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crack to resist fracture, and is one of the most important properties of any material for

many design applications.

c critical stress for crack propagation

a crack length

Kc is the fracture toughness

Y is a dimensionless parameter, depends

on crack, specimen sizes and geometries,

application of load

a through-thickness crack

Y = 1.1, for a plate of semi-infinite width

containing an edge crack of length a

Mode I, opening

or tensile mode

When t >> a then Kc is independent of thickness: plane strain condition

plane strain fracture toughness KIc

toughness 54.8 of is exposed to a stress of 1030 Mpa. Will this specimen

experience fracture if it is known that the largest surface crack is 0.5 mm long? Why

or why not? Assume that the parameter Y has a value of 1.0.

a = 0.9 mm

Example-2: Spherical pressure vessel leak-before-break criterion is a = t where a is

one-half of internal crack length

The sinking of the Titanic was caused primarily by the brittleness of the steel used

to construct the hull of the ship.

In the icy water of the Atlantic, the steel was below the ductile to brittle transition

temperature.

BCC metals become brittle at low temperature or at extremely high strain rate

called ductile to brittle transition temperature (Tc).

High strain rate dislocation do not get sufficient time to move from one

position to another position

T <= Tc y = f fracture at yield point

Example-3:The temperature and strain rate dependence of yield stress in MN m-2 for

molybdenum is given by

173600

Where T is the temperature in kelvin and (d/dt) is the strain rate in S-1. Sharp cracks of

half-length 2 m are present in the metal. Estimate the temperature at which the ductile

to brittle transition occurs at a strain rate of 10-2 S-1 . Elastic modulus is 350 GN.m-2 and

specific surface energy is 2 J.m-2.

At T = Tc

= =

1

2 2

Fatigue

Fatigue is a form of failure that occurs in structures subjected to dynamic and

fluctuating stresses. e.g. bridges, aircraft etc.

for a static loading

About 90% of the metallic failures

Catastrophic in nature occur suddenly without warning

flexural (bending)

torsional (twisting)

(a) Reverse stress cycle

Symmetrical

m = 0

a = max = min

R=1

r = 2max = 2min

Asymmetrical

(c) Random stress cycle

Some terminology

, =

+

2

, =

, =

=

2

2

, =

( )

( )

The SN curve

S = a = stress amplitude

Fatigue limit or endurance limit

Typically, for steel fatigue limits

range between 30-60% of tensile

strength (y)

Some ferrous (iron base) and titanium

alloys

Nf - Fatigue life

cause failure at a specified stress

level

Most nonferrous alloys

(e.g., aluminum, copper, magnesium)

Crack initiation: small cracks forms at some point of high stress concentration typically

on the surfaces e.g. scratches, sharp fillets, key ways, threads, dents, slip steps etc.

Crack propagation: crack advances incrementally with each stress cycle; slow rate

- characterized by two types of markings termed beachmarks and striations

which crack growth occurred

during a single load cycle

Final failure: Occurs very rapidly once the advancing crack has reached a critical size

- this is either ductile or brittle

(a) Mean stress,

Avoid/Protection

- Compressive stress

- Shot peening, case hardening

stress intensity rises

Avoid/Protection

- Surface treatment coating,

polishing, notch free

- Improving design factors avoid

sharp transition

(c) Environmental factors

A) Thermal fatigue:

- Dimensional mismatch expansion

- Temperature gradient

Protection:

- materials with low thermal expansion

- improve design

B) Corrosion fatigue:

- Small pits chemical reaction

- Stress concentration crack nucleation site

Protection:

- using protective coating

- reduces corrosiveness of the environment

- Impose residual compressive stress

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