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Annotated Lesson Plan

Ashley Staley
UMUC EDTP 635
March 21, 2016

Teacher Standards I will Demonstrate through this Lesson:


NSTA-Standards for Secondary Biology Teachers
C.2.a. Core Competencies.
All teachers of biology should be prepared to lead students to understand the unifying concepts
required of all teachers of science, and should in addition be prepared to lead students to
understand population dynamics and the impact of population on its environment.
C.2.c. Supporting Competencies.
All teachers of biology should also be prepared to effectively apply concepts from other sciences
and mathematics to the teaching of biology including basic concepts of Earth and space sciences
including energy and geochemical cycles, climate, oceans, weather, natural resources, and
changes in the Earth.
Grade: 9th
Time Allotted: 50 Minutes
Unit: Population Dynamics
Lesson Topic: The effect of density-dependent factors on population dynamics
Type of Lesson: Developmental
Context for Learning: In the past, students have learned about populations and ecosystems in
other grades. This unit will be a developmental unit and will take advantage of scaffolding. The
unit will build on previous material learned. To date, the students have learned about ecosystems,
populations, density-dependent factors, exponential growth, and logistic growth. This unit will
build upon the knowledge of prior grade levels. To maximize the effectiveness of learning, the
classroom will be arranged in rows so that every student is facing forward. Along the outskirts of
the class, there will be lab benches.
Curriculum Standard Addressed:
3.5.3 The student will investigate how natural and man-made changes in environmental
conditions will affect individual organisms and the dynamics of populations.
Assessment Limits
depletion of food
destruction of habitats
disease
natural disasters
pollution
population increase
urbanization
RST. 9-10.4
Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain specific- words and phrases as
they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 9-10 texts and topics.
Objectives:
Cognitive Objectives: The students will be able to use higher-level cognitive skills to
demonstrate mastery of population dynamics to 100% accuracy. Students will be able to

apply knowledge from previous science lessons about population dynamics to understand
the new material to 100% accuracy.
Behavioral Objectives: The students will be able to name the causes of changes in
populations and the affects they have on a population to 100% accuracy.
Materials: Students will need their notebooks at the beginning of class to complete the warmup. The teacher will need a projector and document camera in order to display the warm-up
questions. Students will need an instruction sheet and questions that go along with the simulation
that will be completed. The assignment, after the simulation requires students to graph their
results, so students will need rulers and graph paper. A rubric will be provided for each student to
self-assess their graph and conclusion to show the students what I will be grading for. Students
will also need the homework assignment at the end of class.
Proactive Behavior Management: In order to establish a successful learning environment, I
will place extra effort into behavior management starting on the first day of school so that I am
not constantly reacting when a problem occurs (Lock, 2006). Students will know how to
appropriately act in my classroom. On the first day of school I will establish a routine and a set
of rules so all students know what to expect everyday in the classroom. When students come into
the classroom, I will greet every student. Students will then take a seat and begin working on
their warm-up that is projected on the document camera. For this particular lesson, students will
enter the classroom and begin their warm-up from their seats. After students complete the warmup they will know to turn in their warm-up, turn in homework from the previous night and gather
all the papers needed for the day at the front of the room. After 5 minutes, I will tell students the
objective for the day and give a brief overview of what we will be doing. Everyday, I will ensure
that I tell students I have high expectations of them. I will record which students are not putting
effort into their work and alter their grade accordingly.
If students do misbehave, I will follow through on repercussions and will react the same
way every time so students know what to expect. In order to prevent misbehavior, I will plan
lessons that are activity-based in order to keep the majority of the students engaged. For the
majority of assignments, I will allow students to have a choice in what the end product will be.
This will ensure that students are interested in their assignments. When transitioning from
various activities within the lesson, I will ensure that all students have transitioning skills.
Transitioning skills will ensure that students stay engaged from each activity done throughout the
day. Babke suggests using the CHANGE Strategy (Lock, 2006). The CHANGE Strategy
consists of:
C-Collect my materials and put them away
H-Have ready what I need for the next activity
A-Always watch my teacher for cues to move
N-Now take my seat quietly
G-Get my materials out and ready for the next activity
E-Encourage my peers to get started (Lock, 2006)
In order to redirect bad behavior, I will compliment and bring attention to those students who are
on task and following directions. Most importantly, I will ensure that students are respected by
me and other classmates. If I respect a student, they are more likely to respect me and will

therefore listen to my directions. These techniques are meant for the entire class although some
students will need additional behavioral redirection.
Provisions for Student Grouping: I will assign groups for my students in order to save time
during class as well as ensure that students of different ability are placed together. Placing
students in heterogeneous groups helps students appreciate the ideas of others while learning to
negotiate differences (Grouping, N.D.). Heterogeneous grouping also helps students enhance
their self-esteem and leadership skills. In addition, heterogeneous grouping helps prepare
students for the workplace while increasing student achievement (Grouping, N.D.). By picking
the groups myself, I can ensure that there will be increased diversity since members of each
group will differ in ethnicity, popularity, gender and ability.
Procedures
Warm-Up/Opening (may be Motivator): Students will come into the classroom and begin the
warm-up in their notebooks. The teacher will have the questions for the warm-up on the
document camera projecting in the front of the room. This warm-up will ask students to recall
definitions from the previous days lesson. Students will have 6 minutes to complete the warmup. The warm-up will state:
Good Morning/Afternoon, Please define the following definitions to the best of your ability.
Make sure to work independently as the warm-up will be graded.
1.) Population
2.) Predator
3.) Density-Dependent Factors
When you have defined all three words, please turn your warm-up in and get the assignment
located at the front of the room.
As a class, we will go over the definitions of the vocabulary words from the warm-up. The
teacher will then ask the question, Which density-dependent factors can affect a population?
This portion of the lesson will take 6 minutes.
Motivator/Bridge: Now that we have reviewed a little from yesterday, we will be looking at a
specific population and the density-dependent factors that affect populations. I will ask you to
put your knowledge of populations and density-dependent factors to describe what is happening
to a population of deer. Scientists use this population data to determine the density-dependent
factors that affect deer populations right here in Maryland. Scientists, like you, use exponential
and logistic growth rates to predict the size of a population. This simulation will provide you
with an example of how population dynamics work. We will be completing this simulation
outside. Everyone should bring their assignment and a pencil outside. Please follow me outside
to the grassy area by the blacktop.
Procedural Activities:
Once outside, the teacher will review the procedures that are on the student handouts. The
teacher will go over the rules for the simulation and establish boundaries in the field. The teacher
will direct two students to stand on one side and the rest of the students will be on the other side

about 100 feet away. The two students on the one side will represent the deer and the students on
the other side will represent the environmental resources. The teacher will stand on the side to
represent the decomposers.
The teacher will tell the predator to face away from the environment and the environment
to face away from the deer. The teacher will then tell the environment group to choose the
resource they want to be and the deer group which resource they are searching for. Students
represent their resource by making a triangle over their head for shelter, hand over their mouth
for water and hand over their stomach for food.
Once a student has chosen a resource, they cannot change it. The teacher will tell the
environment group to turn around and face the deer. The environment group must always show
their resource. The teacher will tell the deer to turn around and run toward the environment, and
in particular the resource they choose. Deer must run straight and once they reach the
environment, they tag the resource they chose and stop. Deer may not run around in the
environment area searching for their resource.
If a deer tags a resource, the deer survives and reproduces one offspring. The tagged
environmental person will become a deer in the next generation. If a deer does not tag the
resource they were searching for, they die and go to the decomposer section. Decomposers go the
the environment after one generation. If a resource is not tagged, they stay where they are for the
next generation. Students repeat this procedure for 5 generations. Count the number of deer and
environment before you tell the students to go. Record the numbers in the data table. On the
4th generation, introduce a coyote. Have one student from the decomposers become a coyote.
The coyote stands where the teacher stands and goes on the same go as the deer. The coyote
then tries to tag as many deer as possible before they reach the environment. If the coyote tags
one deer, the coyote lives. Each additional deer becomes a coyote in the next generation. Record
the number of coyote in the data table (Lesson).
At the completion of the simulation, the class will return back inside and complete the
graph, the analysis questions and the conclusion. The rest of the class period will be for
completing the remaining sections of the assignment.
When there are 5 minutes remaining of class, the teacher will let the students know that if
they are not finished the assignment, it is homework. The teacher will then pass out and explain
the homework assignment for the day.
Adaptations: Some students in this class will need accommodations in order to complete the
simulation.
The class clown: In order to accommodate for the student who wants to be the center of
attention, I will choose this student to be one of the original deer. This will ensure that the
student is engaged in the simulation from the beginning of the activity. This attention may
be just what he needs in order to overcome being the class clown. Most of the time, class
clowns act out because of boredom or confusion (Hale, 2015). So if I ensure that the
student is busy during the entire activity and that the student understands the activity, the
student will participate and will be less likely to act out.
A very shy, overweight newcomer: In order to accommodate for this student, I will pull
her aside and suggest she participate in the simulation. I will set high expectations for her
so that she will have a higher chance of succeeding. Overweight children are at a higher

risk of being bullied, so I would ensure that this is not happening and will let her know
that if she ever needs to talk, I am available. By setting high expectations for her, she will
participate in the activity and will have a greater chance of making friends. If she makes a
few friends, her self-esteem may increase. To help her make friends, I will introduce her
to the opinionated female student that is perceived as a leader. If the relationship works, I
will suggest that the opinionated female be a mentor to the shy, overweight student.
One LD student who reads two grades below level: To accommodate for the student
who reads below level, I will read the directions aloud and have the students follow
along. Before the simulation begins, I will talk to the student to assure that he
understands the directions and has a clear idea of what to do. When it comes time to
make the graph and answer the analysis questions, I will sit with him to read him the
questions and break them down into a way that he can understand. I will use a graphic
organizer to break down the various different density-dependent factors that affect a
population. By using a descriptive or thematic map, the student will better comprehend
the material. It has been proven that graphic organizers enhance comprehension
(Strangman, 2003). With my help, the student will successfully complete the graphic
organizer. I will also allow for him to have extra time on the analysis questions.
One opinionated female student perceived as a leader by her peers: I will allow this
student to be a mentor to the very shy, overweight newcomer. This strategy will help the
opinionated female student become more of a leader. If others in the class see a
mentorship, they may be more likely to help those who are struggling.
A hearing impaired student who is very conscientious: To accommodate for a hearing
impaired student who is very conscientious I will make sure that when anyone in the
class is talking, this student can see the person speaking. Specifically, during the
simulation, I will raise my hand to signal that it is time to start and lower it when time is
up. In the classroom, I will seat this student in the front of the room to maximize her
comprehension. When we take notes in class, I will provide this student with a copy of
the notes. After new material is introduced, I will check comprehension by using a
graphic organizer. The graphic organizer I will use for this unit will be the descriptive or
thematic map (Strangman, 2003).
A gifted student with ADHD: In order to accommodate for the gifted student with
ADHD, I will seat this student close to my desk in the front of the room. When notes are
taken during class, I will provide this student with an outline. When directions are given,
like in the simulation, I will give this student one direction at a time. After getting to
know this student better, I will learn which ways the student tests best (oral, fill in the
blanks, etc.) and test the student that way for the remainder of the year. I will also enable
this student to complete his work on the computer. I will post the assignment onto Google
Classroom and he can complete the assignment. By keeping everything on the computer,
the student will stay better organized. With this specific assignment, I will shorten the
number of questions he is required to complete (Segal, 2016).

A Student Confined to a Wheelchair: In order to accommodate for the student confined


to a wheelchair I will place this student in a priority seat that allows access to all areas of
the room. I will ensure that everything in the classroom is accessible to this student.
During the simulation, I will bring the class to an area that is paved, like a basketball
court instead of a field so the wheelchair can move easily. If the student feels
uncomfortable participating, I will allow the student to record the data if he chooses.
Several students who prefer athletics to academics: To accommodate students that
prefer athletics to academics, I will be sure to incorporate activities that get the class
moving. This simulation is a great example of how I will get the class moving. Another
way that I can get the class moving is by creating stations within the classroom instead of
sitting in one location for the entire class period. In my examples, I will be sure to include
sports related topics. For example, when talking about mitosis and meiosis I can talk
about being injured while playing a sport and the process the body uses to repair itself.
A few musicians/students who like music: To accommodate students that like music, I
will incorporate music into the curriculum as much as possible. During independent
work, I will allow the students to listen to music while working as an incentive for good
quality work. I would be sure to offer this to the entire class, but only if work is being
completed while listening to music. I will also allow students to create music and lyrics to
certain projects throughout the year.
Assessment: During this lesson, there are various ways that the students are assessed. At the
beginning of the class, a warm-up was completed that was then turned in for a grade. This
specific warm-up checked for understanding from the previous days lesson as well as reviewed
vocabulary words that would help with the assignment later in class. The warm-up will be a
formative assessment and worth 6 points.
Since students are still learning about population dynamics and density-dependent
variables during the lesson, the analysis questions from the simulation will be a formative grade.
Each question of the analysis will be worth 1 point, the graph will be worth 16 points and the
conclusion will be 10 points. The graph will be graded for having a title, labels, a legend,
graphing correctly and neatness. The conclusion will be graded for understanding of the
question. The assignment will be worth a total of 16 points.
There will also be a homework assignment passed out at the end of class. The homework
assignment will check the students understanding of population dynamics and will be a
summative assessment.
A rubric will be given to the students for self-assessment for the graph and the
conclusion.
Summary/Closure: I will tell the students that the analysis questions, the graph, the conclusion
and the homework assignment are due at the beginning of class tomorrow. Most of the class
should have been able to complete the majority of the questions. I will go over the homework
assignment and the rubric. I will explain that it is a summative assessment.
Generalization/Extension Activity: This lesson is somewhat long and I do not expect the
students to finish the analysis questions, the graph, and the conclusion. If for some reason a

student does finish the assignment, I will have the student proofread his responses. Once the
student is satisfied with the final product, the student can then begin the homework assignment.
Review/Reinforcement (Homework): An assignment on population dynamics and densitydependent factors will be taken home to complete as homework. The homework assignment will
be collected the next day. This homework assignment will be a summative assessment that
checks for comprehension as well as provides feedback to the teacher. Students will answer
questions about population dynamics and density-dependent factors.
Reflection:
I believe that the lesson I created will be effective at engaging the students in my class.
Population ecology and the dynamics of populations can be difficult with the amount of
vocabulary terms and cause and effect relationships involved. From struggling with this concept
myself when I was in school, I know to spend extra time on the most challenging parts. I chose
the simulation because it gives the students a real-life example that they can see for
themselves. It is important that all students understand this topic before moving onto more
difficult topics that build on knowledge from this one. The warm-up was assigned to help the
students recall information from the previous day as well as to review terms before the activity
for the day. The terms that were on the warm-up were also in the activity. The warm-up also gave
me feedback of student comprehension from the previous lesson.
This lesson did not use groups because the simulation did not need them. I chose the
students randomly to be the deer or the coyote. When I picked the students for the simulation, I
picked them heterogeneously. It is best to pick groups heterogeneously to decrease the chances
of the lower students experiencing a dumbed-down curriculum. By grouping student
heterogeneously, the expectations for all students will be high, there are more opportunities for
the higher students to assist the lower students and the social and ecomocis inequalities are less
likely to occur (Glass, N.D.). If I can create equality in my classroom, I will do it by grouping
students heterogeneously.
In my lesson, I chose an activity that would engage all students by having them
participate in a simulation. This simulation got the students up and moving and can
accommodate the kinesthetic learner. The student who is the visual learner could have observed
the simulation taking place when they were a decomposer and the student who was a
reading/writing learner could have interpreted the data in the data table and answered the
questions about the simulation. I specifically chose this lesson because it catered to many
different learning styles. The simulation specifically catered to those students who enjoy sports.
This simulation is comparable to a game of tag.
To accommodate for the various students in my class, I changed the simulation slightly
for each. For the class clown, I decided to allow him to be the first deer. By providing him
attention, he may be less likely to act out. For the very shy, overweight newcomer, I decided to
pull her aside and tell her the high expectations I have for her and I let her know that I am here
for her if she needs any help. I also introduced her to the opinionated female student to help her
make friends. For the LD student who reads two grades below and the hearing impaired student,
I gave them a graphic organizer to assist their comprehension with the material. I offered
additional supports to each student based upon their specific situation. I helped the student that
reads two grade levels below to read and comprehend the questions for the analysis section of the
assignment and I came up with a way to signal the start and end of the simulation with hand

signals for the hearing impaired student. I decided to break the assignment up for the gifted
student with ADHD in order to help him focus on the assignment on hand. I also decided to
allow this student to work on the computer in order to organize his work. The opinionated female
student was given opportunities to use her leadership skills by becoming a mentor to the new
female student. It was my hope to have students model their behavior after the opinionated
student since she is seen as a leader. So in the future, more students would be willing to help a
new student. For the student confined to a wheelchair, I changed the location of the simulation to
allow for the free movement of the wheelchair. By doing this, the student can participate in all
aspects of the simulation.
To meet the needs of all my students, I had to differentiate my instruction in a few
different ways. It was my goal to have all my students succeed. To help all my students succeed,
I decided to differentiate the lesson in several different ways. I hope that this lesson proves to be
an engaging one that reaches all levels of students.
From completing this lesson plan, I learned that a lot of information and thinking goes
into each and every lesson that is planned. Lessons have specific goals and have to be tailored to
each class and to specific students. This lesson and its procedures may not work for another
school or even from year to year. I learned that teachers have to be flexible in their day to day
plans. Although all of this looks like it would work on paper, in all actuality the lesson or the
simulation may not work for these students so I must be flexible in my execution of this plan. By
knowing the students personally, I would have a better idea of whether I could use this lesson
with them.
Name:___________________________ Class:______ Date:____________________
Population Dynamics Lab
Purpose: You are going to create a population growth model for deer. The model will let you
examine how density-dependent factors will affect population size of deer.
Hypothesis: Write a hypothesis for the population and growth rate of deer if they are affected by
density-dependent factors. (Remember to use the If-Then-Because format for hypotheses).
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Materials: Open field, graph paper
Procedure:
Deer: Face away from the environment group and choose an environmental resource. Run and
tag the corresponding resource on the environment side. If you tag the resource, you live and go
back to the deer section for the next generation. If you do not tag a resource, you die and
decompose (stand next to the teacher).
Environmental Resource: Face away from the environment group and choose which resource
you want to be (shelter, food or water). If a deer tags you, you will become a deer in the next
generation. If no deer tag you, you stay as a resource for the next generation.

Decomposers: Stand next to the teacher for the next generation. Go to the environment side after
one generation.
Coyote: Stand next to the teacher. Run and tag as many deer as possible when the teacher says
go. If you tag one deer, you survive. If you tag more than one deer, they become a coyote in
the next generation.
Data:
Generation

Deer Population
1

Number of Environmental Resources


2

Coyote
Population
0

10

Graphing:
Create a line graph with population size on the y-axis and number of generations on the x-axis.
Use a legend and colored pencils to graph deer, environment and coyote populations. Mark and
label exponential growth and carrying capacity on your graph.
Analysis:
1.) What is the independent variable?
_______________________________
2.) What is the dependent variable?
_______________________________
3.) What are the control variables?
_______________________________
There are 2 types of population limiting factors: dependent and independent.
4.) In this lab, competition and predation were a __________________ limiting factor for
population size.
5.) Which type of limiting factor includes weather, human activities, and seasonal cycles?
______________________________________________________________________________
6.) Which type of limiting fact includes disease and parasites?
______________________________________________________________________________
7.) What happened to the deer that did not tag their corresponding resources?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
8.) Why did a tagged resource become a deer in the next round?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
9.) The largest number of deer able to survive in the provided environment is called
the____________________.
10.) What type of growth curve happened in the deer generations 1-4?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
11.) Why did the dead deer not become environment in the next generation?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

12.) Give 5 examples of decomposers.


______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Conclusion:
Explain how the environment influences the deer populations and how the introduction of
coyote affects the deer population growth.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

Adapted from Lesson Plans Inc.

Graphing Rubric
Scale

Labels

Origin

Axis

4
Exceeds
Standard

All intervals count Graph has a clear


by the same
title and clear
number of units
labels for both
and a reasonable axes, and the unit
interval was
the variable is
used.
measured in is
clearly stated.
Numbers clearly
correspond with
graph lines.

Graph starts at
0,0.

Dependent
variable is on the
y-axis;
independent is
on the x-axis.

3
Meets
Standard

All intervals count


by the same
number of units.

Graph has a title


and labels for both
axes, and the unit
the variable is
measured in is
included.

Graph starts at
0,0.

Dependent
variable is on the
y-axis;
independent is
on the x-axis.

Graph has a title


or labels for both
axes, or the unit
the variable is
measured in.

Graph may or may


not start at 0,0.

Variables may
not be on the
correct axes.

Graph does not


have a title or
labels for the
axes.

Graph may or may


not start at 0,0.

Variables may
not be on the
correct axes.

Numbers clearly
correspond with
graph lines.
Intervals may not
2
count
by the same
Approaching
number of units.
Standard
May be unclear
what the numbers
correspond with
(space or line).

1
Below
Standard

Intervals may not


count by the same
number of units.
Unclear what the
numbers
correspond with.

Adapted from
http://eeeems.bham.wednet.edu/staff/Berreth/documents/GRAPHINGRUBRIC.doc

Conclusion Rubric

Used time pretty


well. Stayed
focused on the
experiment most of
the time.

Did the lab but did


not appear
interested. Focus
was lost on several
occasions.

Participation was
minimal OR
student was hostile
about participating.

Scientific Concepts Conclusion


illustrates an
accurate and
thorough
understanding of
scientific concepts
underlying the lab.

Conclusion
illustrates an
accurate
understanding of
most scientific
concepts
underlying the lab.

Report illustrates a
limited
understanding of
scientific concepts
underlying the lab.

Report illustrates
inaccurate
understanding of
scientific concepts
underlying the lab.

Summary

Conclusion
describes the skills
learned, the
information
learned, and some
future applications
to real life
situations.

Conclusion
describes the
information learned
and a possible
application to a
real life situation.

Conclusion
describes the
information
needed.

No conclusion is
written

Spelling,
Punctuation and
Grammar

One or fewer
errors in spelling,
punctuation, and
grammar in the
conclusion.

Two or three errors


in spelling,
punctuation, and
grammar in the
conclusion.

Four errors in
spelling,
punctuation, and
grammar in the
conclusion.

More than 4 errors


in spelling,
punctuation, and
grammar in the
conclusion.

Participation

Used time will in


lab and focused
attention on the
experiment.

Adapted from RubiStar Home


Name:_____________________ Class:_______________ Date:_________________
Descriptive or Thematic Map

Main Idea

Adapted from Strangman, 2003


Name:_____________________ Class:______________ Date:__________________
Population Dynamics Homework
Please answer the following questions in complete sentences.
1.) What type of growth will a population show if the conditions are ideal?

2.) Name the seven types of density-dependent factors that weve learned about. For each
factor, describe its effect on a population of deer.

3.) What are density-dependent factors?

4.) What type of growth is present if the population levels off?

Resources

Graphing Rubric. Retrieved March 17, 2016, from


http://eeeems.bham.wednet.edu/staff/Berreth/documents/GRAPHINGRUBRIC.doc
Grouping Students for Instruction. (n.d.). Retrieved March 15, 2016, from
https://steinhardt.nyu.edu/scmsAdmin/uploads/004/911/grouping_students.pdf
Glass, G. V. (N.D.) Grouping Students for Instruction (Unpublished doctoral dissertation).
Arizona State University. http://nepc.colorado.edu/files/Chapter05-Glass-Final.pdf
Hale, L. (2015, November 8). Class Clown Or Gifted Student? It's A Matter Of Perspective.
Retrieved March 16, 2016, from
http://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2015/11/08/449169531/class-clown-or-gifted-student-itsa-matter-of-perspective
ISTE Standards Students. Retrieved from http://www.iste.org/standards/ISTEstandards/standards-for-students
Lesson Plans Inc. Population Ecology Lab. Retrieved from
http://www.lessonplansinc.com/lessonplans/population_ecology_lab.pdf
Lock, R. H., & Babkie, A. M. (2006). Be proactive in managing classroom behavior.
Intervention in School and Clinic, 41(3), 184-187.
Maryland College and Career-Ready Standards-Literacy. Retrieved from
http://mdk12.msde.maryland.gov/instruction/curriculum/disciplinary_literacy/in dex.html
Maryland College and Career-Ready Standards-Science. Retrieved from
http://mdk12.msde.maryland.gov/instruction/curriculum/science/index.html
NSTA Standards for Science. Retrieved from
http://www.nsta.org/preservice/docs/NSTAstandards2003.pdf
RubiStar Home. (n.d.). Retrieved March 17, 2016, from http://rubistar.4teachers.org/index.php?
ts=1458245729
Segal, J., & Smith, M. (2016, March). Teaching Students with ADD / ADHD. Retrieved March
16, 2016, from http://www.helpguide.org/articles/add-adhd/teaching-students-with-adhdattention-deficit-disorder.htm
Strangman, N., Vue, G., Hall, T., & Meyer, A. (2003). Graphic organizers and implications for
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