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Grammar Translation Approach

Instruction is given in the native language of the students.


There is little use of the target language for communication.
The focus is on understanding the grammar of the target language.
A typical exercise is to translate sentences from the target language into the native language (or vice versa).
The teacher does not have to be able to speak the target language fluently.

The Direct Method


No use of the native language is permitted (teacher does not need to know the students L1).
Actions and pictures are used to make meanings clear.
Grammar is learned inductively (i.e., by repeated exposure to language in use, not through rules about forms).
The teacher must have native-like proficiency in the target language.

The Reading Approach


Reading comprehension is the only language skill emphasized.
Only the grammar useful for reading comprehension is taught.
The teacher does not need to have high oral proficiency in the target language.
The students first language is used to present reading material, discuss it, and check understanding.

The Audiolingual Method


Focus on oral language ability. Accurate pronunciation is stressed.
Language learning is habit formation. Heavy focus on repetition and memorization of dialogues.
Language is very controlled, and learner errors are prevented.
The teacher must be proficient only in the structures, vocabulary, and other aspects of the language that he or she is
teaching, since learning activities and materials are carefully controlled.

Oral-Situational Approach
Focus on habit formation through repetition
Heavy use of dialogues
Language points presented within situations (e.g., At the post office, Going shopping, etc.)
Focus on vocabulary and grammar, but only those that fit within a given situational context

Cognitive Approach
Based on Chomskyan linguistics
Rejection of language learning as habit formation
Language learning is acquisition of linguistic rules
Focus on competence, rather than performance as a result, pronunciation was deemphasized, as perfect
pronunciation performance was seen as unrealistic and unattainable.
Teacher must not only be able to use the target language, but must also be able to teach linguistic rules

Comprehension Approach / Natural Approach


Listening comprehension is very important.

Learners should begin with a silent period its not important for students to speak from the start, as long as they
understand what they hear.
The target language is used for instruction
Audio-visual or other materials may be used to help comprehension

The Communicative Approach


The goal of language teaching is the learners ability to communicate in the target language.
Focus is on semantic notions and social functions, rather than on grammar rules
Students work in groups or pairs and do role plays. Lots of interaction.
Classroom materials and activities often consist of authentic tasks
All language skills are integrated