1.
INTRODUCTION
The objective of this experiment is to study the pressure profile and flow
characteristics for flow around a circular cylinder.
Some flows are smooth and orderly while others are rather chaotic. The
highly ordered fluid motion characterized by smooth layers of fluid is called
laminar. The flow of highviscosity fluids such as oils low velocities is typically
laminar. The highly disordered fluid motion that typically occurs at high
velocities and is characterized by velocity fluctuations is called turbulent. Air
at high velocities is typically one of the examples of turbulent flow. Flow that
happen between laminar and turbulent flow is called transitional. Reynolds
Number is the main parameter to determine the flow happen in the circular
cylinder.
Figure 1: Example of laminar and turbulent flow
External flows past objects have been studied extensively because of their many
practical applications. For example, air foils are made into streamline shapes in
order to increase the lifts, and at the same time, reducing the aerodynamic drags
exerted on the wings. On the other hand, flow past a blunt body, such as a
circular cylinder, usually experiences boundary layer separation and very strong
flow oscillations in the wake region behind the body. In certain Reynolds number
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range, a periodic flow motion will develop in the wake as a result of boundary
layer vortices being shed alternatively from either side of the cylinder. This
regular pattern of vortices in the wake is called a Karman vortex street.
It
creates an oscillating flow at a discrete frequency that is correlated to the
Reynolds number of the flow.
The periodic nature of the vortex shedding
phenomenon can sometimes lead to unwanted structural vibrations, especially
when the shedding frequency matches one of the resonant frequencies of the
structure.
Reynolds number will be considering high when (Re > 10000). At the
leading edge of the cylinder a stagnation point is formed where the oncoming
flow is brought to rest. The pressure here is equal to the stagnation pressure. To
either side of the stagnation point the flow accelerates around the forward
surface of the cylinder producing a drop in the pressure. Immediately adjacent to
the cylinder surface a thin boundary layer is formed. The boundary layer is a
region where the velocity drops rapidly to zero to satisfy the no slip condition at
the cylinder surface. The direct effects of viscosity are felt only within the
boundary layer.
If Re is less than about 400,000 the boundary layer remains laminar from
the stagnation point at the front of the cylinder to the point where it separates.
The laminar boundary layer separates just upstream of the maximum thickness.
Separation occurs because the boundary layer anticipates the deceleration of the
flow that would otherwise occur on the rearward face of the cylinder.
Downstream of separation the flow quickly becomes turbulent and a broad wake
is formed. The wake as a whole is unstable and rolls up into vortices that are
shed ant symmetrically at regular intervals from the cylinder. This type of wake is
called a von Krmn vortex street. Because of separation the pressure remains
low and approximately constant over the rearward face of the cylinder. This
causes a net imbalance of pressure forces on the cylinder, usually referred to as
the pressure drag. Pressure drag accounts for about 90% of the total drag on the
cylinder in this regime. The remaining 10% is due to skinfriction drag  friction
between the flow and the cylinder. Most skinfriction drag is produced on the
forwardface of the cylinder where the boundary layer is thin and velocity
gradients at the cylinder surface are large.
At Reynolds numbers greater than about 400,000 the boundary layer on the
forward face of the cylinder undergoes transition and becomes turbulent. The
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turbulent boundary layer generated in supercritical flow is much less susceptible
to adverse pressure gradients. It remains attached to the cylinder surface well
past its maximum thickness. As a result the wake is much narrower, the
imbalance of pressure forces on the cylinder surface is much smaller and the
pressure drag is greatly reduced. This reduction swamps a small increase in skinfriction drag produced by the greater length of the boundary layer and its
transition. Roughness of the cylinder surface or unsteadiness in the free stream
such as is present in the open jet wind tunnel, can cause boundary layer
transition at much lower Reynolds number.
2.0 APPARATUS
Figure 2: Reading tubes
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Figure 3: Circular cylinder with tapping holes
Figure 4: Wind tunnel
3.0
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
1. A 2inch diameter Circular cylinder has been put in a test section of wind
tunnel
2. 20 pressure tapping holes has been drilled over half of the circumferences
of the cylinder in order to measure pressure.
3. The holes were connected with to the multitube manometer using flexible
tube for pressure measurements.
4. The wind tunnel were switched on from 10 m/s to 20 m/s.
5. The reading were taken for each velocity.
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Page  5
4.0 RESULT AND SAMPLE CALCULATION
Test 1:
V = 10 m/s
Manometer height (tube 20),
h0
= 206 mm
Angle, ()
h (mm)
h  h(0) (mm)
P  P(0) (Pa)
Cp
Cp cos
202
04
0.03076416
0.0007848
0.0007848
10
202
04
0.03076416
0.0007848
0.0007729
20
204
02
0.01538208
0.0003924
0.0003687
30
206
40
210
04
0.03076416
0.0007848
0.0006012
50
212
06
0.04614624
0.0011772
0.0007567
60
216
10
0.0769104
0.001962
0.000981
70
220
14
0.10767456
0.0027468
0.0009395
80
220
14
0.10767456
0.0027468
0.000477
90
220
14
0.10767456
0.0027468
100
220
14
0.10767456
0.0027468
0.000477
110
220
14
0.10767456
0.0027468
0.0009395
120
220
14
0.10767456
0.0027468
0.001373
130
221
15
0.1153656
0.002943
0.001892
140
221
15
0.1153656
0.002943
0.002254
150
221
15
0.1153656
0.002943
0.002549
160
222
16
0.12305664
0.0031392
0.00295
170
222
16
0.12305664
0.0031392
0.003092
180
221
15
0.1153656
0.002943
0.002943
Table 1: Flow past over cylindrical shape (V=10 m/s)
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Sample calculation (when = 0):
hh0=0.2020.206
0.004 m
PP0 =g ( hh0 )
( 0.784 ) ( 9.81 ) (0.004 )
0.03076416 Pa
C P=
PP0
( 12 ) V
0.0296262
1
( 0.784 ) (10 )2
2
()
0.0007848
C P cos = (0.00078 ) cos 0
0.0007848
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Test 2:
V = 20 m/s
Manometer height (tube 20),
h0
= 168 mm
Angle, ()
h (mm)
h h(0) (mm)
P P(0) (Pa)
Cp
Cp cos
0
10
20
170
168
170
02
0
02
0.01538208
0
0.01538208
9.81E05
0
9.81E05
9.81E05
0
0.0000921
30
180
12
0.09229248
0.0005886
8
0.0005097
40
192
24
0.18458496
0.0011772
42
0.0009017
0.001962
87
0.0012611
0.0027468
0.0033354
0.0035316
0.0032373
0.0032373
0.0032373
49
0.0013734
0.0011408
0.0006133
0
0.0005622

50
60
70
80
90
100
110
208
224
236
240
234
234
234
40
56
68
72
66
66
66
0.3076416
0.43069824
0.52299072
0.55375488
0.50760864
0.50760864
0.50760864
0.0011072
120
236
68
0.52299072
0.0033354
15
0.0016677
130
238
70
0.5383728
0.0034335
14
0.0022070
140
238
70
0.5383728
0.0034335
16
0.0026302
150
238
70
0.5383728
0.0034335
11
0.0029734
160
240
72
0.55375488
0.0035316
92
0.0033186
170
236
68
0.52299072
0.0033354
22
0.0032847
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180
236
68
0.52299072
0.0033354
28
0.0033354
Table 2: Flow past over cylindrical shape (V=20 m/s)
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Sample calculation (when = 0):
hh0=0.1700.168
0.002 m
PP0 =g ( hh0 )
( 0.784 ) ( 9.81 ) ( 0.002 )
0.01538208 Pa
C P=
PP0
( 12 ) V
0.01538208
1
( 0.784 ) ( 20 )2
2
()
9.81 105
C P cos = ( 9.81 105 ) cos 0
9.81 105
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Coefficient of Pressure vs Angle,
0
0
0
Speed V = 10 m/s
Coefficient of Pressure
0
0
0
Speed V = 20 m/s
50
100
150
200
0
0
Angle, (degree)
Figure 5: Graph coefficient of pressure vs angle
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Cp cos vs Angle,
0
0
0
0
0.5
1.5
2.5
3.5
Speed = 10 m/s
Speed = 20 m/s
0
0
0
Angle, (radian)
Figure 6: Graph Cp cos vs angle
5.0 DISCUSSION
From this experiment, the purpose of this experiment was to understand
and determine the pressure profile and flow characteristics for flow around a
circular cylinder. In this experiment, angles and heights were the variables that
recorded in the table. The rest of result were calculated from the data obtained.
By using the difference in manometer heights, the pressure gradient should be
easy to calculate. Measurements of static pressure coefficient on the cylinder
surface were used to determine the curve in the graph.
The cylinder was inserted in such a way that its longitudinal axis was
perpendicular to the direction of the moving stream of air. This is known as cross
flow. For a given setting of the wind speed in the tunnel, pressure probes were
used to measure the pressure at selected points located all around the perimeter
of the cylinder. Data were collected from 0 to 180, using 10degree increments
around the surface of the cylinder. After a given run had been completed, the
setting of the wind tunnel was changed to a new speed and the test was
repeated. This allowed for the cylinder to be tested at two different speeds which
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is 10m/s and 20m/s. The pressures that resulted from each speed setting were
used to calculate the corresponding pressure coefficients.
Results are presented in Table 1 and Table 2 where each variables and
parameters were represented in test 1 and test 2 respectively. In the table
shown, the angle can be determined by the locations tabulated starting from
00 to 180o. By reading the multitube manometer, each pressure taping position
can be obtained corresponding with the pressure measurement. In this
experiment the density of the fluid was given at 0.784 kg/m3. Hence by using the
formula of multiplying density, difference in taping position and the gravity
value, the pressure coefficient can then calculated with the presence of velocity.
Thus, the pressure coefficient should be easily determined using the angle
recorded.
This experiment was done using two different speeds each at v 1=10m/s
and v2=20m/s. The height for v1 and v2 is 206mm and 168mm respectively.
Based on the calculated data, the table was completed and a graph for both test
was constructed. In the graph, the variables used for yaxis is the pressure
coefficient and for the xaxis is represented by the location on the circumference
of cylinder.
The coordinate system used is shown in graphs plotted where in the test
1, the Cp started with a constant pressure through 0 o to 10o. The curve at a
velocity of 10m/s was then increased rapidly all the way from 20 o to 60o. The Cp
begin constant at 70 until 120. Then it increase at 130o and continue constant
in between 130 to 150o, the coefficient of pressure was again increase at 160
and decrease in steady manner. The fluctuation manners in this state may
happen due to the unstable red fluid in the manometer which enable us to get
the accurate data from the manometer. It was found out that in this test, the
maximum and minimum coefficient of pressure were 0.0031392 and 0.0007848
respectively.
In the test 2, it was observed that the curve line is smoother compares to
the test 1 and it initially have a Cp = 9.81E05 before the pressure coefficient
started to increase at 200 location of the circumference of the cylinder. It is
believed that the smooth pace of the curve may happens due to the stable
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manometer fluid at manometer. After reached its maximum pressure coefficient
of 0.0035316 at angle of 80, the Cp began to form a constant value from 90 0 to
1100 in which after that increased at 120 and repeating constant from 130 0 to
150 a. It increase at 160 and lastly started to fall for the last angle location at
1800. When such data have been plotted, the shape of the resulting curve and
the magnitudes of the pressure coefficients at different points can be used to
determine the effects of viscosity and the Reynolds number.
The study of flows over cylinders allows students to determine how the
pressure changes with two different variables, which are the location of a point
along the circumference of the cylinder and the magnitude of the Reynolds
number of the flow. It also gives us an opportunity to have practical experience
with the concepts of pressure drag, flow separation and viscous wakes. The main
purposes of that graph are to demonstrate and quantify the differences between
the behaviour of ideal flows.
As we can see from the Figure 5, the behaviour of pressure in this two test
is no really have a different. For the speed of 10 m/s, it line does not smooth as
compared to the speed of 20 m/s. At angle of 90 and 100 there are intercept
with each other. After that, they keep decrease until the end. Unfortunately, a
closedform expression of Cp as a function of , cannot be obtained analytically
when the fluid is viscous. This is because neither the pressure distribution nor
the velocity is known at every point along the surface of the cylinder.
Radial lines shown there indicate the magnitude of the pressure coefficient
on the surface of the cylinder. The sign of radial lines show an outside the
surface of the cylinder indicate negative pressure coefficients, whereas radial
lines drawn inside the cylinder represent positive pressure coefficients. In Figure
6, it can be seen that, for inviscid flows, pressure recovery is complete on the
downstream side of the cylinder. This is demonstrated by the existence of a
vertical axis of symmetry at = 90. Such is not the case at all in viscous flows,
even for a fluid such as air, which has a very low viscosity.
6.0 CONCLUSIONS
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For overall view, we had successfully to study pressure distributions
around a circular cylinder in cross flow. This experiment allowed us to use our
own data to examine how the pressure on the surface of the cylinder changes
with the location of a given point along the circumference of the cylinder. Results
obtained were very similar to those in the research literature. Results were used
to demonstrate how viscous flow behaviour in the upstream half of the cylinder
differed from that on its downstream half, and to examine how Reynolds
numbers above the critical value that trips turbulence enhance the ability of a
viscous flow to recover pressure on the downstream side of the cylinder and to
reduce drag.
The graph of pressure versus angular position on the circumference of the
cylinder can be plotted using rectangular coordinates as shown in Figure 5. In
Figure 6, only data for the top half of the cylinder were shown (from 0 to 180).
This is because flow is symmetrical about the horizontal diameter of the cylinder
in inviscid, as well as viscous flows.
7.0 REFRENCES
1. Yunus A. Cengel, John M. Cimbala, Fluid Mechanics Fundamental and
Applications,
McGraw Hill, 2nd Edition in SI Units, 2010.
2. Thermalfluids lab sheet.
3. www.vermontveterinarycardioloy.com/index.php/forcardiologist?id=127.
Retrieved on 27th September 2016.
4.
www.mdp.eng.cam.ac.uk/web/library/enginfo/aerothermal_dvd_only/aero/frops/p
oten/node37.html. Retrieved on 28th September 2016.
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