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Lecture 2 Equivalent System

Block Diagram Reduction (1.5 Hour)

The objective of todays lesson is to explain to the student about:
1. the components of a block diagram for a linear, time-invariant system
2. the three different configurations in block diagram
3. the techniques of reducing each representation of the multiple subsystems to a
single transfer function.
Introduction :
Block diagrams are usually used for frequency-domain analysis and design. Block
diagram algebra will be used to reduce block diagrams to a single block with a
mathematical description that represents the system from its input to its output.
Block diagram : A representation of the interconnection of subsystem that form a
system. In a linear system, the block diagram consists of blocks representing subsystems,
arrows representing signals, summing junction and pickoff points.
Signal-flow graphs for state-space analysis. The Masons rule is to reduce signal-flow
Signal-flow graph : a representation of the interconnection of subsystems that form a
system. It consists of nodes representing signals and lines representing subsystems.
Block Diagrams
Block diagram is a graphical representation of a system by a block with an input, an
output and a transfer function of a system.

Simplified description of a control system

Transfer function : The ratio of the Laplace transform of the output of a system to the
Laplace transform of the input.

Transfer function,T ( s )

Output, C ( s )
Input, R ( s )

More complicated systems are represented by the interconnection of many subsystems.

When multiple subsystems are interconnected, a few more schematic elements must be
added to the block diagram. These new elements are:
1) summing junctions / summing points
2) pickoff points / branch points.
The characteristic of the summing junction is that the output signal, C(s), is the algebraic
sum of the input signal. A pickoff point distributes the input signal undiminished to
several output points.

Component of a block diagram for a liner, time-invariant system

Three different configurations:
1. Cascaded system / series system
2. Parallel system
3. Feedback system / closed loop system
Cascade / Series form

V1 ( s) R ( s)G1 ( s)
C ( s) V1 ( s )G2 ( s)
C ( s) R ( s)G1 ( s)G2 ( s )
The transfer function,
Parallel form

T ( s ) C ( s ) / R ( s ) G1 ( s)G2 ( s)

V1 ( s) R( s )G1 ( s )

V2 ( s) R ( s )G2 ( s )

C ( s) V1 ( s ) V2 ( s ) R ( s ) G1 ( s ) G2 ( s )

T ( s) C ( s ) / R ( s ) G1 ( s ) G2 ( s )

Feedback / Closed-loop form

Method 1:

V1 ( s) R ( s) V2 ( s)

V2 ( s) C ( s )G2 ( s)

C ( s ) V1 ( s)G1 ( s )

R( s ) V2 ( s )G1 ( s )

R( s ) C ( s)G2 ( s)G1 ( s)
C ( s ) C ( s )G1 ( s )G2 ( s ) R( s )G1 ( s )
C ( s)
G1 ( s)
T (s)

R( s) 1 G1 ( s )G2 ( s)

Method 2:
Forward path transfer function:
G1 ( s )
Open loop transfer function:
G1 ( s )G2 ( s )
Closed-loop transfer function:

C ( s ) Forward path t.f

R ( s ) 1 Open loop t.f

G1 ( s )
C (s)
T ( s)

R ( s ) 1 G1 ( s )G2 ( s )
T ( s)








Moving Blocks To Create Familiar Forms

Example (1):
Block diagram reduction via familiar forms
Problem: Reduce the block diagram shown in Figure 1 to a single transfer function.

Figure 1: Block diagram for Example 1

Solution: We solve the problem by following the steps in Figure 2. First, the three
summing junctions can be collapsed into a single summing junction, as shown in Figure

Figure 2 Steps in solving Example 1:a. Collapse summing junctions; b. form equivalent
cascaded system in the forward path and equivalent parallel system in the feedback path;
c. form equivalent feedback system and multiply by cascaded G1(s)

H1 s , H 2 s

H3 s

Second, recognize that the three feedback functions,

connected in parallel. They are fed from a common signal source, and their outputs are
H1 s H 2 s H 3 s
G2 s
summed. The equivalent function is
. Also recognize that
G3 s
are connected in cascade. Thus, the equivalent transfer function is the product,
G2 s G3 s
. The results of these steps are shown in Figure 2(b). Finally, the feedback
G1 s
system is reduced and multiplied by
to yield the equivalent transfer function shown
in Figure 2 (c)

Example (2): Block diagram reduction by moving blocks

Problem: Reduce the system shown in Figure 3 to a single transfer function.

Figure 3: Block diagram for Example 2

Solution: First, move

G2 s

to the left past the pickoff point to create parallel

G3 s
H 3 s
subsystems, and reduce the feedback system consisting of
. This result
1 / G2 s
is shown in Figure 4(a). Second, reduce the parallel pair consisting of
and unity,
G1 s
and push
to the right past the summing junction, creating parallel subsystems in the
feedback. These results are shown in Figure 4(b). Third, collapse the summing junctions,
add the two feedback elements together, and combine the last two cascaded blocks,
Figure 4(c) shows these results. Fourth, use the feedback formula to obtain Figure 4(d).
Finally, multiply the two cascaded blocks and obtain the final result, shown in Fig 4(e).

Figure 4: Steps in the block diagram reduction for Example 2