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Endocytosis and Exocytosis

Endocytosis is the process of capturing a substance or particle from outside the cell
by engulfing it with the cell membrane. The membrane folds over the substance and it
becomes completely enclosed by the membrane. At this point a membrane-bound sac,
or vesicle, pinches off and moves the substance into the cytosol. There are two main
kinds of endocytosis:

Phagocytosis, or cellular eating, occurs when the dissolved materials


enter the cell. The plasma membrane engulfs the solid material, forming a
phagocytic vesicle.
Pinocytosis, or cellular drinking, occurs when the plasma membrane folds
inward to form a channel allowing dissolved substances to enter the cell,
as shown in Figure below. When the channel is closed, the liquid is
encircled within a pinocytic vesicle.
Exocytosis describes the process of vesicles fusing with the plasma
membrane and releasing their contents to the outside of the cell, as shown
in Figure below. Exocytosis occurs when a cell produces substances for
export, such as a protein, or when the cell is getting rid of a waste product or
a toxin. Newly made membrane proteins and membrane lipids are moved on
top the plasma membrane by exocytosis. For a detailed animation of cellular
secretion, see

Meiosis

Mitosis
Type of Reproduction
Occurs in
Genetically
Crossing Over

Definition

Sexual

Asexual

Humans, animals, plants, fungi.

All organisms.

Different

Identical

Yes, mixing of chromosomes can


occur.

No, crossing
over cannot
occur.

A type of cellular reproduction in


which the number of
chromosomes are reduced by half
through the separation of
homologous chromosomes,
producing two haploid cells.

A process of
asexual
reproduction in
which the cell
divides in two
producing a
replica, with an

Meiosis

Mitosis
equal number of
chromosomes in
each resulting
diploid cell.
Pairing of Homologs

Yes

No

Genetic diversity through sexual


reproduction.

Cellular
reproduction and
general growth
and repair of the
body.

4 haploid cells

2 diploid cells

Reduced by half.

Remains the
same.

(Meiosis 1) Prophase I, Metaphase


I, Anaphase I, Telophase I;
(Meiosis 2) Prophase II,
Metaphase II, Anaphase II and
Telophase II.

Prophase,
Metaphase,
Anaphase,
Telophase.

Occurs in Interphase I.

Occurs in
Interphase.

Occurs in Telophase I and in


Telophase II.

Occurs in
Telophase.

Centromeres Split

The centromeres do not separate


during anaphase I, but during
anaphase II.

The centromeres
split during
anaphase.

Creates

Sex cells only: female egg cells or


male sperm cells.

Makes
everything other
than sex cells.

Oscar Hertwig

Walther
Flemming

Function

Number of Divisions
Number of Daughter Cells
produced
Chromosome Number

Steps

Karyokinesis

Cytokinesis

Discovered by

A root hair, or absorbent hair, the rhizoid of a vascular plant, is a tubular


outgrowth of a trichoblast, a hair-forming cell on the epidermisof a plant root.
As they are lateral extensions of a single cell and only rarely branched, they
are invisible to the naked eye. They are found only in the region of maturation
of the root. Just prior to the root hair cell development, there is a point of
elevated phosphorylase activity.
The function of root hairs is to collect water and mineral nutrients present in
the soil and take this solution up through the roots to the rest of the plant. As
root hair cells do not carry out photosynthesis they do not contain chloroplasts

Root hairs form an important surface over which plants absorb most of their water and
nutrients. They are also directly involved in the formation of root nodules
in legumeplants.
They have a large surface area, which makes absorbing water during osmosis and
minerals during active uptake more efficient. Also, root hair cells secrete acid
(H+ from malic acid) which exchanges and helps solubilize the minerals into ionic
form, making the ions easier to take up.