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Consumer

Purchasing
Behavior
Towards
Green
Product

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Course Title: Seminar and Viva Voce


Course Code: BAN-100

Shahjalal University of Science & Technology


Sylhet, Bangladesh

Submitted To:
Chairman,
1st year 2nd Semester examination committee
Department of Business Administration
Shahjalal University of Science & Technology.

Supervised By:
Dr. Md. Monirul Islam
Associate Professor
Department of Business Administration
Shahjalal University of Science & Technology, Sylhet.

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Submitted By:
Names of the Students

Registration No:

Nishat Jahan Rumi

2012731003

Sameul Sayem

2012731018

Abdullah Al Morshed

2012731033

Mehedi Hasan

2012731050

Dipta Kaushik Somadder

2012731067

Shuyeb Ahmed

2010731007

Signature

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Department of Business Administration


Shahjalal University of Science and Technology
August 27, 2014
Dr Md Monirul Islam
Associate Professor
Department of Business Administration
Shahjalal University of Science and Technology
Sylhet.
Subject: Letter of Submittal
Dear Sir,
We were assigned to prepare a seminar paper on the topic entitled Green Consumption
Behavior "as the study part of the 2-credit course BAN-100.
Accordingly for collection of data we have investigated into the relevant literature, journals
and have conducted a survey on some Peoples in Sylhet City. We have collected data,
analyzed them and given some recommendations.
May we note here that, there has been no dearth of sincerity on our part to bring the issue under
study into proper focus. However, we would like to request you to consider if any error is found
in the report.
Finally, we would like to request you to accept our report and oblige thereby.
Thank you in advance for your kind assistance and advice in this connection.
Sincerely Yours,

Names of the Students

Registration No:

Nishat Jahan Rumi

2012731003

Sameul Sayem

2012731018

Abdullah Al Morshed

2012731033

Mehedi Hasan

2012731050

Dipta Kaushik Somadder

2012731067

Shuyeb Ahmed

2010731007

Signature

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August, 27, 2014


Letter of Certificate

I am extremely pleased to declare that the following students have been given with the topic
for Green Consumption Behavior preparing their seminar paper. They have reviewed
all the literature and sources for collection and have done their assigned task. I have
supervised them throughout the preparation of the paper.

Names of the Students

Registration No:

Nishat Jahan Rumi

2012731003

Sameul Sayem

2012731018

Abdullah Al Morshed

2012731033

Mehedi Hasan

2012731050

Dipta Kaushik Somadder

2012731067

Shuyeb Ahmed

2010731007

Signature

Its also certify that the paper is an original one and has not been submitted elsewhere
previously for publication in any form.
I wish them all the best in their effort.

.
Dr Md Monirul Islam
Associate Professor
Department of Business Administration
Shahjalal University of Science and Technology

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Acknowledgement
The study entitled Green Consumption Behavior been undertaken by the students of
the Department of Business Administration of 15th batch. This is an attempt to assess the
present situation of consumers buying behavior towards green product. As a field worker we
are not experienced. But we got spontaneous help which encouraged us to carry out our
task effectively. Really we have no words to convey our gratitude to our honorable
teacher and seminar supervisor, Dr Md Monirul Islam Associate Professor of Business
Administration Department, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology. Who has
influenced, motivated, directed and advised us enthusiastically. We are also grateful to
those people who participated in the survey to make this report.
Above all we also want to thank to everybody who helped us to make this report directly or
indirectly.

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Executive summary
Studies on green consumption behavior in Bangladesh are neither popular nor conducted
carefully, especially empirical studies. With the aim of contributing to this research field, this
paper adopts a new approach to find out consumers perception and behaviors towards green
consumption by constructing a survey tool.
Studies on green consumption behavior towards green products in Bangladesh conducted
carefully, especially and empirically studied. The conceptual and hypotheses development are
grounded on related literature. With the aim of contributing to this research field, this paper
adopt to find out consumers perception and behavior towards green consumption. People are
now more concerned with ways to protect the environment. For instance, consuming green
product is one of the key initiatives that can be carried out by consumers. A consumer buying
behavior is influenced by cultural, social, personal and psychological factors. Green has
become a mainstream issue driving millions of consumers to find out how they can live a
more eco-friendly existence. This paper focuses on the changing consumer behavior towards
the usage of green products. According to the results of the analysis, environmental
awareness, green product features, green promotion activities and green price affect green
purchasing behaviors of the consumers in positive way.

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Table of Contents
Chapter One: Introduction.9
Introduction............................................................................................................................. 10
Literature Review ................................................................................................................. 11
Objectives ............................................................................................................................... 13
Methodology...................................................13

Chapter Two: Understanding Consumer and Green Buying


Behavior .................................................................................................... 15
Consumer ................................................................................................................................. 16
Consumer Buying Behavior ..................................................................................................... 16
Green Consumers..18
Types of Green Consumers...19
Green Product Manufacturer of the World...22

Chapter Three: Data Analysis and Interpretation ..29


Chapter Four: Findings and Conclusion47
Findings.48
Conclusion49

Chapter Five: Appendix..50


Reference..51
Questionnaire....53

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Chapter One: Introduction

Topics:
Introduction
Literature Review
Objectives of the Study
Methodology of the Study
Limitations of the Study

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Introduction
While globalization process continues in its full speed across the world, this process has also
brought some problems with it. Leading one of these problems is environmental problems that
affect all living beings negatively. These aforementioned environmental problems have started
to come to the agenda more and more in the recent years and people have started to talk these
negativities. Consumers now have worries about the future of the world and as results of this
mostly prefer environment friendly products.
Consumption decisions have changed towards products that are greener, more suitable and
more environmentally friendly due to the rise in consumers awareness of current
environmental matters. In developed countries, the green consumption movement has existed
for a long time and now has become increasingly popular. With higher incomes and
consumption awareness, green consumption has been improved in developing economies.
Green consumption is an important part of sustainable consumption - a pillar of green growth,
which is a development strategy that many countries are pursuing. However, green
consumption practice in Bangladesh in many facets - from consumers to enterprises to
government - is in its early stages. Research activities in this field are still not adequately
addressed by experts. There is a lack of in-depth and empirical studies, especially on green
consumption behavior. Meanwhile, green consumption is a part of the supply-demand
relationship; therefore understanding the intrinsic nature of green consumer behavior will help
governments and businesses grasp and meet the needs of consumers in the direction of green,
as well as the development of consumption trends in Bangladesh. This fact poses the challenge
to develop a survey tool for governments and businesses to use to actively explore and identify
the current situation of green consumption and its influential factors.

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Literature Review:
The survey tool is built on the basis of green consumption concepts as well as the results from
previous research on factors affecting green consumption behavior. The concepts relating to
green consumption are relatively new and defined with various approaches. Green
consumption emphasizes environmental factors, contributing to sustainable development.
Alfred son (2004) explained that green consumption is related to the index of energy use and
CO2 emissions.
According to Carrigan et al (2004), people who buy environmentally friendly products are
called green consumers. Green consumption is related not only to consuming goods without
damage to the natural environment, but also to buying environmentally friendly products and
to recycling. Sisira (2011), Mansvelt& Robbins (2011) also have a comprehensive definition
of green consumption from the perspective which considers it a process through social
behaviors including purchase of bio-foods, recycling, reuse and limits to excessive use and
using an environmentally friendly transport system. In the framework of this study, the authors
approach the concept of green consumption as a series of activities: (1) green product purchase,
(2) green usage (such as saving, reusing, recycling, green packaging usage, and green waste
treatment) and (3) encouraging the community to purchase green products and use things in a
green way. In understanding green consumption, the concept of green products also needs
clarifying. Green products (eco-products or environmentally friendly products) are considered
as products that do not pollute the earth or damage natural resources and can be recycled or
conserved (Shamdasani et al, 1993). A product that has packaging materials that reduce any
negative environmental impact is a green product (Wasik, 1996). These products are usually
recognized by authorities and organizations with green labels which identify environmental
criteria that green products meet that conventional products cannot.
One vital aspect of the green consumption theory is the factors that influence the decision to
buy green products. Many studies have been conducted to evaluate factors affecting green
consumption and have made important experimental findings about the positive relationship
between the intention to buy green products and age, income and education(Roberts, 1996;
Barr et al, 2003; Tikka et al, 2000). Schwepker& Cornwell (1991), Davis (1993) andSynodinos
(1990) have the same viewpoint that consumers attitudes towards an eco-label must show their
concern for eco labels. However, Pickett-Baker & Ozaki (2008) argue that a person with an
interest in the environment does not necessarily have to buy environmentally friendly products.
The influential group has significant impact on the formation of the intention and the

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purchasing habits of consumers with conventional products in general, and green products in
particular. Buying decisions are also influenced by family factors (Grnhj, 2006); society
(Chan, 2001); government (Chyong et al, 2006; Haron et al., 2005, Fraj& Martinez, 2006);
media (StefaniaValentini, 2011; Kang & James, 2007). The process from intention to actual
behavior is driven by product attributes. Researchers have identified several factors including
price and product quality (D'Souza et al, 2007), the company's environmental reputation
(Cornwell, 1991), and the reliability of environmental advertising (Thgersen, 2000).
According to Tang et al (2004), consumers choose a product because of the nature of
environmentally friendly products; Diamantopoulos et al (2003) and Ganetai (2008) suggested
that the characteristics of traditional products such as brand name, price and quality are still the
most important factors that consumers consider when making a purchase decision.

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Objectives
The purpose of conducting the research is to identify the factors that influence the
consumer to make them to purchase green products.

Another purpose of the research is to encourage people to buy green product

Methodology
The word Method derives from the Greek word Meta and Hodos meaning a way . A
method involves a process or technique in which various stages or steps of collecting data are
explained and the analytical techniques are defined. According to Urdong, A Method or
Methodology is the underlying principles and rules of organization of a philosophical system
or inquiry procedure. A dictionary of Social Sciences observes, methodology is the
systematic and logical study of the principles guiding scientific investigation (Gould and Kolb,
1964). In simple a method is the way of doing something.

Structure of paper
The seminar paper is both qualitative and quantitative. Data are presented through table and
graph, so it is quantitative, because of theoretical analysis it is qualitative.

Population of the Seminar Paper


All the people of Sylhet City Corporation are taken as population.

Selection of Sampling Design


200 questionnaires were distributed to a conveniently generated sample of a highly educated
segment of general population. 167 total questionnaires were returned with a response rate of
83.7 per cent. After examination only 140 questionnaires were found usable of which 59 per
cent of the respondents were males and 41 per cent females with mean age ranging from
21years to 30 years. The questionnaire was structured as follows. The first part contained
questions with Yes and No as two possible responses. These questions measured general
consumers knowledge about environmental issues, awareness of green products, trust in
performance of green products and their willingness to pay more for such products.
The questionnaire contains questions to measure general consumers environmental concern,
awareness of green products, trust in performance of green products and green buying behavior.

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Collection of Information

Some of the data were used in this research are primary data, collected from the sources
and some secondary data were collected from websites and others sources.

Primary data are collected by the questionnaire and the personal interviewing system
of survey method is used.

Secondary data are collected from many journals, books, web sites etc.

Limitations
This research was conducted by generating a non-random sample and hence the results may
not be generalized beyond the sample frame. These results, however, support a generally
prevailing notion that more educated people tend to be green buyers and hence warrant a larger
study conducted on a randomly selected sample. Also, the present research was conducted
using a self-reporting questionnaire and hence respondents bias may be a concern, especially
in regard to the willingness to pay premium.
It is required relevant data to make any paper successful and meaningful. Our primary data
have been recorded about few numbers of people. It was hard to talk with householders due to
time limitations that eventually limit the paper in the relation of the world. Collecting data was
very rough and tough, because most of the householders was not agree to talk frequently rather
they were hesitating while making the survey and it was found that the responses vary from
person to person, so decision making about the report was so tough. This research work
required a large number of days than we got to present the huge information. We can summaries
our limitation of the study as follows-

1. Respondents were sometimes reluctant to fill the questionnaire.


2. Lack of work experience.
3. Lack of enough research papers on the topic.
4. Limited financial support.
5. Limited time.

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Chapter Two: Understanding


Consumer and Green Buying
Behavior

Topics:
Consumer
Consumer buying behavior
Green Consumers
Types of Green Consumers
Green product manufacturer of the world
The situation of countries in terms of green products and green
production.
About Sylhet

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Consumer:

An individual who buys products or services for personal use and not for manufacture or resale.
A consumer is someone who can make the decision whether or not to purchase an item at the
store, and someone who can be influenced by marketing and advertisements. Any time
someone goes to a store and purchases a toy, shirt, beverage, or anything else, they are making
that decision as a consumer.
The consumer is the one who pays to consume the goods and services produced. As such,
consumers play a vital role in the economic system of a nation. In the absence of effective
consumer demand, producers would lack one of the key motivations to produce: to sell to
consumers. The consumer also forms part of the chain of distribution.
Typically, when business people and economists talk of consumers, they are talking about the
person as consumer, an aggregated commodity item with little individuality other than that
expressed in the decision to buy or not to buy. However, there is a trend in marketing to
individualize the concept. Instead of generating broad demographic profiles and psychographic profiles of market segments, marketers have started to engage in personalized
marketing, permission marketing, and mass customization.

Consumer buying behavior:


Possibly the most challenging concept in marketing deals with understanding why buyers do
what they do (or dont do). But such knowledge is critical for marketers since having a strong
understanding of buyer behavior will help shed light on what is important to the customer and
also suggest the important influences on customer decision-making. Using this information,
marketers can create marketing programs that they believe will be of interest to customers.

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As you might guess, factors affecting how customers make decisions are extremely complex.
Buyer behavior is deeply rooted in psychology with dashes of sociology thrown in just to make
things more interesting. Since every person in the world is different, it is impossible to have
simple rules that explain how buying decisions are made.
So, Consumer behavior is the study of individuals, groups, or organizations and the processes
they use to select, secure, and dispose of products, services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy
needs and the impacts that these processes have on the

consumer and

society.

How consumers buy: This process is presented in a sequence of 5 steps as shown below:

However, whether a consumer will actually carryout each step depends on the type of purchase
decision that is faced. For instance, for minor re-purchases the consumer may be quite loyal to
the same brand, thus the decision is a routine one (i.e., buy the same product) and little effort
is involved in making a purchase decision. In cases of routine, brand loyal purchases consumers
may skip several steps in the purchasing process since they know exactly what they want
allowing the consumer to move quickly through the steps. But for more complex decisions,
such as Major New Purchases, the purchasing process can extend for days, weeks, months or

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longer. So in presenting these steps marketers should realize that, depending on the
circumstances surrounding the purchase, the importance of each step may vary.

Green consumers:
The green consumer is generally defined as one who adopts environmentally friendly behaviors
and/or who purchases green products over the standard alternatives. Green consumers are more
internally-controlled as they believe that an individual consumer can be effective in
environmental protection. Thus, they feel that the job of environmental protection should not
be left to the government, business, environmentalists and scientists only; they as consumers
can also play a part. They are also less dogmatic and more open-minded or tolerant toward new
products and AyselBoztepe ideas. Their open-mindedness helps them to accept green products
and behaviors, more readily (Shamdasani at al. 1993:491).
According to the consumption report of the EU (Consumers in Europe), it is found that ten
percent of the consumers recognize the ecological product labels or green energy labels on the
products sold in the supermarkets. Although the companies in our country progress with
significant speed in terms of the environment, it is not possible yet for us to say that they have
reached the same level regarding consumer sensitivity. In Western implementations,
environmental awareness and the green policy in business organizations are reflected in the
business as result of the environmental awareness of the consumers. The most recent and
classical example regarding this subject is airline transportation industry. In airline
transportation, large amount of carbon emission released by the planes into the environment is
a matter in question. British Airway offers the following relieving solution to people who
have to travel by plane but feel disturbed due to the carbon emission: to give financial support
to a fund providing researches intended to reduce carbon emission. The carbon emission,
released during the distance covered is calculated and a contribution of 12.08 Euro per ton can
be paid per person. Carbon dioxide emission per one passenger during an Istanbul-London
flight reaches 29 kilograms, and with this fund, which was established on a voluntary basis,
environmentally conscious passengers can donate 3.25 Euro and feel relaxed. On the other
hand, Turkish Airlines has stated we achieved fuel savings and this saving reduced carbon
emission in a statement they made in October, demonstrating that the firm has a more low
profile

temporary

approach

(Naturalhaber,

2010).

Some defines green consumer as those actively seek and support those products satisfy their
needs that are having less impact on environment. All consumers are potentially green

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consumers. When a consumer has choice to buy from two identical products, the consumer will
prefer to buy environmentally friendly product. One of the research suggest that there is no
significant relation between gender and green behavior .However in turn research of Mainieri,
T. et al. (1997), Green buying: The influence of environmental concern on consumer behavior,
found that women are generally more environmentally conscious and willing to buy green
products. Other researcher states that shows that income and environmental education have
positive relationship and direct impact on green behavior. Pac O, A. and Raposo, M.,
investigate a parallel relation is associated with education and environmental consciousness.
One of the prominent research discovered a positive relationship between environmental
knowledge and level of an education. Whereas Kinnear, T. et al. found that there is no
correlation exit between educating the consumers and environmental issues. Samdahl, D., &
Robertson, R. demonstrate a negative relationship.
According to another researcher distinct market segments like, demographic variables such as
age, income and education are positively related to the consumer attitude in environmental
research show that younger individuals are likely to become sensitive to environmental
issues. Young consumers in any market constitute as a heavy-spending segments.
Moses, E. said most of the researchers studies shows that younger individuals show a greater
propensity to adopt a more Environmentally-friendly behavior and difficult to establish relation
between gender and green consumption. Kassaye, W. et al. pointed out that the existence of
environmentally conscious consumers in food products packaged with recycled materials has
created a demand in niche markets for green power.
A consumer, who is knowledgeable about environment, will tend to make green purchase.

Types of Green Consumers:


The study divided consumers into four groups based on their level of eco-consciousness. By
observing consumer buying behaviors, the study identified key buying motivations for each
group, as well as major purchasing drivers.
According to the study, each group is distinctive, both in its interest in green and its key
values.
True blue greens: This group is characterized by business consumers who are Highly committed to environmental products
Buying environmental products whether it leads high cost
Avoid products that are not made on environmental concern

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Highly involved in pro-environmental activities


Make monetary contributions to environmental issues
Greenback Greens: This group is similar to the True blues. However, greenbacks are Willing to pay premium for environmentally sound products
Sometimes they switch to another products if the environmental products are not
available or cope with the lifestyle
Sprouts: This group doesnt usually purchase green products but Capable of doing so, if they are marketed to them in an appropriate way
Tend to believe in environmental causes only in theory, not in practice
They rank well above companies overall on when it comes to environmental
requirements and standards. This makes the group a key swing group
Grousers: Grousers are Not committed to environmental products
Not believe that they are capable of effecting change
Tend to claim that they have many reasons for not doing more for the environment
Basic browns: These business consumers Do not think about the environmental issues
Expose that it is not necessary to do many things for the environment
Emphasize the profit only
May harm the environment

Green Washing:
The term green washing refers to using green marketing to eye wash the customers. The
primary objective of green washing is to provide consumers with the feeling that the

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organization is taking the necessary steps to responsibly manage its ecological footprint but in
reality such things are absent. The main purpose is to increase profits. The term green washing
was first used by environmentalist Jay Westerveld when objecting to hotelier's practice of
placing notices in hotel rooms which asked their guests to reuse towels to save the
environment.
Seven Claims of Green Washing:

DON'T - make factual claims like carbon neutral or wholly recyclable


unless you can substantiate them.
By testing the product and keeping a record of tests, an advertiser should be able
to demonstrate that claims about the product are honest and truthful.

DON'T - use vague terms.


The use of terms such as sustainable, green, non-polluting, environmentallyfriendly, earth-friendly, earth-smart, eco-safe, essentially non-toxic & ozonefriendly have been found to be misleading. Using qualified or comparative claims
such as greener and friendlier have been acceptable if clear and substantiated.

DONT - use of the hidden tradeoff.


A claim suggesting that a product is green based on a narrow set of attributes
without attention to other important environmental issues-such as greenhouse gas
emissions, or chlorine use in bleaching may be equally important.

DONT - use of irrelevance information.


An environmental claim that may be truthful but is unimportant or unhelpful for
consumers seeking environmentally preferable products. CFC-free is a common
example, since it is a frequent claim despite the fact that CFCs are banned by law.

DO - Avoid using worship.


A product that, through either words or images, gives the impression of thirdparty endorsement where no such endorsement exists; fake labels, in other words.

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DO - make the basis of any comparisons clear.


If, for example, an advertisement for a car claims that it is better for the
environment or has lower emissions, it should be clear which cars are being
compared.

DO - make it clear if there is a significant division of scientific opinion.


Also state that evidence is inconclusive about a particular environmental issue
that is relevant to your advertisement.

Green Product manufacturer of the world:


According to some websites, there are several companies who claims to be green. But after
conducting some research, we listed only 2,200 companies that can be vouched for truly
green or dark green.
Every year, Newsweek evaluates the top 500 global and top 500 U.S. companies, all of which
are publicly traded, to determine how green the companies are. According to the most recent
report, the 2012 Newsweek Green Rankings report, the following companies are the top 20
on the global list:

Rank Company

Country Industry Sector

Impact

Management

Disclosure Green
Score

Santander

Brazil

Financials

88.5

88.4

61.5

85.7

India

Information

70.2

100

88.3

85.4

87.9

75.9

99.9

83.7

Brasil

Wipro

Technology &
Services

Bradesco

Brazil

Financials

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IBM

United

Information

States

Technology &

78.9

87

82.9

82.9

82

79.5

99.8

82.7

77.3

84.2

99.8

82.7

87.6

78.2

79

82.5

80.7

78.9

99.8

81.8

76.1

81.3

98.3

80.6

Services

National

Australi Financials

Australia

Bank

BT Group

United

Telecommunic

Kingdo

ations

Munich Re

German Financials
y

SAP

German Information
y

Technology &
Services

10

11

KPN

Netherl

Telecommunic

ands

ations

Marks &

United

Retailers

65.7

92

95.8

80.5

Spencer

Kingdo

Group

Tata

India

Information

74.9

81.8

98.9

80.4

Consultancy

Technology &

Services

Services

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12

Financials

84.8

78.4

67.1

80.1

Bell Canada Canada

Telecommunic

74.3

83.2

91.5

80

Enterprises

ations

68.3

88.2

95.2

79.9

75.1

80

99.7

79.8

81.4

73.6

99.7

79.8

68.6

88

91.9

79.7

Generali

Italy

Group

13

14

Nokia

Finland

Technology
Equipment

15

Telefonica

Spain

Telecommunic
ations

16

Santander

Spain

17

Fujitsu

Japan

Financials

Technology
Equipment

18

NKSJ

Japan

Financials

86.2

73.6

70.5

79

India

Information

64.6

88.5

99.9

78.9

74.8

83.4

76.1

78.8

Holdings

19

Infosys

Technology &
Services

20

Telefonica
Brasil

Brazil

Telecommunic
ations

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The situation of countries in terms of green products and green


production:
Lots of countries are going green or in other terms adopting renewable energy solutions as a
measure of protecting themselves against the ill effects of global warming or climate change.
Some of the strategies countries employ to ensure less and less emitted carbon into the
atmosphere include; recycling, using renewable energy like wind or solar, promoting the use
of green products, driving hybrid vehicles, etc.
Every year countries are ranked using the Environmental Performance Index (EPI), a method
which basically measures the performance of over 163 world governments environmental
policies in combating climate change and fostering environmental conservation. A list was
recently availed detailing the strides that countries are making in an effort to go green.
Here are the 10 greenest countries in the world.

1. Iceland
Iceland is the top green destination in the world today. The countrys breathtaking nature aside,
the people of Iceland have made remarkable progress in implementing green energy policies.
For instance, geothermal is widely used to generate electricity; while heating needs have been
taken care of by use of hydrogen. The countrys main energy source is renewable energy
(geothermal and hydrogen) which accounts to over 82% of the total energy used. The country
is really working towards being 100% green energy efficient. Above all, the country policies
encourage things like recycling, use of eco fuel, use of green products, minimal driving among
a host of other eco-friendly measures.

2. Switzerland
Switzerland is the second greenest country on the planet, after Iceland. The country has, in the
past, occupied the number one spot as the greenest country on earth. The Switzerland
government and its people have achieved remarkable success in creating a greener society.
Apart from using renewable energy and eco-friendly products, the people are generally brought
to task on the importance of ensuring that they live in a clean environment. For instance,
disposing trash generally attracts a certain amount of fees. Additionally people do not use cars
very often, instead opting to use bicycles for transportation especially when strolling in city. In
fact in some towns cars are actually prohibited.

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3. Costa Rica
Even though it is small country, the great things of the country make it better than others. It
lies in Latin America and has very sound policies on environmental damage. The energy from
renewable sources is used as a source of power for the country. The government states that by
2021, this country will be carbon neutral country. To conserve the forests, the country
undertook massive reforestation techniques and planted more than 5 million trees in just 3-5
years.

4. Sweden
Sweden is a top ranking destination when it comes to conserving the environment through the
use of eco-friendly products. Aside from using green products, the country scored heavily on
the index largely as a result of the fact that its people are deeply advanced in the implementation
to phase out the use of fossil fuels by the year 2020. The country has also received numerous
praise for the way they have been able to protect their forest cover. Additionally, the country
is well known for its use of dust for heating-produced by the vibrant lumbar industry. There
are plenty of other green strategies that the country employs to ensure that its population does
not suffer from the effects of global warming.

5. Norway
In the era of global warming and severe climate change, Norway has acted rapidly to improve
the circumstances. We all know that the Northern part of Norway is very close to Arctic.
Because of that the impact of global warming is huge in Norway. Thus, Norway has to act as
soon as possible in order to conserve their green environment. The country is already doing its
part by using eco fuels and renewable energy. Recycling is also a very regular thing among the
people of Norway.

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6. Mauritius
Mauritius the only African country in the EPI performance index in environmental
conservation. The country administration has been at the forefront of promoting the use of ecofriendly products as well as recycling. Mauritius generally powers all its operations using
energy generated from hydroelectricity.

7. France
France is a country which uses renewable sources of energy and is doing well when we think
of environmental conservation. It has impressed the world by using eco fuels, doing organic
farming, using renewable energy sources such as solar power. The solar energy used in France
is initiated by the government by reducing the taxes of those who decides to use solar panels
in their homes and offices for power. Many other products such as straw bales in constructions
and others are used as they are eco-friendly.

8. Austria
Austria has, over the years, implemented green energy policies to a great success. The countries
latest green policy involves collaborating with the Czech Republic to create eco-friendly
gardens along the borderline of the two countries. Some of the floras cultivated in this noble
initiative include; herbs, fruits, trees, flowers etc. No pesticides are used in the general
maintenance of the garden.

9. Cuba
Cuba is another country which focuses on implementing environmental solutions. The main
focus of the people there is to prevent any further emission of carbon in the atmosphere. The
company has banned and illegalized use of certain pesticides as they contribute largely in
polluting the environment. Most of the power in the country comes from hydroelectricity. The
government there made a green energy policy which ensures the connectivity of each house to
the nearby hydro station.

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10. Columbia
Columbia is a country in South America which has taken many great steps for making the
country Green and found many green energy solutions. Initially it was the victim of
deforestation, but it later took many steps and ensured no further environmental damage. The
country is very focused in conserving the environment and its resources. Some steps taken by
them to stay environment friendly are: using Bamboo sticks replacing steel in construction,
allocating National Parks to save endangered species, promoting the eco-friendly products,
reducing deforestation, etc.

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Chapter Three: Data analysis and


Interpretation

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Data analysis and Interpretation:


1. Importance of Environment Friendly product

Options
Yes
No
Total

Frequency
133
7
140

Percentage
95
5
100

Source: Survey Data

When we asked people if they knew about environmental friendly product then 95% of
them say yes and 5% of them say no

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2. Experience on purchasing green product

Options
Yes
No
Total

Frequency
112
28
140

Percentage
80
20
100
Source: Survey Data

When we asked people about the experience on buying green products then 80% of them
say yes and 20 % Sayed that they dont have any.

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3. Usage of poly bags in shopping

Options
Yes
No
Total

Frequency
98
42
140

Percentage
70
30
100
Source: Survey Data

When we asked people about using of poly bags when they go shopping then 70% of
them said yes they use poly bags when they go shopping, and 30% of them said they
dont use it when they go shopping.

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4. The consideration of purchasing green product

Options
Yes
No
Total

Frequency
56
84
140

Percentage
40
60
100
Source: Survey Data

When we asked people before purchasing product are the considered the green product.
Then 40% of them say yes and 60% of them say no

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5. Knowledge about benefits of green product

Options
Yes
No
Total

Frequency
133
7
140

Percentage
95
5
100

Source: Survey Data

When we asked people that are they know the benefits of the benefits of green product.
Then they said that yes they know the benefits of green product and the other 5% said that
they dont know the benefits of green product.

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6. Regularity of purchasing green product

Options
Yes
No
Total

Frequency Percentage
28
20
112
80
140
100
Source: Survey Data

We asked people that did they buy green product regularly then 28 people out of 140 said
that they buy green product regularly, and 112 out of 140 said that they dont buy green
product regularly.

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7. Purchasing product approved by BSTI

Options
Yes
No
Total

Frequenc
y
115
25
140

Percentage
82.14286
17.85714
100

Source: Survey Data

We asked people Do they buy product which approved by BSTI, then 115 people out of
140 said that they do, and 25 people out of 140 said that they dont do

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8. Purchasing of green product more than common product

Options
Yes
No
Total

Frequency
18
122
140

Percentage
12.85714
87.14286
100
Source: Survey Data

We asked people do they buy green product more or common product than 18 people out
of 140 said that they do and 122 people out of 140 said that they dont do.

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9. Purchasing product based on the information given on its package

Options
Yes
No
Total

Frequency
107
33
140

Percentage
76.42857
23.57143
100
Source: Survey Data

After asking people about their buying behavior then we know that 107 people out of 140
said that they Purchase product based on the information given on its package and 33
people out of 140 said that they dont Purchase product based on the information given on
its package.

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10. Willingness to pay excess money for green product

Options
Yes
No
Total

Frequency
80
60
140

Percentage
57.14
42.86
100
Source: Survey Data

Then we asked people are they willing to pay excess money for that then we find that 80
people out of 140 said that yes they are willing to pay excess money and the other 60 are
not willing to pay excess money.

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11. The kinds of green product bought

Options
Clothes & wears
Organic Food
Electrical Appliance
Furniture
Others
total

Frequency
91
28
11
7
3
140

Percentage
65
20
7.86
5
2.14
100

Source: Survey Data

After querying about the green products they purchased, they said that most of it is (65%)
Cloths and wears. 20% people bought Organic food and 5% of them furniture. Only
2.14% of them bought other Products.

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12. The attracting elements to buy green product


Options
Acceptable Price
Designer/Company Image
Actual Green Product Impact
Appearance
Packaging/Promotion
Durable
Others
Total

Frequency Percentage
21
15
35
25
49
35
10
7
7
5
4
3
14
10
140
100
Source: Survey Data

When we asked people what they find most attracting when they buy green products.
35% of them argued that it is Actual Green Product Impact, 25% of them said that it is the
company or designers impact acting on their purchasing behavior. 15% of them said if the
products are reasonably priced, they would buy that product. 7% and 5% of the
consumers buy products for Appearance and Packaging/Promotion accordingly. Only 3%
of people vouch for durability.10% of the samples buying behavior depend on other
attracting factors.

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13. Reason of purchasing common product

Options
Acceptable Price
Designer/Company Image
Get used to it
Appearance
Packaging/Promotion
Durable
Others
Total

Frequency
63
17
24
7
14
11
4
140

Percentage
45
12.14
17.14
5
10
7.86
2.86
100
Source: Survey Data

Though they knew green products are healthy way to live, they still buys common
products because, 45% of them thinks they are priced lower than the green products. 17%
of the consumers got used to the common products. 12% of the people thinks designer
impact is essential in buying the common products. 10% people thinks common products
has a great advantage over green products in terms of packaging and promotion as they

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buy common products because of it. *% of people thinks, common product is more
durable than green products and 3% of people think of other factors that allure them to
buy common products.

14. Restriction of choosing green product

Options
Green Product Assurance
Not easy to find
Relatively Expensive
Others
Total

Frequency Percentage
21
15
53
38
60
43
6
4
140
100
Source: Survey Data

The main resistance of buying a green product is its expensiveness. 43% of people marks
it as the main restriction of buying a green product. And in local context of Sylhet 38% of
people thinks that, green product is very hard to find in this area. Some people are afraid
of being green washed though the percentage is relatively low, only 15%. 4% of people
thinks there are some other factors that restricts the green products.

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15. Product lasted more time

Options
Yes
No
Total

Frequency
31
109
140

Percentage
22
78
100
Source: Survey Data

We asked people that are the green product lasted more times? Then we find that 22%
think that yes it lasted more times and 78% think that no it not lasted more times.

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16. Satisfaction after using green product

Options
Yes
No
Total

Frequency Percentage
94
67
46
33
140
100
Source: Survey Data

We asked people about their satisfaction about green product then we find that 67% are
satisfied and 33% are not.

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17. The product is recyclable

Options

Frequency
123
17
140

Yes
No
Total

Percentage
87.86
12.14
100

Source: Survey Data

77.86

Yes
No
22.14

We asked people that do they think the green product is recyclable or not then 123 people
out of 140 said that yes they think and the other 17 people said that out of 140 they dont
believe in its recyclability.

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Chapter Four: Findings


& Conclusion

Topics:
Findings
Conclusion

47 | P a g e

Findings

The consuming percentage of Green products in Sylhet is low

There are not enough knowledge about Green Products in local peoples

Manufacturer of Green Products in Sylhet is not significantly present.

People are not so much concern about environment when they purchase/consume
goods

Polythene bag is prohibited in Bangladesh but the users of polythene bag hold the top
position. Polythene bag seriously affect the environment

Green Products are not available in Sylhet.

Most of the Green Products do not last long.

Green Products are recyclable.

Consumers do not want to buy Green Product for its excess price.

Green Product is not easy to found.

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Conclusion
Our research shows that, some factors have a great influence among all of the factors that
indicated that marketing managers should concern with the superior value of the eco-friendly
products. Consumers have strong emphasis on the end-value of the products in order to repeat
purchases. The results of the satisfaction of the consumers would lead to increase in sales,
market shares and brand loyalty. Many scholar agreed consumers are concerned on the
satisfaction of the products and activities of the companies not harm to the environment.
However, the product quality should not be overlooked since consumers relate price with
quality when making purchasing decision, and consumers research not only green products
claiming environmental values but also products with high quality, because consumers are not
ready to make a compromise on quality just for the benefits green attributes and for the moment
green products seem still have less quality than conventional ones as our findings.

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Chapter Five:
Appendix

Items:
References
Questionnaire

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References:
[1] Alfredsson, E.C, Green consumption-no solution for climate change. Energy, 29,
2004, pp.513-524.
[2] Barr, S., Gilg, A., & Ford, N., Environmentalism in Britain Today, 2003. Retrieved
January 10, 2008 from the AllBusiness Web site:
http://www.allbusiness.com/professionalscientific/architecturalengineering-related/6593981.html. Accessed on Febuary 14th 2012.
[3] Burns, Alvin; Burns, Ronald, Basic Marketing Research (Second ed.). New Jersey:
Pearson Education. 2008, p. 245. ISBN 978-0-13-205958-9.
[4] Carrigan, M.; Szmigin, I.; and Wright, J., Shopping for a better world? An interpretive
study of the potential for ethical consumption within the older market. The Journal of
Consumer Marketing, 21(6), 2004, 401-417.
[5] Chan, R. Y. K., Determinants of Chinese Consumers Green Purchase Behavior.
Psychology & Marketing, 18(4), 2001, 389-413.
[6] Abdul-Muhmin, A.G. (2007). Exploring consumers willingness to be environmentally
friendly. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 31, 237-247.
[7] Arbutnoth, J., & Lingg, S. (1975). A comparison of French and American environmental
behaviours, knowledge, and attitudes. International Journal of Psychology, 10, 275-281.
[8] Chen, T.B., & Chai L.T. (2010). Attitude towards environment and green products:
Consumers perspective. Management Science and Engineering, 4 (2), 27-39.
[9] Gardner, William L., and Mark J. Martinko (1996). Using the Myers-Briggs Type
Indicator to Study Managers: A Literature Review and Research Agenda. Journal of
Management, 22(1), 45-83. http://www.knowthis.com/principles-of-marketingtutorials/consumer-buying-behaviour/ http://www.udel.edu/alex/chapt6.html
[10] http://greenliving.nationalgeographic.com/going-green-home-products-2370.html
[11]http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/22/business/energy
environment/22green.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 http://www.thedailygreen.com/greenhomes/eco friendly/green-products[12] Schwartz, S.H. (1994), ``Are there universal aspects in the structure and contents of
human values?, Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 50 No. 4, pp. 19-45.
[13] Sciencedaily, (2011), Energy Conservation on [April 5, 2010] from
http://www.sciencedaily.com/articles/e/energy_ conservation.htm
[14] Ecolabelling green consumerism, (2011), [August 06, 2011]
http://www.naturskyddsforeningen.se/inenglish/ Ecolabelling/(Aug 01, 2011)
[15] Macdonald, S,. et al. (2006), Sustainability: Consumer Perceptions and Marketing
Strategies. Business Strategy and the Environment, 15, 157-170.

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[16] Clem W (2008), 5 Things you need to know about going Green, Downloaded from
http:/ /www.greencar.com/articles/5- things-needgoing- green.php on 18/10/2013.
[17] http://www.ijmrbs.com/currentissue.php
[18] Brown M (2003), Buying or Browsing? An Exploration of Shopping Orientations and
Online Purchase Intention, European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 37, Nos. 11/12, pp. 16661684
[19] Phau I and Ong D (2007), An Investigation of the Effects of Environmental Claims in
Promotional Messages for Clothing Brands, Marketing Intelligence and Planning, Vol. 25,
No. 7, pp. 772-788.
[20] Anderson, R.C. and Hansen, E.N. (2004). The impact of environmental certification on
preferences for wood furniture: A conjoint analysis approach, Forest Product Journal, 54 (3),
42-50.
[21] Ottman, J.A. (2000). Its not just the environment, stupid. Retrieved August, 2004,
downloadable at http://www.greenmarketing.com/articles/IB_Sept00.html.
[22] Ottman, J.A. and Terry, V. (1998). Strategic marketing of greener products, Retrieved
December,2004, from http://www.greenmarketing.com/articles/JSP1Apr98.html.
[23] http://www.goodwithmoney.co.uk/servlet/Satellite/1200903577501,CFSweb/P
age/GoodWithMoney [25.06.08]
[24] http://sdrnadmin.rechord.com/wpcontent/
uploads/motivatingscfinal_000.pdf
[25] Haron, S.A., Paim, L. and Yahaya, N., Towards sustainable consumption: An
examination of environmental knowledge among Malaysians. International Journal of
Consumers Studies, 29(5), 2005, International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 8, 301330.
http://www.allbusiness.com/professionalscientific/ architectural-engineering-related/6593981.html. Accessed on Febuary 12th 2012.
[26] Roberts JA., Green consumers in the 1990s: Profile and implications for advertising.
Journal of Business Research, 36, 1996, 217-231.
[27] Wasik, J.F., Green marketing and management: A global perspective. Cambridge, Mass:
Blackwell Publishers Inc., 1996.
[28] http://www.knowthis.com/principles-of-marketing-tutorials/consumer-buyingbehaviour/
[29] http://www.udel.edu/alex/chapt6.html

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Department of Business Administration


1st year 2nd semester
Shahjalal University of Science and Technology,
Sylhet-3114, Bangladesh.
Questionnaire

Topics: Consumer purchasing Behavior toward Green Products


Please answer the following question to help and support our study (information
will only use to prepare the report and must be confidential)
Profile of the person:
Name of the respondent:
Age:
Contact no.:
1. Do you think environmental friendly is important?
A- YES
B- NO
2. Have you ever purchased green product?
A- YES
B- NO
3. Do you uses poly bag when go shopping?
A- YES
B- NO
4. When purchasing a product, will you first consider green product?
A- YES
B- NO
5. Do you know the benefits of green products?
A- YES
B- NO
6. Do you always purchase green product?
A- YES
B- NO
7. Are you buying products approved by BSTI?
A- YES
B- NO
8. Are you purchased green product more than common product?
A- YES
B- NO

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9. Do you buy the products based on the information given on the products package?
A- YES
B- NO
10. Will you pay excess money for the green products?
A- YES
B- NO
11. What kind of green product have you brought? ( You can choose more than one)
A- Clothes & wears
B- Organic Food
C- Electrical Appliance
D- Furniture
E- Others
12. What element(s) attracting to buy green product? (You can choose more than one)
A- Acceptable Price
B- Designer/Company Image
C- Actual Green product Impact
D- Appearance
E- Packaging/Promotion
F- Durable
G- Others
13. Reason of purchasing common products? (You can choose more than one)
A- Acceptable Price
B- Designer/Company Image
C- Get used to it
D- Appearance
E- Packaging/Promotion
F- Durable
G- Others
14. What is the most restriction of choosing green product?
A- Green product assurance
B- Not easy to find
C- Relatively Expensive
D- Others
15. Is the green product lasted more time?
A- YES
B- NO
16. Are you satisfied after using green products?
A- YES
B- NO
17. Is that recyclable?
A- YES
B- NO

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