membersmembers toto thethe gussetgusset plateplate withwith weldswelds
ConnectConnect diaphragmdiaphragm
angleangle membersmembers toto
thethe gussetgusset plateplate
withwith weldswelds
BB--detaildetail B408B408 isis
beingbeing revisedrevised

Questions?Questions?

Questions? Questions?