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Geoinformatics Specialization

Department of Civil Engineering


Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur

SHORT TERM COURSE

INTRODUCTION
TO

LANDSLIDE SITE MAPPING


LABORATORY MANUAL

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LABORATORY EXERCISE 5: GEOREFERENCING,


CONTOURING, MAP PREPARATION
Contents
Know your software........................................................................................................................................................ 2
Objectives .......................................................................................................................................................................... 2
Getting started with QGIS .............................................................................................................................................. 2
1. Georeferencing a scanned map. ............................................................................................................................... 4
2. Map to Image Registration ..................................................................................................................................... 10
3. Creating a point shapefile from surveyed point features. ................................................................................. 15
4. Creating line and polygon features from point features ................................................................................... 26
5. Plotting Contours ..................................................................................................................................................... 33
6. Editing Contours ...................................................................................................................................................... 37
7. Map Preparation ....................................................................................................................................................... 49

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Know your software


QGIS is a user friendly Open Source Geographic Information System (GIS) licensed under the GNU General Public License. QGIS is an official
project of the Open Source Geospatial Foundation (OSGeo). It runs on Linux, Unix, Mac OSX, Windows and Android and supports numerous
vector, raster, and database formats and functionalities.

Objectives
In this module, you will be introduced to QGIS Desktop Application and will learn the following
1. Georeferencing a scanned map.
2. Map to remote sensing image registration
3. Creating a point shapefile from surveyed point features.
4. Creating line and polygon features from point features
5. Plotting contours
6. Editing contours
7. Map preparation

Getting started with QGIS

Open QGIS Desktop 2.14.3. (see Figure 5. 1)


For this exercise you would use very few of the tools from the large repository available with QGIS.
A plugins support is also available for QGIS, where different modules can be added based on requirement. These plugins can only be added
with a valid internet connection.
In this exercise we will be working with tools within the vector and the raster menu in the menu bar.

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Figure 5. 1: QGIS User Interface

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1. Georeferencing a scanned map.


Georeferencing is the process of assigning real-world coordinates to each pixel of the raster. Many times these coordinates are obtained by doing
field surveys - collecting coordinates with a GPS device for few easily identifiable features in the image or map. In some cases, where you are
looking to digitize scanned maps, you can obtain the coordinates from the markings on the map image itself. Using these sample coordinates or
GCPs (Ground Control Points), the image is warped and made to fit within the chosen coordinate system.
[A] Overview of the task
We will use a scanned SOI (Survey of India) topographic map of Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh area.
The standard datum WGS84 is used to reference the map.
[B] Data Used
Scanned SOI (Survey of India) topographic map of Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh area- .jpg file titled 63b7.
[C] Procedure

Georeferencing in QGIS is done via the Georeferencer GDAL plugin in older versions of QGIS. This is available as a core plugin in
latest version as Georeferencer- meaning it is already part of your QGIS installation. In the older versions you need to enable it. Go to
Plugins > Manage and Install Plugins and enable the Georeferencer GDAL plugin in the Installed tab (see Figure 5. 2). The plugin is
installed in the Raster menu. Click on Raster > Georeferencer > Georeferencer to open the plugin.
The plugin window is divided into 2 sections. The top section where the raster will be displayed and the bottom section where a table
showing your GCPs will appear (see Figure 5. 2.)
Now we will open our JPG image. Go to File > Open Raster. Browse to the image of the
scanned map 63b7.jpg and click Open.
In the next screen (Figure 5. 3.), you will be asked to choose the rasters coordinate reference
system (CRS). This is to specify the projection and datum of your control points. If you have
collected the ground control points using a GPS device, you would have the WGS84 CRS. If
you are geo-referencing a scanned map like this, you can obtain the CRS information from the
map itself. Looking at our map image, the coordinates are in Lat/Long. There is no datum
information given, so we have to assume an appropriate one. Since SOI datums are usually
given in WGS84 we assume the one for the map be the same.

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Figure 5. 2: Georeferencer GDAL Plugin & Georeferencer Tool

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Figure 5. 3: Selection of coordinate reference frame

You can use the zoom/pan controls in the toolbar to learn more about the
map (Figure 5. 5).

Figure 5. 4: Displayed scanned map

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Figure 5. 5: Zoom/pan controls in Georeferencer

Now we need to assign coordinates to some points on this map. If you look closely, you will see coordinate grid with markings. Using this grid,
you can determine the X and Y coordinates (or Northing and Easting) of the points where the grids intersect. To find the intersections zoom in at
the image corners. Then click on Add Point in the toolbar. Now click on the intersection of the grid lines (Figure 5. 6)

You will notice the GCP table now has a row with details of your first GCP (Figure 5. 7.)

Figure 5. 6: Adding coordinates to grid line intersections

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Similarly, add at least 4 GCPs covering the entire image. The more points you
have, the more accurate your image is registered to the target coordinates.

Once you have enough points, go to Settings > Transformation settings.

In the Transformation settings dialog, choose the Transformation type as


Linear. Name your output raster as 63b7_modified.tif. Choose EPSG:
4326 as the target SRS so the resulting image is in a widely compatible
datum. Make sure the Load in QGIS when done option is checked (Figure
5. 8). Click OK.

Figure 5. 7: Points added to the GCP Table

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Back in the Georeferencer window, go to File > Start georeferencing. This


will start the process of warping the image using the GCPs and creating the
target raster.
Once the process finishes, you will see the georeferenced layer loaded in
QGIS.

Figure 5. 8: Transformation settings

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2. Map to Image Registration


In remote sensing, one of the major corrections that is applied to the imagery
are geometric corrections. In order to perform geometric corrections of
satellite or airborne imagery, one requires either GCPs, a minimum of three
to apply an affine transformation or a georeferenced scanned map of the area
with better resolution. In this exercise our case corresponds to the latter. We
will use the georeferenced map 63by_modified.tif to apply geometric
corrections to the satellite image Imagery.L4. In this exercise we will register
LISS IV imagery with respect to a georeferenced map.
[A] Overview of the task
We will use a georeferenced scanned SOI (Survey of India)
topographic map of Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh area.
The standard datum WGS84 is used to reference the map.
[B] Data Used
Georeferenced scanned SOI (Survey of India) topographic map of
Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh area- .tif file titled 63b7_modified.
LISS IV imagery- Imagery.L4
[C] Procedure
Open the Georeferencer tool as done previously (see Figure 5. 2.).
Go to File>Open raster. Browse to the location of imagery
Imagery.L4 and select it.
A coordinate reference system (CRS) window will open. Define the
datum as WGS84. The LISS IV imagery will be displayed in the
Georeferencer tool (Figure 5. 9)
Note, in this case there are no grid lines on the imagery, hence we
need to find feature or objects in the image which has sharp corners
or edges for better transformation accuracy. To begin zoom and
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Figure 5. 9: Imported LISS IV imagery in Georeferencer tool

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scroll to the shoe shape object in the image and the corresponding map 63b7_modified.tif in the Layer panel (Figure 5. 10).

Figure 5. 10: Shoe shaped object as displayed in the image and the map

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For Georeferencing the image, we must add tie points from the map to
the image. Identify the suitable corners in the shoe shaped object for tie
points.
In the Georeferencer tool, zoom into the selected corner and select
Add Point tool. Click on the identified corner (Figure 5. 11).
We do not know the coordinates of this point, to add the coordinate
from the map, locate the same (approx.) point in the map. Now go
back to the Georeferencer tool and select From map canvas and
then return to the map and click at the corresponding point. The
coordinates are transferred to the Enter map coordinates window.
Select OK. The point is added in the GCP Table.
Similarly add 5-6 uniformly distributed points, such that the
transformation does not entail directional dependency.
You can see the tie points and their distribution. Select View> Zoom
to Layer. Now zoom in to the shoe shaped object to clearly identify
the selected tie points (Figure 5. 12).
Once you have enough points, go to Settings > Transformation
settings.
In the Transformation settings dialog, choose the Transformation
type
as
Linear.
Name
your
output
raster
as
imagery_modified.tif. Choose EPSG: 4326 as the target SRS so the
resulting image is in a widely compatible datum. Make sure the
Load in QGIS when done option is checked. Click OK.
Back in the Georeferencer window, go to File > Start
georeferencing. This will start the process of warping the image
using the GCPs and creating the target raster.
Once the process finishes, you will see the georeferenced layer
loaded in QGIS (Figure 5. 13).

Figure 5. 11: Selecting and adding a tie point

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Figure 5. 12: Distribution of the tie points

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Figure 5. 13: Georeferenced Imagery

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3. Creating a point shapefile from surveyed point features.


Many times the GIS data comes in a table or an Excel spreadsheet. Usually in topographic surveys, we have a list of coordinates, you can easily
import this data in a GIS project. GIS data has two parts - features and attributes. Attributes are structured data about each feature. QGIS enables
us to view the attributes and do basic queries on them. An attribute table can be used to generate structured and hierarchical layers
Points>Lines>Polygons>Area etc. or to interchange between them. In this exercise we will work with vector data of coordinates to generate an
attribute map of the Western Labs Extension.
[A] Overview of the task
To generate a Point map of Western Labs Extension, IIT Kanpur and save it as a shapefile i.e. in .shp extension.
[B] Data Used
Vector data of points around Western Labs Extension, IIT Kanpur containing points and attributes saved in csv (comma separated values)
format in an Excel sheet.
[C] Procedure
Examine your tabular data source. To import this data to QGIS, you will have to save it as a text file and need at least 2 columns which
contain the X and Y coordinates (or Easting and Northing). If you have a spreadsheet, use Save As function in your program to save it
as a Tab Delimited File or a Comma Separated Values (CSV) file. Once you have the data exported this way, you can open it in a text
editor such as Notepad to view the contents.
Open QGIS. Click on Layers > Add Layer> Add Delimited Text Layer (Figure 5. 14). In the Create a Layer from a Delimited Text File
dialog (Figure 5. 15), click on Browse and specify the path to the text file (csv Excel sheet) you were given. In the File format section,
select CSV if it is not the default. The Geometry definition section will be auto-populated if it finds a suitable X and Y coordinate fields.
In our case they are NORTHING and EASTING. You may alter the data file or change it in the Create a Layer from a Delimited Text
File dialog if the import selects the wrong fields. Click OK.
NOTE: It is easy to confuse X and Y coordinates. Latitude specifies the north-south position of a point and hence it is Y coordinate. Similarly Longitude
specifies the east-west position of a point and it is X coordinate.

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Figure 5. 14: Importing Point data in QGIS

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This opens the coordinate reference system
selector window. Select WGS84/UTM zone
44N, EPSG: 32644 for the datum and projection
system. The points are shown in QGIS with a
layer added in the Layers Panel (Figure 5. 16).
To visualize the points by their attributes,
select this layer in the Layers Panel and right
click. Now select Properties. This opens the
Layer Properties dialogue (Figure 5. 17).

Figure 5. 15: Selecting and adding data to the layer

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Figure 5. 16: Points imported in QGIS

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In the Layer Properties dialogue,


select Labels. Check Label this
layer with tab if not already done
and select the attribute, you want to
label your points with. In our case let
it be class or point ID. After selecting
the attribute, click on Apply, the
points in QGIS now you will have the
class name alongside the point
symbol (Figure 5. 18).

Figure 5. 17: Layer Properties- Label

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Figure 5. 18: Points displayed with Label -class

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To categorize the points by classes


and display them with different
colors, select Class in the
Column field. In the Color ramp
tab select the appropriate color
palette. Then click on Classify tab
(Figure 5. 19).
Then click on Apply and OK.
View the changes in QGIS (Figure
5. 20).
To change the symbol, go to the
Style tab, and click Change
symbol. This opens a Symbol
selector window, where you can
choose and edit symbols. The
symbols can also be changed by
directly double clicking over a class
in the Layer within the Layers
Panel. Change the symbols from
the available options (Figure 5. 21).
Figure 5. 23 shows an example of
symbols changed for all the point
features.

Figure 5. 19: Layer Properties - Style

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Figure 5. 20: Points displayed with categorized colors

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Figure 5. 21: Changed Symbol of 'Tree' feature

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Figure 5. 22: Changed symbols of all point features

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To save this layer as a shapefile, select the layer in the Layers


Panel and right click on the layer. Then select Save as and
browse to the location of your project (Figure 5. 23).

Figure 5. 21: Saving Layer as shapefile


Figure 5. 23: Saving layer as shapefile

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4. Creating line and polygon features from point features


In this section, the procedure for developing shapefiles for line and polygon
features from point features is illustrated. We will use the point data as
explained in previous section for this purpose.
First, we need to individually extract the line and polygon feature points
from the point data and save them as shapefiles.
For this right click on the points shapefile, AllPOINTS, in this case, in
the Layers Panel and select Filter. This is illustrated in Figure 5. 24.
This shows only the building
points in the visible area at the
main window (Figure 5. 25).
Now, right click at
AllPOINTS layer and Save
As shapefile. This saves the
Building points as a new
shapefile.
Similarly another shapefile for
extracting Road points can
also be saved.
Now to create a polygon
shapefile for the building, first
we need to create a new
shapefile as shown in Figure 5.
26.

Figure 5. 24: Filtering Building points

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Figure 5. 25: Building points

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Figure 5. 26: Adding the Name field to the attribute


table of the new shapefile

Figure 5. 27: Creating a shapefile for the building polygon

In the New Shapefile Layer dialogue, select the options as marked in a red box shown in Figure 5. 27. Now click on Add to fields list. This
adds the field Name in the attribute table of the shape file as shown in Figure 5. 27. In the Name field, we can add the name of the building,
for example Western Lab Extension-WLE in this case. This new shapefile is added to the Layers Panel.
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This shapefile is empty and we must add feature to this using the building points shapefile. For this click on the polygon building shapefile in
the Layers Panel, Now, click on the Toggle Editing tool marked with a pencil symbol and then on the Add feature tool, the second next
symbol to the Toggle Editing tool (see Figure 5. 28).

Figure 5. 28: Connecting the points to generate the polygon

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Now, click on the points to connect them from the building points to create a polygon. At the last vertex of the polygon, you need to right click.
This opens the attribute window, where you can save the buildings name.
After this the polygon is saved in the shapefile as shown in Figure 5. 29. You can view the attribute table for this and see that the given name
is added to the field Name.

Figure 5. 29: Saved polygon for the building with attribute information

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You can change the symbol and the fill using the Style dialogue in the Layer Properties.
Similarly, we create a new Line shapefile for the roads. Follow the same procedure as done for creating a polygon for building. In this case
the points are connected to lines and terminated by right clicking on the end point. This gives you the attribute window to save the name of
the road, which is then added to the attribute table of the layer. This is shown in Figure 5. 30.

Figure 5. 30: Connecting road points around the building

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The final road lines created are shown in Figure 5. 31.

Figure 5. 31: Final connected roads

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5. Plotting Contours

Generate a point map as done previously. Creating a shapefile from surveyed points and features.
Go to Raster>Interpolation>Interpolation (Figure 5. 32). This loads the
Interpolation Plugin (Figure 5. 33). In older versions of QGIS this plugin was to
be installed externally. However with newer versions, this is one of the core
functionalities.
In the Interpolation Plugin on the left in the Input panel, select the field with
the elevation values for the points in the Interpolation attribute and click Add.
There are two predefined methods for interpolation in the Interpolation Plugin
Triangular Irregular Network (TIN) and Inverse Distance Weighing (IDW). In
the Output panel select IDW in the Interpolation method tab. Then click on
Set to current extent.
Provide the output directory for the raster by browsing to your desired location
and name the output raster. Make sure Add results to project is checked. Then
click on OK.

Figure 5. 33: Selecting the Interpolation Plugin

Figure 5. 32: Interpolation Plugin

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A raster is generated and added to the Layers Panel (Figure 5. 34).

Figure 5. 34: IDW interpolated raster

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Figure 5. 35: Generating contours

Now go to Raster>Extraction>Contour (Figure 5. 35)


Browse to the location through Output file for contour lines and define the file name.
Define the contour interval. The contour interval should be defined as per the differences in elevation of the points. Since the difference
is very little around the WLE building, we set a very low value. You are free to try with other values. Not the changes in the number of
contour lines.
Check Attribute Name. By default it is ELEV, however you are free to alter this.
Now select OK>OK, Close in the Contour plugin. The contours are as shown in Figure 5. 36.
Deselect IDW layer in the Layers Panel.
Select the contour layer in the Layers Panel. Now right click and select Properties.
Set the color of the contour lines as Burnt Sienna (light brown) in the Style tab. This is the color followed by Survey of India SOI for
contours.

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Figure 5. 36: Contour Plot

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6. Editing Contours

The contour lines do not pass through buildings or other man made features. In our example, the only prominent manmade feature is
the WLE building. Thus we need to mask the contours that pass through this building, for this we will make use of the Clip and the
Difference tool.
Clipping is performed to hold the contours inside a polygon and omit the contours lying outside the polygon. Thus, we may perform
the vector clip operation over two polygons one for the building and the other for another polygon whose area covers the area which is
needed to be mapped. After that we can take the difference of the two clipped layers to eliminate the contours outside the feature area
and inside the building.
First, we will clip the building polygon as shown in Figure 5. 37 and Figure 5. 38.
In the 'Clip' tool, select the contour layer for the 'Input vector layer' and the building polygon layer for the 'Clip layer', as in Figure 5.
38.
The final contours clipped within the building polygon are shown in Figure 5. 39.
Similarly, we perform the clipping operation on a newly created polygon (Figure 5. 40) for the mapping area. This will eliminate the
contours outside the mapping area, as shown in Figure 5. 41.
Now we will use the 'Difference' tool to eliminate the contours inside the building polygon (Figure 5. 42). In the 'Difference' tool, select
the earlier clipped layer for mapping area as shown in Figure 5. 41 as 'Input vector layer' and the clipped layer for the building polygon
as 'Difference layer'. The differencing operation is shown in Figure 5. 43, while the output is shown in Figure 5. 44.
To add the labels go to the 'Labels' tab. Select in the first menu 'Show labels for this layer' and label with elevation values as shown in
Figure 5. 45.
To correct the placement of the labels over the contour, go to the 'Placement' menu and change the contour label to 'Horizontal' (Figure
5. 45). Now, go to the 'Background' menu and select 'Draw background' and 'Shape' as 'Rectangle' as shown in Figure 5. 46. This is to
place the labels in corresponding to SOI norms.
Now, we will change the look of the contours. For this go to the 'Style' tab and then change the first menu to 'Categorized' and select
the elevation values in 'Column', then click on 'Classify' as shown in Figure 5. 47.
Now change the color of each of the contour to 'burnt sienna' and increase the width of every 5th contour.

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Figure 5. 37: Using the Clip tool

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Figure 5. 38: Clipping the contours within the building polygon

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Figure 5. 39: Clipped contours corresponding to building polygon

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Figure 5. 40: Polygon to mask the contours outside the map area.

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Figure 5. 41: Clipped contours corresponding to mapping area

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Figure 5. 42: Using the Difference tool

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Figure 5. 43: Performing the difference operation between the clipped contours

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Figure 5. 44: Edited contour plot

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Figure 5. 45: Placement of the contour labels

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Figure 5. 46: Setting the contour label background

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Figure 5. 47: Thickening every 5th contour

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7. Map Preparation

Keep in the 'Layers Panel', only those layers which you need for the map. Make sure for each feature you have a single layer.
To create the map, go to 'Project' in QGIS menu bar, and select 'New Print Composer', this opens a 'Composer title' dialogue as shown in
Figure 5. 48. Give an appropriate title to the composer and select 'OK'. This will open the composer window.
In the composer window, select 'Add new map' (Figure 5. 49).
Now click on the white space and drag a box. The map from the QGIS Desktop window will appear in the white space. To move the map
content press 'C' on the keyboard and drag the content to the desired location (Figure 5. 50). To enlarge the map, use the mouse scroll button.
To add title to the map, go to the 'Layout' menu and select 'Add Label' (Figure 5. 51). Now click at top center of the white space (Map area)
and drag a box. Now, in the 'Item properties' panel on the right edge, enter the title.
To add the north arrow, download a north arrow image from your browser. Select the 'Add Image' option in the 'Layout' menu. Now, drag
a box at the top right corner of the Map area. In the 'Item properties' menu give the path to the downloaded north arrow image as shown
in Figure 5. 52. Resize the box to set the size of the north arrow.
To add the Legend, go to the 'Add Legend' option in the 'Layout' menu. Now, drag a box at the bottom left or bottom right corner of the
map area (Figure 5. 53). You can adjust the appearance of the legend using the 'Item properties' menu.
To add the scale bar go to the 'Add Scalebar' option in the 'Layout' menu. Drag a box where you want to put the scalebar. 'Item properties'
can be used to change the appearance of the scalebar. For the representative fraction add another scalebar over the top of the previous one.
In the 'Item properties', within the 'Main properties', select 'Style' as 'Numeric' (Figure 5. 54).
In the 'Items' menu select the Map. To add the grid, go to 'Item properties' and add a new grid within the 'Grids' option. Now change the
grid settings as required (Figure 5. 55).
Note, to freeze the elements in the map, check the lock option for the item in the 'Items' menu.
The final map in our example is as shown in Figure 5. 56.

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Figure 5. 48: Creating a new print composer

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Figure 5. 49: Composer Window Adding a new map

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Figure 5. 50: Composer Window Moving the map contents

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Figure 5. 51: Composer Window Adding the title

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Figure 5. 52: Composer Window Adding the North arrow

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Figure 5. 53: Composer Window Adding the legend

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Figure 5. 54: Composer Window Adding scale bar

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Figure 5. 55: Composer Window Adding the grid

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Figure 5. 56: Final Map

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