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# Whites, EE 481/581

Lecture 6

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## Lecture 6: The Smith Chart.

The Smith chart began its existence as a very useful graphical
calculator for the analysis and design of TLs. It was developed
by Phillip H. Smith in the 1930s.
The Smith chart remains a useful tool today to visualize the
results of TL analysis, oftentimes combined with computer
analysis and visualization as an aid in design.
The development of the Smith chart is based on the normalized
TL impedance z z defined as
Z z 1 z
z z

(1)
Z0
1 z
where Z z V z / I z is the total TL impedance at z and

z Le j 2 z

(2)

## is the generalized reflection coefficient at z.

The real and imaginary parts of the generalized reflection
coefficient z will be defined as z r z j i z .
Substituting this definition into (1) gives
1 r j i
(3)
z z
1 r j i

## Now, we will define z z r jx and separate (3) into its real

and imaginary parts
2015 Keith W. Whites

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Lecture 6

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1 r j i 1 r j i
z z r jx

1 r ji 1 r ji *
*

1 j 2i 2r i2
1 2 r r2 i2

Equating the real and imaginary parts of this last equation gives
1 2r i2
2 i
r
and
x

(2.55)
2
2
2
2
r 1 i
r 1 i
Rearranging both of these leads us to the final two equations
2
2
r

1
2
(2.56a),(4)
r
i

1 r

1 r
2
2
1 1
2

(2.56b),(5)
and
r 1 i
x
x

We will use (4) and (5) to construct the Smith chart.
Definition: The Smith chart is a plot of normalized TL
resistance and reactance functions drawn in the complex,
generalized reflection coefficient [ z ] plane.

## To understand this, first notice that in the r-i plane:

1. Equation (4) has only r as a parameter and (5) has only x
as a parameter.
2. Both (4) and (5) are families of circles.
Consequently, we can plot (4) and (5) in the r-i plane while
keeping either r or x constant, as appropriate.

Whites, EE 481/581

Lecture 6

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## Plot (4) in the r-i plane:

For r 0 : 2r i2 12
2

1
For r 1: r i2
2

2
2
2
1
1
2
2
For r : r i
3
2
3
Plot these curves in the r-i plane:
i Im z

Complex (z)
plane

r=0

-1

1/2

r=1/2

-1

r Re z

r=1

## Plot (5) in the r-i plane:

2
2
For x 1: r 1 i 1 12

For x 1: r 1 i 1 1
2

1 1

For x 100 : r 1 i

100

100
1
2
2
: r 1 i 100 1002
For x
100
2

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Lecture 6

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i Im z

r Re z

## Combining both of these curves (or mappings), as shown on

the next page, gives what is called the Smith chart.
One metaphor for these circles of constant TL resistance and
constant TL reactance are as shadows being projected onto the
z plane. For any TL impedance as specified by an
intersection of a constant resistance and a constant reactance
circle (the shadows), a corresponding value of the TL
generalized reflection coefficient at that position on the TL is
specified in the complex z plane.

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Lecture 6

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## As quoted from the text (p. 64):

The real utility of the Smith chart, however, lies in the fact that
it can be used to convert from reflection coefficients to

Whites, EE 481/581

Lecture 6

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## normalized impedances (or admittances), and vice versa, using

the impedance (or admittance) circles printed on the chart.

## Additionally, it is very easy to compute the generalized

reflection coefficient and normalized impedance anywhere on a
homogeneous section of TL.
Notice that the r and i axes are missing from the combined
plot. This is also the case for the Smith chart.

## Important Features of the Smith Chart

1. By definition z

z z 1 r jx 1
. Therefore

z z 1 r jx 1

2
r jx 1 r jx 1 r 1 x
z

r jx 1 r jx 1 r 12 x 2
2

## From this result, we can show that if r 0 then z 1.

This condition is met for passive networks (i.e., no amplifiers)
and lossless TLs (real Z 0 ).
Consequently, the standard Smith chart only shows the inside
of the unit circle in the r-i plane. That is, z 1 which is
bounded by the r 0 circle described by 2r i2 1.
2. If z z is purely real (i.e., x 0 ), then since

Whites, EE 481/581

Lecture 6

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2 i
2
r 1 i2
we deduce that i 0 (except possibly at r 1 ).
x

## Consequently, purely real z z values are mapped to z

values on the r e z axis.
3. If z z is purely imaginary (i.e., r 0 ) then from (4)
2r i2 12
which is the unit circle in the r-i plane.
Consequently, purely imaginary z z values are mapped to
z values on the unit circle in the r-i plane.

## Example N6.1: Using the Smith chart, determine the voltage

reflection coefficient at the load and the TL input impedance.

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Lecture 6

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Lecture 6

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## VSWR and the Smith Chart

It was shown in the previous lecture that the voltage magnitude
anywhere on the TL can be written as
V z Vo 1 z
(6)

V z max Vo 1 L

and

V z min Vo 1 L

## So, when positioned along the TL at a maximum voltage

magnitude:
j z
1 z
V z Vo e
1 L
Z z

Z0
(7)
V
1 L
I z
o
e j z 1 z
Z0
Using the definition of VSWR from the last lecture
1 L
VSWR
(8)
1 L
then from (7) at a voltage magnitude maximum on the TL
Z z Z 0 VSWR
or

z z VSWR

(9)

## Because of this last result, we can read the VSWR of a TL

directly from the Smith chart.

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Lecture 6

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## Similarly, we can show that at a minimum voltage magnitude

1
z z
(10)
VSWR
In the previous example, we can read VSWR=2 directly from
the Smith chart by drawing the constant VSWR circle. This is
the circle traced by z as z varies.
However, notice that depending on where we stop this rotation
of z versus z, we obtain different z z values. This happens
because z is not traversing circles of constant r and/or x as z
varies.

The Smith chart can be used as an admittance chart as well as
an impedance chart.
To see this, recall that we derived the mapping upon which the
Smith chart is based [ z z z ] from the normalized TL
impedance
1 z
z z
1 z
From this, we can express the normalized TL admittance as

Whites, EE 481/581

Lecture 6

y z

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1 z
1

z z 1 z

(11)

## We can repeat the construction of the Smith chart with

y g jb and r ji , as we did originally for the
impedance chart. Substituting these quantities into (11) we find
2

and

g
2 1

i
r 1 g

1 g
2
2
1 1
2
r 1 i
b b

(12)
(13)

## A Smith admittance chart can be constructed based on these two

equations for circles in the complex (z) plane:
i Im z

r Re z

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Lecture 6

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## This Smith admittance chart looks very similar to the Smith

impedance chart. In fact, if we rotated one of these by 180 we
obtain the other.
This is actually an easily proved result. Consider the definition
of the negative generalized reflection coefficient from (2)
z L e
Le

That is,

j 2 z

j 2 z
4

Le

j 2 z
2

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Lecture 6

z z
4

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(14)

1 z

y z
z z
(15)

1 z
4

## But what is z / 4 ? Its a half rotation around the Smith chart.

Discussion
From (15) we can deduce that:
1. If z z is known, then y z is the point on the constant
VSWR circle that is diametrically opposite the z z point
on the Smith chart. (In this context, remember that a QWT
is an impedance inverter device. See Lecture 9.)
2.

## The Smith chart can be used either as an impedance chart

or as an admittance chart. Rather than keeping these two
types of charts around, we can use one for either impedance

3.

## One subtlety with these mixed Smith charts is that

generalized reflection coefficients are only correctly
represented on impedance charts when plotting
normalized impedances and on admittance charts when

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Lecture 6

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