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# Observation 2: Multiplying Two 2-Digit Numbers (Revised)

## Name: Sarah Thomas

Date and time of the lesson: November 10, 2016
School: P.S. 130
Cooperating teacher: Stefanie Chow
Room number: 408
Content area: Math
CENTRAL FOCUS/ESSENTIAL QUESTION
In this fourth grade math lesson, students will learn to multiply two 2-digit numbers using the
strategy of decomposing the factors by place value, computing partial products, and adding them
together to find the final product. This is an important concept and strategy, as it drives students
towards an understanding of the distributive property of multiplication.
GOAL OF LESSON
SWBAT: Understand that there are multiple ways to solve a 2-digit by 2-digit multiplication
problem.
SWBAT: Correctly multiply two 2-digit numbers by decomposing the factors by place value,
computing partial products, and adding the products to find the final product.
SWBAT: Discuss mathematical problems in a whole class setting and in small groups
SWBAT: When given an incorrect solution to a 2-digit by 2-digit multiplication problem, explain
why the solution is incorrect and find the correct answer.
COMMON CORE STANDARDS
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.4.NBT.B.5: Multiply a whole number of up to four digits by a
one-digit whole number, and multiply two two-digit numbers, using strategies based on
place value and the properties of operations. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using
equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.
STANDARDS FOR MATHEMATICAL PRACTICE
1 Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them
3 - Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others
7 - Look for and make use of structure

## PRIOR KNOWLEDGE/ KEY MISCONCEPTIONS

Beginning in the 2nd grade, students are introduced to the base 10 number system and the concept
of place value. In the third grade, they begin learning about multiplication, and are expected to
multiply one-digit whole numbers by multiples of 10 in the range 10-90 using strategies based on
place value and properties of operations (CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.NBT.A.3). This lesson
comes at the beginning of a long unit on multiplication and division. The content covered in the
prior math unit covered estimation, place value, multiples, and factors. Therefore, students should
have a solid foundation for this lesson since they know how to break numbers apart, understand
place value, and have a foundational understanding and procedural fluency in multiplication.
Although students do understand place value, the main misconception that I anticipate may come
up in this lesson when solving two-digit by two-digit multiplication problems is that students will

## solve in the following way:

25 x 16=
20 x 6 = 120
20 x 1 = 20
5 x 6 = 30
5x1=5
120 + 20 + 30 + 5 = 175
This is a common error in which a student does not understand that the 1is actually a 10.
MATERIALS & RESOURCES
Chart paper and markers
Small group work worksheet (see example at the end of this lesson plan)
Exit Tickets (see example at this end of this lesson plan)
LESSON DEVELOPMENT
*Note: Bold and italicized text indicates teacher talk or action
1. Opening/Warm Up (15 minutes)
I will introduce the lesson by saying: You have already learned several methods of multiplying
up to 4-digit numbers by a 1-digit number, today we will focus on multiplying a 2-digit number
by another 2-digit number. We will begin the lesson with a little warm up, were going to do
something called a number talk. I will put a problem up and you will have about a minute to
solve it in as many ways as you can in your head. When you are done signal a quiet thumbs up.
The problem will be revealed on chart paper:
25 x 16 =
When you have found a solution, put one finger to your chest (when I see some students doing
this, I will tell them to try and find another way to solve).
After 1-2 minutes, students will be instructed to turn and talk for one minute to share their
solutions and strategies for solving the problem. I will circulate the room to monitor what groups
are saying. I will then call the students attention back and ask for volunteers and/or ask students
who I went over to during the turn and talk to share their answers and strategies, which I will
record on the smartboard. It is my hope that at least one student will solve the problem by
decomposing the factors into base 10 units. If they do not, I will tell them that I am going to show
them a new method. I will model this method on the smartboard discussing each step as I go
25 x 16 =
How can we break up or distribute these numbers so they are easier to use? Answer: 16
becomes 10 and 6, 25 becomes 20 and 5.
Model:
25
x
16
20

10

So now that we have broken down the numbers, what do we need to multiply?
Answer: 20 x 10 = 20 tens or 200
20 x 6 = 12 tens or 120
5 x 10 = 5 tens or 50

5 x 6 = 3 tens or 30
Why are there 4 multiplication problems? (because we broke each factor into two. The 20 and the
5 must each be multiplied by the 10 and the 6).
So lets find these products. We call these partial products, because they are just one part of the
original problem (goes back and solves each product with students and writes it in).
Are we done? (No, we need to add them together). Why do we add?
So when we add these products together what do we get? 400
Does this method remind anyone of a method we have already learned to multiply 3 and 4-digit
numbers by a 1-digit number? Answer: an area model
Model making an area model for this problem:
20
10 x 20 = 200

5
10 x 5 = 50

10

6 x 20 = 120

6 x 5 = 30

200
120
50
+ 30___
400

2. Guided Practice
I will put up another problem for the students to do independently using this
strategy. I will tell them that they can use the area model if that helps them but
that I would like them to try the strategy without the area model. After they have
solved, they will then turn and talk to their partner about their answer and how
they solved it. I will circulate during the turn and talk and select a student to come up and
28
20

x
8

10

12 =
2

20 x 2 = 4 tens or 40
20 x 10 = 20 tens or 200
8 x 2 = 1 ten and 6 ones or 16
8 x 10 = 8 tens or 80
40
200
16
+80__
336
3. Partner Work (10 minutes)
Working in pairs, students will be given a set of problems that were solved incorrectly. They will

work together to identify the errors and record their answers. Then they will try to solve the
problem to get the real answer using the strategy presented earlier in the lesson. I have chosen this
exercise instead of having them solve more problems because analyzing and thinking about
common errors helps students learn the strategies and concepts in a different way. Note: each pair
will only receive one paper to help facilitate working together. Before giving them the worksheet
and sending them off to do it, I will say:
You and your partner are going to receive a worksheet with some problems that have been
solved incorrectly using the traditional algorithm. You must work together to figure out what
the error is and explain that error in writing. Then solve the problem using the partial product
strategy we just learned. If you are stuck, try solving the problem first, this will help you
understand the error.
The problems are:
1)

57
x 33__
171
+ 171__
342

Explanation: This student multiplied 57 by 3 twice and added those products. This is not correct
because the problem is 57 times 33, so you must multiply 57 by 30 and 3, then add those products.
Answer: (50 x 30) + (50 x 3) + (7 x 30) + (7 x 3) = 1,500 + 150 + 210 + 21 = 1,881
2) 34 x 68
3 x 6 = 18
3 x 8 = 24
4 x 6 = 24
4 x 8 = 32
98
Explanation: This student confused the place value of the 3 in 34 and the 6 in 68. She multiplied
by 3 and by 60 instead of by 30 and 60.
Answer: (4 x 8) + (4 x 60) + (30 x 8) + (30 x 60) = 32 + 240 + 240 + 1,800 = 2,312
3) 32
x 27__
647
Explanation: This student correctly multiplied 32 by 20 but then added seven instead of
multiplying 32 by 7 and added that product to the product of 32 and 20.
Correct Answer: (30 x 7) + (30 x 20) + (2 x 7) + (2 x 20) = 210 + 600 + 14 + 40 = 864
I will be circulating the room to check for understanding and also monitor the students ability
to work productively together. From these observations, I will select 2-3 pairs to present their
work). I will aim to select students who did not speak in the beginning of the lesson. In addition,
if I see a pair who has made a common mistake, I will ask them to present so we can work

## through that mistake.

4. Closing (15 minutes)
Student pairs present their work to the class and I will facilitate a brief discussion. Talking points
include:
Why is this strategy useful?
Does this strategy help you to understand the multiplication algorithm? How so?
The lesson will end with an Exit Ticket (see the last page of this lesson plan for a sample). If there
is no more time for the Exit Ticket, it will be given later or the following day.
Differentiated Instruction
This lesson has been differentiated for process in several ways. I have incorporated all the
language modalities into the lesson (speaking, listening, reading, and writing). This is especially
important for the ELL and former ELLs in this class who need to be exposed to different language
modalities and who also struggle more with reading (this lesson is light on reading). Another form
of differentiation is the partner work. Students will be paired heterogeneously to account for
different levels of mathematical understanding and also for cooperative learning skills. There are 5
students in this class who struggle with focusing in class (one diagnosed with Attention Deficit
Disorder), so the paired activity will be especially helpful for them.
Assessment
This lesson has several forms of assessment built into it: (1) The solutions students come up with
during the number talk (2) Their responses during the guided practice (3) The answers they give
on the worksheet they do with their partner and the class discussion that follows (4) The exit
ticket.

Name:

Date:
Multiplication Practice: Find the Error

The answers to the following multiplication problems are wrong. Work with your partner to
figure out the errors that were made, then find the correct answer. You must provide a
written explanation of how the answer is wrong and show your work when finding the
correct answer, using the strategy we learned in class.
1)
57
x 33
171
+ 171
342

2) 34 x 68
3 x 6 = 18
3 x 8 = 24
4 x 6 = 24
4 x 8 = 32
98

3) 32
x 27
647

Name:

Date:
Exit Ticket

1) You need to solve the following problem using the partial products strategy. Part
of the equation has been filled in for you, now you must fill in the missing numbers.
Problem: 27 x 32
Solution: (20 x ___ ) + (20 x ___) + (7 x ____) + (7 x ____)

2) Solve the equation using the partial product strategy we went over in class.