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_____ is the process managers use to manipulate the physical retail environment to create specific mood responses in shoppers.

A closed-in feeling created by a crowded store will result in adaptive strategies that could _____.reduce shopping time, reduce
purchases, and alter the use of in-store information
A market research study asked consumers to rate themselves with respect to several adjectives, such as happy, cheerful, peaceful,
sad, blue, and depressed. What is this research trying to assess? mood
A person who shops a nicer store than normal because he or she is buying a gift is influenced by the _____ characteristic of the
situation. task definition
A socially defined occasion that triggers a set of interrelated behaviors that occur in a structured format and that have symbolic
meaning is referred to as a _____. ritual situation
A store's atmosphere can influence which of the following? all of the above
All those factors particular to a time and place that do not follow from knowledge of the stable attributes of the consumer and the
stimulus and that have an effect on current behavior are known as _____. situational influence
Arm & Hammer baking soda has been very successful promoting other uses for this product. Advertisements provide several uses
other than baking, such as removing odors from carpeting, the laundry, and kitty litter boxes. Finding more uses for a product is
known as a(an) _____. expanded usage situation
Atmosphere is referred to as _____ when describing a service business such as a hospital, bank, or restaurant. service-scape
Binge drinking among college students can be described as a(n) _____. ritual behavior
Carmen is double majoring in fashion merchandising and graphic design in college. When she graduates, she wants to design the
physical environment of retail stores, particularly those in women's fashions. She wants to create environments that create
specific mood responses in shoppers. Which field best describes what Carmen wants to do? retail atmospherics
Clara was shopping with her friend, Jane, when they both went into a drug store. Clara needed to buy medication for
hemorrhoids, but she was reluctant to do so in front of Jane. Which emotion was Clara probably experiencing in this situation?
Clark and his family normally live paycheck to paycheck. However, this month, they found themselves with a little extra money,
so they decided to go out to a nice restaurant and to a movie. This is an example of the antecedent state of _____. momentary
Consumer behavior occurs within four broad categories or types of situations: the communications situation, the purchase
situation, the usage situation, and the social situation. FALSE
Consumers typically attend the theater for utilitarian purposes. FALSE
Crowding generally produces which outcome for the retail outlet and the consumer? generally negative outcomes for both
Decisions made by consumers regarding the _____ situation can create significant social problems as well as opportunities for
marketers. disposition
Dcor, sounds, aromas, lighting, weather, and configurations of merchandise or other materials surrounding the stimulus object
are included in which situational characteristic? physical surroundings
Determining how products are currently used across situations can help the marketer develop appropriate advertising and
positioning strategies. TRUE
Every year around the 4th of July, families get together and celebrate a family reunion as well as Independence Day. The
Normans, one such family, does this every year, and the party is pretty much the same every year. A cookout is held at one family
member's home, and games for the children are played, such as a three-legged race and an egg toss competition. The family that
wins the overall competition gets to take home a hideous, but meaningful trophy for that year. This is an example of a _____.
ritual situation
Expanded usage situation strategies can produce major sales gains for established products. TRUE

Features of the individual person that are not lasting characteristics, such as momentary moods or conditions, are called _____.
antecedent states
Gertrude is very environmentally conscious, so she only uses paper bags at the grocery store and tries to purchase items in
packages that are recyclable. Her behavior concerns which type of situation? disposition situation
Giving out candy to children on Halloween, giving chocolate and roses to sweethearts on Valentine's Day, and wearing green and
drinking green beer on St. Patrick's Day are all examples of _____. ritual situations
How does music influence consumer behavior? influences mood
In the United States, a man usually gives a woman a diamond ring for her to wear on her left-hand ring finger when they become
engaged to be married. However, one diamond distributor has developed the idea that women should wear diamonds on their
right hands as well. Marketing communications regarding the Diamond Right Hand Ring stress the independence of women and
their ability to buy a diamond for themselves. One ad claims that a diamond on a left hand says "we," while a diamond on the
right hand says "me." This diamond distributor is attempting to _____. expand the usage situation
In which situation do marketers attempt to place their ads in appropriate media contexts to enhance their effectiveness?
Individuals cannot "create" the situations they face. FALSE
Individuals tend to comply with group expectations, particularly when the behavior is visible. TRUE
James is giving his cousin, Conor, a new video game for his birthday. Which of the following is the most likely reason James is
giving this gift? because it is a ritualized consumption experience
Jessica and her friends are 16 years old like to shop at Aeropostale, which is a clothing store targeted to teens and young adults.
They like to go in that store because there are usually some pretty cute guys working and shopping there. Even though there are
some parents shopping with their teens, the other customers are usually teens like themselves. The other individuals present in
this store represent the _____. social surroundings
John is a salesman and gave one of his customers an expensive watch. Which of the following is the most likely reason John gave
this gift? to elicit a return favor
Magdalena and her family live in a Honduran neighborhood of Queens, New York. She is looking forward to the extravagant
Egyptian-themed party her parents are giving her for her upcoming 15th birthday where she will be carried in on a platform by
six of her classmates. This party will celebrate Magdalena's __________. quinceaera
Many of you have probably heard of Banana Republic retail stores and perhaps have shopped there. Many of you may not know
that the store used to look much different than it does today. It used to be more like an adventure, and the merchandise assortment
was more appropriate for a safari. If you've ever seen an Indiana Jones movie, you can get a pretty good idea of what Banana
Republic used to look like. The stores would have a jeep in the store, camouflage netting, and music from the 1940s playing. The
inside had wooden beams and maps hung on the wall that looked like treasure maps. Much of the merchandise was accompanied
by a sign that had a tale of some adventure associated with it. These physical features of the retail environment are referred to as
the _____. store atmosphere
Marcie will soon be 50 years old, so to pamper herself, she decided to get a massage. With respect to the typology of service
environments, this type of service would be categorized as _____. hedonic
Mark is developing the marketing strategy for his business, which is a retail store. He knows that situation characteristics will
interact with his marketing activity. Which of the following is a situation characteristic he needs to consider? task definition
Marketers do not attempt to change or create consumption patterns associated with rituals. FALSE
Melanie lives in a small city that does not have a lot of the interesting retail stores. She and her two best friends take a trip twice a
year to places such as Atlanta, Dallas, and Chicago to go shopping. It's so exciting for them to go in some of the stores because
they are so unique, and they have only seen them online or in catalogs. Also, several cities now have lifestyle centers or town
centers that are reminiscent of downtown in bygone days. All of the factors such as dcor, sounds, aromas, lighting, weather, and
configurations of merchandise or other materials surrounding the merchandise that Melanie and her friends make a special trip to
experience comprise which situation characteristic? physical surroundings

Mike is the owner of a restaurant that also has a bar. Based on research that studied the impact of background music on restaurant
patrons, what can Mike expect if he uses slow music in his establishment? larger amount of bar purchases
Mimi is a teenager and wants to be accepted by her friends. In fact, she might act a certain way not because she really wants to,
but rather, she does it because others around her are doing it. The influence these others have on Mimi represent which situational
characteristic? social surroundings
Mood is an example of a momentary condition reflecting a temporary state of being. FALSE
One aspect of purchasing from QVC, one of the cable shopping channels on television, is that the "offer" will expire within a
certain amount of time, creating a sense of urgency among consumers. Teresa watches this channel frequently and admits that this
aspect of the situation does influence her decision to buy something. Which characteristic of the situation is influencing Teresa
and others' behavior? temporal perspective
One study found that wedding gifts tend to be _____ while birthday gifts tend to be _____. utilitarian; fun
Personal space and resulting crowding perceptions can vary from culture to culture. TRUE
Physical surroundings represent the situational characteristic that has the greatest impact on consumption behavior. FALSE
Psychographics is the process managers use to manipulate the physical retail environment to create specific mood responses in
shoppers. FALSE
Rachel is going to the mall to purchase a wedding gift for a co-worker. Based on research, which type of product is she likely to
buy? utilitarian
Richard is studying how various usage situations influence the consumption of his company's products. He conducted qualitative
analyses (i.e., focus group discussions and depth interviews) as well as surveyed a larger sample of consumers to better
understand and quantify how products are used and the benefits sought in the usage situation by the market segment. Richard is
performing the first two steps in an approach to develop _____. situation-based marketing strategies
Sharon has to purchase a gift for her mother and only has this afternoon to do so because her birthday party is that evening. She's
wondering how she will be able get to the mall in time to pick out the perfect gift. This is an illustration of which situation
characteristic? temporal perspective
Shopping on the Internet provides which important time-related dimension(s)? A and B
Some consumers are highly susceptible to interpersonal influence, which is a _____. personality trait
Stacy is shopping to purchase new linens for her guest room. Which situational characteristic is influencing her behavior? task
Stan was feeling very tired and hungry in the mid-afternoon, so he ate a Snickers candy bar. Stan is attempting to manage his
_____. momentary condition
The disposition situation can create significant social problems as well as opportunities for marketers. TRUE
The only aspect of music that influences consumer behavior is tempo. FALSE
The other individuals present in the particular situation are referred to as the _____. social surroundings
The presence of close family members during the shopping occasion increases impulse buying more than close friends. FALSE
The purchase decision and consumption process always occur in the context of _____. a specific situation
The reason the consumption activity is occurring is the situation characteristic of _____. task definition
The situation in which consumers receive information has an impact on their behavior and is referred to as the _____ situation.
The situation interacts with the marketing activity and the individual to determine behavior. Which of the following is a
marketing activity? package
The sum of all the physical features of a retail environment is referred to as the _____. Store atmosphere

To better understand a consumer's behavior, we must know about the consumer, about the primary stimulus object, and about the
situation. TRUE
To understand a consumer's behavior, we must know about the _____. A, B, and C
Transient feeling states that are generally not tied to a specific event or object are known as _____. moods
Under conditions of crowding, consumers tend do to all of the following EXCEPT _____. make more demands on the sales
Under conditions of crowding, consumers tend to _____. all of the above
Walker and his wife have two children. They have purchased a new computer for their household every four years or so for
almost 20 years. When Walker purchases a new one, usually for him to be able to work at home, one of his children will get the
old one. However, they have a few old computers sitting in the attic and garage because Walker doesn't really know how to get
rid of them. This is an example of which type of situation? disposition situation
What do Hispanic girls celebrate when they are 15 years old? A and C
When orange juice manufacturers attempted to expand the various times of day when consumers would see orange juice as an
appropriate beverage to consume, they were trying to influence which situation? usage
Which color(s) is(are) arousing? A and B
Which group needs to understand how situational influences affect consumers' disposition decisions? A, B, and C
Which of the following also includes a situation-specific component? involvement
Which of the following are antecedent states? moods and momentary conditions
Which of the following are components of the physical environment? colors, aromas, music, and crowding
Which of the following is a negative emotion influenced by both the product (e.g., hearing aids, feminine hygiene products) and
the situation? embarrassment
Which of the following is a reason consumers give gifts? all of the above
Which of the following is a situation in which consumer behavior occurs? all of the above
Which of the following is a situational characteristic? temporal perspective
Which of the following is a step in the approach for developing situation-based marketing strategies that was given in the
textbook? All of the above are steps for developing situation-based marketing strategies.
Which of the following is a way that gifts communicate symbolic meaning? All of the above ways communicate the symbolic
meaning of a gift.
Which of the following is NOT a consumption response? task definition
Which of the following is NOT a key situational dimension or characteristic that influences consumer behavior? alternative
Which of the following is NOT a situation in which consumer behavior occurs? All of the above are situations in which
consumer behavior occurs.
Which of the following is NOT an individual characteristic influencing consumer behavior? Task definition
Which of the following is the FIRST step in the approach for developing situation-based marketing strategies? Use observational
studies, focus group discussions, depth interviews, and secondary data to discover the various usage situations that
influence the consumption of the product.
Which of the following reflects temporary states of being rather than temporary states of mind? momentary conditions
Which of the following services would be classified as having an extended hedonic consumption purpose? cruise

Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding crowding as a situational characteristic? Crowding is unpleasant
regardless of a consumers' culture.
Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding ritual situations? Marketers cannot change or create consumption
patterns associated with ritual situations.
Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding moods? and brand attitudes are often influenced in a mood-congruent
Which situation involves consumers disposing of products or product packages after or before product use? disposition situation
Which situational characteristic deals with the effect of time on consumer behavior? temporal perspective
Which type of industry has developed around the use of ambient scents? environmental fragrancing
With respect to the typology of service environments, a bank would be categorized as _____. utilitarian