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Rate of Evaporation

of Different Liquids
Objective of the Project
In this project, we shall investigate various factors such as nature
of liquid, surface of liquid and temperature and find their
correlation with the rate of evaporation of different liquids.

When liquid is placed in an open vessel. It slowly escapes into
gaseous phase eventually leaving the vessel empty. This
phenomenon is known as vaporization or evaporation.
Evaporation of liquids can be explained in the terms of kinetic
molecular model although there are strong molecular attractive
forces which hold molecules together. The molecules having
sufficient kinetic energy can escape into gaseous phase. If such
molecules happen to come near the surface in a sample of liquid,
all the molecules do not have same kinetic energy. There is a
small fraction of molecules which have enough kinetic energy to
overcome the attractive forces and escapes into gaseous phase.
Evaporation causes cooling. This is due to the reason that the
molecules which undergo evaporation have high kinetic energy
therefore the kinetic energy of the molecules which are left
behind is less. Since the remaining molecules which are left have
lower average kinetic energy. Therefore, temperature is kept
constant the remaining liquid will have same distribution of the

molecular kinetic energy and high molecular energy will have

kept on escaping from liquid into gaseous phase of the liquid is
taken in an open vessel evaporation will continue until whole of
the liquid evaporates.
Evaporation is an essential part of the water cycle. Solar energy
drives evaporation of water from oceans, lakes, moisture in the
soil, and other sources of water. In hydrology, evaporation and
transpiration (which involves evaporation within plant stomata)
are collectively termed evapotranspiration. Evaporation is caused
when water is exposed to air and the liquid molecules turn into water
vapour which rises up and forms clouds.

Factors influencing Rate of

1. Concentration of the substance evaporating in the air
If the air already has a high concentration of
the substance
evaporating, then the given
substance will evaporate more slowly.
2. Concentration of other substances in the air
If the air is already saturated with other substances, it can
have a lower capacity for the substance evaporating.
3. Temperature of the substance
If the substance is hotter, then evaporation will be faster.
4. Flow rate of air
This is in part related to the concentration points above.
If fresh air is moving over the substance all the time, then
the concentration of the substance in the air is less likely to
go up with time, thus encouraging faster evaporation. In

addition, molecules in motion have more energy than those

at rest, and so the stronger the flow of air, the greater the
evaporating power of the air molecules.
5. Inter-molecular forces
The stronger the forces keeping the molecules together in
the liquid or solid state the more energy that must be input
in order to evaporate them.
6. Surface area and temperature
The rate of evaporation of liquids varies directly with
temperature. With the increase in the temperature, fraction
of molecules having sufficient kinetic energy to escape out
from the surface also increases. Thus with the increase in
temperature rate of evaporation also increases. Molecules
that escape the surface of the liquids constitute the
evaporation. Therefore, larger surface area contributes
accelerating evaporation.
7. Nature of Liquids
The magnitude of inter-molecular forces of attraction in
liquid determines the speed of evaporation. Weaker the
inter-molecular forces of attraction larger are the extent of
evaporation. In diethyl ether rate of evaporation is greater
than that of ethyl alcohol.
8. Composition of Environment
The rate of evaporation of liquids depends upon the flow of
air currents above the surface of the liquid. Air current
flowing over the surface of the liquid took away the
molecules of the substance in vapour state thereby
preventing condensation.

9. Density

The higher the density, the slower a liquid evaporates. In the

US, the National Weather Service measures the actual rate
of evaporation from a standardized "pan" open water
surface outdoors, at various locations nationwide. Others do
likewise around the world. The US data is collected and
compiled in to an annual evaporation map. The
measurements range from under 30 to over the120 inches
(3,000 mm) per year.
In an area of less pressure, evaporation happens faster
because there is less exertion on the surface keeping the
molecules from launching themselves.

Applications: When clothes are hung on a laundry line, even though the
ambient temperature is below the boiling point of water, water
evaporates. This is accelerated by factors such as low humidity,
heat (from the sun), and wind. In a clothes dryer hot air is blown
through the clothes, allowing water to evaporate very rapidly.

Theory: For molecules of a liquid to evaporate, they must be located near

the surface, be moving in the proper direction, and have
sufficient kinetic energy to overcome liquid-phase
intermolecular forces. Only a small proportion of the molecules
meet these criteria, so the rate of evaporation is limited. Since
the kinetic energy of a molecule is proportional to its
temperature, evaporation proceeds more quickly at higher
temperatures. As the faster-moving molecules escape, the

remaining molecules have lower average kinetic energy, and the

temperature of the liquid thus decreases. This phenomenon is
also called evaporative cooling. This is why evaporating sweat
cools the human body. Evaporation also tends to proceed more
quickly with higher flow rates between the gaseous and liquid
phase and in liquids with higher vapour pressure. For example,
laundry on a clothes line will dry (by evaporation) more rapidly
on a windy day than on a still day. Three key parts to evaporation
are heat, humidity and air movement.

Evaporative equilibrium: Vapour pressure of water vs. temperature. 760 Torr = 1 atm.

If evaporation takes place in a closed vessel, the escaping

molecules accumulate as a vapour above the liquid. Many of the
molecules return to the liquid, with returning molecules
becoming more frequent as the density and the pressure of the
vapour increases. When the process of escape and return reaches

an equilibrium, the vapour is said to be Saturated, and no

further change in either vapour pressure and density or liquid
temperature will occur. For a system consisting of vapour and
liquid of a pure substance, this equilibrium state is directly
related to the vapour pressure of the substance, as given by the
Clasius-Clapeyron relation .

Where P1 ,P2 are the vapour pressures at temperature T1 and T2

respectively, Change in H of vaporisation is enthalpy of
vaporisation, and R is the universal gas constant. The rate of
evaporation of vaporization, and R is the universal gas constant.
The rate of evaporation in an open system is related to the
vapour pressure found in a closed system. If a liquid is heated,
when the vapour pressure reaches the ambient pressure, the
liquid will boil.
The ability for a molecule of a liquid to evaporate is largely
based on the amount of kinetic energy an individual particle may
possess. Even at lower temperatures, Individual molecules of a
liquid can evaporate if they haven more than the minimum
amount of kinetic energy required for vaporisation.
But, vaporisation is not only the process of a change of state
from liquid to gas but it is also a change of state from a a solid to
a gas. This process is also known as sublimation but can also be
known as vaporisation.

To compare the rates of evaporation of acetone, benzene
Apparatus Requirement:
Three same size Petri dishes of diameter 10 cm, 10 ml. pipettes,
stopwatch, acetone benzene and chloroform.
1. Clean and dry all Petri dishes and identify them as A, B and C.2.
Pipette out of 10 ml. acetone in Petri dish "A" with stopper
similarly pipette out of 10 ml. of benzene and chloroform in each
of Petri "B" and "C".3. Remove the cover plates from all Petri
dishes and start the stop watch.4. Let the Petri dishes remain
exposed for 10 minute. Now cover each of the Petri dish and
note the volume of remaining material in them.
Observation: Time: 10 min. = 600 Sec.

Rate of evaporation of Acetone is 0.0133 ml/s.
Rate of evaporation of Benzene is 0.0166 ml/s.Rate of
evaporation of Chloroform is 0.010 ml/s.

The intermolecular forces of acetone, benzene and chloroform
are in order.
Chloroform > Benzene > Acetone.

Note: The values are sample values from references

AcknowledgementI express my great sense of

gratitude to our Chemistry
teacher & Class teacher for
giving us this project which
enhanced our skills and
Her guidance and support in this
manner is highly regarded by
me, and I acknowledge her for
all the support.
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