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Analytical Study on Arba n y t; as a

Method of Collection in adth


Literature*

As a second source of divine Guidance, Holy prophet (may Allah Bless


him and Grant him peace) always encouraged his companions to take
care Adth which they got from him, by memorizing, understanding
and transmitting to next generation. The prophet (may Allah Bless him
and Grant him peace) said:
May Allah make radiant (the face of) some one
who heard what I have said, has learnt it by heart
and transmitted it to others as he heard it,
because may be the person who got the adth has
deeper understanding than the transmitters.1
The companions, while following this prophetic guidance, they
remained in competition in recording Adth and transmitted them to
each other as well as they transmitted them to the followers
(Taban).2 By spreading of Islam, the companions narrated Adth to
their students anywhere they came. The followers also raised this step
as they narrated such Adth to successors. They sacrificed their
lives; by taking long journeys whole in the world in connection with
collection of Adth. They faced every sort of sufferings, painful
process and unbearable difficulties in seeking Adth and its
*

Sumaira Nawaz, Lecturer University of Wah, Wah Cantt.

collection. Consequently hundreds of ulema from every generation


took part in collecting Adth and verified their authenticity. They also
started the series of huge storage of adth as compiled into many
books.

For that determined, interesting and continuously compilation, scholars


of adth adopted different methods and ways. Those reached on
climate with the passage of time. These methods and ways of
compilation of adth were developed according to the individual taste
of compilers, which they compiled in a book shape on adth. So it is
very essential for readers of adth books, to well aware of all
methods, ways, tastes and styles of the compilers of different kinds of
adth books.

Here, it will be discussed on some methods for the selection of adth


literature for its compilation by covering the position of Arban among
these methods. First of all, during the lifetime of Prophet(may Allah
Bless him and Grant him peace), some of his companions and their
followers wrote down the sayings of Prophet(may Allah Bless him and
Grant him peace) . They made notes for their own guidance, and these
notes resulted for larger works produced later. These collections are
called ah fah. Collection of Ab Hurairah, which was taught and
handed over by his student Hammam b. Munabbih, is one of the

examples of ahfa.

The most important ahfah was collected by

Abd Allah b. Amr b. al s with the title of Al ahfah al adiqah.

According to Ibn Athir, this ahfah al- adiqah includes two thousand
Adth.

Except these, Prophet (may Allah Bless him and Grant him

peace) made many letters, orders and treaties on different occasions,


which were preserved by different companions individually for their
own informations.4
In the time of Umar b. Abd al-Azz,m the compilation of adth were
not in the form of ahfah but in the form of Books. Many books came
to appear e.g. Kutub al-Qz by AbiBakr, Rislah by Salim b. Abd
Allh, Diftar by al- Zuhr and Abwb by Shab etc.5Mostly in this
period, compilers had collected Adth without any sequence of
subject but few had adopted the method as imam Shabi, divided his
collection, Al- Abwb into chapters and each chapter contains
Adth related to one Topic. However, this method was not perfect as
it was only for its initial stages.
After 125 A.H, ulema ul adth started to collect Adth according to
chapters on fiqh , as Kitab al- Athr by Imam Yousaf. Then Imam Mik
This ahfah ware very significant in a story of the compilation of adth, for it was
transmitted as original as compiled by Hammam b. Munabbih. Like Al ahfah al
adiqah, Dr. Hamidullah found the manuscript of ahfah of Ab Hurairah,
completely, on the basis of two manuscripts; Manuscript of Damascus and Berlin.
From here it is very clear the fault of Brockelman, who noted that this ahfah
belongs to Hammam b. Munabbih (d.151A.HG)
2
See or more details, amdullah, Emergence of Islam, pp.4-49
3
Ibn Athr, Izzudn, Usd ul- Ghabah, Shib, 1970, vol.3,p.233
4
See, Sib, Musaf in Al Sunnah wa Maknatuh f al- Tashr al- Islm, p.60. and
Nadw Syed Suleman, Tarkhiyat, Khutbt e Madaris, 1983, pp.49-54
5
Abbasi, Abdul amd, Tadwn e adth ke Asalb wa Manhij, Madn Abd ulRahman, Muaddith, Lahore: Majlis al Tehqeeq al- Islami, July, 1996, vol.xxvii, p.90
1

also followed the same methods in his collection, Muwatta. In which


first he mentioned Adth related to prescribed chapter then the
sayings of companions and followers. These both collections are the
first example of chapter wise arrangement, which is called as
Mu anaf. So, Muanaf are those large collections of Adth in
which Adth relating to most or all of the various topics mentioned
above are put together and arranged in various books or chapters,
each pertaining with a particular topic.6

At the end of second century, another new method was adopted,


according to this method, Adth are collected and arranged
irrespective of their subject matter. In other words Masan d means
those collections of Adth arranged according to the names of
companions including their various Isnd. The compilations according
to this method are called Masand. Musnad Imam Amad b. anbal
and Musnad Ishq b. Rahwiah are examples of such methods of
compilation.7

When Masand works were started, people felt difficulty to find out the
relevant adth in their objects. So Ulema of adth thought about the
compilation according to content wise. However, this method is divided
See, Siddiq,Muammad Zubair, the adth for beginners, good words books,
2001,p.42.
7
See, Irfan Abd al Qadir, footnote on Suyu, Tadrb ul Rawi, p.13.
Dehlvi, Muaddith Shah Abd al Azz, Fawid Jami A'jla Bar Nafi, translated by
Abd al Halm Chisht, Karachi: Nr Muammad Karkhana Tijrat e Kutub, 1964, p.49
6

into three categories. Firstly, some ulema compiled only those


Adth, which are ahih according to them. e.g. Imam Bukhr,
Muslim and Tirmidh etc and their compilations are called Al- J wami.
Al- Jawmi are those books which contain Adth about eight
prescribed topics as Aqid(Beliefs), Ahkm(including all subjects of
fiqh from Taharat(purity to wasya(exhortation), Al-Raqaiq(piety,
asceticism, mysticism), Adab(etiquette in eating, drinking, traveling
etc), Tafsr(commentary on Qurn), Tarkh and Siyar(historical and
biographical matters which includes the lives of Prophet , his
companions and successors), Munaqib(denunciation of person or
places etc) and Fitn(crices).8Second kind is that compilation, for which
only contain Adth al Ahkm(legal- liturgical traditions), omitting
material relating to historical, spiritual and other matters which has
been done by Imam Darmi(d.255A.H), Abu Daud(d.275A.H), Imam
NisaI(d.303A.H) and Imam Darqun(d.85A.H)etc. these collections
are called Sunan. According to Ulema ul adth, Sunan are those
compilations which contain only MarfuAdth on fiqhi chapters.9
Third kind is such compilation which is arranged according to fiqh
chapters including Marfu, Muquf and Maqtu Adth and called as
Mu anaf t. Muanaf Abd al- Radhq and Muanaf Ibn Abi Shaybah
are the famous kinds of these collections.

10

See, Dehlvi, Shah Abd al Azz, Fawaid Jami' ajla bar Nafiah, p.47
Ibid, and
Siddiq,Muammad Zubair, the adth for beginners,p.44
10
See,Ibid,p.42
8
9

Some scholars have selected the method of Mustadrak . It is called


such collections of adth in which compilers, having accepted the
conditions laid down by any previous compiler, collects together such
traditions fulfill those conditions but neglect the previous compiler.
Mustadrak of Al- Hakam belongs to this category, which collected
together such Aadth which fulfilled the conditions laid down by
Bukhr and Muslim, but not included by them in their ahihin.11

Ulema ul adth adopted another new method, in which a later


compiler of them collected together fresh Isnd for such Aadth as
were collected by pervious compiler on the basis of different chains of
Isnd. This method is called Mustakhraj. Al- Mustakhraj of Ismail on
ahih al- Bukhr, Mustakhraj of Abu Nuaym on the ahih al- Bukhr
and Muslim belong to this category. They have given them a fresh
chain of Isnd for some Aadth, which were already included by
Bukhr and Muslim in their ahih but different Isnd12
Some ulema of adth adopted one more new method of Mujam for
the compilation of adth. The term Mujam is generally applied to
such work on various subjects. These are different from one author to
another. Some times it is arranged according to alphabetical listing of
the companions. Some times, according to region, and some times
11
12

Tahan Mahmd, Taysir Mutalah al adth, p.38.


Ibid, pp.39-40

according to alphabetical listing in which names of teachers of the


compiler are mentioned as Imam Tabarn had done in his Mujam alSaghr.

13

The Ijza are such collections of adth which have been written down
on the authority of one single individual whether a companion or any
subsequent generation e.g. Juz of Ab Bakr, in which all the narrations
of Ab Bakr are compiled. The term Juz is also applied to such
collections of adth which have been compiled on a particular subject
matter- e.g. intentions the wisdom of God etc. According to some
ulema the collection of forty Aadth, Arbain y t belongs to this
category as mentioned above.14 Dr. Muhammad Zubyer Siddiqi, in his
discussion about the classification of the books of adth, has regarded
Arbanyt (collection of forty adth) as one of these collection, and
he mentioned it at number eleventh, by sayings:
The Abainyt, as the name shows, are
collections of Aadth to one or more subjects
which may have appeared to be special
interest to the compiler. An example of this
class is the Arbain of al- Naww.15
Hence every compiler has adopted his own style. These all-different
methods and styles of the compilation do not affect the authenticity of

See, Dehlvi, , Fawid Jami A'jla Bar Nafi, p.50


See Suy Tadrb al Rw, np.14 and
Dehlvi, Fawid Jami A'jla Bar Nafi, p.50
15
See, Siddiq,Muhammad Zubair, the adth for Beginners, p.45
13
14

adth books. Sometimes, ignorance from these important methods


creates confusion in the mind of readers.
However great care and attention has been paid by Ulema al-adth
while adopting these methods. This was not done by accidentally but
Ulema al-adth devoted them to preserve it for ever shining.
Arbanyt is a useful and effective method for the compilation of
adth, which are not just served to consign the conducts and
personality of Holy prophet (may Allah Bless him and Grant him peace)
in front of people as role model but served to an easy approach toward
adth literature as well as to viaduct the gape between scholars of
adth and common people. In spite of this great importance, Arbain
literature has not attracted towards scholars as compared to others
fields of Islamic studies and adth. No serious effort has been made
to study it thoroughly. Some compilers had just discussed it generally
in the preface of their Arban collections.3 The discussions of
compilers transpire just the significance of Arban compilations but
not any critical notes or nature of Arban collections has been
thrashed out. Only Dr. Khalid Alavi has made a marvelous work by
discussing the true basis of Arban in Islamic traditions as well as a
brief survey of Arban literature.4 He also agreed that before him,
professors Karahan has studied the Arban, but only with in the
context of Turkish literature, then just two analytical and useful articles
on the Arban an Nawawi by Eric Bishop were written.5 So having lots

of uses and pithiness especially for existing modern age a critical study
on Arbanyt is essential to make its status as clear in adth
literature as well as its importance in Muslim practices. This analytical
study is a kind of an impression after reviewing and studying many
books of Arbanyt, and many other references relating with the area
under discussion which would be discussed in detailed in the following
sub divisions.

The Nature of Arba n y t:


The huge collection of Arban literature indicates that this method of
collection was much liked as well as accepted by many ulema,
irrespective the adth about the virtues of Arban, which is
considered weak by great number of scholars of adth.
Moreover Haj Khalifa in his valuable book Kashaf ul ann put a
specific chapter titled: Kutub al- Arbanyt fi al- adth wa Ghairuh
(books of Arbanyt and others)6 this title indicates that Arbanyt
has not only compiled in adth, but also valuable in many other fields.
Hence he presented a long list of Arbanyt under this title relevant
in adth or others.
The general nature of Arbanyt is its restriction to specific numbers
for some purposes. Arbanyt indicates forty Adth as in provision
for its compilation. After studying Arbain an- Nawawi, it has observed
that Imam Nawawi collected forty-Two Adth instead of forty in his
collection.7 The last two Adth are related to general advice and
prayer. However these two extra Adth have some worth benefits for
people.

Hence does not a matter as the basic requirement is forty

Adth and in his collection of forty-two, 40 are already present.


Thats why many compilers and commentators have added some more
Adth in the collections of forty Adth on the other hand some
people considered that the number forty is a rigid condition which
must be followed not less or more. This is the reason that many
compilers have collected exact forty Adth in their Arban
collections.8

Arba n y t as a Method of Collection:


In spite of having lots of chains, majority of compilers agreed upon the
weakness of adth which is about the virtuous of collecting or
transmitting Arbanyt. However it is recommended by scholars of
adth to apply weak adth regarding virtues deeds. So, on the basis
of this, there are many compilers involving in this process.
Imam Nawawi in his introduction to Arban remarked that he did not
rely on such adth in his compilation of Arban. He based his
compilation on such Adth which were about the virtuous of
transmitting adth. It is clear that Imam Nawawi compiled his Arban
not for considering the contents of the weak adth, but by realizing
these forty Adth as method of compilation. The concept of Arban
as a method among various methods of compilations, it is something
natural. Thats why in Arban an- Nawawi, it can be find forty-two
Adth instead of exactly forty. Infect Imam Nawawi intends to show
that number forty is not an exact figure to execute while collecting
Adth regarding Arban. There are many kinds of compilations of
adth out of these Arbanyt. Like Al- Jami us- ahh by Imam
Bukhari and Imam Muslim etc.9

10

Different Motives and Objectives of Arba n y t:


After analyzing the whole variables of text it can be said that there are
no any specific terms and conditions for compiling Arbanyt. The
word ( who) for the subject is used in the adth regarding virtuous
of Arban, which means every one can do this, so there is no any
restriction for the compilers. Any person either he is Hafiz, Muaddith,
Alim or common Muslim can compile forty Adth relating to matters
of Din. Mostly some Muaddithn and ulema have taken a great part in
the compilation of Arban and only due to their efforts this institution
is in progress so far. Most of common people are not well aware of such
motivating adth about the virtues of Arbanyt. More than,
Muaddith or Alim can do it well because he knows all sensitive things
in the sciences of adth and he will take care while collecting
Adth. So Muaddithn and ulema should disburse some extra
efforts in Arban literature for making it strengthen.

In the light of above condition, many Arban collections have


appeared. Each and every sect of Muslims has compiled Arban
Adth.10

Moreover different motives and objectives of collecting

forty Adth emerged. Of course there are many ulema who did this
job for seeking rewards from Allah, but we can not deny that there are
many others who did Arban collection for different purposes. Such as:
(i) to earn reputation as transmitter: with the intention that who
collects forty Adth he can get the status equal to Faqih or Alim or
etc as quoted by Holy Prophet(may Allah Bless him and Grant him
peace), some compiled Arbanyt. (ii) Response upon students
demand: it means that students requested to their teachers for
compilation of Arban Adth as a comprehensive guidance from
their teacher, consequently some Arbanyt were compiled in
11

response of students thirst. (iii) To establish the name as great


ulema: it means that some compilers of Arban did their collections,
for establishing their names as of deep understanding in religious
matters. (iv) Monetary benefits: in the Ottoman and Safavids
period, some people desired to get high place in the court and to be
counted among the prominent personalities of religious class, tried to
compile forty Adth. For example Osman Zade Taib compiled forty
Adth and presented them to the Sultan Ahmad III on the occasion of
his recovery from illness.

11

(v) As a result of Sectarianism: for

example Arbain al- Hashimiah by Syed Mehdi al- Alvi, who just
compiled

the Adth

of shiat sect, by referring

its specific

compilation of adth like al- Usul min al- Kafi, by al- Kulaini, which is
similar to Sahih Bukhari, in Sunni sect. (vi) Thematically study on
Hadith: Such as Arban fi al- Jihad by Muhy ad Din Muhammad b.
Abdullah b. Zumrah. And Arban fi usul al Din by Fakhr ud- Din
Uhammad Umar al- Razi etc. These all above are temporary objectives
but the basic purpose, which remained ever in the mind of the
compilers of Arban, was to get reward at the Day of Judgment.

Various versions of Arba n y t:


Although it is not mentioned, in the conditions of Arbanyt that how
Adth should be collected, but there are some rules and principles
while selecting any adth in accordance with the conditions of
Arbanyt

in sciences

of

adth.

This

is

necessary for

the

authenticity of such collection.12 So, for academic and educational


approval every compiler made his best in collecting adth. Most of
them mentioned the whole chain constantly. As in Arban fi al- Hiththi
ala al- Jihad, the compiler had given continues chain up to his
contemporary era. He never broke his chain at any place. 13 While in
Arban fi Munaqib e- Ummahat ul Muminin, Compiler himself
12

Narrated Adth by his own Sanad. For proving his own sanad he also
described status (what they got in Islamic History) of other narrators in
his Sanad. Thats why some times his Sanad became too lengthy than
the original text in his compilation. 14 On the other hand Imam Nawawi
did not mention the whole chain of Isnad. He just mentioned the last
narrators of selected Adth, who directly heard it from prophet. 15
However, after exclusive revisions by many scholars of adth,
regarding its authenticity he has mentioned the source (from where he
took particular adth). So one can easily digs out the source and can
see the whole chain of its narrators.
Hence we cannot say that incomplete chain is a negative point of
Arban Al- Nawawi. In fact this short cut has been made only for
making it easy to memories by people. The Basic purpose and priority
of Imam Nawawi is to convey the message to the people which can be
easily memorize and explicable to every common Muslims.
Presently, all Islamic teachings already exist in absolute way. Quran
already completed in the life of Holy Prophet (may Allah Bless him and
Grant him peace) and adth has also compiled into canonized sources
in few later centuries after prophets death. Hence no any new
compilation will be accepted now without rechecking in the light of
canonized sources. The compilers of Arban had tried to find their
selected Adth on the basis of those canonized sources. Readers
refer to all those compilations which are taken by canonized sources.
As far as study on Arban is concerned, it can be considered good and
more genuine, when it is based upon canonized sources. An Analysis
on some important Arbanyt shows that 93% of Arban al- Nawawi
is based upon canonized sources. Where as 7% of his collection is from
other sources which are: Darqutni, Bayhaqi and Kitab ul Hujja. 16 The
reason is that some compilers have more preference to the soundness
13

of adth than the sources. While selecting Arban adth, Imam


Nawawi sought to collect Adth, from where he could find them. For
his choice he preferred the soundness of adth. It does not matter
whether those are present in six authentic books (kutub e- sitta) or not.
On the other hand, 55% of Al Arban fi al- Haththiala al- Jihad, is
based upon canonized sources. While 43% are without references. It
could not be identified why he did not mention the sources. In Arban
fi Munaqib Umaht ul Muminn, the sources, which are mentioned, all
are authentic and canonized but almost half part is without references.
The reason is same as above or the reason may be he got Adth
directly from his teachers by his own Sanad. Moreover if we study
deeply under researched Arbanyt it will be find that Imam Nawawi
has taken 22% from top narrators of adth, and Ali b. skir however,
some time mention notorious narrators while he took 50% from top
rank narrators. While 52 % of Arban fi Munaqib Umaht ul Muminn,
is from top ranking narrators whose reliability is proved.
Going through deeply into Arban literature, it transpires that every
compiler had adopted his own methodology. Some just collected and
arranged forty Adth regarding one aspect. Some gave little
explanation on the difficult words. Some presented short commentary
on the text of selected Adth; some mentioned sources at the end,
and some mentioned the conditions of selected Adth. Similarly after
studying Arban al Nawawi, one can find the condition of selected
Adth with short Isnad but at the end of adth he makes clear its
sources. Then he gave a short commentary on its difficult words. In Al
Arban fi al- aththi ala al- Jihad, Al b. Askir just mentioned the
closed Isnad and at many places he mentioned the sources not as a
whole. While in Arban fi Munaqib Umaht ul Muminn, Abd al
Rahman have not Just given his own sanad but also gave a short

14

commentary on difficult words of the text, condition of adth, Sanad


and meanings of adth.
However each Arban has its own methodology but mostly compilers
being great scholars of adth, had put very positive role in making
powerful literature for Arban having different methodologies. Some
of them put immense care on the conditions of adth, some in Isnad
system, and some gave preferences to Subject matters. Due to these
different methodologies some of Arbanyt got popularity among
people. Arban al Nawawi is very famous among common people due
to the significance of its subject matter.

Topical diversities of Arba n y t:


As Arban literature is very vast and comprehensive, it has many
fields. Regarding this Imam Haji Khalifa under the title Kutub
Arbanyt said:
Great scholars have written regarding Arbanyt un countable
books with different topics some of them collected forty Adth
regarding only Tuhd and proving His attributes, some of them only
concentrated in collecting Adth regarding Ahkam (laws), some of
them limited themselves to adth regarding worships
(Ibbadat), some of them confined themselves to Adth regarding
admonitions, Humbleness, some of them concentrated only for
authentic Isnad of adth, which is free from any kinds of defects,
some of them only collected Adth having high Isnad, some of them
liked to collect Adth having lengthy text when the listener hared he
will be pleased about etc.17

15

According to survey on Arban literature, the subjects matters of


Arbanyt

can be classified into following categories: (i) Arba n

relating to Tawh d:

there are number of Arbanyt compiled

about the ones of Allah almighty and His attributes. For example,
Arban fi Dalail at- Tawhd by Abdullah b. Muammad b. Ali
Muammad Ab Ismal al- Harawi. (ii) Arba n relating to Risalat
al- Nabawi: many Arbanyt are compiled for traditions relating to
Prophethood, its proofs, and the sirah of Holy Prophet as Al- Imta bi al
Arban min Ibar min as Sunnah by Ibn ajr Asqaln and Arban fi
Fadail al- Nabiy al- Amnby Muammad ahir al- Qadr etc. (iii)
Arba n relating to fundamentals tents of Islam: Basically
Arbanyt

are compiled for providing guidance through adth to

the basic and more necessary thing of Din. Majority of its compilers
kept in their minds these important needs of human being, so great
scholars have tried to compile all those Adth, having full essence of
Islamic teachings. Arban of Nawawi contains each adth with full
guidance and called as one third of Islam. (iv) Arbain relating to
Jihad: many Arbanyt are compiled on Jihad, for example Arban
fi al- Jihad by Muammad b. Abd al Rehman al- Jawzi.
Besides this, there are many other fields of Arban literature as
regarding worship, Juristic traditions, about exhortation, asceticism and
compassion, marital guidance on the devotional mention of God, about
virtues of many people and merits of Hajj. These all shows that how
the Arban Literature have diversity in its nature and cover all aspects
of Muslims life as self- explanatory guidance.

General characteristics of Arba n y t:

16

Basically having spiritual and devotional objectives, Arbanyt got


more importance over other compilations of adth. There are many
characteristics which make Arbanyt distinguish from others as: (i)
Sufficient

basis

for

particular

subject:

there are restricted

numbers of Adth in Arbanyt in single collection by particular


theme. These restricted numbers of Adth fulfill the requirements of
particular matters by focusing readerss attention. (ii) Coverage of
every aspect of life: Arbanyt are almost, about one particular
subject. So, till now uncountable Arbanyt as stated by the author
of Kashf ul- Znn- are compiled on different subjects which cover all
the aspects of life. We can gain knowledge for any aspect of our life
with the help and guidance of Adth literature, related to the
traditions of holy prophet(may Allah Bless him and Grant him peace).
Abd al aq Muaddith e- Dehlvi, the writer of Isht al- Lumat
compiled Arban after collecting Adth from every chapter of din.

18

(iii) Its simplicity: Arban Adth are arranged in a very simple


method. This contains all Adth relating to one topic of one nature. If
a person puts care while taking Adth for their authenticity its
better. So by this simple collection every layman can find help from
this. (iv) Easy to memorize: As Arbanyt consist of all relating
traditions of Holy Prophet (may Allah Bless him and Grant him peace),
people can easily memorize the forty adth on the same topics.
Thats why many institutions commencing from elementary schools to
universities level have selected Arban an Nawawi as requirement of
the subject to memorize their students. (v) Thematically study on
Hadith: the basic motive for compiling Arbanyt is to collect forty
Adth relating to religious matters. This is the reason many scholars
compiled Arban on different basis regarding Usul ul Din. Very
minutely it can be said that Arban literature is successfully providing
a thematically study for Muslims in spit of its shortness and simplicity
than other compilations of adth literature. (vi) Collection of
17

authentic traditions: Although there is not any restriction for


compiling Arban Adth to any person but majority of its compilers
took pain and tried their best for the selection of authentic Adth. So
authenticity of adth is mostly guaranteed in Arban literature.

Arba n y t and Modern People:


In present modern age a man seems like robot machine, he has no
time to sit for a long time to study lengthy books or he has no instant
for going to special center for religious study. Arban is very helpful for
such modern people, who can read it everywhere due to having its
little material. So, they understand the real Islamic teachings through
those Adth remaining busy with their worldly activities.
Everybody knows that the existing modern age is known by the age of
specialization, where in every scholar took his field and specialized
himself in it. Every field of knowledge is being more advanced day by
day through its specialization in each and every aspect. adth
possesses a vast scope, as some scholars are doing specializing in
Sanad, some in terminologies of adth, and some in rationality of
adth some in history of companions etc. Arban collection has also
become one field of specialization for the scholars. So, the scholars of
adth by Arbanyt had done their specialization that is by
providing a specific study on adth, regarding specific topic, and
collected them into one anthology of Arban. This method of study
has now become a trend in modern universities. There are many
universities those advise their students- in the field of adth for
example- to study adth thematically. That is by collecting Adth
regarding one topic, after they arrange them in systematic manner,

18

through this study comprehensive solutions can be set up to solve


many problems of modern people.
So, here subject matter of Arbanyt is clear. Mostly Arbanyt are
compiled on major problems on Muslim Ummah. Imam Nawawi has
collected Arban, relating to the basic teachings of Islam; hence he
collected all Adth in different topics. Ali b. Askar had collected
forty Adth on one specific topic; Jihad that is also a compulsory
need of Muslim ummah. The history of Muslim ummah indicates that
whole process of establishing Islamic teachings never remained free
from any examinations, and jihad is very important examination in
Islam. While Abd al Rahman b. Asakar had tried to collect Arban
Adth regarding Prophet (may Allah Bless him and Grant him peace)
s wives, for they are the best examples of every Muslim, to become s
good Muslim who realize properly the Islamic teachings.

19

Ibn Hiban, Muhammad at- Tamimy, Shih Ibn Hiban bi Tarti ibn Balban, revised by Shuib al-

Arnaut, Bab Dhikr Duail Mustafa, h.66, Bairut: Mussat ur Risalah, 1993, vol.1, p.286
According to Al- Suy in his book Tadrb ul Rw Sharh Taqrb al- Naww the knowledge
about adth, which we have today is came from about 10,000 companions. While according to
Ab Zarah the number of at that time was one lac, who saw prophet and transmited Ahadith.
3
As Ibn Assakar in his Arbaun Hadithan li Arbain Saikhan min Arbain Baldah,wrote one topic in
2

his introduction to this book called; Al Haththu ala Hifz Arbain Hadithan similarly Imam Nawawi
discussed its significance in his preface of Arbain Hadithan
4

see, Khalid Alvi, Al Laris Commentary on Arbain an Nawawi, A Critical Edition with notes, Lahore:

Sheikh Zayad Islamic Center, 1999


5

ibid,p.xx

See Haji Khalifa, Kashf uz Zanun, an- Asami al- Kutub wa al- Fanun, Bairut: Dar al Fikr, 1998, vol.1,

p.52
7

See, Nawawi, Arbaun Hadithan.

As Arbain fi al- Hiththi ala- al-jihad and Arbain fi Munaqib Ummahat ul- Muminin consist on

exact 40 ahadith.
9

See Arbain Nawawi

10

See Alvi, Syed Mahdi, Arbain al Hashimiah, Kuwait: Al- Ramshitat, 1356

11

Dr. Khalid Alvi, A brief survey of Arbain Literature, Islamic studies, vol.xxiii, no.2 (1984), Islamic

Research Institute, Islamabad, p.68


12

As imam Muslim narrated the statement of Ibn Mubarak: isnad is part of religion, of there is no

isnad everyone can say what he want.(Muslim, Sahihi Muslim, vol..I, p.15
13

See, Ibn Assakir, Arbaun Hadithan li Arbain Saikhan min Arbain Baldah.

14

Ibid

15

See Nawawi, Arbain an Nawawi

16

See, Sumaira Nawaz, the concept of Arbain Ahadith in the sciences of hadith, chapter no.4,

Thesis a dissertation to M.A Degree, FJWU (unpublished).


17

Haji Khalifa, Kash uz- Zanun, vol.1, p.52

18

Abdul Huq Muhaddith Delvi, Ashat al- Lumat, (sharah e- Mishkat) translated by, Mulana

Muhammad Said Ahmad Naqshbandi, Lahore: Freed book shop, urdu bazaar, 1981, vol.1, p.518