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www.offshore-mag.com
November 2016

World Trends and Technology for Offshore Oil and Gas Operations

Offshore
economics

European
technology
update
Brownfield
strategy

E: ster
D
SI ft po
N
I y li
av
e
H

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FLEXIBLE
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Words our clients use to describe our Offshore Engineering Services
No matter the size and scope of your marine project, Crowleys offshore and project management
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E N G I N E E R I N G V E S S E L D E S I G N C O N S T R U C T I O N M A N A G E M E N T FA C I L I T I E S E N G I N E E R I N G M A N A G E M E N T
M A R I N E O P E R AT I O N S & H E A V Y L I F T S E R V I C E S O F F S H O R E E N G I N E E R I N G A R C T I C LO G I S T I C S & O P E R AT I O N

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International Edition
Volume 76, Number 11
November 2016

Celebrating 60 Years of Trends, Tools, and Technology

28

CONTENTS

ENGINEERING, CONSTRUCTION,
& INSTALLATION
New composite riser design
resists corrosion and fatigue .................................................. 40
GE, with the support of the Research Partnership to Secure Energy
for America, and with funding from the US Department of Energys
National Energy Technology Laboratory, embarked on a development
program to qualify flexible pipe with an internal diameter of 8 in. for
ultra-deepwater applications.

Offshore design and analysis software


assists wind farm engineering................................................ 42

OFFSHORE ECONOMICS
Market downturn presents opportunity
for fundamental change .......................................................... 26
Upstream oil and gas continues to face its biggest challenges in a generation. The market fundamentals oversupply, reduced demand growth,
and in the case of crude, large inventories remain resilient.

WEST AFRICA UPDATE


Deepwater brownfield strategy
improves operations offshore Nigeria .................................... 28
The solid foundation to effectively manage the complexities of brownfield projects is to put in place a robust well, reservoir, and facility management framework built around a strong cross-functional collaborative
effort.

GEOLOGY & GEOPHYSICS


Mexican licensing rounds fuel seismic
surveys, reprocessing projects ............................................... 32
When the Mexican Energy Reform was signed into law in August 2014,
it was clear that the amount of potential opportunity available to foreign
investors was significant.

Deep compressional wave imaging


improves understanding of Gulf of Mexico play .................... 34
Baker Hughes has developed an acoustic acquisition, processing, and
3D visualization method that uses compressional body waves generated
by an acoustic dipole source to better understand a fairly mature Gulf of
Mexico play.

DRILLING & COMPLETION


Versatile diverter tool reduces surge in deepwater wells ..... 38

Keystone Engineering was retained to design jacket-type substructures


for the five, 6-megawatt wind turbine generators for the Block Island
Wind Farm project offshore Rhode Island. It used Bentley Systems
SACS software to streamline communication with the generator
designer, and to model the complex aerodynamic and hydrodynamic
loading profile for the deepwater platforms.

Global heavy-lift vessel fleet navigates


rough waters during the downturn ......................................... 43
Offshores 2016 Heavy-Lift Vessel Survey finds that, nearly 24 months after the start of the industry downturn, the pace of new vessel construction has slowed as contractors take a more cautious approach to their
future expansion plans.

PRODUCTION OPERATIONS
Autonomous inflow control devices
improve sand control .............................................................. 44
The use of flow control devices can increase the reliability of the sand
control methods, as well as improve sweep efficiency and hydrocarbon
recovery.

SUBSEA
Innovative NDT technologies provide
inspection solution for large-diameter risers ........................ 46
A new approach to non-destructive testing of large-diameter risers
recently enabled an operator to maintain reliable and safe production
from an aging offshore platform.

FLOWLINES & PIPELINES


Retrofit tee offers hot tap option ............................................ 48
The capability for remote hot tapping using a retrofit tee represents a
tremendous opportunity to enhance and make the most out of the existing offshore pipeline network. This applies particularly to new development projects that are looking to tie into existing pipeline systems.

Weatherford has developed a diverter that provides greater versatility


by enabling circulation on demand, with the ability to continue to divert
flow from the casing and drill pipe to the annulus when the circulation
requirement is finished.

Offshore (ISSN 0030-0608). Offshore is published 12 times a year, monthly, by PennWell Corporation, 1421 S. Sheridan, Tulsa, OK 74112. Periodicals postage paid at Tulsa, OK 74112 and at
additional mailing offices. SUBSCRIPTION PRICES: US $123.00 per year, Canada/Mexico $145.00 per year, All other countries $202.00 per year (Airmail delivery $283.00). Worldwide digital
subscriptions: $123.00 per year. POSTMASTER: Send address corrections to Offshore, P.O. Box 3264, Northbrook, IL 60065-3264. Offshore is a registered trademark. PennWell Corporation
2016. All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part without permission is prohibited. Permission, however, is granted for employees of corporations licensed under the Annual Authorization Service offered by the Copyright Clearance Center Inc. (CCC), 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, Mass. 01923, or by calling CCCs Customer Relations Department at 978-750-8400 prior to
copying. We make portions of our subscriber list available to carefully screened companies that offer products and services that may be important for your work. If you do not want to receive
those offers and/or information via direct mail, please let us know by contacting us at List Services Offshore, 1421 S. Sheridan Rd., Tulsa, OK, 74112. Printed in the USA. GST No. 126813153.
Publications Mail Agreement no. 40612608.

1611OFF_2 2

11/2/16 8:09 AM

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1611OFF_3 3

11/2/16 8:09 AM

DO IT
WELL

International Edition

Volume 76, Number 11

COVER: The market downturn is


providing more decommissioning and
heavy-lift opportunities while E&P
activity levels are down. In August,
the Allseas vessel Pioneering Spirit
successfully removed the 13,500-ton
Yme mobile offshore production unit in
the North Sea, 100 km (62 mi) offshore
Norway for Repsol Norge AS. With
this platform removal, Allseas says it
was able to demonstrate the unique
single-lift capabilities of the dynamically
positioned single-lift installation/decommissioning and pipelay vessel. The
platform has since been sea-fastened
on board and the vessel was subsequently deployed to the newly developed dismantling yard in Lutelandet,
Norway. (Courtesy Allseas)

Falck Safety Services



    


WELL CONTROL

 

  


  

  
Supervisory Levels
 

WellSharp
 


 
 


November 2016

EUROPEAN SUPPLEMENT
Pioneering Spirit proves strength, stability with record topsides lift ...................... 52
Collective response vital to sustaining North Seas future ....................................... 56
MEG maintains hydrates-free production at Laggan-Tormore ................................. 58
Extended subsea compressor qualification program proves worth at sgard ....... 60
Non-destructive method for assessing safety of offshore structures ..................... 62
Transfer system offers option for standing personnel .............................................. 64
Co.L.Mar adapts pipeline leak detector for AUVs...................................................... 65
New Lean Semi for marginal fields draws from designers history ......................... 66
OMC 2017 to highlight industrys survival strategies, new opportunities ............... 67
Online monitoring system helps assess integrity of North Sea platform................. 68
High-performance alloy tubing can be used
for a number of critical oil and gas applications ...................................................... 71
EQUIPMENT & ENGINEERING
Well assessment software improves benchmarking, highlights inefficiencies....... 72
Rigless ESP conveyance system reduces costs, opens opportunities ..................... 73
Weatherford introduces new wireline tool ................................................................ 74
New hybrid drill bit aims to improve penetration rates, run life .............................. 74
Roxar multiphase meter suited to varying field needs ............................................. 75
Schlumberger introduces geo-based well test design software.............................. 75
D E P A R T M E N T S

1.866.404.9564
falck.com/us

Online .................................................... 6
Comment ............................................... 8
Data ..................................................... 10
Global E&P .......................................... 12
Offshore Europe .................................. 14
Gulf of Mexico ..................................... 16
Subsea Systems ................................. 18

Vessels, Rigs, & Surface Systems ...... 20


Drilling & Production .......................... 22
Geosciences ........................................ 24
Regulatory Perspectives..................... 25
Business Briefs ................................... 76
Advertisers Index............................... 79
Beyond the Horizon ............................ 80

4 Offshore November 2016 www.offshore-mag.com

1611OFF_4 4

11/2/16 8:09 AM

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1611OFF_5 5

11/2/16 8:09 AM

VICE PRESIDENT and


GROUP PUBLISHING DIRECTOR
Paul Westervelt pwestervelt@pennwell.com

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Available at

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Offshore-mag.com

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ART DIRECTOR
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Latest news
The latest news is posted daily for the offshore oil and gas industry covering
technology, companies, personnel moves, and products.

New tools and resources


Offshore Learning Center

Offshore magazine has partnered with the University of Houston to research


segments of the offshore oil and gas industry and evaluate and organize the
best available online videos into special collections. The Offshore Learning
Center currently contains six major collections, with 314 videos totaling 30
hours and 38 minutes; 63 posters; 20 featured articles.
http://www.offshore-mag.com/learning-center/learn-more.html

On demand webcast
Proven Under Pressure

Driven by the demand for more reliable and accurate BOP testing results
and improved documentation and operational efficiencies, Offshore Technical
Compliance in partnership with Hecate Software Inc. developed OTC GREENLIGHT, a new digital pressure testing software and technical service.
In this webcast, Mike Bethea, CEO of Offshore Technical Compliance, and
Eric Livesay, CEO of Hecate Software Inc., discuss how OTC GREENLIGHT
improves the performance and accuracy of pressure testing and removes the
subjectivity associated with interpreting conventional circle chart recordings
the current industry standard. They will also discuss how it offers its users
an easy-to-use, predictive software which requires no benchmark for testing,
thereby streamlining the overall digital BOP testing process.
http://www.offshore-mag.com/webcasts/offshore/
2016/05/proven-under-pressure.html

New maps, posters, and surveys


2016 Environmental Drilling & Completion Fluids Directory
2016 Worldwide Survey of Floating Production, Storage and Offloading Units
2016 MWD/LWD Services Directory
2016 Worldwide MODU construction/new order survey
2016 Worldwide Survey of Stimulation Vessels
2016 Deepwater Solutions & Records For Concept Selection Poster
http://www.offshore-mag.com/surveys.html

New white papers


Avantguard for the Offshore Industry
Value Creation during Floating LNG Concept Development
Operational Performance in the Oil and Gas Industry through
Asset Integrity Management
ABS Leads Industry in Addressing Jackup Safety Through Targeted R&D
http://www.offshore-mag.com/whitepapers.html

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6 Offshore November 2016 www.offshore-mag.com

1611OFF_6 6

11/2/16 8:07 AM

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1611OFF_7 7

11/2/16 8:07 AM

COMMENT

STATEMENT OF OWNERSHIP, MANAGEMENT,


AND CIRCULATION
1. Publication title: Offshore. 2. Publication number: 403-760
3. Filing date: October 1, 2016. 4. Issue frequency: Monthly.
5. Number of issues published annually: 12. 6. Annual
subscription price: $123.00. 7. Complete mailing address
of known office of publication: PennWell Corporation 1421
South Sheridan Road, Tulsa, OK 74112, Tulsa County. 7a. Contact person: Traci Huntsman. 7b. Telephone: 918-831-9435.
8. Complete mailing address of headquarters or general
business office of publisher: PennWell Corporation, 1455 West
Loop South Suite 400, Houston, TX 77027. 9. Full names and
complete mailing addresses of Publisher, Editor and Managing Editor: Publisher: Mark Peters, 1455 West Loop South
Suite 400, Houston, TX 77027. Editor: David Paganie,1455 West
Loop South Suite 400, Houston, TX 77027. Managing Editor:
Bruce Beaubouef, 1455 West Loop South Suite 400, Houston, TX
77027. 10. Owner: PennWell Corporation, 1421 South Sheridan
Road, Tulsa, OK 74112, Tulsa County; Successors to the Estate of
Helen B. Lauinger, 1421 South Sheridan Road, Tulsa, OK 74112,
Tulsa County. 11. Known Bondholders, Mortgages, and Other
Security Holders Owning or Holding 1 Percent or More of
Total Amount of Bonds, Mortgages, or Other Securities:
None. 12. N/A. 13. Publication Title: Offshore. 14. Issue Date
for Circulation Data: September 2016.
15. Extent and Nature of Circulation:
Average No.
copies each
issue during
preceding
12 months:
a. Total number of copies
29,300
b. Legitimate paid and/or requested distribution
1. Outside county paid/requested
11,529
mail subscriptions stated
on PS form 3541
2. In-county paid/requested mail
0
subscriptions stated on PS form 3541
3. Sales through dealers and
15,181
carriers, street vendors, counter
sales, and other paid or requested
distribution outside USPS
4. Requested copies distributed
0
by other mail classes

through the USPS


c. Total paid and/or
26,710
requested circulation
d. Non-requested distribution
1. Outside county nonrequested
1,056
copies stated on PS form 3541
2. In-county nonrequested copies
0
stated on PS form 3541
3. Nonreqeusted copies distributed
0
through the USPS by other
classes of mail
4. Nonrequested copies distributed
1,019
outside the mail
e. Total nonrequested distribution
2,075
f. Total Distribution
28,785
g. Copies not Distributed
515
h. Total
29,300
i. Percent Paid and/or
92.79%
Requested circulation

No. copies of
single issue
published
nearest to
filing date:
27,600
11,655

0
13,630

25,285

1,153
0
0

701
1,854
27,139
461
27,600
93.17%

16. Electronic Copy Circulation


a. Requested and Paid Electronic Copies 21,553
b. Total requested and paid print copies 48,263
+ requested/paid electronic copies
c. Total requested copy distribution + 50,338
requested/paid electronic copies
d. Percent Paid and/or requested
95.88%
circulation

23,442
48,727
50,581
96.33%

x I certify that 50% of all my distributed copies (electronic and print)


are legitimate requests or paid copies.

17. Publication of Statement of Ownership: Will be printed


in the November 2016 issue of this publication.
18. Signature and title of Editor, Publisher, Business
Manager, or Owner: Traci Huntsman, Manager Corporate Assets
and Postal Compliance. Date: 10/01/2016.
I certify that all information furnished on this form is true
and complete. I understand that anyone who furnishes false
or misleading information on this form or who omits material or information requested on the form may be subject to
criminal sanctions (including fines and imprisonment) and/
or civil sanctions (including civil penalties).

8 Offshore November 2016 www.offshore-mag.com

1611OFF_8 8

David Paganie Houston

European offshore technology


Technology development and application has been vital to the offshore E&P industry since
the beginning. It has become especially important as the oil and gas industry has moved further offshore, into deeper waters and remote locations.
In recent years, R&D efforts have focused on solutions for increasing recovery rates and reducing project costs. While many of these technologies have global application, often it has been
European operators, contractors, vendors, and suppliers that have led the way in innovation.
In a new report beginning on page 51, the Offshore editorial team covers the latest tools
and technologies that have been developed in Europe for global offshore application. The
following are some highlights from the report.

Subsea compression
Statoil has been operating the worlds first subsea gas compression station on the seafloor
of the Norwegian Sea, since September 2015. MAN Diesel & Turbo in Zurich developed the
compression technology. The Statoil-operated sgard B platform produces gas and condensate from the Mikkel and Midgard reservoirs from subsea wellheads with 50-80 km (31-50
mi) long tiebacks. When production started to decline, Statoil investigated several innovative techniques to extend field life and increase recovery. The favored solution was artificial
lift, supplied by compressors on the seabed close to the wellheads. MANs HOFIM motorcompressor was selected and a 10-year technology qualification program followed. The next
phase for the technology is to reduce the current system/component complexity to lower the
investment cost and make it attractive for other applications, including marginal gas fields.

Flow assurance
Production of gas-condensate from the Laggan and Tormore fields in the UK have performed largely as expected since start-up in late January 2016. As with any deepwater subsea
tieback involving transportation of liquids-rich gas, the facilities must be protected against
hydrate formation and wax build-up. This project presented special challenges as the UKs
longest and deepest-water tieback to date over 600 m (1,968 ft) and in the harsh environment west of Shetland. Cameron designed the projects MEG treatment/regeneration equipment, which is an adaptation of the companys proprietary technology. By having MEG in the
pipeline system, Total says it is protected permanently against hydrates. Laggan-Tormore is
important to Total as the companys first long gas tieback in deepwater, but the company has
other opportunities around the world where hydrate inhibition will be needed.

Construction vessels
Allseas multi-purpose vessel Pioneering Spirit has come through its first major test, removing the 13,500-metric ton (14,881-ton) topsides from the Yme platform offshore Norway. Following further trials with additional lifting beams, the vessels next major task will likely be removal of the Brent D platform topsides for Shell in the UK northern North Sea next summer.
The 382-m (1,253-ft) long, 124-m (407-ft) wide DP vessel, converted from the hulls of two
tankers, has a 122-m (400-ft) long, 59-m (193-ft) wide U-shaped slot at its bow which is positioned to fit around three sides of the platform, and then lift the entire topsides using up to
eight sets of horizontal lifting beams. Allseas cites numerous benefits of a single-lift execution, including a substantial reduction in time spent on preparatory work such as offshore
cleaning, partitioning, installing lifting points and modules; and less risk to the environment,
as a single lift avoids the need for prior purging of process facilities.

Floating production
Meanwhile, Aker Solutions has debuted a new semisubmersible production platform that
is designed for fields with up to 300 MMboe and waters depths of 100-400 m (328-1,312 ft).
The initial concept is intended for Norwegian waters; however, the company is tweaking the
design for possible deployment in the Gulf of Mexico.
A lean philosophy was applied to the hull design. The deck is integrated, a feature that the
company says aids in structural integrity. Through these and other elements, Aker Solutions
found it could achieve a 30% reduction in weight over a conventional topsides design. The
company also sourced elements from two of its existing platforms to complete the concept.

To respond to articles in Offshore, or to offer articles for publication,


contact the editor by email (davidp@pennwell.com).

11/2/16 8:07 AM

Weve learned a
lot in 175 years.
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1611OFF_9 9

11/2/16 8:07 AM

G L O B A L D ATA

8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
20

At an average breakeven price of $32 /


bbl, producing fields are the cheapest
supply sources. Non-producing shale and
oil sands are the marginal sources of supply in 2020, with high drilling/completion
costs for the former and high capex/opex
for the latter.
The Rystad Energy liquids cost curve is
made up of nearly 20,000 unique assets
and considers each assets breakeven oil
price and potential production in 2020.
The breakeven price is the Brent oil price
at which NPV equals zero, and considers
all future cash flows using a real discount
rate of 7.5%.
Resources are split into two lifecycle
categories as of present day: producing
and non-producing (under development,
discoveries, and undiscovered). For each
lifecycle, associated costs are indicated
such as opex and capex. Lifecycle categories are further split into different supply
segment groups shown as colored boxes.
The width of the boxes represents production in 2020 from a given supply source.
The height of the boxes shows the range
of breakeven oil prices that 60% of the
production lies within.

12
20

11
20

13
20

15
20

14
20

17 018
2
20

16
20

19
20

20

20

21

20

22

20

Source: Douglas-Westwood

Worldwide offshore rig count & utilization rate (Oct. 2014 Sept. 2016)
1,000

100
Total util %

No. of rigs

Mark Adeosun, Douglas-Westwood

New shale and oil sands


are marginal sources
of supply in 2020

10
20

09

Total contracted

Total supply

Working

900

90

800

80

700

70

600

60

500

50

400

40

300
ct

14

ec

14

Source: IHS RigPoint

b
Fe

15
A

il
pr

15

ne

15

Ju

g
Au

15
O

ct

15
D

ec

15

b
Fe

16
A

il
pr

16

ne

16

Ju

g
Au

16

Fleet utilization rate %

Despite near-term concerns, DouglasWestwoods World FLNG Market Forecast


2017-2022 expects capex on FLNG facilities to total $41.6 billion, with liquefaction
units accounting for 59% of total spend.
Expenditure on floating import facilities is forecast to total $16.9 billion a
220% increase compared to the 2009-2015
period. This is due to a large number of
projects going ahead in countries that
have never had floating import vessels
before. In addition, a number of countries
will increase their current capacity, as
investors take advantage of the short
lead times and the relocation flexibility of
floating regasification units compared to
land-based facilities.
The future of FLNG looks positive, due
to the abundance of offshore gas reserves
and the flexibility of LNG as a source of
energy. Furthermore, the industry is moving away from its long standing supply
contracting model, as companies now
increasingly rely on the spot market to
supply long-term LNG contracts to take
advantage of low commodity prices.

Global FLNG expenditure 2009-2022

Expenditure ($bn)

A boost for
regasification units

30

Notes: Rig types included are jackups, semis, and drillships.

Global liquids cost curve (Brent-equivalent breakeven oil price, USD/bbl)


120

Producing
Offshore shelf
Offshore midwater
Offshore deepwater
Other onshore
Shale/tight oil
Oil sands
Weighted avg. break-even

100
80
60

63

66

49
9 52
43 50

40

32

20
Producing fields

60% confidence interval


break-even price
for each category
Non-producing fields

0
0

5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100

Source: Rystad Energy research and analysis, UCube July 2016

10 Offshore November 2016 www.offshore-mag.com

1611OFF_10 10

11/2/16 8:07 AM

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A Panasonic Company

L I V E T V , I N T E R N E T , V I D E O , E N T E R TA I N M E N T

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GLOBAL E&P

Majors more focused


on near-field exploration
Major oil companies spent $169 billion on
exploration during 2006-15, according to a new
benchmarking report by Wood Mackenzie.
However, returns over the period were generally weak, leading the industry to impose steep
cuts in exploration spending and focus less on
replacing production via conventional exploration. Early indications are that this action has
paid off, the analyst claimed, with exploration
becoming more incremental and reserves replacement steered more toward brownfield
investments. There has also been a big shift
toward gas, which accounts for around twothirds of the majors more recent discoveries.

Jeremy Beckman London

funds to establish a new company, Totaltec Oilfield Services, to promote indigenous content
and competence in support of ExxonMobils
deepwater Liza oil field development.

Petrobras has invited new bids for the Libra Pilot FPSO in the Santos basin offshore
Brazil, after cancelling the previous bid process last year due to excessive prices. Local
content commitments have been relaxed for
the new process. The operator and its partners expect to sign a contract for an FPSO
early next year, with oil production following
during the second half of 2020.
As part of its 2015-16 Divestment Plan, Petrobras also has been negotiating the sale of stakes

velopment program. The Marlin and Manta


structures are producing through seven wells
connected to a four-leg platform, lifting gas
output from the block to an average of 170
MMcf/d. This represents more than 75% of
the countrys total gas production. The Foxtrot and Mahi fields were developed earlier via
another platform.

Canadian Overseas Petroleum subsidiary


ShoreCan has agreed to acquire 80% of the
share capital of Essar Exploration and Production (Nigeria), which has a 100% stake in
the 1,530-sq km (591-sq mi) OPL 226 lease,
50 km (31 mi) offshore in the central Niger
Delta area. Water depths vary from 40-180
m (131-590 ft). One of the five wells drilled
to date encountered oil and gas there is a
commitment to spud one more well prior to
the end of 2017.

Europe

Drilling at the shallow-water


Smith Bay location. (Photo
courtesy Caelus Energy)

North America
Caelus Energy claims to have discovered
6 Bbbl of in-place oil at its shallow-water
Smith Bay state leases offshore Alaskas
North Slope. This follows analysis of two
wells drilled earlier this year and newly acquired 3D seismic. A favorable fluids composition could lead to 30-40% recovery rates,
the company added. Caelus plans to drill
an appraisal well and acquire more 3D data
over outboard acreage, which could hold an
extension of the Smith Bay fan complex.

Shells first exploratory well on its deepwater Shelburne basin lease, 250 km (155 mi) offshore Halifax, Nova Scotia was unsuccessful,
according to partner Suncor Energy. Drilling
had to be suspended for three months when
a riser fell from the drillship Stena IceMAX to
the seafloor. The aim was to prove hydrocarbons in the southwest Scotian shelf.

South America
Total, as the new operator, has applied for
an extension of the Guyane Maritime Permit
offshore French Guiana, according to partner Hague and London Oil.
In neighboring Guyana, various individuals
from Schlumberger and Welltec have raised

in two fields to Karoon Gas Australia. Pending


regulatory approval, Karoon would acquire 50%
of the deepwater Tartaruga field in the post-salt
Campos basin, currently in the early development phase, with Petrobras remaining as operator. The other transaction involves a transfer of
a 100% interest in the producing Bana oil field
in the post-salt Santos basin, which Petrobras
brought online in early 2013.

UK independent Borders & Southern (B&S)


claims to have drawn up commercial scenarios
for development of its deepwater Darwin gas/
condensate discovery south of the Falkland Islands. These involve phased and full-field production from the Darwin East and West structures via subsea well completions tied back to a
leased FPSO, which could be located several kilometers south of the field where water depths
dip to a more manageable 1,100 m (3,609 ft).
B&S favors a phased scheme, initially targeting
270 MMboe and delivering 56,000 b/d via four
production wells and three gas injectors, with a
breakeven price of $40/bbl.

West Africa
Foxtrot International has brought onstream
two more gas fields in block CO-27 off Cte
dIvoire as part of a four-year, $850-million de-

CNOOC, Petoro, and Icelandic company


Eykon Energy are looking to progress exploration on a license in the Dreki Area offshore
northeast Iceland, where there are geological
analogies to conditions off the Faroes and the
Shetland area. CNOOC has proposed a 3D
seismic survey, building on the results of 2D
data acquired last fall, followed by a first well
to be drilled during 2022-26.

The governments of Russia and Turkey


have agreed on a legal framework for the
TurkStream project that would take supplies
of Russian onshore gas across the Black Sea,
initially exclusively to Turkey. This involves
construction of two parallel pipelines and an
onshore string for gas transit to Turkeys
border with neighboring countries, with a
total length of 910 km (565 mi).

Middle East
BP has agreed on amendments with Egypts
Petroleum Ministry for the Ras El Barr, Temsah and Nile Delta Offshore concessions. The
latter contains the shallow-water Nooros gas
field where BP anticipates production reaching 880 MMcf/d by early 2017. Eni recently
upgraded resources at the Baltim South West
field, 10 km (6.2 mi) from Nooros, to 1 tcf in
place following results of a second appraisal
well, lifting reserves in the Greater Nooros
Area to 3 tcf.

Noble Energy and its partners have committed to supply 1.6 tcf of gas over a 15-year
period to Jordans National Electric Power
Co. This will come from the deepwater Leviathan field, for which a final investment decision is imminent. The approved development plan calls initially for a subsea tieback
to a shallow water platform, with a pipeline
connection through to Jordan.

12 Offshore November 2016 www.offshore-mag.com

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GLOBAL E&P

Qatar Petroleum and Dolphin Energy


have agreed on a new long-term gas sales
and purchase deal that will increase supplies
of Qatari gas to the UAE via the existing 48in. subsea pipeline for the Dolphin Project.
In anticipation, Dolphin installed three new
export gas compressors last year at its processing plant in Ras Laffan.

Caspian Sea
Petronas and Socar have reportedly signed
a memorandum of understanding to explore
and develop hydrocarbons in the prospective
Goshadash block in the Azeri offshore sector.
The location is around the northwestern part
of the Absheron archipelago in water depths
of 10-50 m (33-164 ft).

East Africa
Tanzania and the Democratic Republic of
the Congo have agreed on the principles for
joint E&P operations in Lake Tanganyika, according to a Reuters report.
The lake overlaps the boundaries between
the two countries and extends into Burundi
and Zambia, and is thought to be the worlds
second deepest.

Eni and its partners in deepwater Area 4


offshore Mozambique will sell 100% of the
LNG produced by the planned Coral South
floating LNG facility to BP, pending a positive investment decision. Mozambiques
government has approved the transaction.

Indian sub-continent
ONGC has contracted SapuraKencana
subsidiaries to perform offshore engineering works related to the B127 Cluster Pipeline RTR project offshore western India. The
20-month program involves engineering,
procurement, construction, installation, and
commissioning of 11 pipeline systems and
modifications to existing platform topsides
on B127 and other Mumbai High fields.

Petrobangla reportedly expected to receive expressions of interests last month for


three blocks in the Bay of Bengal off Bangladesh. Two are in deepwater and one in
shallow water.

Asia/Pacific
Gazprom has discovered gas/condensate
in the Yuzhno-Lunskaya prospect on the Kirinsky block in the Sakhalin II concession
of the Sea of Okhotsk. Following analysis of
data from the well, the company will submit
a reserves estimate to Russias Federal Subsurface Use Agency.

Wison Offshore & Marine has completed


performance testing on a floating liquefac-

Performance testing has been completed on a floating liquefaction vessel in China.


(Photo courtesy Wison Offshore & Marine)

tion vessel under construction for Exmar in


Nantong, China. Wison claimed this was the
first ever instance of LNG being produced onboard a floating facility, and the first gas trial
for a floating liquefaction unit prior to sail-out.
CNOOC has produced first oil from the
Enping 18-1 field in the Pearl River Mouth
basin area of the South China Sea. The development is connected to existing infrastructure at the Enping 24-2 oil field. Over
the next year production should build to a
peak of 11,800 b/d.

The FPSO MaMPU 1 recently underwent


a sailaway ceremony at MISC Berhads
MMHE East Yard in Malaysia. It is purposedesigned for development of marginal fields,
and will first serve at the Anjung Kecil oil
field off Sarawak, operated by Vestigo Petroleum on behalf of Petronas. The vessel,
a converted oil tanker, can produce 15,000
b/d of oil and handle 25 MMcf/d of gas.
Topsides features include a compact lowpressure system that stabilizes incoming
crude for safe storage and subsequent export, and a condensate recovery system applied to unwanted flaring gas.

Santos and its partners are seeking approval from Indonesias government for the
Sampang Sustainability Project offshore Java.
This would involve converting the Oyong and
Wortel fields from oil to more economic gas
production.
The switch to gas-only operations would
likely go forward next September, with the
FPSO Seagood and FSO Surya Putra Java
both decommissioned shortly afterwards.
There are other gas prospects in the area
such as Paus, which could be connected to
the Oyong facilities if drilling is successful.

Australasia
BP has agreed to farm into up to two permits in the Carnarvon basin offshore Western
Australia with strong gas potential. Subject to
approvals, the company will operate the WA409-P permit, which was recently renewed by
a further five years, and may also take a 50%
stale in adjoining permit WA-359-P. Current incumbent Cue Energy has identified a potential
15-tcf Mungaroo formation prospect named
Ironbark which straddles both concessions. If
drilling proves successful, there could be spare
capacity at the nearby plants for a tieback.
In the same basin, Carnarvon Petroleum
has been awarded the shallow-water WA524-P permit on the flanks of the Dampier
sub-basin. The location is on the Enderby
Terrace, where Carnarvon has worked up a
potential pre-Jurassic play and a secondary
play in the shallower Cretaceous stratigraphy, which has delivered strong results at
the nearby Stag and Wandoo oil fields.

BP has opted out of a planned deepwater


exploration drilling program in the Great
Australian Bight offshore South Australia.
Regulatory authority NOPSEMA had asked
the company to re-submit its environmental
impact assessment for the program, but BP
says its decision was based on a review of its
global frontier exploration priorities. The company and partner Statoil have four exploration
licenses in the Ceduna area of the Bight.

New Zealands Energy and Resources Minister Simon Bridges has initiated consultations
with local authorities on the countrys Block
Offer 2017. This includes four proposed offshore block areas in the Northland-Reinga,
Taranaki, Pegasus, and East Coast North Island and Canterbury-Great South basins.
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OFFSHORE EUROPE

Jeremy Beckman London

DEA, Statoil commit to Dvalin tieback

DEA has jogged Norways sluggish development sector into life


by awarding contracts for its $1.23-billion Dvalin project in the Norwegian Sea. The company discovered the gas/condensate field, formerly known as Zidane, in 2010, then twice applied for extensions
to the license to devise ways of lowering the projects cost. Negotiations with Statoil on a subsea tieback to the Heidrun platform also
took time, but the TLP will be the host facility, with production due
to start in 2020.
Dvalin, 15 km (9.3 mi) northwest of Heidrun, contains an estimated 18.2 bcm of gas from two reservoirs. Aker Solutions performed
front-end engineering and design for the tie-in and modifications to
Heidrun. Aker will also manufacture the subsea production system
which will comprise a manifold/template, four subsea trees, and a
control umbilical linked to the platform. The contract includes maintenance of the equipment, plus options for further tieback connections to Heidrun.
Two of Technips reel-lay vessels will install the pipelines, umbilical, riser bases, and other modules during 2018-19. Aibel will construct a new 4,000-ton gas treatment module and a 400-ton injection
system to be installed on the Heidrun TLP over the same period,
with Statoil executing the associated topsides modifications. At
Heidrun the gas will be part-processed before being sent through a
connection to the new Polarled pipeline in the northern Norwegian
Sea, laid by Allseas last year, to the onshore terminal at Nyhamna
that handles gas from the Ormen Lange field. Heidruns own gas
heads through the sgard Transport System, but capacity in this
line is fully occupied another reason why development of Dvalin,
along with other gas fields in this area, has been delayed.
Before year-end Aker BP, the new company combining the Norwegian assets of BP and Det norske oljeselskap, will likely approve a
subsea tieback of the Centrica-operated Oda (ex-Butch) field to the
Ula platform in the southern Norwegian North Sea. This follows a
recent transaction with Tullow Norge for a package of field interests
that included 15% of Oda.

Outlook bleak for UK offshore investment

Measures to sustain offshore activity on the UK continental shelf


have been partly successful with the cost of extracting a barrel of oil
or gas across the sector nearly halved since 2014, according to Oil &
Gas UKs latest Economic Report. Over the same period production
has risen by 10%, although this was due to start-up of various major
new development projects.
On the downside, the UK supply chains revenues have fallen by
around 30% since 2014, the report found, with around 120,000 jobs
probably lost. Deirdre Michie, the associations chief executive,
called for fresh investment and initiatives to lift the UK offshore industry. Exploration has fallen to record lows and little new investment has been approved in 2016, she pointed out, and 2017 looks
no better.
The association called on the UK government to reaffirm its commitment to a more competitive, simple, and fiscal tax regime as the
basin continues to mature. It also urged the Treasury to introduce
measures to enable tax relief to be transferred upon the sale of an oil
and gas asset this could stimulate transactions that might extend
the lives of late-life UK offshore facilities.
Some oil companies, particularly independents, are pursuing new
projects in UK waters, cutting costs where possible in order to attract partners or finance. Hurricane Energy has provisionally chosen Technip and FMC Technologies as exclusive provider of subsea
solutions for the Lancaster early production system (EPS) west of
Shetland and other fractured basement field developments in the
Greater Lancaster Area. The two contractors, Hurricane said, have
devised an innovative approach to improving the economics of the

The Statfjord A platform.


(Photo courtesy Statoil)

Another decade ahead for Statfjord


Production from the Statfjord field in the North Sea has
passed the 5 Bboe mark. When operations started in 1979, the
original aim was a recovery factor of 40%. Current partners
Statoil, Centrica, and ExxonMobil have pushed the bar to 67%
and are now looking to extend production through 2025.
The field was due to be shut down during the previous decade, but as elsewhere on the Norwegian shelf, the advent of
new technologies progressively helped extend its productive
life, with output actually rising over the past four years helped
by subsurface innovations and more efficient drilling. At the
same time, Statoil estimated drilling costs have come down
by 50%. The major change, however, has been the transformation of Statfjord from an oil to a largely gas producer following
a program to reduce reservoir pressure, which also involved
extensive modifications to the three platforms.

EPS, focusing on optimization of system design and reduction of


risk during the projects execution. This has allowed Hurricane to
downsize the scope and lower the cost of the development, ahead
of a final investment decision in mid-2017. Following a recent pilot
well drilled on Lancaster, the company has upgraded recoverable oil
resources from the field to more than 300 MMbbl.

Bids in for latest APA round

Thirty-three companies submitted bids for Norways 2016 awards


in pre-defined areas (APA) licensing round, 10 fewer than in 2015.
According to the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, the main interest was in the North Sea and Norwegian Sea following the award
this summer of various frontier blocks in the Barents Sea under a
separate license round.
Sissel Eriksen, exploration director at the Norwegian Petroleum
Directorate, said the response demonstrates that the companies
prioritize exploration in mature areas during times with challenging cost and price regimes. The directorate will assess the geological concepts and exploration strategy in the APA bids, with license
awards likely early in 2017.

Stella on brink of first oil

Ithaca Energy expects to bring its Greater Stella Area project


onstream in the UK central North Sea this month. The modified
semisubmersible production platform FPF-1 has been moored on
location following its voyage from the Remontowa shipyard in Polamd, with Technip tidying up commissioning of the subsea systems.
Following installation of a 44-km (27-mi) spurline from the platform,
Ithaca should be able to route production of the Stella fields light oil
through the Norpipe system next year after an initial period of tanker offloading. Installation of the export pumps on the platform and
final subsea connections should follow shortly after field start-up.

14 Offshore November 2016 www.offshore-mag.com

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GULF OF MEXICO

Bruce Beaubouef Houston

Deepwater Horizon depicts dangers, challenges of offshore oil


The events of April 20, 2010, have been
brought to the big screen in Deepwater Horizon, a film that depicts the series of decisions
that preceded the Macondo well blowout, and
subsequent fire and explosion that killed 11
offshore workers and injured several others.
Deepwater Horizon revisits the tragic accident, reconstituting it as both a rousing action
movie and a somber memorial to the dead. Directed by Peter Berg and starring Mark Wahlberg, this harrowing, gripping film is a homage
to the strength and get-on-with-it competence
of the rigs crew, a stirring portrait of brawn,
courage, and know-how that somehow rises to
another level amidst mayhem and tragedy.
The movie draws heavily from a 2010 New
York Times article which documented the
incident in intimate detail. While the movies
portrayal of the people and events is not flawless, there is much here to admire. The film
allows audiences to see probably for the
first time the massive scale and scope of
offshore drilling operations; the complexity of the technology and business relationships; and the inherent danger in producing
hydrocarbons in thousands of feet of water,
from thousands more feet under the seabed.
The film opens with scenes that many Courtesy Lionsgate
readers will have experienced first-hand.
We see the main character, played by Mark 2010, few people outside the industry gave
Wahlberg, driving through bayous and marsh- much thought to deepwater drilling. On that
es of southern Louisiana to reach Port Four- count, Deepwater Horizon provides a valuchon, the logistical hub for many offshore- able service to a general public that is likely
related businesses. He arrives at the Bristow unfamiliar with the basics (and the inherent
helicopter base, where he and other members dangers) of offshore E&P.
of the crew travel to the rig.
But does the movie accurately portray
As readers know, those offshore workers the causes of the accident? If you asked 50
and management personnel arrived at the rig experts why the deepwater oil rig blew up,
hoping to expedite a project that had fallen Berg wrote after the movies release, you
more than a month behind schedule, at a cost will get 50 different answers.
of millions of dollars. That sense of urgency,
It would be difficult at best for a movie
along with the sense of foreboding, pervades that runs less than two hours to correctly
the film too.
portray an event that has been investigated
The filmmakers get high marks for captur- for years and even now, experts disagree
ing the texture of rig life the immense scale on the causes. That said, the movie gets the
of the operation, the huge pipes and machin- facts right, and admirably so but only up to
ery involved, the powerful geological forces a point, notes Joel Achenbach, a Washingat work, and the specialized terminology of ton Post staff writer and National Geographic
the crew.
contributor.
We see the seemingly endless drilling
The film depicts operating company manriser descend from the rig to the ocean floor, agers as acting quickly and imperatively,
followed by an impressive visual of an ROV making life and death decisions in a matter of
inspecting the riser, reporting back to the rig minutes, and disregarding any dissent. But,
on its findings. We see the massive blowout while their decisions may have been ill-fated,
preventer on the seafloor, with attendant omi- they gave them more thought than the movie
nous bubbling and rumbling sounds. And we suggests.
see the all-important negative test on the
The post-Macondo investigations tell a more
well integrity that evening.
complicated story than that put forth in DeepFor most viewers, this will likely be the water Horizon. There are conflicting accounts
first glimpse of the extraordinary drilling op- as to which parties advanced a bladder theoerations that are at the foundation of our fossil- ry that enabled work to go forward despite
fuel-based energy industry. And until April 20, ominous pressure test results.

Still, it would have been easy to imagine


all the ways in which this story could have
been turned into a more traditional disaster
movie. Instead, Bergs film, a biopic which
describes itself as based on true events,
generally sticks to what actually happened
on April 20, 2010. The biggest exception is
that the film simplifies the culpability.
For its part, BP has objected to the portrayal of its officials in the movie. Shortly
after the films release, BP spokesperson
Geoff Morrell emailed a statement with the
companys reaction to the film: The Deepwater Horizon movie is Hollywoods take on
a tragic and complex accident. It is not an accurate portrayal of the events that led to the
accident, our people, or the character of our
company. In fact, it ignores the conclusions
reached by every official investigation: that
the accident was the result of multiple errors
made by a number of companies. Coming as
it does six-and-a-half years after the accident,
the movie also does not reflect who we are
today, the lengths weve gone to restore the
Gulf, the work weve done to become safer,
and the trust weve earned back around the
world.
For his part, Berg said he had no significant contact with BP nor cooperation from
major oil companies while making the film.
But, Berg does a good job of representing life
on the rig. He went to oil school to learn engineering intricacies so he could direct extended
depictions of the offshore drilling process, and
pored over footage of worker testimony that followed the 2010 accident. He made copious use
of testimony from the relevant congressional
and coastguard hearings to obtain eyewitness
accounts. The result is that parts of Deepwater
Horizon have a docudrama feel, and the production enlisted real-life oil workers, welders,
and US Coast Guard members.
The movie also recognizes the complexity
of the offshore marketplace, and depicts how
those complex relationships play out on a rig.
The way the rigs are organized, and the way
the different companies work together, is fascinating, Berg wrote. Its a complex social
organization of subcontractors who have different jobs on the rig at a given time. Here
again, the movie plays an important educational role.
In the end, what are we to conclude about
Deepwater Horizon? Perhaps Times Justin
Worland put it best in his movie review: No
movie is flawless and, as far as films based on
true events go, Deepwater Horizon is pretty
good. The average viewer will walk away
from the movie with a new understanding
of a complex disaster. And, as easy as it is to
complain about the details, the film gets the
gist of it right.

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Versabar
www.vbar.com

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Sarah Parker Musarra Houston

SUBSEA SYSTEMS

Aker buys into Brazils C.S.E.


Aker Solutions has agreed to buy 70% of C.S.E. Mecnica e Instrumentao Ltda, a Brazilian provider of maintenance, assembly, commissioning, and crane operation services at offshore and onshore
facilities. The agreement includes an option to purchase the remaining 30% of the company three years after the close of the transaction,
which is expected by the end of 1Q 2017. Aker Solutions says the
acquisition gives it access to Brazils growing market for servicing
existing oil and gas fields. It will remain a separate legal entity with
a management team consisting of personnel from each company.

Wintershalls Maria takes shape


Rosenberg WorleyParsons has been awarded a contract with Subsea 7 for the fabrication of subsea structures and pipes for Maria,
Wintershalls flagship development offshore Norway. This is the
second in a series of deliveries for Rosenberg to Subsea 7 and the
Maria project.Last May, Subsea 7 was awarded a contract valued at
around $300 million for the Maria subsea tieback field development.
The pipeline and subsea construction contract consists of engineering, procurement, construction, and installation (EPCI) of 95
km (59 mi) of rigid flowlines and associated structures.

The Maria reservoir will be


linked via subsea tieback to
the Kristin, Heidrun, and sgard B production platforms,
and is expected to enter
production in 2018. (Image
courtesy Wintershall / Visco /
Thor Oliversen)

In other Maria news, in August, DeepOceans offshore construction vessel Edda Freya mobilized from Kristiansund, Norway to install
risers, a dynamic umbilical, and cable linking the projects subsea facilities to Kristin and Heidrun.
Aquatic designed and constructed a new skidding system to interface with Edda Freyas onboard integrated track system. The company provided the 500-metric ton (551-ton) reel drive package, including
skidding system, and operational personnel for a 50-day hire.
Discovered in 2010, Maria, which has an estimated recoverable
volume of around 180 MMboe, is located in the Haltenbanken area
of the southern Norwegian Sea in around 300 m (984 ft) of water. It
is being developed with two subsea templates from where the reservoir will be linked to four existing hosts via a subsea tieback.
The $18-billion development is about 20 km (12 mi) east of the
Kristin field and 45 km (28 mi) south of the Heidrun field in the
Norwegian Sea. Production is expected in 2018.

Subsea 7 inks Atoll deal


Pharaonic Petroleum Co. has awarded Subsea 7 SA an EPCI contract of more than 40 km (25 mi) of rigid pipelines and associated
structures for the Atoll field offshore Egypt. The development will tie
into the Taurt field at a water depth of 100 m (328 ft). A 105-km (65-mi)
umbilical will also be installed linking the field to shore. Engineering
and procurement services are under way. Offshore campaigns will
take place in 2H 2017 and early 2018, using the Subsea 7 vessels Seven
Borealis, Seven Eagle, and Seven Arctic. The work will be executed at
water depths of more than 900 m (2,953 ft).
Discovered in March 2015, Atoll is in the North Damietta Offshore concession in the East Nile Delta. Production is expected to
begin in 2018. The development is executed and operated by Pharaonic Petroleum Co., BPs joint venture with EGAS and Eni.

Statoil has described sgard, which raised production by more than 16


MMboe this year, as running like a Swiss watch. The field is said to house
the worlds first subsea compression system, which was delivered by
Aker Solutions in 2015. (Image courtesy Aker Solutions)

Statoil marks first anniversary at sgard


Statoils subsea gas compression system has been operating for more than a year at the sgard field in the Norwegian
Sea, raising production by more than 16 MMboe.
Based on todays prices, this represents added value added
amounts of more than $615 million, said Halvor Engebretsen,
vice president for sgard operations.
The recovery rate from the Midgard and Mikkel reservoirs
on sgard has been raised from 67% to 87% and from 59% to
84% respectively, he added.
The technology was matured over several years with
Statoils in-house team working with suppliers such as Aker
Solutions, MAN, and Technip. In the process the operator
qualified more than 40 new technologies.
We have built test facilities at K-lab, storage and maintenance
capacity at Vestbase, and we have access to ships that are capable of handling installation of large subsea modules. By reusing
this technology, we have great opportunities for simplification
and efficiency improvements, and for reducing carbon footprints
of future gas compression systems, Engebretsen said.
In September, the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate awarded
this years improved oil recovery prize for 2016 to the sgard licensees in the Norwegian Sea for this subsea wet gas
compressor. It is foreseen that Statoil can extract almost 306
MMboe in additional gas and condensate.

Subsea Services Alliance introduces ROAM


The Helix Energy Solutions Group Inc. and Schlumberger collaboration, Subsea Services Alliance, has launched the development of what it
claims is the first riserless open-water abandonment module (ROAM).
The 18-in. large bore system will enhance well abandonment capacity from a intervention vessel by allowing tubing to be pulled in open
water in a safe and environmentally contained manner. The ROAM
system will be engineered and built at OneSubseas Aberdeen facility. It is expected to be available in 3Q 2017.

Oceaneering acquires RLWI assets


Oceaneering International Inc. has acquired the assets of Blue
Ocean Technologies, LLC, a privately held provider of riserless light
well intervention (RLWI) services, for about $30 million in cash.
Included in the acquisition are three RLWI systems, two of which
are currently under construction and expected to be fully functional
by mid-2017. Oceaneering expects to invest about $10 million to
complete construction of the systems. Blue Oceans RLWI technology holds the current depth record for riserless intervention at 8,200 ft
(2,500 m), Oceaneering says.

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Multiphase
Compressor

Introducing the worlds rst subsea wet gas compressor.


Developed in collaboration with Statoil, the multiphase compressor is an industry rst, designed as a
contrarotating machine specically for pressure boosting unprocessed well streams with no requirements
for an antisurge system or upstream gas treatment.
Based on our multiphase pump technologywhich has accumulated more than 2.6 million hours of
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1611OFF_19 19

11/2/16 8:07 AM

Jessica Tippee Houston

VESSELS, RIGS, & SURFACE SYSTEMS

Floating production market


shows signs of recovery

were designed for a range of field properties,


weather conditions, and water depths. Despite
these features, it was never redeployed.
David Boggs, managing director of EMA,
said: Unless there is a sudden surge of
awards in the next two months, 2016 will be
the worst year ever for the floating production
market. We expect improvement next year as
companies are reassured by more stable oil
prices and take advantage of lower costs.
The record low drilling rates in particular
create a window of opportunity for deepwater
and marginal fields. Reuse of available assets
can also enable cost-efficient production. However, this situation will not last forever. Companies that take FID sooner will benefit from availability and reduced costs throughout the supply
chain, while those that delay too long will find
costs escalating beyond expectations.

While only a few floating production systems


have been ordered this year, Energy Maritime
Associates (EMA) says it expects the market
to improve next year. In its 4Q 2016 Floating
Production Systems Report, EMA reviewed
the market for floating production systems,
including FPSOs, FLNGs, FSRUs, TLPs, spars,
semis, FSOs, and MOPUs.
In 3Q 2016, two more FSRU contracts
were awarded, bringing the total this year to
four units all FSRUs. Three of these awards
were for speculative newbuild units, while the
other was deployment of the LNG regas vessel Excelerate for FSRU service in Abu Dhabi.
Chevron awarded a $230-million contract to
MISC to convert an FSO to replace the Benchamas Explorer, which has been operating in
Thailand since 1999. In addition, three units
were delivered: one semi (Petrofacs FPF-1),
one LNG FSO (Bumi Armadas LNG Mediterrana), and one MOPU (Uzmas Marsya).
The analyst has identified certain signs of
an improving FPS market.
According to the report, EMA has identified
10 possible awards within 2016. However, most
will be deferred into 2017 as oil companies continue to push back spending. The most likely
upcoming awards have a combined capex
of $6.35 billion: Coral FLNG (Mozambique),
Ophir FPSO (Malaysia), Yombo FPSO (Congo), and Ca Rong Do FPSO and TLP (Vietnam).
The analyst says after a two-year pause, Petrobras plans to order seven FPSOs by 2018: for
the Libra Pilot and Sepia (tenders under way),
Buzios V, Marlim Revitalization I and II, Libra 2,
and Parque das Baleias developments.
The report also identified 46 idle FPS units:
24 FPSOs, 10 production semis, six FSOs, five
MOPUs, and one FLNG. This is up from 26 at
the beginning of the year. According to EMA,
while some will be put back in service, the
majority will likely be recycled, like the FPSO
Falcon. This FPSO was first of three generic
West African FPSO ordered by Exxon, which

DNV GL issues guidelines


on drilling rig air gaps
About 100 semisubmersible drilling rigs
approved by DNV GL will undergo further
reviews following the accident involving the
COSLInnovator offshore Norway late last
year. It appears that a limited number of rigs
will be subjected to modifications or operational limitations.
The COSLInnovator was drilling for Statoil
on the Troll field when it was struck by a large,
steep wave, which shattered several windows on
the rigs two lower decks. One person was killed.
Ernst Meyer, DNV GL director for Offshore
Classification, said: Since the incident, we have
made great efforts to identify what happened,
understand how this could happen and, most
importantly, implement actions to prevent similar incidents from occurring again.
We have been working with rig owners,
designers, operators, and authorities towards a common goal; to ensure the safety
of all those working on board the rigs.
Petroleum Safety Authority Norways investigation concluded earlier this year that its
findings must be used to prevent similar in-

Possible awards for 2016


Unit type

New/Conv/
Redeploy

Estimated
capital
expenditure

Lease/Own
lease
own

Location

Project

Operator

Congo

Yombo

Perenco

Conv

$350M

Malaysia

Ophir

Octanex

Redeploy

$100M

Vietnam

Ca Rong Do/Red Emperor

Repsol

Redeploy

$500M

FLNG

Mozambique

Coral

ENI

New

$5,400M

FSRU

Brazil

Brazil Gas to Power

Genpower

New

$300M

Egypt

Egypt LNG Terminal #3

EGAS

LNG RV/New

$300M

India

Jafrabad LNG (Pipavav)

Swan Energy

New

$500M

Semi

U.S.

Mad Dog 2

BP

New

$1,500M

TLP

Vietnam

Ca Rong Do/Red Emperor

Repsol

New

$500M

Indonesia

Madura MDA/MBH

Husky/CNOOC

New/Conv

$450M

FPSO

Barge

(Courtesy Energy Maritime Associates)

On Dec. 30, 2015, the semisubmersible COSLInnovator was drilling for Statoil on the Troll field
when it was struck by a large, steep wave.
(Photo courtesy COSL Drilling Europe AS)

cidents occurring in the future. In response,


DNV GL published a new technical guideline
(OTG-13 Prediction of air gap for columnstabilised units), said to deliver a consistent
and updated approach for calculating the air
gap - the clearance between the highest wave
crest and the bottom of the deck box in all
relevant sea conditions.
Recently, DNV GL asked all owners of
semis that it had classed to provide updated
documentation of each rigs air gap. Those
that can, based on the new guideline, provide
a positive air gap will be able to operate as
before without reinforcements or operational
limitations. This should be the case for most
semis operating on the Norwegian shelf.
A limited number of rigs may not have a
positive air gap, Meyer said, but most of
these will be able to avoid changes. The prerequisite is that they are able to document a
positive air gap for a specific location, or that
they simply do not have windows that may
be exposed to waves.
As for those rigs where the owners cannot
demonstrate a positive air gap in all sea conditions including the 100-year wave Meyer
added: Initially (for the next winter), these
rigs will be required to remove windows in
exposed zones. If the strength calculations
show that further structural modifications
are necessary, such modifications will be required as part of the permanent solution.
The most important thing is that the windows are removed before the coming winter.
This action eliminates the largest risk elements if a similar incident occurs.
Rigs certified for worldwide operation must
be documented according to North Atlantic
wave data. Most rigs operate in milder areas,
such as the North Sea, and can postpone modifications that might be needed for the Norwegian Sea or Barents Sea.

20 Offshore November 2016 www.offshore-mag.com

1611OFF_20 20

11/2/16 8:07 AM

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1611OFF_21 21

11/2/16 8:07 AM

DRILLING & PRODUCTION

Bruce Beaubouef Houston

Operators reducing IRM work

Report sees drilling rig contracts increasing


A recent analysis of the global offshore rig market sees some positive signs, especially compared to last year. But the latest Global
Offshore Rig Market Snapshot, issued by Evercore ISI, notes that
seven contracts (all new mutuals) had been announced in the first
half of October, slightly below pace of eight at this point in September.
Contracting accelerated slightly in the back half of last month as a
total of 19 contracts were signed, above 17 a year ago but below the
September totals of 29 in 2014 and 40 in 2013.
A total of 15 jackup contracts were signed last month, but only
two were for terms of a year or more (ENSCO 84 and Egyptian
DrillingsSenusretto Saudi Aramco). All four floater contracts were
short-term, averaging only 40 days.
So far in October, three floater contracts have been signed averaging 246 days versus four jackup contracts averaging only 52 days.
Utilization continues to trend lower for rigs rolling off contract
and early contract terminations; three floaters and two jackups received early contract terminations, Evercore reported. Overall, the
contracted global floater fleet fell by three units or 2% to 150 while
the contracted jackup fleet fell by two units or 70 basis points (bps)
to 295. Average day rates edged up 90 bps for floaters to around
$414,000/d but fell 3.7% for jackups to $126,000/d.
In its previous report, Evercore said thatENSCO 8506andOcean
Rig Mylos would be cold stacked. Ensco announced in its Oct. 14
fleet status report the DS-3 will also be preservation stacked. Officially over the past 30 days, the industry cold stacked one floater
(Ocean Rig Mylos) and two jackups (Hercules 350,Transocean Honor), and the analyst expects that figure to increase as 25 floaters and
25 jackups are rolling off contract by the end of this year.
Contract coverage for 2017 slipped by 90 bps to 34% for the global
floater fleet but improved by 30 bps to 29% for the global jackup
fleet. This compares unfavorably with the
forward year coverage of 48% for floaters and 34% for jackups from this time
last year, despite the industry retiring 23
floaters and 14 jackups in the last 12
months.
Floater coverage was unchanged
or declined for all companies in our
universe due to early contract terminations, but jackup coverage improved slightly forNoble, Ensco, and
Rowan, and Paragon Offshore.
Overall, the forward one-year coverage improved relative to a year ago for
Diamonds floater and jackup fleet, as
well as Seadrills and Vantages jackup fleets.

A recent update byDouglas-Westwood(DW)


finds that some upstream operators are curtailing inspection, repair, and maintenance (IRM)
requirements in the current sustained low oil
price environment.
In the past two years, upstream E&P operators
have scurried to re-evaluate their operational business as usual practices. As they aspire to come
out of this downturn stronger, they have implemented immediate cost-cutting steps, such as the
downsizing of the workforce and the elimination
of redundancies, as well as longer-term savings
measures, such as the rebalancing of portfolios.
While complying with legislative standards, DW points out an apparent trend that has surfaced is the postponement of non-critical
work which otherwise would have been sanctioned in a $100/bbl oil
period. For some upstream operators, associatedIRMrequirements
have retracted by some 20-30%, relative to pre-downturn levels.
While efforts to reduce bottom line figures have paid off and continue to be in play, the analyst says E&P operators must acknowledge the inevitable threshold levels ofmaintenance, modifications,
and operations (MMO) and IRM spending that are required in the
prevention of lost-time incidents.
According to author Michelle Gomez of DW Singapore, It is inevitable that a current fix on failure attitude is not sustainable and
operators need to re-assess the long-term sustainability of their approach given ever growing cost accruals.
Gomez added: As the recentWorld Offshore Maintenance, Modification & Operations Market Forecast 2017-2021 shows, perhaps
the only positive spin on the current trough for the wider industry
is a foreseeable wave of upstream MMO and IRM contracts that are
due to be awarded in the coming years given existing backlogs that
can no longer be postponed.

SHI, ABS develop new TLP hull concept


ABSandSamsung Heavy Industries(SHI) of South Korea have
concluded a joint development project for a new tension leg platform(TLP) design.
The new TLP hull concept, the Samsung Enhanced hull for Tendon
(SET) TLP, was developed using boundary conditions such as those
encounteredoffshore West Africa. One of the objectives in the project
was to decrease the number of tendons needed for the TLP. The resulting hull configuration requires fewer tendons for stability.
Concept development is nearly complete. ABS performed design
review and verification from start to finish of the project.
Jong H. Youn, vice president of SHI Co.
Ltd., said: We are very satisfied with this
development because the design focuses
on the issues that are critical under current market circumstances.
Youn added that we strongly believe that this innovative TLP hull
concept can achieve exceptional economic benefit while maintaining the
same safety level and technical functionality.
The new TLP hull concept,
the Samsung Enhanced hull
for Tendon (SET) TLP. (Courtesy ABS)

22 Offshore November 2016 www.offshore-mag.com

1611OFF_22 22

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11/2/16 8:08 AM

Sarah Parker Musarra Houston

GEOSCIENCES

tection Act decision-making for oil- and gasrelated G&G.


The proposed project area evaluated BOEMs Western, Central, and Eastern GoM
planning areas as well as adjacent state waters.
Completion of the draft PEIS was a condition
of a federal court settlement between BOEM
and the National Resource Defense Council
and other co-plaintiffs announced earlier this
year. The bureau prepared the PEIS pursuant
to the National Environmental Policy Act and
targets September 2017 for its completion.

Partnership proves fruitful

BOEMs Western, Central, and Eastern GoM planning areas as well as adjacent state waters comprised the proposed project area. (Image courtesy BOEM)

Industry responds
to BOEM PEIS
The US Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) recently completed a draft programmatic environmental impact statement
(PEIS), and its public meetings in the GoM
area will begin in New Orleans in April.
The draft PEIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts of G&G survey activities
on marine mammals, fish, corals, and other environmentally sensitive species in the seabed
and water column of the Gulfs outer continental shelf. The bureau said the aim of the document is to recommend measures to protect
marine mammals and coastal environments in
the Gulf of Mexico from the potential impacts
of geological and geophysical surveys.
Activities assessed in the draft include deeppenetration and high-resolution seismic surveys, electromagnetic surveys, magnetic surveys, gravity surveys, remote-sensing surveys
and geological and geochemical sampling.
Among the mitigations the bureau has recommended in its preferred alternative are: requiring
protected species observers on each boat, mandatory vessel avoidance of marine mammals and
start-up/shut down rules that apply if/when marine mammals are observed in the area.
The International Association of Geophysical
Contractors (IAGC) and API were among those
industry bodies that commented in response to
the draft PEIS. IAGC President Nikki Martin
called the document an important step in the
process of ensuring the continued assessment,
exploration, and development in the GoM.
Nonetheless, Martin continued by noting
that the association was evaluating the PEIS
to ensure that BOEMs framework for permitting seismic exploration and its suggested
mitigation measures are proportionate to the
level of risk of potential impacts to marine life,
based on sound science, and within existing
legal framework...
The industry has worked in a constructive
manner with regulators worldwide as they

have developed policy on geophysical operations. IAGC supports science- and risk-based
regulations consistent with existing practices
that are proven to be effective and operationally feasible.
Martin also emphasized that subsurface
imaging is key to making informed decisions
on future leasing and to reducing or eliminating any potential economic, safety and environmental risks.
Similarly, API Offshore Sr. Policy Advisor
Andy Radford highlighted the importance of
seismic surveys in the GoM.
Seismic surveys help make offshore energy
development safer and more efficient, Radford
said. They are essential in the US and around
the world to locate potential new sources of energy. Advances in seismic imaging technology
and data processing over the last decade have
dramatically improved the industrys ability to
locate oil and natural gas offshore.
Both organizations highlighted their respective commitments to safe operations.
The geophysical industry has over the past
50 years consistently demonstrated its ability
to operate seismic exploration activities in an
environmentally responsible manner. Experience shows that seismic activities, tourism,
fishing and fisheries can and do coexist successfully around the world and, in particular,
in the Gulf of Mexico, Martin said.
Our industry remains committed to improving the scientific understanding of the impacts of our operations on marine life. Seismic
surveying in the Gulf of Mexico is a critical
part of safe offshore energy development that
is necessary if we are to continue to harness
our nations energy potential for the benefit of
American energy consumers, Radford said.
BOEM is the lead agency on this draft PEIS,
with the Bureau of Safety and Environmental
Enforcement and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) as cooperating agencies.
The PEIS will support both BOEMs G&G
permitting and NMFSs Marine Mammal Pro-

Searcher Seismic and BGP began acquisition on a new survey just about one week
after BGP wrapped up the pairs Buscador
near-shore 2D seismic survey.
After completing work for Buscador offshore
Mexico, the duo got to work on the 11,000km (6,835-mi) Hahonua 2D seismic survey
offshore Papua New Guinea.
This new acquisition increases Searchers
total seismic data library in the region to
more than 70,000 km (43,496 mi). In addition,
Searcher and Gardline have initiated the Davaria geochemical survey, a multi-beam and
coring survey in the Gulf of Papua. The survey
will identify and analyze hydrocarbon seeps.

CNOOC updates
on Iceland seismic
Partners China National Offshore Co.
(CNOOC), Eykon Energy, and Petoro Iceland recently met as they attempt to move
forward with exploration on the Icelandic
continental shelf.
There, CNOOC discussed initial results of
a 2015 2D seismic survey. All results should
be finalized by 2017, as planned. CNOOC said
that it would like to continue with 3D seismic
at certain locations, to be selected by the end
of 2017. Acquisition could then begin immediately afterward.
Assuming positive results from the 3D seismic survey, an initial exploration well would
be drilled between 2022 and 2026. Icelandic
national energy authority Orkustofnun said
that past experience shows that a discovery
could take 10 years to enter production. The
state is also said to be uncertain whether hydrocarbons were present in Dreki, and if they
are commercially viable.
The CNOOC-led consortium was granted
a license for the Dreki area, located northeast
of the Icelandic coastline, in 2014. Orkustofnun says the area has geological similarities
to the western Norwegian continental shelf,
the Faroe Islands, and Shetland. Dreki is
around 9 million years old with sediments that
can reach up to 4 km (2.5 mi) thick. CNOOC
Iceland will operate with 60% interest, in partnership with Eykon Energy (15%) and Petoro
Iceland (25%).

24 Offshore November 2016 www.offshore-mag.com

1611OFF_24 24

11/2/16 8:08 AM

R E G U L AT O R Y P E R S P E C T I V E S

Spudding a well: when does drilling commence?


Nina Howell
Jessica Trevellick

King & Spalding


The old adage say what you mean, mean
what you say appears to be a good rule of
thumb for offshore drilling contracts. In a
recent case, the English court determined
that the commencement of drilling meant
the moment when the drill penetrates the
sea bed, and did not extend to preparations
for drilling. Companies engaged in offshore
drilling activities under contracts governed
by English law should therefore pay special attention to the choice of words in their
agreements to avoid uncertainty.

Vitols interest in the permit. Under the


terms of the sale, the buyer would pay some
consideration at the time of the transfer of
shares, and then either (i) bear Vitols share
of the costs of the discretionary well, or (ii)
if this were removed from the budget, or if
drilling had not commenced prior to the expiry of the second exploration period.
Africa Oil and Gas then decided to exercise its pre-emption right to purchase Vitols
shares on the same terms as had been negotiated with the outside company. These
included paying $12.6 million up front, and
committing to cover either Vitols $7.2-million share of the costs of the discretionary
well, or if the well were removed from the

moment when the drill breaks the ground.


Preparation for drilling, however, is not such
a discrete concept; there is no clear limit as
to what might or might not be considered
a preparatory act, and opinion will differ on
this point.
In adopting this pragmatic approach, the
courts are encouraging parties to be careful
with their choice of words so that the true
nature of the agreement, and rights and obligations under it, are properly recorded. This
helps to ensure that all parties to a contract
understand what they are agreeing to from
the outset, in turn reducing the likelihood
of accidental breaches and/or disputes further down the line. Where possible, the use

Spudding is clear; it is the moment when the drill breaks


the ground. Preparation for drilling, however, is not such
a discrete concept; there is no clear limit as to what
might or might not be considered a preparatory act.
In a dispute arising from a sale and purchase agreement for an interest under a production-sharing contract (PSC), the English
court (Queens Bench Division of the High
Court of Justice) was asked to consider the
meaning of commencement of drilling.
The crux of the matter was whether commencement had occurred when an agreement was made with a third party to supply
the drilling rig, or when the drill actually
broke through the seabed.
In the case of Vitol E&P v. Africa Oil and
Gas Corp. [2016] EWHC 1677 (Comm), the
two companies were in a PSC with the Republic of Congo. They had been granted a
research permit for the Marine XI offshore
area: this could be extended for up to three
consecutive exploration periods on the condition that at least one commitment well
was drilled in the area in the preceding exploration period.
A commitment well had been drilled
within the second period and all parties
agreed to apply to renew the permit for a
third period. Some proposed drilling an additional discretionary well, which Vitol
was opposed; however, the majority voted to
include it in the budget for the second exploration period. When the discretionary well
became a committed budgeted item, each
PSC party was liable for a share of its cost,
whether the well was completed within the
second exploration period or not.
An outside company then offered to buy

budget or drilling did not commence before


the expiry of the second exploration period,
a deferred consideration of $7.4 million.
Meanwhile, the Congolese Minister for Hydrocarbons agreed to extend the second exploration period until June 30, 2013.
In April that year, a drilling rig became
available. A letter of award was issued on
May 14, and a contract pursuant to the letter
was agreed to on May 22, under which the
contractor was to transport the rig from Rio
de Janeiro to the Republic of Congo. The rig
arrived on July 3, 2013, and the discretionary well was spudded on July 20. Vitol then
demanded the deferred consideration payment from AOGC, but the latter refused to
pay on the grounds that commencement of
drilling had occurred in May, before the expiry of the second exploration period. However, Vitol contended that the commencement of drilling did not occur until July 20,
when the discretionary well was spudded.
The court determined that commencement of drilling meant the point when the
discretionary well was spudded, which occurred after the expiry of the second exploration period, so Vitol was entitled to the
deferred consideration payment.
The decision confirms the weight that the
English courts attach to the natural meaning of words used in a contract. The court
noted that there is a particular need for clarity and certainty where a substantial payment is at issue. Spudding is clear; it is the

of simple and clear language is advisable,


while the use of invented or unnecessarily
complicated words or phrases which a party
might use to try to obfuscate the true nature
of the agreement (in order to extricate it
from an obligation) should be avoided.
However, the courts will stray from the
natural meaning if, for example, this gave
rise to a commercially absurd and unworkable result, or would be manifestly unfair
because it would deprive a party of a protection that it was clearly intended to have.
However, in this case, adopting the natural
meaning produced a reasonable outcome
and the court therefore found no reason to
depart from it.
AOGC cited some US cases (although
these are not binding authority in the English courts) in which the words commencement of operations for drilling had been
used. The US courts held that operations
for drilling could be interpreted broadly
enough to include preparatory acts, such
as bringing timber to build a derrick on to
the land. Alas, AOGCs argument was unsuccessful.

The authors

Nina Howell is a counsel and Jessica Trevellick is


a trainee solicitor in the London office of King &
Spalding.
www.offshore-mag.com November 2016 Offshore 25

1611OFF_25 25

11/2/16 8:08 AM

OFFSHORE ECONOMICS

Market downturn presents opportunity


for fundamental change
Industry leaders working toward sustainable solutions

pstream oil and gas continues to face


its biggest challenges in a generation.
Oil and gas prices are off the bottom
but remain low at approximately $50/
bbl and $2.75/MMBtu. The market
fundamentals oversupply, reduced demand
growth, and in the case of crude, large inventories remain resilient. This imbalance will
eventually work itself out, but the expectations regarding timing and profile of price
recovery vary.

Market trends
Industry veterans recall previous price
slumps notably 1986, 1998, and, to a lesser extent, 2008. There are differences this
time, including the effect of supply-side excess and the role of shale oil, which are leading to much slower price recovery. Previous
recoveries were V-shaped, but this one is
more L-shaped.
Most oil and gas companies are planning
on a lower for longer price environment, and
some are carrying lower forever downside
scenarios. In the short term, crude inventory

Mike Dyson

Navigant

will need to be depleted. Once recovery starts,


shale oil producers will enter the market again,
adding crude and dampening further price recovery. Unless there are major disruptions in
supply or a change in the OPEC strategy, price
recovery will be extended.
Over the last 18 months, companies in the
sector have been under tremendous cash flow
pressure. Even when crude was over $100/bbl,
returns on development project investment
deteriorated from 20% to less than 10% in many
cases. The industry passively accepted high
costs and deep-rooted inefficiencies. There was
an oilfield premium on everything.
In some offshore provinces such as the
UK North Sea, the situation is compounded
by depleted fields and aging infrastructure. It
is possible that less than 50% of such fields
are net cash positive at $50/bbl oil. Cessation
of production and the likely abandonment of

platforms and wells looms large. However,


the incentive to remain operational during
the downturn is powerful: once closed down,
a platform will not restart. How have firms
responded to this situation?

First responses
Initially the industry cut approximately half
a trillion dollars of investment in new projects.
Other actions largely focused on addressing
over capacity, reducing the workforce, and cutting general and administrative costs. Lower
activity levels have already translated into lower
costs. There has also been consolidation in
the industry (e.g., Shell acquiring BG Group),
though less than in previous downturns. Halliburtons failure to consolidate its offer for Baker
Hughes may be an indication that this can only
go so far. Nonetheless, there is capital ready to
be placed into upstream merger and acquisition
activity at both the company and individual asset level, once values become clearer.
The following sections summarize how the industry moved beyond these initial responses and
is now responding to the markets challenges.

26 Offshore November 2016 www.offshore-mag.com

1611OFF_26 26

11/2/16 8:09 AM

OFFSHORE ECONOMICS

Joint ventures and alliances


Traditionally the oil and gas industry leveraged joint ventures and alliances with operators and government partners to share costs
and manage overall venture risks. But, within
the supply chain of goods and services during both the project and operating phases
these alliances have been much less common
than in other industries. Take drilling contracts in which the contractor is usually employed with a day rate contract, for example.
There is little incentive to invest in efficiency
improvements, and short contract durations
result in significant change costs for the oil
and gas industry. These traditional contractual
boundaries, as well as risk allocation and contract arrangements, have enabled inefficiencies that market players can no longer afford.
Longer-term agreements and shared risk/
reward contracts with key suppliers offer the
opportunity to reverse this situation. Operators are reluctant to relinquish control to the
extent needed, but they are starting to do so.
Acceptance that the industry will either succeed together or fail together is pervasive.
Although operators are competing in some
areas (licensing, exploring, understanding the
subsurface, and attracting talent), there is little
differentiation between players in many areas.
Therefore, cooperation is a more effective
strategy in a low-price world. This thinking has
driven the formation of focused industry task
forces across operators, suppliers, and government parties in the last 18 months.

Supply chain and logistics


Industry interface costs used to be significant because of ineffective sharing and ownership of data, poor cost-driver transparency, lack
of close collaborative working, and contracts
that did not encourage business improvements
or use of new technology. Shared logistics,
leveraged by optimization and tracking technologies, applied to supplier inventory, storage
yards, supply boats, helicopters, and offshore
hoteling are areas where collaboration between
operators can reduce costs while still maintaining flexibility. In an interesting application, optimizing passenger seat assignment in an aircraft
reduced helicopter costs. In particular, cost
transparency both purchase costs and costs
arising from customer demand/specification
is proving essential to understanding the opportunities to be challenged in the supply chain.

Standardization
Although industry standards exist, many
operators have traditionally defined their
own. Even within operators activities, there
can be a bewildering and costly variety of
designs. In recent years, the industry has
gold-plated some equipment in an effort to
optimize the technical design often at the
expense of greater manufacturing and servic-

ing costs. Although late to this effort, there


is now an increased belief that the industry
needs to go back to the basics, implementing
minimalist zero-based and functional design requirements. In areas such as contract,
training, personnel qualification, and data
standards, benefits can be immediately delivered, and industry bodies are heavily promoting this effort. Process standardization is
a key component of performance improvement, and the subject of many Lean and Six
Sigma performance improvement programs.

Technology
Upstream oil and gas has historically leveraged technology to find and produce hydrocarbons from deeper, further, and tighter formations downhole. Now there is a focus on using
technology to cut costs insteadsomething
much more akin to other industries. A recent
article identified that GE and Shell are seeing a
shift from operations as an art to operations as
a science. Traditionally teams working in production operations or drilling offshore largely
worked independently from those providing
onshore-based support. Reliable low-cost,
high-bandwidth communications now enable
much greater transparency of performance
data and metrics and the use of collaborative
tools, both formal and informal. The industry
already collects masses of data, but now big
data techniques offer the ability to add value to
operational decisions. Wider application of the
Internet of Things, even retrofitted to brownfield operations, also offers the opportunity
to directly support decision-making with realtime quality information.
Data visualization and transparency is one
area that can transform staff awareness and allow chronic problems to be elevated and solved.
Other applications of new technology abound.
For example, operators are carrying out routine
inspections using robotics and drones to reduce
costs and, in many cases, increase safety. Those
with experience of downstream oil and gas operations, which has a long history of cost and efficiency focus, are pressing for much wider use of
process optimization techniques in the upstream
sector to maximize reliability and overall costs.

Workforce efficiency
Oil and gas companies, as well as many of
their contractors and suppliers, tend to be organizationally siloed and rarely physically co-located, placing emphasis on asset first or function
first. This needs to change, and this change is
beginning to take place through greater collaboration within and outside the corporation.
Locating people offshore is expensive, and
there is renewed emphasis on spanner time,
the proportion of time an offshore technician is
actually engaged in the practical aspects of the
job. This has increased over the last couple of
years, in some cases three-fold. Another drive is

toward multi-skilling providing offshore workers the skills and capability to cover activities
done previously by others. Another example
involves using tracking technology to benchmark individual drilling operations and drive
out inefficiencies.

Turnaround planning
Long a weakness in the offshore sector,
turnaround/shutdown planning and execution have had significant negative impacts on
overall production efficiency. Overrun schedules and costs have been the norm. More
rigor and better planning tools have significantly improved performance in this area: in
2015, UK North Sea oil production increased
for the first time since 1999.

Learning from others


Offshore operators can learn significant lessons from the North American onshore shale
oil and gas business, including the relentless
approach to cost efficiency, flexibility, standardization, collaboration, technology, and the
public benchmarking of performance. Above
all, the need is to recognize how to learn and
implement quickly.

Leadership
How are industry leaders dealing with all
this? It varies. A few appear to remain in denial, while others anticipated the low price challenges as early as 2013. Some are demonstrating genuine management courage stepping
up and leading the charge for needed changes
and championing solutions outside the boundaries of their own organizations to demonstrate to the broader industry what is possible.
The best are making changes beyond just the
cosmetic; they have an eye on sustainable solutions rather than short-term fixes, and are
driving the associated cultural transformation
that needs to accompany and support change.
Many organizations understand the value
of this approach even if prices recover faster
than expected, and all realize that sustaining
the gains will be a challenge.

The author

Mike Dyson leads Navigants


upstream oil and gas consulting
business outside North America, an
expanding area of business for the
company.He brings more than 30
years experience in the upstream oil
and gas business, having worked in major and large
independent exploration and production companies
around the world. His core expertise is in well and
production operations, capital projects, supply chain
strategies and new technology development and implementation. Dyson focuses on advising oil and gas E&P
companies that are seeking to improve their business
performance.As a leading expert, he delivers the Well
Engineering component of the Petroleum Engineering
MSc course at Imperial College, London, UK.
www.offshore-mag.com November 2016 Offshore 27

1611OFF_27 27

11/2/16 8:09 AM

W E S T A F R I C A U P D AT E

Deepwater brownfield strategy improves


operations offshore Nigeria
The Bonga North West development
includes four oil producing wells and
two water injection wells tied back to the
Bonga FPSO. (Photo courtesy Shell)

Well, reservoir, and facility management process


requires integration, collaboration
Emmanuel Udofia
Femi Eruja
Kazeem Lawal

Shell Nigeria Exploration & Production Co.

rownfield projects are challenging because of the need to reduce production deferment, optimize production in real time,
and operate the field in a safe and environmentally friendly
manner. Hence, it is important to develop an empirically-based
structure and processes that can effectively manage these
challenges. The solid foundation to effectively manage these complexities is to put in place a robust well, reservoir, and facility management framework built around strong cross-functional collaboration in
a co-located environment supported by state-of-the-art techniques.
The Bonga field, Nigerias first deepwater development, is about
120 km (74.6 mi) offshore in the Gulf of Guinea in a shale-induced
block OML 118. Production began in 2005. The reservoirs are located in a water depth of 1,000 m (3,281 ft) and are primarily under
saturated and characterized by an average 30% porosity and Darcyrange permeability. Following the recent tieback of the Bonga North
West wells to the FPSO, there are 18 active producers and 14 active
water injectors. Current oil production and water injection rates are
in excess of 200,000 b/d and 300,000 b/d, respectively. SNEPCo
(55%) operates the license on behalf of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corp. in partnership with Esso Exploration and Production

Deepwater Ltd. (20%), Total E&P Nigeria Ltd. (12.5%), and Nigerian
Agip Exploration Ltd. (12.5%).
The brownfield development strategy is to sustain water injection
for the purposes of pressure-maintenance and improved sweep efficiency. Given that the water injection and oil production subsea
systems are strongly coupled in this prolific field, the management
of wells, reservoirs, and facilities remain challenging. The appreciation of these challenges and the need to overcome these challenges
gave birth to the so-called concept of wells, reservoirs, and facilities
management (WRFM).
The Bonga WRFM strategy is built around the following objectives:
Achieve high sweep efficiency, hence improved recovery factor
in reservoirs
Maintain reservoirs above bubble-point pressure by ensuring
full voidage-replacement with water injection
Make it grow through continuous production system optimization as a means of sustaining short- to medium-term oil production.
In October 2014, an assessment of the Bonga WRFM capabilities and processes was carried out by experts from Shells global
WRFM team. The assessment confirmed that Bongas WRFM is in
the top-quartile and approaching best-in-class level. The following
describes how the implementation of the WRFM framework resulted in the faster turnaround time in integrity management, real-time
production monitoring and optimization, with enhanced work culture built around operation integration and collaboration.

28 Offshore November 2016 www.offshore-mag.com

1611OFF_28 28

11/2/16 8:09 AM

W E S T A F R I C A U P D AT E

Smart Fields value loop


Attaining and sustaining high-quality WRFM requires effort, the
right work culture, tools, facilities, and processes. To achieve this,
Bonga is built around the WRFM Smart Fields value loop. According to Udofia et al (2013), the value loop concept describes how various components supporting the operation are identified and linked
to generate the expected value of top-quartile well, reservoir, and
facility performance. It must be acknowledged that WRFM is very
broad; complexities vary between assets in relation to specific challenges. As a result, the authors will focus on the key ingredients
of the Bonga field experience in fixing the basics, building a solid
foundation, and continuous system improvement.
Fixing the basics ensures that established WRFM minimum standards are met. During WRFM assessment the value loop concept
is used, creating the foundation for fixing the basics and resourcing the consequent asset improvement plan. From Al-khadhuri et al
(2013), the key elements in this process include:
1. Data gathering and management
2. Well integrity management
3. Well optimization and restoration effort
4. Effective reservoir management strategy
5. Surveillance strategy
6. New technology implementation.
It is important to note that many assets use different ways to fix
the basics but the clear objective is that this must be compared
against a set standard with the overall aim that the basic standard
for WRFM is achieved.
Integrated WRFM reviews are important in fixing the basics
and realizing the potentials of any WRFM process in an asset (Ayoo-

la & et al 2010). The relevant components of this value loop element


are daily production review (DPR), monthly reviews, quarterly production system optimization, and annual reviews. All these reviews
are multi-disciplinary, enabling full integration. In general, these reviews are essentially a feedback mechanism, where trends are identified and used to predict the future. From these trends, potential
threats and opportunities are identified and relevant mitigation developed. The main aspects of a WRFM review process are illustrated
in the associated chart.
The Bonga asset has embedded these review processes resulting
in positive impacts on the delivery of the business objectives. For
example, the Bonga WRFM review meetings are always interdisciplinary. As a minimum, the production technologist, production
programmer (engineer), reservoir engineer, production chemist,
subsea (well services) engineer, production operations engineer,
and process/facility engineer must be in attendance.
The following highlights key elements of the Bonga WRFM system.

Updated models
The Bonga asset has state-of-the-art well, reservoir, and facility
models. These include an integrated production system model, which
is a suite of applications covering reservoir, wells, and facilities. With
this integrated network model, the impact of system changes and
disturbances on any component of the integrated system can easily
be assessed. For realistic forecasting, planned and unplanned deferments as well as possible loss of well potentials are incorporated. As
part of optimization, the distribution of injection water and allocation
of production to the various wells are easily simulated (Udofia et al,
2013). The integrated production system model (IPSM) is maintained

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W E S T A F R I C A U P D AT E

Foundational WRFM
review process.

exception-based surveillance and real-time production optimization. As inferred from historic


monthly reconciliation factors, PU is accurate
to within 5% from historical performance.

Subsea intervention

live by a joint team of the process engineer, reservoir engineer, production technologist, and production engineer (program).
Subsurface models are always uncertain. To facilitate the maturation of the Bonga subsurface models and reduction of subsurface
uncertainties, the WRFM team drives the planning and acquisition
of relevant data such as interference testing, tracer injection, routine
production testing, pressure-transient testing, and the management
of the various data-acquiring flow meters and pressure/temperature
sensors installed in the network.
The Bonga asset has been able to develop techniques for good
understanding of subsurface performance despite some unique
challenges in connectivity and flow capacity. Interference tests are
carried out to demonstrate the connectivity effectiveness between
the producer and pair water injector with monitoring of reservoir
pressure changes of the producer against the pair injector. Pressure
build-up data is acquired to provide information on well and reservoir parameters. Tracer injection into injectors is done to establish
the contribution from different injectors located in same reservoir.

Real-time monitoring
Well testing is the process required to calculate the volumes (oil,
water, and gas) of production or injection from or into a well in a
bid to identify the current state of the well. Normally, as a means
of production health check, a reconciliation factor is generated by
comparing the fiscal production volume against the theoretical well
test volume. In most deepwater operations, including the Bonga
field, well testing is always a challenge because of flow assurance
concerns and associated production deferment.
To mitigate the related challenges while still ensuring quality allocation of volumes, a proprietary application called Production Universe (PU) is used. This data-driven application performs real-time
production monitoring in the Bonga field. It uses real-time information from test separator flow meters, chokes as well as pressure for
the calculations.
Routine well tests in deepwater operations are challenging and
PU assists in addressing this challenge because the real-time wellby-well estimates from the system are like testing each well 24 hours
every day. Bonga use the half-yearly maximum efficient rate well test
window, which is statutorily required, to model and maintain the PU
models for effective real-time well-by-well production monitoring.
This application plays a pivotal role in production monitoring, reconciliation, and relocation process in the Bonga asset. It also assists in

Bonga is heavily dependent on a subsea


support structure for speedy reaction to wells
and subsea issues. This capability reduces
production/injection deferments and preserves the well integrity and other subsea
appurtenances. A dedicated field support vessel, the Africa Vision, provides the readiness
to react quickly to subsea hardware and software failures. As a responsible operator, well
integrity is a top priority in the Bonga asset.
For effective management, the operator uses
the electronic well integrity management
standard (eWIMS) and conducts regular well
leak-off-tests. A leak-off-test is an integrity test
performed every six months on a well barrier
system. This system provides prompts and
repository for regular integrity tests of various well valves, which
serves as a barrier to protect the environment and facilities from
potential hydrocarbon and high-pressure discharges.

Bonga WRFM plan


This is a document that defines the strategy and road-map for maximizing the life-cycle value of the asset. The operations and boundary
conditions of various components of the integrated system as well as
relevant surveillance tools are described. Although this document is
designed to be updated every two years, there are provisions for more
recent updates if the circumstances (such as new information) warrant such updates. The Bonga WRFM plan document provides guidance on how the asset is operated and maintained. This document
remains one of the success stories of the Bonga asset.

Data management
The Bonga asset was declared Smart (Intelligent) Fields Foundation complaint in April 2008. Some of the key business objectives were
to minimize manual data entry, acquire data in real-time, and ensure
effective data management. The availability of common real-time
data supports the effective production surveillance process (WRFM).
All critical well, reservoir, and facility data are available in a plant
information system (data historian), which can be displayed in a process book and the WRFM IT tool-kit. All Bonga wells are equipped
with permanent downhole gauge; though only 80% of the gauges are
functional (there are on-going efforts to fix the defective gauges).
The data acquisition architecture has a dual plant information system that ensures that no data is lost even in situations of system or
signal outage in the office domain.
Key applications, which support this robust process, include:
Fieldware Production Universe for production monitoring
Fieldware well test for well test calculation and control
Energy components as production data historian
Oil field manager for data analysis
Integrated production system model for opportunity generation
Plant information system as data historian.

Review process
The daily production review (DPR) is a process where production/water injection performance is compared against the integrated production system capacity (IPSC) to obtain a common understanding of the field performance and offer appropriate mitigation

30 Offshore November 2016 www.offshore-mag.com

1611OFF_30 30

11/2/16 8:09 AM

actions, if required. For the last nine years, the Bonga field DPR
process has continuously improved in terms of personnel, quality of
reviews, and efficiency of the meetings.
In the Bonga asset, the DPR starts with exception-based surveillance of all the wells using the WRFM IT tool-kit within an integrated
cross-functional Bonga WRFM team. Reviews of the previous outstanding action items are also conducted with an action tracker. The
output of the discussion forms the agenda for the immediate meeting with the field during the morning call. This ensures common
understanding of the issues in the last 24 hours between the office
and field personnel. The action items in this process are tracked and
executed as agreed on by the team.
The Bonga DPR process is the engine of the WRFM structure as
cross-functional integration and collaboration takes place within this
space every morning. This process has provided the right platform
for effective and quick decision making, hence reduced turn-around
in the resolution of challenges.

Collaborative environment

Collaborative work environment (CWE) is an enhanced operation


integration concept through the use of seamless connection of tools,
defined processes, people, and a tele-presence facility. A collaborative environment is any form (physical or virtual) in which teams can
come together to discuss in a bid to reach a common decision. It
is expected, the solutions from this implementation will provide a
common data set for faster decision-making through collaboration
between functions or teams regardless of location.
The go-live of Bonga asset operations collaboration center took
place in November 2014. The first business process to be deployed
was the DPR. Already, the benefits of knowing sooner and act faster concept are being recognized. Other advantages include, reduction of field visits since support can be provided from onshore using
this facility. It equally enhances team integration and speed in quality
decision-making. To support this process all core WRFM team members are co-located in a common space for effective team integration
and collaboration. Addition of other solutions is planned in the future
with smart-mobile-worker capabilities.

Conclusion

Effective well, reservoir, and facility management in brownfield


projects like Bonga is important to sustain and grow production. It
is recognized that the addition of new solutions through enhanced
technology and business processes assist in achieving this goal.
Hence, constant effort must be made to look for new ways to grow
the WRFM concept in other to remain in the top-quartile.

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References
Al-Khadhuri, S.M, M.M. Al-Harthi and A. Alkalbani (2009): Omans Large
Carbonate Field Production Improvement through Integrated Well, Reservoir and
Facility Management Paper IPTC 16523, presented at International Petroleum
Technology Conference held in Beijing China 26-28 March 2013
Ayoola, O. T, Uruh O., Odizuru-Abangwu Ijeoma, Dike Amadi, Mgbaja Boniface,
Folorunso Gbenga, Kalu Patricia (2010) Maximising Value from Integrated Well
and Reservoir Management & Facilities Reviews: A 2-Field Case Study from the
Niger Delta Paper SPE 140624, presented at 34th SPE International Conference
and Exhibition held in Tinapa Calabar Nigeria 31 July-07 August 2010
Udofia, E., Oni, O., A., Chaker and O. Oghedegbe (2013) Smart Fields Management in Deepwater Field: Experience & Perspectives Paper OTC 24078 presented
at Offshore Technology Conference held in Houston Texas, 5-9 May 2013

e n g i n e e r i n g i n n o vat i o n

Acknowledgments

Based on a paper presented at Offshore West Africa Conference held in Lagos,


Nigeria, Jan. 26-28, 2016. The authors wish to express appreciation to NNPC/NAPIMS (the Nigerian government), the management of Shell Nigeria Exploration and
Production Co. and partners (Total, Agip, and ExxonMobil) for the permission to
present and publish this paper. They also like to recognize the effort and contribution
of the Bonga WRFM team and all support functions.

1611OFF_31 31

worldwide
www.tiwoiltools.com

11/2/16 8:09 AM

GEOLOGY & GEOPHYSICS

Mexican licensing rounds fuel seismic


surveys, reprocessing projects

hen Mexicos Energy Reform


was signed into law in 2014,
it was clear that the potential
for foreign investors would be
significant. A November 2013
report from JPMorgan Chase & Co. saw
that outside investment could increase by as
much as $15 billion.
However, what was not clear then was
the extent to which the resulting licensing
rounds would prop up geological and geophysical activity in the area through the
worst oil economy in decades.
The driving force in the Gulf of Mexico
for seismic acquisition in the past two years
has been the opening up of the Mexican offshore and the subsequent speculative surveys which followed, Craig Hunter, Seismic
Editor, Marine, for IHS Markit, told Offshore.
Reportedly, 21 E&Ps have registered to

Sarah Parker Musarra

Editor

submit proposals for the upcoming Round


1 Phase 4 (or Round 1.4) deepwater auction,
expected to occur in December. The areas
being bid out are estimated to contain 4 Bboe
in reserves, 22% more than those in earlier
stages. Deeper water brings higher stakes:
G&G companies are working to acquire and
reprocess area data, hoping to provide highquality datasets to those eager to stake their
claim on offshore Mexican acreage.
One of the recent, notable GoM surveys
wrapped in early October: TGS 186,000-km
(115,575-mi) Gigante 2D survey. Five contracted vessels began working the industryfunded survey last June, covering areas in
the proposed license rounds in the Perdido,

Here, a comparison of legacy and Fast Trax data from CGGs Encontrado reprocessing project shows
a seamless image between the US and Mexico, with better continuity of the Perdido folds and improved imaging of the Mesozoic and basement. (Image courtesy CGG Multi-Client & New Ventures)

Campeche, and Mexican Ridges regions.


TGS also performed line ties to previously
acquired regional grids.
Starting in late 2015, the company also
worked simultaneously to acquire the Gigante
multi-beam, coring, and geochemical survey
over a 600,000-sq km (231,661-sq mi) area.
TGS contracted Fugro to complete a seephunting survey to assist in identifying sites
where fluids escape to the seafloor. Fugro said
this data will be used to target hundreds of
sites for coring and geochemical analysis. The
company first deployed the Fugro Brasilis,
later sending the Fugro Gauss to join in what
it claims is the worlds largest seep-hunting
survey. Both vessels are using hull-mounted
multi-beam echosounders (12 kHz on Fugro
Gauss and 30 kHz on Fugro Brasilis) and subbottom profiler systems to map the area.
Processing of the Gigante survey has been
ongoing, with fasttrack PSTM and preliminary PSDM products available in advance of
the scheduled licensing rounds. It represents
TGS single largest 2D seismic survey.
Additionally, TGS is partnering once again
with Schlumberger in the full-azimuth (FAZ)
survey multi-client Revolution XII and XIII surveys, which will cover about 7,150 sq km (2,761
sq mi) in the Green Canyon, Atwater Valley,
and Ewing Bank protraction areas of the central
GoM. Announced in August, acquisition is expected to end in 1Q 2017, with final processed
data available in early 2018.
The latest-generation Revolution Dual Coil
Shooting full-azimuth surveys will record offsets
of more than 14 km (9 mi). Autonomous marine
vehicles are also being deployed, which will simultaneously acquire ultra-long offsets of more
than 20 km (12 mi).
The companies began cooperating in 2008
with the Freedom wide-azimuth (WAZ) survey,
later followed by the Liberty WAZ and Patriot
M-WAZ surveys.
Also concluded in October is the Buscador
near-shore 2D survey, which began in July. It
was undertaken by project partners BGP, which
utilized its BGP Pioneer high-capacity survey
vessel, and Searcher Seismic, which optimized
the survey design using its Seisintel database,
which draws on geospatial products derived
from the Automatic Identification System.
Searcher said the project takes in 11,200
km (6,959 mi) of long-offset 2D data over nearshore areas on offer in licensing rounds 2, 3,

32 Offshore November 2016 www.offshore-mag.com

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11/2/16 8:09 AM

A deeper look into Encontrado

DO IT
WELL

The original surveys comprising CGGs multi-client mega-merge Encontrado


reprocessing were originally shot on a proprietary contract over a multi-year period,
explained CGG Senior Vice President, Multi-Client & New Ventures, Western Hemisphere Matt Bognar, with the most recent survey culminating in 2014.
Even though most of that data was wide-azimuth, and is fairly modern, good-quality data, the processing technology changes at a very rapid pace, Bognar said. So,
we felt like there was room for us to go in and apply new processing and improve the
data and provide some value to the customers.
Bognar said that the company looked for improved continuity in the reflectors, with
an endgame of building a better velocity model to improve its ability to image the data.
CGG processed the data through an advanced high-end sequence including bandwidth extension and 3D deghosting, which Bognar pointed to as a major factor in its
improvement. In addition, he said the company ran an updated, more modern version
of the 3D surface-related multiple elimination and noted that probably the biggest difference maker was the full-wave inversion (FWI) and Kirchhoff migration.
We expect to see some uplifts from that, he said.
Along with the FWI, tomography is also being used to enhance the velocity model.
The Encontrado reprocessing provides a seamless link to CGGs larger multiclient datasets in the US Gulf of Mexico, including StagSeis which was specifically
designed to deliver long-offset, full-azimuth broadband data for optimal subsalt
imaging. The US 10-year lease cycle means that some highly prospective adjoining
US blocks will also be becoming available. Combining these sets of data delivers a
big-picture understanding of this challenging and prolific geology.

and 4, covering proven mature and semi-mature regions and extending into shallow-water
areas. The data is, as of this writing, being processed at DownUnder GeoSolutions Houston
site. Fasttrack data is expected in December,
with final data deliverable next year.
Beyond seismic acquisition, there has
also been a host of reimaging and reprocessing work. In September, CGG delivered the
Fast Trax Reverse Time Migration (RTM)
data from its high-profile Encontrado multiclient mega-merge project.
We wanted to have the best data we could
in time for the licensing round, and we have
managed to do that, CGG Senior Vice President, Multi-Client & New Ventures, Western
Hemisphere, Matt Bognar said, speaking
to Offshore. Our new ultra-modern images
give the industry a very large regional overview of the exploration blocks being offered
in Mexicos licensing round.
The Fast Trax results are available now
for license on a non-exclusive basis, with final imaging datasets expected next summer.
Encontrado melds a whopping 38,000 sq km
(14,671 sq mi) of WAZ data from more than
nine previously acquired and processed surveys. It covers areas home to recent discoveries
including Great White and Trion which will
be PEMEXs first-ever proposed joint venture
with private partners to the north and Corfu
and Ixcuta farther south. More than 35,000 sq
km (13,513 sq mi) of the data is in the Mexican
sector of the Gulf of Mexico.
The net result is were trying to give a
tool for the oil companies to reduce their risk.
The better we can image and understand the
complexity of these subsalt structures, the
less risk they have. These are very expensive
wells theyre drilling, Bognar said.
In May, CGG announced that its Mexican
entity, CGGVeritas Services de Mxico S.A.
de C.V., was selected as one of a handful of
companies to be registered by Mexicos
Comisin Nacional de Hidrocarburos (CNH,
or National Hydrocarbons Commission) as

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an independent third-party qualified to audit


and certify the countrys reserves, either for
oil and gas operators or directly for the CNH.
Elsewhere in the GoM, less than one
month after news of its collaboration with
TGS, Schlumberger WesternGeco informed
that it would partner with ION Geophysical
Corp. on a 3D multi-client reimaging broadband program offshore Mexico, using Mexicos data library. The Campeche 3D reimaging
program comprises three survey areas covering about 82,000 sq km (31,660 sq mi) in the
Bay of Campeche. It will be processed using a
combination of technologies from both organizations. Fast-track data is available now.
IONs Mexican entity was approved by
CNH in September to conduct reserve audits. Additionally, earlier this year, PEMEX
extended its multi-year contract with ION
for data processing on multiple surveys.
However, IHS Markits Hunter cautioned
against regarding this flurry of activity as a
sign of a market rebound. He does not see a
net gain in crews.
The completion of various 2D programs
from late 2015 until October 2016 has seen
the number of vessels operating in this market go from 12 to two year-on-year, he said.
The recent announcement by TGS and
WesternGeco regarding a new wide-azimuth
seismic program in the US Gulf of Mexico
has simply seen one of the crews working in
the Bay of Campeche return to the familiar
territory of the Central Gulf of Mexico. WesternGeco has worked consistently with one
or two crews in the latter region for many
years really only breaking for the Mexican
program it commenced in July 2015...
WesternGeco will add to the numbers in the
region when it brings an OBC crew to Mexico for
a major contract with PEMEX. However, when
we note that two OBN crews were working in
the US Gulf of Mexico last year for FairfieldNodal and EMGS was carrying out EM surveys
offshore Mexico, there seems little evidence of a
resurgence in the market, he concluded.

 

  


  

  
Supervisory Levels
 

WellSharp
 


 
 


1.866.404.9564
falck.com/us

www.offshore-mag.com November 2016 Offshore 33

1611OFF_33 33

11/2/16 8:09 AM

GEOLOGY & GEOPHYSICS

Deep compressional
wave imaging improves
understanding of Gulf
of Mexico play
Method helps delineate
structural parameters,
identify reserves near salt dome
Doug Patterson
Gennady Koscheev

Baker Hughes

tructural features such as salt domes have frustrated operators in the Gulf of Mexico for decades. The crystalline
(evaporite) nature of the salt causes it to flow easily, while
the unconsolidated, lower-velocity sediments surrounding it
are much slower. The resulting velocity contrasts hinders
understanding of structural traps and causes ambiguity about where
to position wells in relation to the salt structure.
Surface seismic can span miles of formation. However, its poor
vertical resolution and the combination of complex shapes of steeply
dipping flanks, adjacent overburden strata, and strong acoustic impedance and velocity contrasts at the sediment-sale interface prevent
surface seismic from being able to detect bedding changes in close
proximity to the salt structure. Conventional borehole imaging, on
the other hand, has excellent vertical resolution but its depth of investigation is limited to fractions of an inch near the borehole wall.
Baker Hughes has developed an acoustic acquisition, processing,
and 3D visualization method that uses compressional body waves
generated by an acoustic dipole source to better understand a fairly
mature Gulf of Mexico play. This method, called deep compressionHalokinesis produces
bedding disruption
and complexity
in the sediments
surrounding
the salt
structures.

The DCWI service uses a proprietary processing technique to analyze


cross-dipole data from the XMAC F1 acoustic logging service to map subseismic faults and fractures. (All images courtesy Baker Hughes)

al wave imaging (DCWI), enabled the operator to identify and determine the position of three fairly large faults, improve understanding
of the structure above the salt dome, and define a future reservoir
target. Integrating the acoustic data with induction logging data also
identified an additional 30 ft (9.1 m) of pay in another target area.

Finding hidden targets

Interpreting seismic data in close proximity to structural features


such as salt domes that have resulted from the movement of salt,
or halokinesis, is well known and well documented throughout the
history of drilling in the Gulf of Mexico. Halokinesis produces bedding disruption and complexity in the sediments surrounding the
salt structures.
Because of the poor vertical resolution of surface seismic data,
smaller targets that may hold economically viable reserves may not
be easily imaged from the seismic data, and structural complexities
such as faults and targets underlying the salt bodies may be missed
entirely. Similarly, conventional borehole imaging services can only
detect features at the intersection of the tool with the borehole, so
outlying faults and fractures cannot be identified and critical formation details can be missed.
Deep reflection shear wave imaging (DSWI) overcomes this limitation by mapping acoustic reflections away from the borehole, even
if they are not intersecting the wellbore. The DSWI service provides
an image of the reflective feature, its distance away from the borehole, the magnitude of the reflection, and its strike orientation. The
identified features can then be integrated into the reservoir model
to aid in field development.
While typical DSWI methods can be employed, the DSWI range
of investigation is limited because of the extreme low shear velocities of the sediments surrounding salt domes in the Gulf of Mexico.

34 Offshore November 2016 www.offshore-mag.com

1611OFF_34 34

11/2/16 8:09 AM

GEOLOGY & GEOPHYSICS

An enabling innovation

Conventional DSWI tools have two types


of sources: monopole and dipole. Initial
borehole acoustic imaging relied on using the monopole source and focusing the
analysis on the radiated compressional body
waves that were reflected back to the borehole. This type of imaging could be used
to determine imaged structures dip, but it
did not provide any azimuthal information.
More recent efforts with the monopole
source have focused on using azimuthal
receivers for directional sensitivity, but the
tool size limits its use to high frequencies.
These high frequencies and the accompanying formation attenuation severely limit the
range of investigation.
DCWI is an innovative approach that uses
the algorithm for DSWI and concentrates
on the low frequency compressional body
waves generated from a dipole source to
offer an effective and efficient solution in
unconsolidated formations surrounding salt
domes. Using techniques similar to those
used in seismic processing, reflections from
formation features up to 100 ft (30.5 m) away
from the borehole can be extracted from the
cross-dipole shear waveform data.
The compressional body wave, generating from the dipole source, is also at a
lower frequency than the monopole source,
offering the ability to see deeper and with
reduced attenuation effects since the waves
attenuation is a function of the frequency
raised to an exponential. The dipoles directional radiation pattern, coupled with the
four cross-component dipole information,
enables optimization of the azimuthal sensitivity orientation. Although there is still the
well-known conundrum of the 180 ambiguity associated with the dipole. This issue
can be resolved through application of other
information such as geologic knowledge,
wellbore trajectory, or other information to
determine the direction of returned reflected waves. Further enhancement is achieved
by increasing the recording length by 70%,
facilitating imaging deep into the formation,
at depths of investigation of up to 100 ft or
more, given the right conditions.

could be seen to the east, striking northwestsoutheast with a dip of approximately 45.
After the acoustic data had been merged with
the seismic data, it became possible to identify the position of the fault on the seismic section, aiding the understanding of the structure above the salt dome. This understanding
will help in defining a future reservoir target.
Once defined on the seismic, the throw of the
fault was estimated to be around 50 ft (15 m),
which corresponds to that seen on the com-

pressional acoustic deep image.


Further processing for the amplitude of
the acoustic data also enabled better bed
definition, helping to improve the detail of
the seismic in these unconsolidated formations, especially since the seismic around
the salt dome is unclear and uncertain at
depths and offsets around and above the
dome. Additionally, the acoustic data were
integrated with, and validated by, other log
information.

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Gulf of Mexico case study

In an exploration project in the Gulf of


Mexico, there was a large umbrella of uncertainty on the surface seismic as a result
of a salt dome surrounded by unconsolidated sediments.
A large fault was observed in the seismic
data in the upper section, to the west of the
study well. However, the fault was not discernible from seismic to the east, even after
reprocessing of the seismic data.
Using DCWI and processing the acoustic
data for the compressional image, the fault

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11/2/16 8:09 AM

GEOLOGY & GEOPHYSICS

servations from the seismic and field


expectations. However, the dip processing also indicated several intervals of
complex growth faults and associated
discontinuities, and these corresponded
with the reflectors seen on the DCWI.
With the 3D induction results, the fault
could only be seen near the wellbore.
With the processed compressional wave
image, it was possible to determine the
dip and strike of the reflector as far as 89
ft (27 m) away from the borehole. Some
of the complexity around the fault could
also be seen.
Overall, the DCWI method identified
three fairly large faults, with one subseismic fault and several other small faults
of discontinuities. The gas- or light hydrocarbon-bearing sand above the lowresistivity pay was visible on the DCWI
because the compressional wave is sensitive to hydrocarbons.

DSWI helps operators gain insight of the


reservoir structure with high-resolution images of formation features located up to 100
ft away from the borehole.

A 3D induction instrument was run to


evaluate the possibility of laminated pay
above the main section of interest in the
well. Three sands were detected. The
uppermost was easily identified as gasbearing from conventional log measurements, but the lower two sands were not
easily detectable, and appeared as shales
and with low resistivity. The results indicated, in spite of a significantly enlarged
borehole, an additional 30 ft (9.1 m) of pay
in these two lower sands. Although not
the main exploration target, these sands
are intended to be exploited in other
parts of the field.
In addition to the laminated pay, and
again in spite of large washouts, the 3D
induction was processed in high-salinity
mud to determine structural dips, confirming the structural dips to be in general
less than 10. This corresponded to the ob-

3D visualization

After processing was complete and the


appropriate viewing planes determined to
optimize the visualization of the reflectors,
the entire logged image was presented in a 3D
volume for comparison to surface seismic data.

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11/2/16 8:09 AM

GEOLOGY & GEOPHYSICS

A 3D rendering near the relative


height-to-width scale, looking toward the borehole (not a side view),
with the image superimposed
with the plane of reflection at right
angles to the borehole.

This image could be rotated


to display different views, as
required for viewing on the seismic array cross-section(s).
As the case study illustrates,
the DCWI method of employing
compressional body waves generated from the dipole source
can enhance understanding of
the complex structure around
a salt diaper and in unconsolidated sediments exist throughout the Gulf of Mexico. In the
well described in this article,
the method enabled the recognition of key structural details to refine the
position of targets in the subsurface. The
inherent higher frequency of this borehole
acoustic data, which is more than two orders
of magnitude higher frequency as compared
to surface seismic, yielded finer detail to

Expanded
3D view
near the
bottom of
the well
shows a
fault that was clearly visible on the
DCWI and also seen on the surface
seismic near the main pay interval.

detect structures below surface


seismic capabilities. Additionally, the crucial positioning of the
transmitter and receiver along
the borehole made it possible
to recognize structures that
would not have been recognizable or trackable away from the borehole with any other
acoustic imaging technology.
A better understanding and insight into
the structure at depth was attained, not
only at the borehole, but also away from

it. Depths of investigation were


greater than those achievable
with DSWI in these slow unconsolidated formations. In todays
drilling and business climate,
obtaining more information from
penetrated wellbores is an advantage
in maximizing the available information efficiently, especially in a 3D context.

Future development
Future development of the DCWI service
is being extended to a 3D volume, enabling
visualization of the salt dome and associated
structures. In horizontal wells, this 3D visualization enables detection of layers above
and below the wellbore as well as reflectors
often associated with natural fractures and
faults, both intersecting and non-intersecting with the borehole.
Future integration of this technology with
vertical seismic profiles and borehole image
logs is expected to further improve the level
of detail regarding the structure complexity
at the wellbore and penetrating into the formation. Consequently, greater refinement
of the seismic picture will be possible, making exploration and development objectives
easier and more efficient to achieve.
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1611OFF_37 37

11/2/16 8:09 AM

DRILLING & COMPLETION

Versatile diverter tool reduces


surge in deepwater wells
Jason Lacombe Mark Murray

urge pressure, the phenomenon caused by fluid displacement when moving pipe into the wellbore, is a fact of life in
every well. The degree of the surge is traditionally not problematic assuming an adequate margin exists between pore
pressure (PP) and fracture gradient (FG).
However, with the industrys steady and determined move into
complex deepwater plays, surges have become a force to be reckoned with. They are most often in depleted fields where the window
between pore pressure and fracture gradient narrows significantly,
increasing sensitivity to pressure on the formation. Failure to control that pressure can cause the formation to fracture, result in fluid
loss, and ultimately compromise cement quality. In some cases, the
uncontrolled pressure can lead to a well-control event. Reducing
surge pressure increases the rate at which crews can run casing
and liner into the wellbore, an important consideration for operators
in todays economically challenged environment.
Over the past decade, deepwater arenas such as the Gulf of Mexico
have become increasingly depleted, causing the PP/FG window to
tighten considerably. In response to that trend, surge reduction has
become an established practice in the deepwater market, with a host
of tools and methods that divert fluids from the casing and drill pipe
into the inner annulus. Diverting the fluid dramatically improves tripping speed while maintaining well integrity by reducing the risk of
fracturing the formation. Surge reduction is especially critical in tight
casing strings and open holes, where any slight additional overbalance, or surge, could cause the well to take fluid, causing loss of mud
and a possible kick.
A surge reduction system includes the use of autofill float equipment,
such as shoes or collars, placed at the bottom of the casing to reduce
equivalent circulating density (ECD) downhole. The shoe typically has
an open bore to allow fluid to pass while the float collar contains the
check valves that are used to hold the cement in place after the cement
job. After the autofill equipment is converted, fluid can no longer pass
from the well into the inner diameter (ID) of the casing or liner.
The system also includes a drill pipe diverter positioned above the
running tool of the casing hanger or the liner hanger. The diverter
tool directs the mud, or fluid, from the ID of the drill pipe into the
annulus, just above the running tool.
Conventional surge-reduction solutions include single-action
tools that are run in the open position to displace fluid and thereby
increase liner- and casing-running speeds. The tool must then be activated, or closed, to enable circulation to recover from lost returns
or wash through restrictions.
Most of the conventional, single-action tools are converted with
pressure, which creates an additional pressure surge on the formation. This surge occasionally converts the float equipment at the
same time. Furthermore, once the tool is closed, usually using a
ball-activated sleeve, it cannot be re-opened to divert fluids. This
means that continued casing running must be dramatically slowed,
adding time to the operation and increasing the risk of stuck pipe or
a dangerous pressure surge and potential blowout.

-500

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

Mud line

-1,00

18
-1,500

-2,000

Depth in meters

Pressure in equivalent mud weight

Weatherford

16

-2,500 Top formation A


-3,000

13-5/8

-3,500

-4,000

-4,500

-5,000

Top formation B

11-3/4

Bottom formation B
Top formation C

9-7/8

Bottom formation C

Pressure PPG
Pore pressure (PP)

Fracture gradient (FG)

Mud weight (MW)

Overburden gradient (OG)

This typical deepwater subsurface pressure profile exemplifies the


challenges of tight pore-pressure and fracture-gradient window where
excessive surge can fracture the formation and result in fluid loss.
(All images courtesy Weatherford)

When closed, many single-action systems also leave a restricted


ID, which can cause compatibility issues with different types of setting tools and darts and further exacerbate the surge.

Open/close capability
To overcome these limitations, Weatherford has developed a diverter that provides greater versatility by enabling circulation on demand, with the ability to continue to divert flow from the casing and
drill pipe to the annulus when the circulation requirement is finished.
The SurgeMaster II multiple-opening diverter tool is designed to open
and close with each movement of the pipe, as many times as necessary, to reduce surge pressure and increase casing and liner running
speeds. The tool has seen more than 50 successful deployments in the
Gulf of Mexico, as well as other deepwater basins globally.
Unlike single-action diverter systems, the multiple-opening diverter tool is run into the hole in the closed position. Large bypass
ports open automatically as drill pipe is run into the vertical or hori-

38 Offshore November 2016 www.offshore-mag.com

1611OFF_38 38

11/2/16 8:09 AM

DRILLING & COMPLETION

View of the SurgeMaster II in the diverting/open position and the circulating/closed position.

zontal wellbore, diverting mud into the annulus above any restrictions. When pipe movement stops, the ports close.
The ports are opened when flow-induced backpressure acting
against a curved flapper forces the inner sleeve to compress the body
spring while sliding up, reducing the surge. A small opening in the flapper allows a metered filling of the running string, protecting the drill
pipe from collapse pressures, and minimizing the risk of overfilling.
Because the normal, or neutral, position of the ports is closed, the
running string can be circulated as often as necessary, at any point
in the wellbore, without permanently deactivating the tool. This
feature provides the additional benefit of decreased response time
without losing the capability of the diverter.
The tools unlimited open/close capability enhances well integrity. If a well-control event does occur, the tool closes immediately
upon pumping kill fluid. This closes the bypass hole in the diverter
and enables normal well-control mitigation procedures without any
additional shear pressure, which creates a surge event in a well that
may already be experiencing a kick.
The cyclic function of the tool is deactivated by increasing the
running strings internal pressure to a preset amount, which saves
time and improves safety by eliminating the need for an intervention. If, for any reason, the diverter does not close, a tube can be
dropped downhole to physically close the valve.
Rated for temperatures up to 300F (149C), the full-bore tool
eliminates the problem of ID restrictions, further enhancing safety
and reducing time and complexity. Various activation devices, such
as darts for cementing the casing in place and balls to set liner hangers, can be easily deployed downhole with no compatibility considerations, reducing the risk of subsequent pressure surges that can
lead to failure in the wellbore.

Multiple casing strings


In 2014, the multiple-opening diverter tool was deployed in the
Gulf of Mexico to run and cement four primary casing strings of
varying sizes in a deepwater well with a close-tolerance casing design and a strong probability of high surge, lost circulation, and
wellbore instability. The operators objective was to eliminate losses
during casing-running and cementing operations, including circulating the well. Due to the narrow PP and FG window, using the appropriate mud weight was crucial to maintaining an equivalent static
density (ESD) and ECD within an acceptable range.
The project began with extensive pre-job planning, including use
of surge/swab prediction software, which simulates the ECD with

and without the surge reduction tool. Developed to enhance analysis


and design of tripping operations, especially for deepwater wells, the
software models complex wellbore designs, multiple pipe sizes and
annular sections with tight PP/FG windows. It takes into account
drilling equipment, fluid properties, wellbore geometry and other
parameters, providing valuable information for decision makers.
Based on the simulations, the operator decided to deploy the diverter tool with autofill float collars and large-bore subsurface-release (SSR) casing wiper plugs to run and cement 18-in., 16-in., 14-in.
and 11-in. casing strings to the target depth. Additionally, the team
used a plug-locator system and a locator ring on the top wiper plug
for all the casing sizes, except the 18-in. string.
The team tripped into the well with casing on the landing string.
The diverter tool enabled circulation to be established without converting the autofill float equipment, which reduced both mud gel
strengths and annular friction and pressures at the casing-setting
depths. The mud weights and ECD remained within acceptable limits and below the FG. Mud weights ranged from 10.6 lb/gal for the
18-in. casing to 14 lb/gal for the 11-in. string. The ECD remained
within a margin of 0.05 to 0.10 lb/gal.
The diverter tool, along with the wiper plugs, plug-locator collars
and centralizers with placement modeling enabled more than 25,000
ft (7,620 m) of casing to be run to the desired setting depths at
speeds averaging between 25 and 35 ft/hour (7.6 and 10.7 m/hour),
with no mud losses incurred. The team also was able to circulate,
condition, and execute primary cementing operations, eliminating
the need for subsequent remediation.
The plug and plug-locator systems performed as planned with the
applicable casing sizes. Cement was displaced with pressure indications observed as the top plugs passed through the plug-locator collar and the top wiper plugs bumped on the respective float collars.

Running liner systems


In the Italian sector of the Adriatic Sea, the multiple-opening diverter
tool efficiently ran two liner systems in a depleted gas production well
with low pore and fracture pressure. The operators objectives were to
run 11-in. and 958-in. liners to total depth (TD) while managing the
high surge and circulating pressures anticipated during the liner-running. Additional challenges included running through tight tolerances,
minimizing mud losses, and avoiding mud spills on the rig floor.
After conducting hydraulic simulations using the surge prediction
software, Weatherford deployed a liner hanger, a liner-top packer for
isolation, an autofill shoe and a large-bore autofill collar along with
SSR plugs and the multiple-opening diverter tool.
The first liner system was run to a TD of 10,000 ft (3,048 m) and
the second liner system was run to a TD of 11,200 ft (3,414 m), both
at a rate of approximately 40 ft/min (12 m/min) while avoiding mud
losses. The rate calculated to about 2 minutes per stand.
The autofill collar was converted with a flow rate of 5 bbl/min and
a resulting pressure drop of about 600 psi (41.4 bar). To set the liner
hanger and hydraulically release the running tool, a service technician deployed a 218-in. brass ball, which landed on the mechanical
ball seat and sheared the disk. The cement job was accomplished
by releasing the SSR plugs from the top-drive cementing head. After
the packer was set and successfully tested to 1,500 psi (103.4 bar),
the disk in the multiple-opening diverter tool was ruptured and mud
was reverse circulated through the diverter tool.
The approach delivered significant benefits, enabling the operator to run the liner systems faster than with conventional methods,
while completely avoiding mud losses and saving rig time. The lowflow-rate conversion of the autofill collar effectively eliminated the
need to deploy a ball to convert the collar, thus minimizing the circulating pressure on the wellbore and avoiding losses. There were
no mud spills or recordable incidents.
www.offshore-mag.com November 2016 Offshore 39

1611OFF_39 39

11/2/16 8:09 AM

E N G I N E E R I N G , C O N S T R U C T I O N , & I N S TA L L AT I O N

New composite riser design


resists corrosion and fatigue

he ultra-deepwater (greater than 5,000 ft or 1,500 m) discoveries in the Gulf of Mexico, as well as offshore Brazil and Angola,
present enormous development opportunities but also technical challenges. Specifically, the combination of ultra-deepwater
and relatively large pipe diameter is outside current flexible
pipe qualification scope, and imposes severe engineering challenges
to both rigid and flexible pipe technologies.
For a flexible pipe solution, the combination of greater than 2,000
m (6,561 ft) operation depth and high design pressures (greater
than 10,000 psi) will require technical innovations in current flexible pipe technology and rigorous testing to prove to customers that
these new technologies are robust and durable.
To address those needs, GE, with the support of the Research Partnership to Secure Energy for America (RPSEA), and with funding
from the US Department of Energys National Energy Technology
Laboratory, embarked on a development program to qualify flexible
pipe with an internal diameter of eight inches for ultra-deepwater
applications. The program is based on a novel hybrid flexible riser
technology that is being developed and qualified by a combination of
design, analysis of performance, material and subcomponent testing
and finally, a field trial. Guidance for the qualification effort was obtained from the relevant sections of the standards and recommended
practices from API and DNV. The discussion below covers Phase 1 of
the project. Phase 2 will be discussed in a subsequent article.
The design concept consists of a hybrid composite and metallic/polymer flexible pipe with optimized mass per unit length for
ultra-deepwater applications. In the GE design, the conventional
metallic pressure armor is replaced with a carbon fiber reinforced
thermoplastic composite pressure armor which is fully bonded
to the thermoplastic barrier layer. In an effort to decrease overall
programmatic risk and time to realize a qualified product, many of
the existing layers and materials remain the same as those used in
todays qualified unbonded flexible pipe technology (e.g., the metallic carcass, barrier materials, metallic tensile armor, insulation and
sheath). The details of the benefits and challenges of the individual
layers of the design concept, as well as the design concept for the
pipes end fittings, are summarized here.

Technology assessment

There exist two potentially capable, yet unqualified, commercialized technologies for the design
requirements. The first potential solution would
be to use conventional rigid metal piping typically
applied as a steel catenary riser (SCR) or a top
tensioned vertical riser system. Though the concept can be designed at relatively large diameters
(greater than seven inches) to meet the working
depth, design pressure and service requirements, it is at the expense of overall system
and installation cost.
At depth, the pipe wall thickness necessary to support the collapse loads is
significant and drives the overall pipe system weight to infeasible levels. In order to
achieve a solution, a large number of buoy-

Roy Long

National Energy
Technology Laboratory,
US Department of Energy

ancy modules would need to be applied to the overall structure and


would drive increased cost. The rigid nature of the pipe would also
require many short lengths of pipe to be connected on site, which
would compromise reliability, safety, and system cost. Lastly, to support sour service, lower strength alloys are required thus increasing the pipe weight per length and adding additional buoyancy requirements. In summary these challenges result in a system that
although technically feasible, would require an unrealistic amount
of material and deployment cost.
The second potential technology is unbonded flexible pipe. Conventional unbonded flexible pipe designs are a multi-layer construction based upon a thermoplastic pipe liner reinforced with metallic
materials. A typical construction can be seen in the cutaway schematic of the flexible pipe. Each layer has a specific function, where
the metallic layers include: a carcass for collapse resistance, hoop
armor for pressure resistance, and tensile armor to carry axial tension and pressure endcap loading.
Unbonded flexible pipes are individually designed to the required
field specification by optimizing the layer geometry and dimensions,
adopting a modular approach which enables custom solutions to be
delivered to operational requirements. For ultra-deepwater applications several lengths would likely be joined together because flexible
pipes are delivered in continuous lengths defined by the delivery reel
size or by a carousel equipped vessel. Typical reel capacity is approximately 3,300 ft (1,000 m), related to the typical lifting capacity of 300
metric tons (330 tons). Additionally, a modular approach for ultradeepwater applications is necessary to achieve a dynamically stable
system riser or flowline configuration and installation strategy.
Compared to rigid pipe, flexible pipe technology has several advantages. Because the directional strength can be tailored by changing
the design of the individual layers, the tensile or collapse strengths
can be optimized to achieve a lower mass per unit length. The resulting benefit is an overall lower pipe weight and decreased need for
auxiliary equipment such as buoyancy modules. Secondly, because a
continuous length of pipe (approximately 3,300 ft at seven inches) can
be deployed from a standard reel, the installation logistics are simplified and the system costs reduced.
Despite those advantages, there exist several significant challenges for conventional flexible unbonded pipe. The primary
challenge is that, despite the ability to optimize
the layers, at 10,000 ft (3,000 m), the pipe weight
and collapse loads are simply too large, and have
pushed designs using current material technologies to their limits. Accordingly, though it does not
need as many buoyancy modules, an unbonded
flexible pipe would still incur significant deployment and materials costs due to the auxiliary measures required to compensate for the pipe
weight.
Second, at the high design pressures required for these applications, the irregular surSchematic of GEs composite
pressure armor flexible pipe design.
(All images courtesy GE/DOE)

40 Offshore November 2016 www.offshore-mag.com

1611OFF_40 40

11/2/16 8:09 AM

E N G I N E E R I N G , C O N S T R U C T I O N , & I N S TA L L AT I O N

External placement of composite reinforcement exposes tensile


layer to external damage
Non-straightforward integration with standard end fitting flange
technology, and high axial load transfer requirement.

Design B

Cutaway schematic indicating the multi-layer construction of conventional


un-bonded flexible pipe designs.

face of the carcass and pressure armor can cause further complications with the integrity of the barrier layer. Similarly, as the external
surface of the barrier is reinforced by an unbonded but interlocked
hoop layer, there is always a small gap which again is problematic on
pressurization due to thermoplastic liner creep under the applied triaxial stress. Conventional design involves applying another functional
layer; either an anti-extrusion layer to bridge the gaps or a sacrificial
extrusion to prevent localized creep of the barrier. These extra layers inherently add extra cost to the manufacturing process and, by
creating new interfaces within the structure, can also present more
complex problems with permeated gases in the pipe annulus.
In summary, though it may be feasible to meet the technical requirements of the pipe technology using either rigid metal or flexible unbonded pipe, it will likely remain uneconomic due to the
system and deployment costs required to achieve those solutions.
For those reasons, and considering the enormous opportunity that
ultra-deepwater resources represent, it is imperative that new technologies are developed that can achieve the technical requirements,
at low enough risk, and at a feasible cost.

This is the metallic carcass, composite pressure armor and composite tensile armor design. Its advantages include:
Leverages existing metallic carcass and composite pressure
armor technology
Ability to optimize the winding angle to achieve desired tensile
and pressure reinforcement
Reduced weight per length.
Its challenges include:
External placement of composite reinforcement exposes tensile
and pressure armor layers to external damage
Non-straightforward integration with standard end fitting flange
technology, and high axial load transfer requirement
Prevention of extrusion of liner through gaps in the unbonded
reinforcement layer
Additional ballast to sink and stabilize structure
Currently proposed with unqualified thermosetting resins.

Design C
This is the no carcass, bonded composite pressure/collapse layer
and metallic tensile armor design.
Its advantages include:
Well-proven metallic tensile wire integration with standard end fitting flange technology meeting high axial load transfer requirement
Ability to optimize the winding angle and layer structure to achieve
desired internal pressure and collapse load reinforcement
Currently proposed with qualified thermoplastic resins
Metallic tensile armor improves damage tolerance by protecting internal composite layers
Reduced number of functional layers and resultant interfaces
Smooth bore liner for low pressure drop.
Its challenges include:
Achieving a balanced internal and external pressure reinforcement
Interface durability between the metallic tensile reinforcement
and the underlying composite armor.

Technology gaps

Design D

Due to the challenges of the conventional commercialized technologies described in the previous sections, several companies have
embarked on the development of alternative flexible pipe technology to meet the ultra-deepwater requirements. In all known cases
the designs leverage the use of composite materials, whereby the
design can be optimized to meet the targeted overall strength and
mass per unit length requirements. In an effort to assess the potential advantages and challenges of these designs, they have been
classified into groups depending on where the composite is used in
the design. The remainder of this article will focus on the projects
subject matter experts consensus on the advantages and challenges
of the proposed solutions, by the separate outline designs.

This is the composite pressure armor, composite collapse layer


and composite tensile armor design.
Its advantages include:
Ability to individually optimize the winding angle to achieve desired tensile, pressure and collapse reinforcement
Lightest construction per unit length
For a fully bonded design, straightforward inspection and low
trapped permeated gas risk
Well characterized thermoplastic liner materials
Smooth bore liner for low pressure drop.
Its challenges include:
External placement of composite reinforcement exposes tensile
and pressure armor layers to external damage
Non-straightforward integration with standard end fitting flange
technology, and high axial load transfer requirement
For an unbonded design, venting is necessary to eliminate
trapped gas and decompression risks
Gap reinforcement tape required to reduce the risk of thermoplastic liner extrusion
Additional ballast to sink and stabilize structure
Currently proposed with unqualified thermosetting resins (unbonded).

Design A
This is the metallic carcass, metallic pressure armor and composite tensile armor design. Its advantages include:
Ability to optimize the winding angle to achieve desired tensile
strength and secondary hoop reinforcement
Leverages existing metallic carcass and pressure armor technology
Reduced pipe weight per length.
Its challenges include:

www.offshore-mag.com November 2016 Offshore 41

1611OFF_41 41

11/2/16 8:09 AM

E N G I N E E R I N G , C O N S T R U C T I O N , & I N S TA L L AT I O N

Offshore design and analysis software


assists wind farm engineering
Anne-Marie Walters

Bentley Systems

eepwater Wind, a Providence, Rhode


Island-based offshore wind developer,
undertook the $290-million Block Island Wind Farm project to supply less
expensive power to Rhode Island. As
the first commercial wind farm in the United
States, the project demonstrated the feasibility of offshore wind as an alternative energy
resource for US coastal cities. Keystone Engineering (Keystone) was retained to design
jacket-type substructures for the five, 6-megawatt wind turbine generators.
Keystone used Bentley Systems SACS software to streamline communication with the
generator designer (Alstom), and to model
the complex aerodynamic and hydrodynamic
loading profile for the deepwater platforms.
Bentleys flexible, interoperable offshore design and analysis software shortened the design cycle time by enabling the design team to
create simultaneous simulations for multiple
design iterations, and helped reduce installation costs by optimizing the substructure design for weight and strength.
Onshore wind already represents a $100-billion investment in the US. Offshore wind has
the added advantage of tapping stronger, more
reliable wind resources than onshore wind
farms. Deepwater Wind advocates the use of
offshore platform technology proven in the oil
and gas industry to build wind farms in deep
waters miles offshore, where they are barely
visible from land yet still close enough to serve
major population centers.
Taking the lead from successful offshore
wind farms in Europe, the developer saw an
opportunity to provide cost-competitive energy from wind offshore Rhode Island. The
Block Island Wind Farm is located 15 mi (24
km) from the US mainland and 3 mi (5 km)
offshore Block Island. It will supply 30 megawatts of power to about 17,000 homes on Block
Island via a subsea cable. Due to the otherwise
high cost of electricity on the island currently four to five times higher than in other US
locations the offshore wind farm is projected
to reduce energy costs for Block Island residents by 40%, as well as reduce carbon dioxide
and other emissions.

Bentleys SACS software enabled the engineering firm to design the composite construction and
complex nodal geometry of the jacket substructures. (Image courtesy Keystone Engineering)

The challenge for the team designing the


dynamic wind turbines involved compensating
for the complex loading onto the support structures by both wind and wave action. The design
needed to account for the coupled effects of the
aerodynamic and hydrodynamic loading, including extreme loading situations such as turbine control faults and hurricane-force winds.
To calculate the loads, model the fatigue performance, and engineer the platforms to withstand
various load combinations over a 20-year design
life, the Keystone team used SACS, Bentleys
offshore design and analysis software.
As an innovative solution for the design of the
deepwater wind turbine support structures, the
engineering firm adapted the steel jacket foundation design typically used in the oil and gas
industry. SACS enabled Keystone to design the
composite construction and complex nodal geometry of the jacket substructures, delivering
an alternative to the typical monopile concrete
foundations that are limited to offshore wind
farms located in more shallow-water depths.
To collaborate with the turbine generator designer, the company relied on SACS functionality for interfacing with DNV GLs Bladed, a wind
turbine simulation tool. This allowed the team to
optimize the design of the total structure and ensure safe operation. The SACS-Bladed interoperability enabled the transfer of simulation model
data, ensuring that the models matched.
Working on five, 24-core computers running
24 hours-a-day for 10 days, the design team
conducted 2,334 simulations, 30 million time
steps, and 25 load cases (including operating,
storm, start-up, shutdown, fault, maintenance,
and installation) for waves of up to 19 m (62 ft)
high and winds from eight directions at speeds

from 2 m/sec to 58 m/sec (7 ft/sec to 190 ft/


sec). SACS enabled Keystone to streamline
the design and analysis of the simulations, and
accurately manage terabytes of project data to
minimize the possibility of errors.
Using the software, the engineering company performed more than 3,000 time-domain
simulations for each design iteration, and
conducted more than 150 simulations in parallel, reducing cycle time by 50% compared to
typical European offshore wind projects. The
SACS-Bladed functionality was also used for
tuning the frequency of the structure so that it
can operate at a wide band of wind speeds and
oceanographic conditions, maximizing revenue. An avoidance band in the operating speed
of the turbine could cause losses of production
up to 50% over the lifetime of the turbine.
Keystone leveraged the technology developed for the offshore oil and gas industry to
meet the complex design criteria for the jacket
foundations.
The iterative process optimized the jacket
design and reduced the amount of steel needed for the substructure, while still ensuring a
design life of more than 20 years. As a result,
the Block Island Wind Farm jackets are 15%
lighter than a previous design used for the
same type of wind turbine in the North Sea.
The optimized design also reduced installation costs by more than 20% compared to traditional monopile construction and can survive
hurricane-force winds.
Bentleys comprehensive, interoperable software ensured effective collaboration with the
wind turbine designers, facilitating the accurate
modeling that produced innovative design solutions throughout the project.

42 Offshore November 2016 www.offshore-mag.com

1611OFF_42 42

11/2/16 8:09 AM

E N G I N E E R I N G , C O N S T R U C T I O N , & I N S TA L L AT I O N

Global heavy-lift vessel fleet navigates


rough waters during the downturn

hat a difference two years can


make. Offshores 2014 Heavy Lift
Vessel survey reported a robust
market for heavy-lift vessels in the
oil and gas industry, with more
vessels coming from new entrants. The 2016
survey finds that, nearly 24 months after the
start of the industry downturn, the pace of
new vessel construction has slowed as contractors take a more cautious approach to their
future expansion plans.
A total of 120 vessels that meet the lifting
criterion of at least 100 short tons (st) are
included this year, a modest uptick from the
107 vessels in the 2014 survey. Much of this
increase comes from companies who
are new to the survey, including Allseas and its Pioneering Spirit singlelift installation/decommissioning and
pipelay vessel.
Another newcomer is ZPMC-OTL
Marine Contractor (ZOMC), a joint
venture formed earlier this year by
ZPMC Offshore Services Group and
OffshoreTech LLC to pursue offshore
transportation and installation projects
and decommissioning projects. ZOMC
added seven vessels to the survey, including the Zhen Hua 30, a self-propelled single-boom crane vessel with a
main hook lift capacity of 7,700 st in revolving
mode and 13,200 st in tie-back mode.
But according to analysis by IHS Markit,
a majority of vessels have struggled to stay
busy in 2016 a trend that will likely continue for the foreseeable future.
We see a major drop in activity this year
compared to 2015, says Genevieve Wheeler
Melvin, Senior Research Analyst for IHS
Markit, who tracks large vessels with static
lift capacities of 1,500 metric tons (1,653 st)
or more. For the first eight months of 2016,
about 46% of the large heavy-lift vessels we
monitor have been idle. Add in roughly 17%
of in-yard and cold-stack time, and the result
is nearly 63% of vessel time classified as nonworking days.
Much of this drop in demand is attributed to a significant slowdown in oil and gas
construction activities like topsides installation, Wheeler Melvin says. There are far
fewer orders for new topsides as operators
shift their investment decisions farther out
on the horizon.

Ted Moon

Special Correspondent

Making concessions
These realities forced many vessel contractors to make some painful resizing and
cost reduction measures, shedding workers
and ships to weather the downturn. Subsea
7, for example, plans to drop five vessels
from its active fleet by early 2017, including
the heavy-lift vessel the Seven Polaris. This
move will save the company approximately
$350 million/yr in costs.

Vessels are also transporting large shipping


cranes and dredging equipment to and from
large infrastructure projects in the Middle
East. They are also conducting lift work in
shipyards, and vessels with large quarters capacity are being used for accommodation support and flotels for offshore workers.
Unfortunately, there is only so much of
this alternative work out there to sustain a
large global fleet of heavy-lift vessels, says
Wheeler Martin. We are not seeing a huge
shift in offshore wind farms, shipyards, salvage or accommodations support to make up
for the drop in oil and gas construction projects. Only about 13% of vessel days in 2016
have been dedicated to these other
activities.
Complicating matters is the fact that
many vessel contractors are bidding
on the same projects, making competition tight in a relatively niche market
that is still much smaller than oil and
gas E&P projects during a boom.

Some positive signs

The Pioneering Spirit successfully executed her


first project, the removal of the Yme topsides
in the Norwegian North Sea, in August 2016.
(Courtesy Allseas)

With construction work dwindling in the oil


and gas industry, many companies are setting
their sights in the renewables arena. Some
vessel owners have been making headwinds
in offshore wind farms, transporting turbine
foundations from the dockyard to the final installation site.
Subsea 7, for example, signed a contract in
May 2016 to manage, design, engineer, fabricate, and install jacket foundations and array
cables for 84 wind turbines at the Beatrice
wind farm off the coast of Scotland.
An uptick in decommissioning work in
places like the North Sea also promises to
give lift vessels some work, particularly large
single-lift vessels like the Pioneering Spirit or
the Saipem 7000. These vessels can perform
decommissioning in a single trip, as opposed
to time-consuming reverse installation methods that drive up costs.

Although demand for heavy lift


has dropped globally and there is a
current oversupply of vessels in the
market, some contractors are betting
on a near-term resurgence by building
more vessels.
For example, OOS International recently
signed a contract to engineer and build two
new semisubmersible crane vessels (SSCVs).
Named OOS Serooskerke and OOS Walcheren,
both vessels will be equipped with two cranes
that provide a total dual-lifting capacity of
4,400 tons per vessel. Both SSCVs will include
a DP-3 positioning system, accommodate up
to 750 personnel, and have a top transit speed
of up to 12 knots. The vessels are currently
scheduled for completion in 2Q and 3Q 2019.
Big Lift Shipping also plans to add another
Happy S-type vessel to its ranks in 2018. The
Happy Sun will feature two 992-st Huisman
heavy lift mast cranes and a lifting height
matched only by her sister, the Happy Star.
Heerema Marine Contractors is currently
building a semisubmersible crane vessel
called Sleipnir in Jurong Shipyard, Singapore. It is scheduled for delivery in 2018.
To learn more about this years current global fleet of heavy-lift vessels, peruse the Heavy
Lift poster found in this issue of Offshore.
www.offshore-mag.com November 2016 Offshore 43

1611OFF_43 43

11/2/16 8:09 AM

We just opened up a whole new

universe of possibilities
Learn More
www.emaschiyoda.com
Lewek
Lewek Constellation
Constellation Above water heavy lift capacity to 3,000 MT and subsea lift and lowering capacity of 1,200 MT @ 3,000 MWD

2016 WORLDWIDE SURVEY OF HEAVY LIFT VESSELS

CONTRACTOR BARGE OR VESSEL

OPERATING AREA

INSTALLATION
METHOD

VESSEL INFORMATION

1455 West Loop South, Suite 400; Houston, TX 77027


Tel: 713-621-9720; Fax: 713-963-6296
www.offshore-mag.com

3.
4.

vessel with umbilical and flexible lay systems and heavy subsea
structures installation capabilities.
USCG - All Oceans
Mooring system consists of 8-point mooring connecting to anchors at
sea bed and 8-point system connecting to padeyes at jacket top.

Information Accuracy: Every attempt has been made to locate and contact all the HLV contractors operating
offshore worldwide. No contractor or contractors were intentionally excluded from the survey. In some cases the
contractor or vessel was not included because information was not supplied in time. We make no guarantee that
this list is all inclusive. We have also been careful to summarize the capability and experience of each contractor
as best as possible, by acting as a neutral party and integrator of information. We have collected information
from company brochures, personal interviews, phone interviews, and contractor supplied information. Neither
Offshore Magazine nor Ted Moon guarantee nor assume any responsibility or liability for any reliance on the
information presented.

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1611OFFHLPoster_Rev_1 1

POSTER

127

2016 Offshore

Prepared By: Ted Moon; tmoon@launchpad-wr.com E-mail comments, corrections, or additions to: posters@pennwell.com
Downloads available at www.offshore-mag.com.
NOTES
1. Entry level capacity is 100 st.
2. Can also operate on a worldwide basis. Saipem 7000 also has
deepwater pipeline J-lay capabilities. FDS is primarily a deepwater
construction vessel with ultra-deep J-lay and heavy subsea structures
installation capabilities. Saipem 3000 is a deepwater construction

MOORING/ STATION KEEPING


SYSTEM (Note 10)

REGULATORY (Note 4)

SKIDDED FLOATOVER

6.0

36

>5,500

12 Point

ABS

6.0

70

>10,000

DP3

MAX. CAPABILITY

Lloyds

736

MIN. CAPABILITY

371

663' x 290' x 162'

SELF-PROPELLED

505' x 282' x 138'

Deepwater Construction Vessel

TOWED VESSEL

Semi Submersible Crane Vessel

TYPE

SUBSEA LOWERING

GOM

FLOATOVER

GOM

LIFT

QUARTERS CAPACITY

SIZE

ALLSEAS
1 PIONEERING SPIRIT
BIGLIFT SHIPPING
2 HAPPY BUCCANEER
HAPPY DELTA
HAPPY DIAMOND
HAPPY DOVER
HAPPY DRAGON
HAPPY DYNAMIC
3 HAPPY SKY
4 HAPPY STAR
BISSO MARINE COMPANY, INC.
5 CAPPY BISSO
BOAZ
6 BISSO IROQUOIS
BISSO SUBSEA VISION
BISSO 350
7 BISSO 800
BOSKALIS
CYCLONE
HERCULES
8 HERCULES II
TAKLIFT 1
9 TAKLIFT 4
TAKLIFT 6
10 TAKLIFT 7
COASTLINE MARITIME
11 OSA SAMPSON
OSA GOLIATH
CIMC RAFFLES
12 EXPLORER LIFTER
SSCV#2
CNOOC
LANJING
13 LANJIANG
CROSSMAR, INC.
14 CROSSMAR 7
CROSSMAR 14
15 CROSSMAR 21
ELEVATING BOATS, INC.
MAMMOTH ELEVATOR
EMAS CHIYODA Subsea
16 LEWEK CONNECTOR
LEWEK CONSTELLATION
17 LEWEK CHAMPION
LEWEK CENTURION
HEEREMA MARINE CONTRACTORS U.S., INC.
18 BALDER
a. Starboard Crane
b. Port Crane
HERMOD
a. Starboard Crane
b. Port Crane
19 THIALF
a. Starboard Crane
b. Port Crane
H-851 FLOATOVER / FORK-LIFT INSTALLATION
20 AEGIR
HELIX ENERGY SOLUTIONS GROUP
Q4000
21 Q5000
JUMBO OFFSHORE
22 JUMBO JAVELIN
JUMBO JUBILEE
23 FAIRPARTNER
24 FAIRPLAYER
MANSON GULF
25 E.P. PAUP
WOTAN
MARIDIVE OFFSHORE PROJECTS SAE
MARIDIVE 300
MARIDIVE CONSTRUCTOR
MCDERMOTT
26 DB 50
DB 27
DB 30
INTERMAC 600
INTERMAC 650
27 DB 32
28 DLV 2000
NATIONAL PETROLEUM CONSTRUCTION COMPANY
HLS 2000
29 SEP 250
DLB-750
DLB-1000
30 DLS 4200
OCEANIC MARINE CONTRACTORS
31 OCEANIC 5000
OFFSHORE SPECIALTY FABRICATORS, INC.
OSFI DB WILLIAM KALLOP
32 OSFI DB SWING THOMPSON
OOS INTERNATIONAL
33 OOS GRETHA
34 OOS PROMETHEUS
PROSAFE OFFSHORE LTD
35 SAFE EURUS
36 SAFE NOTOS
SAIPEM INC. / SAIPEM GROUP
37 SAIPEM 7000 (Note 2)
a. Starboard Crane
b. Port Crane
38 CASTORO OTTO (Note 2)
39 SAIPEM 3000 (Note 2)
SAIPEM FDS (Note 2)
a. Main crane on starboard
b. Auxiliary cranes on portside
40 CASTORO II (Note 2)
41 CRAWLER (Note 2)
42 S 355 (Note 2)
43 SAIPEM FDS 2
a. main crane on starboard
b. auxiliary cranes on portside
44 CASTORONE
a. main crane on portside
b. gantry cranes on both sides
SAL HEAVY LIFT
MV SVENJA
45 MV LONE
MV REGINE
46 MV TRINA
MV ANNE-SOFIE
47 MV FRAUKE
48 MV AMOENITAS
MV CALYPSO
SAPURAKENCANA AUSTRALIA
49 SAPURAKENCANA 1200
50 SAPURAKENCANA 3500
SAPURAKENCANA 900
51 LTS 3000
SAPURAKENCANA 2000
SCALDIS NV
52 RAMBIZ
SEA TRUCKS GROUP
JASCON 8
53 JASCON 30
54 JASCON 25
55 JASCON 34
JASCON 2
56 JASCON 31
57 JASCON 28
JASCON 55
SEAWAY HEAVY LIFTING ENGINEERING B.V.
58 STANISLAV YUDIN
OLEG STRASHNOV
SHANGHAI SALVAGE
DA LI HAO
59 DE DU
SUBSEA 7
60 SAPURA 3000
61 SEVEN ANTARES
SEVEN BOREALIS
TECHNIP
62 GLOBAL 1200
GLOBAL 1201
63 SKANDI AFRICA
TETRA TECHNOLOGIES
64 DB-1
65 TETRA ARAPAHO
TETRA HEDRON
UGLAND CONSTRUCTION AS
66 HLV UGLEN
VERSABAR
67 VB 10,000
ZPMC-OTL MARINE CONTRACTOR LIMITED
68 Zhen Hua 30
69 Mount 2000
70 Xin Zhen Fu 7
Zhen Fu 3
Zhen Fu 4
Zhen Fu 6
71 Zhen Fu 10

LOCATION

PHOTO NO.

N O V E M B E R 2 0 16

TOW / SELF PROPELLED SPEED

WATER DEPTHS

Only Liftboats With 100 st Crane Capacity or Greater Are Listed

Knots
FT
FT
Contact: Jeroen Hagelstein, Allseas Group SA, Phone: +31 15 268 1800 Email: jha@allseas.com, public.relations@allseas.com
LR DP (AAA), redundant Kongsberg K-P
H
H
Europe
Heavy Lift
382 x 124 x 30 m
571 ABS A-1
14
Contact: Niels Borregaard, BigLift Shipping, Radarweg 36, 1042 AA Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Phone: +31-20-4488315, Fax:+31-204488333, E-mail: comm@bigliftshipping.com, www.bigliftshipping.com
H
H 14.75
Worldwide
Heavy Lift
479' x 93'
20
20
4 point
H
H
Worldwide
Heavy Lift
515' x 84'
Lloyd's Register
17
20
4 point
H
H
Worldwide
Heavy Lift
515' x 84'
Lloyd's Register
17
20
4 point
H
H
Worldwide
Heavy Lift
515' x 84'
Lloyd's Register
17
20
4 point
H
H
Worldwide
Heavy Lift
515' x 84'
Lloyd's Register
17
20
4 point
H
H
Worldwide
Heavy Lift
515' x 84'
Lloyd's Register
17
20
4 point
H
H
Worldwide
Heavy Lift
508' x 87'
Lloyd's Register
17
20
4 point
H
H
Worldwide
Heavy Lift
512' x 95'
Lloyd's Register
17
20
4 point
Contact: Bisso Marine; 11311 Neeshaw Dr.; Houston, TX 77065; Phone: (281) 897-1500, Fax: (281) 897-1501; E-mail: info@bissomarine.com; www.bissomarine.com
H
H
GOM
700 Ton Stiff Leg
200' x 70' x 14'
0
ABS
7.5
8
500
6 Point
H
H
GOM
Revolving Crane Barge
250' x 76' x 17'
58
ABS / USCG
7.0
8
500
Skagit 97 Series Winches/An
H
H
GOM
Derrick/Pipelay Barge
400' x 100' x 30'
256 ABS
7.0
20
300
Intercon K7230 SD-250/An
H
H 300 Ton Revolver
H
GOM
415' x 100' x 25'
140 ABS
7.0
8
1,000
8 Point
H
H
GOM
Revolving Crane Barge
250' x 78' x 18'
76
Lloyd's Register
7.0
8
500
Skagit 97 Series Winches/An
H
H 800 Ton Stiff Leg
H
GOM
300' x 90' x 18'
78
ABS / USCG
7.0
8
500
6 Point
Contact: Royal Boskalis Westminster N.V.; Rosmolenweg 20; 3356 LK Papendrecht; Netherlands; Tel: +31 78 6969 000
H
H H
Asia
A-frame type cranebarge
250'x79'x15'
25
GL /100 A4
5.0
13
400
Mooring
H
H H
Asia
A-frame type cranebarge
230X138'X24'
29
ABS / A1 Barge
5.0
12
400
Mooring
H
H H
Asia
A-frame type cranebarge
298'x141x27'
34
ABS / A1 Barge + PAS
7.0
12
400
Mooring
H
H H
Europe
A-frame type cranebarge
198'x91'x18'
21
BV/coastal
6.0
12
400
Mooring
H
H H 8.5 self 14
Atlantic
A-frame type cranebarge
273'x121'x13'
31
LR/Worldwide
500
Mooring
H
H H
Atlantic
A-frame type cranebarge
238'x100'x18'
36
GL/Coastal
6.0
14
500
Mooring
H
H H
Atlantic
A-frame type cranebarge
238'x100'x18'
36
GL/Coastal
6.0
14
500
Mooring
Contact: Coastline Maritime PTE Ltd, 390 Havelock Road, #03-04 King's Centre, 169662, Singapore, Tel: 0065 65386223, Fax: 0065 65386213, Email: enquiries@coastlinemaritime.com
H
H
Mexico
Heavy Lift Vessel
590' x 105' x 40'
308 ABS A1
10
DP3
H
Mexico
Offshore Support/Heavy Lift
590' x 105' x 40'
296 ABS A1
DP3
Contact: CIMC Raffles Offshore (Singapore) Ltd. No. 1 Claymore Dr, #08-04, Orchard Towers, Singapore 229594; Phone: 65 6735 8690; Fax: 65 6734 5449; website: www.cimc-raffles.com
H
H
GOM
Heavy Lift/Accommodation
137.5 x 81 x 39 m
618 ABS
11.3
DP3
H
H
Asia
Heavy Lift/Accommodation
451' x 265' x 128'
618 11.0
Contact: Wang Fang, CPPOE, Lang Fang City, Hebei Province, China; Phone: +086 0316-2073981; Tel: +086 0316-2073981.
H
H Derrick Barge
H
Asia
787' x 164' x 67'
300 CCS
12.5
12 Point
H
Asia
Derrick/Pipelay Barge
517' x 157.5' x 41'
H
278 ABS+CCS
12 Point
Contact: Robert Thompson, Jr. or Bob Murray; Crossmar Inc., A Cross Group Company. 1950 South Van Ave. Houma, LA 70363 Phone: (985) 868 3927 Fax: (985) 879 4814 E-mail: bthompson@thecrossgroup.com bmurray
H
H Multi Purpose Crane Barge
H
GOM
330' x 104' x 24'
300 ABS A+1
7.0
20
600
8 Point Anchor
H
H Multi Purpose Crane Barge
H
GOM
250' x 72' x 16'
60
ABS / USCG
7.0
18
1,000
4/6 Point Anchor
H
H Multi Purpose Crane Barge
H
GOM
250' x 72' x 15'
80
ABS / USCG
7.0
25
> 5,000
DP-03
Contact: Woody Domangue; Elevating Boats, LLC.; 201 Dean Ct, Houma, Louisiana 70363; Phone: (985) 868-9655, Fax: (985)580-7974; E-mail: sdomangue@ebi-inc.com; www.ebi-inc.com
H
H
GOM
Class 200 Liftboat
150' x 65' x 9'
44
USCG & ABS Load Line
7.0
5.5
180
Legs w/pads
Contact: Jeanne Righter, 825 Town & Country Ln, City Center 5, Suite 1500, Houston, TX 77024 Email: jeanne.righter@emaschiyoda.com
H
H
Worldwide
Multi-Purpose
515' x 105'
140 DNV
17.0
10,000
DP3
H
H
Worldwide
Heavy Lift Pipelay
585' x 151'
239 DNV
12.0
>12,000
DP3
H
H
Worldwide
DP Pipelay Construction Barge
466' x 131'
350 Lloyd's Register
5-7
32
990
DP2
H
H
Worldwide
DP Pipelay Construction Barge
480' x 98'
238 Lloyd's Register
13
DP2
Contact: Bruce Gresham / Loren Fowler; Heerema Marine Contractors US Inc.; 15600 JFK Blvd, 3rd Floor; Houston, Texas 77032; Phone: (281) 880-1600; E-mail: bgresham@hmc-heerema.com /lfowler@hmc-heerema.c
H
H Deepwater Construction Vessel
H
GOM
505'x 346'x 148'
374 Lloyds
6.5
36
>10,000
DP3

H
H
Launch/Cargo Barge
853' x 206.7' x 49.2'
8
Lloyds
>10,000
Tugs
H
H Deepwater Construction Vessel
H
692' x 151' x 53'
305 Lloyds
12
30
>10,000
DP3
Contact: Jon Buck, Helix Energy Solutions Group; 400 N. Sam Houston Pkwy. E., Suite 400; Houston, Texas 77060; Phone: (281) 618-0430, Fax: (281) 618-0502; E-mail: jbuck@helixesg.com; www.helixesg.com
H H
H DP MSV
H
GOM
312' x 191' x 49'
135 ABS A+1
13.5
50
>10,000
DP3
H H
H DP MSV
H
GOM
351' x 230' x 28'
140 ABS + AMS
DP3
Contact: Arjan van der Pijl; Jumbo Offshore vof, Phone: 31 10 7900300; Email: a.vanderpijl@jumbomaritime.nl; www.jumbo-offshore.nl
H
H Heavy Lift Crane Vessel
H
Worldwide
470' x 87' x 53'
80
Lloyd's Register
17.0
25
>10,000
DP2
H
H
Worldwide
Heavy Lift Crane Vessel
470' x 87' x 53'
Lloyd's Register
17.0
25
>10,000
H
H
Worldwide
Heavy Lift Crane Vessel
470' x 87' x 53'
Lloyd's Register
17.0
25
>10,000
H
H Heavy Lift Crane Vessel
H
Worldwide
470' x 87' x 53'
80
Lloyd's Register
17.0
25
>10,000
DP2
Contact: Mason Gulf LLC, 392 Old Bayou Dularge Road, PO Box 2917, Houma, LA 70363; Phone: 985-580-1900; Fax: 985-580-1901; Website: www.mansongulf.com
H
H
GOM
Derrick Barge
380' x 105' x 25'
156 ABS SOLAS
10
8 Point
H
GOM
H
Derrick Barge
299' x 90' x 20'
94
USCG
8
8 Point
Contact: Capt. Ahmed Noureldin, Capt. Mohamed Youssef, 10, Ahmed Yehia St., Gleem Alex; Phone: 03 5853090; Fax: 5874668; E-mail: projects@mosalex.com
H
H Construction Crane Barge
H
Gulf of Suez, Egypt
230' x 91.2' x 7.6'
120 GL 100 AS
5.0
10
350
8 Point
H
H Construction Pipelay Crane Barge
H
Middle East
295.3' x104.2' x 20'
250 ABS + A1
5.0
30
430
8 Point
Contact Info: Adam Morgan, Global Communications, email: media@mcdermott.com, address: 757 N. Eldridge Pkwy., Houston, TX 77079, phone: (281)870-5932, website: www.mcdermott.com
H
H DP Derrick Barge
H
Gulf of Mexico
497' x 151' x 41'
320 ABS
9.0
50
> 5,000
DP / 8 Point
H
H
Middle East
Derrick/Lay Barge
420' x 128' x 28'
295 ABS
6.0
18
600
12 Point
H
H
Asia Pacific
Derrick/Lay Barge
420' x 158' x 28'
303 ABS
6.0
12
3,000
12 Point/Future DP
H
H
Gulf of Mexico
Launch Barge/Floatover
500' x 120' x 33.33'
0
ABS
7.5
25
> 5,000
8 Point (Note 4)
H
H
Asia Pacific
Launch Barge/Floatover
650' x 138'/170' x 40'
0
ABS
7.5
35
> 5,000
8 Point (Note 4)
H
H
Middle East
Derrick/Lay Barge
456' x 120' x 30'
292 ABS
6
10 Point
H
H DP Derrick/Lay Vessel
H
Asia Pacific
604' x 127' x 26'
401 ABS
13.5
55
> 5,000
DP3
Contact: Mr. Khalil Barakat, Marketing & Business Development Executive, NPCC, P. O. Box 2058, Abu Dhabi, U.A.E., Phone: +971-2-5549000; Fax: +971-2-5549111, Email: khalilb@npcc.co.ae; www.npcc.co.ae
H
H
Middle East, Arabian Gulf, India
Heavy Lift
174.4x35.3x15.2m
232 ABS A1
10.0
45
700
8 Point
H
H
Middle East, Arabian Gulf, India
Self Elevating Platform with flat bottom
64.0x27.4x4.27 m
230 ABS maltese cross 100A1
5.0
10
120
4 Point
H
H
Middle East, Arabian Gulf, India
DLB
123.0x33.5x8.8m
250 ABS maltese cross A1(E)
5.0
15
700
8 Point
H
H
Middle East, Arabian Gulf, India
DLB
121.9x36.58x8.23m
270 ABS maltese cross 100A1
5.0
16
700
10 Point
H
H
Middle East, Arabian Gulf, India
Derrick/Pipelay Barge
121.9x36.58x8.23m
16
700
DP2
Contact: Oceanic Marine Contractors, No. 1305-1308, Al Durrah Tower; Comiche, Buhaira Sharjah; PO BOX 83048 Sharjah, UAE; Tel: +971 6 5560047; Fax: +971 6 5542060
H Multi-Purpose
H
649' x 257' x 47'
333
12.0
23
> 5,000
DP2
Contact: Brian Kern; Offshore Specialty Fabricators; P.O. Box 1420; Houma, Louisiana 70361; Phone: (504) 868-1438 ; E-mail: brian@osf-llc.com.com; www.osf-llc.com
H
H
GOM
Derrick Barge
400' x 140' x 26'
114 IBS
5.0
12
1,500
8 Point Anchor Winche
H
H
GOM
Derrick Barge
400' x 120' x 25'
104 IBS
5.0
12
1,500
(4) Double Drum Skagit DMW
Contact: OOS-International BV. Oostkapelseweg 2a, 4353 EH Serooskerke (w), PO Box 40 4353 ZG, The Netherlands. Tel: 31 (0) 118 591 179. iinfo@oosinternational.com
H
H
Worldwide
Heavy Lift/Accommodation
451' x 265' x 128'
618 ABS A1
8
DPS-3
H
H
Worldwide
Heavy Lift/Accommodation
387' x 230' x 125'
500 ABS A1
8
12 Point
Contact: Grant Fraser - chartering@prosafe.com Phone: +44 (0) 1224 406900 Website: www.prosafe.com
H
H
Worldwide (ex Norway)
Heavy Lift/Accommodation
313' x 221'
500 DNV
100' >10,000
DP3/10 pt chain moorin
H
H
Worldwide (ex Norway)
Heavy Lift/Accommodation
313' x 221'
500 DNV
100' >10,000
DP3/10 pt chain moorin
Contact: Mauro Piasere President & CEO, Alessio Maniezzo Commercial Mgr.; 15950 Park Row; Houston, Texas 77084; Phone: (281) 552-5600, Fax: (281) 552-5915; Web: www.Saipem.com
H
H DP Heavy Lift and J-Lay
H
Worldwide
649' x 285' x 142'
725 Lloyds Register & R.I.Na.
9.5
50
>10,000
14 Points @ 44st each
Semisubmersible
Vessel
H
H Derrick / Lay Barge
H H
Asia Pacific/Middle East
628' x 115' x 49'
339 ABS & R.I.Na.
8.0
22
1,200
12 Points @ 22st each
H
H DP Heavy Lift
H
South Atlantic
531' x 124' x 30'
210 ABS & DNV
11.0
22
> 10,000
DP Class III
H
H Multi-Purpose
H
Med Sea/S Atlantic
536' x 98' x 41'
245 DNV
14.0
22
10,000
DP Class III
DP Construction
Vessel
H
H Derrick/Lay barge
Middle East - Med Sea
443' x 105' x 30'
192 ABS & R.I.Na. 100A 1.1 NAVS H
6.0
15
1,000
12 Points @16,5st eac
2no Skagit RB 150 anchor winch
H
H Derrick/Lay barge
H
Mediterranean Sea
494' x 112' x 47'
230 R.I.Na.
8.0
28
1,000
& 4no.Clyde AD-175 anchor winc
3 double drum AMCON 450 plu
H
H Derrick/Lay Barge
H
West Africa - Med Sea
355' x 98' x 25'
220 BV I 3/3 E & R.I.Na.
6.0
15
400
3 single drum AMCON 750
H
H Multi-Purpose
H
Asia Pacific/S Atlantic
600' x 106' x 48'
325 ABS
13.0
26
> 10000
DP 3
DP Construction
Vessel
H
H DP S-Lay &
H
Worldwide
1085' x 128' x 49'
702 ABS Ice Class A0
14.0
23
> 10000
DP 3
J-Lay
Vessel
Contact: SAL Heavy Lift GmbH; Brooktorkai 20, 20457 Hamburg, Germany; Tel: +49 40 380380-0; Fax: +49 40 380380-600; Email: sal@sal-heavylift.com; www.sal-heavylift.com
H
H Heavy Lift
H
Worldwide
527' x 422' x 90'
DNV GL + 100 A5
20
DP I
H
H Heavy Lift
H
Worldwide
527' x 422' x 90'
DNV GL + 100 A5
20
DP II
H
H Heavy Lift
H
Worldwide
524' x 79' x 43'
DNV GL + 100 A5
20
H
H Heavy Lift
H
Worldwide
524' x 79' x 43'
DNV GL + 100 A5
20
H
H Heavy Lift
H
Worldwide
524' x 79' x 43'
DNV GL + 100 A5
20
H
H Heavy Lift
H
Worldwide
524' x 79' x 43'
DNV GL + 100 A5
20
H
H
Worldwide
Heavy Lift
436' x 75' x 37'
DNV GL
16
H
H
Worldwide
Heavy Lift
436' x 75' x 37'
DNV GL
16
Contact: SapuraKencana Australia, Level 14 Alluvion, 58 Mounts Bay Road, Perth, Western Australia, 6000; Phone: +61 8 9480 1000; Fax: +61 8 9486 9146; email: info@sapurakencana.com.au
H
H
Asia Pacific
Heavy Lift Pipelay
504' x 115 ' x 55'
300 ABS
5,000
DP3 and 10 anchors
H
H
Asia Pacific
Heavy Lift Pipelay
513' x 147' x 55'
300 ABS A1
12.5
25
5,000
DP 3 and 10 anchors
H
H
Asia Pacific
Heavy Lift Pipelay
423' x 105' x 25'
292 ABS A-1
8 Point
H
H
Asia Pacific
Heavy Lift Pipelay
525' x 124'
290
10
DP 3 and 10 anchors
H
H
Asia Pacific
Derrick/Pipelay Barge
349' x 132' x 30'
303 ABS A1
30
500
12 Point
Contact: Linda Vanhaeist, Business Development; Scaldis NV; North Trade Building Noorderlaan 133, box 31 / B-2030 Antwerp / Belgium; Tel. : +32 3 541 69 55 (24 hrs) / Fax : +32 3 541 81 93 / mail@scaldis-smc.com / w
H
H
Europe
Heavy Lift Vessel
85 x 44 x 5.6 m
75
Lloyd's Register
Contact: Mrs Daisy Suralaga-Sudiharto; Sea Trucks Group; P.O. Box 176, 3000AD Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Phone: +31 (0) 10 754 0121, Fax: +31 (0) 10 754 0199; E-mail: corrievankessel@seatrucksgroup.coml; www
H
H
Worldwide
Construction, Hook up Barge
342' x 80' x 18'
210 ABS
6.0
15
600
8 anchors
H
H DP Pipelay Construction Barge
H
Worldwide
365' x 100' x 22'
298 ABS
6.0
15
>10,000
DP3 and 10 anchors
H
H DP Pipelay Construction Barge
H
Worldwide
390' x 100' x 28'
355 ABS
10.0
20
>10,000
DP3
H
H DP Pipelay Construction Barge
H
Worldwide
390' x 100' x 28'
355 ABS
10.0
20
>10,000
DP3
H
H Pipelay Construction Barge
H
Worldwide
260' x 115' x 14'
220 BV
6
15
600
8 anchors
H
H DP Construction, Hook up Barge
H
Worldwide
364' x 100' x 22'
469 ABS
6.0
20
>10,000
DP3
H
H DP Construction, Hook up Barge
H
Worldwide
364' x 100' x 22'
462 ABS
6
20
>10,000
DP3
H
H DP Construction Support Vessel
H
Worldwide
256' x 66' x 21'
172 ABS
12
20
>10,000
DP3
Contact: Aart Ligterink, Seaway Heavy Lifting, Albert Einsteinlaan 50, 2719 ER Zoetermeer, The Netherlands; Phone: 31 79 3637700; Fax: 31 79 3637799; aligterink@shl.nl
H H
H Heavy Lift Vessel
H
Worldwide
600 x 118 x 43 ft
151 DNV
9.0
21
N/A
Anchors
H H
H Heavy Lift Vessel
H
Worldwide
600 x 154 x 59 ft
220 DNV
14.0
39
N/A
DP3 and 8 anchors
Contact: Haixu Chen, Yi Zhang, Shanghai Salvage Bureau; Phone: 86 21 65193034; Fax: 86 21 65192623; website: www.coes.cn
H
H
Crane Barge
328' x 125' x 30'
236 5
H
H
Crane Barge
269' x 82' x 22'
Contact: communications@subsea7.com; SUBSEA 7 (US) LLC; 2101 CityWest Blvd, Building 1, Suite 200; Houston, Texas 77042-3021; E-mail: Julie.Gauld@Subsea7.com; Website: www.subsea7.com
H
H Pipelay/Heavy Lift
H
Worldwide
495' x 125'
320 ABS
8
10,000
DP2
H
H
Worldwide
Pipelay/Heavy Lift
390' x 105'
330 BV
H
H
Worldwide
Pipelay/Heavy Lift
597' x 151' x 53'
399 DNV
12.0
10,000
DP3
Contact: Byron Baker VP Subsea Technip Energy Tower III 11740 Katy Freeway Suite 100 Houston, Texas 77079, USA Tel: 281 870 1111 Email: byronb@technip.com website: www.technip.com
H
H Derrick Pipelay
H
Western Hemisphere
532' x 124' x 52'
264 ABS A-1
12
26
10,000
DP2 / 8 Point
H
H Derrick Pipelay
H
Eastern Hemisphere
532' x 124' x 52'
264 ABS A-1
15
26
10,000
DP2 / 8 Point
H
H Construction Vessel
H 12, 16 max 33
Worldwide
528' x 105'
140 DNV
13,130
DP3
Contact: Ron Hughes; 24955 I-45 North; The Woodlands, Texas 77380; Phone: (281) 367-1983; E-mail: rhughes@tetratec.com; www.tetratec.com
H
H
GOM
Derrick Barge
350' x 100' x 25'
110 Germanischer Lloyd
5.0
20
500
8 Point
H
H
GOM
Derrick Barge
350' x 100' x 25'
100 ABS A-1; USCG (2)
5.0
20
500
8 Point
H
H
GOM
Derrick Barge
394 x 118 x 31.5
300 ABS A-1 Vanuatu
5.0
20
500
10 Point
Contact: Per Gunnar Gundersen, P.O. Box 366 4662, Stavanger, Norway, Phone +47 51 564364, Fax +47 51431, E-mail uc@jjuc.no, www.jjuc.no
H
H
Europe
Crane Vessel
257' x 85' x 14'
17
DNV
7.0
18
Contact: Tom Cheatum, Sales & Marketing Manager, Versabar, Inc., 11349 FM 529 Road, Houston, TX 77041; Phone: 713-937-3100; Fax 713-939-3083; Website: www.vbar.com
H
H Heavy Lift Catamaran
H
Gulf of Mexico
290' X 314'
0
USCG ABS
7
15
>10,000
DP-3 8 Point
Contact: Ryan Rush, 14800 St. Marys Lane, Suite 166, Houston, TX 77079, USA, (T) +1 713-201-6277 ryan.rush@zomc.com www.zomc.com
H
H
Worldwide
DP Heavy Lift Vessel
976*190*94ft
380 ABS
12
32
>10,000
DP 2
H
H
Worldwide
DP Heavy Lift Barge
474*131*36ft
238 7
21.3
656
DP 1 / 8 point anchors
H
H
Coastal
Crane Barge
464*166*31ft
50
CCS
6
19.03
500
6 point anchors
H
H
Coastal
Crane Barge
262*98*18ft
30
CCS
6
8.37
500
6 point anchors
H
H
Coastal
Crane Barge
322*118*22ft
30
CCS
6
13.45
500
6 point anchors
H
H
Coastal
Crane Barge
321*124*23ft
30
CCS
6
13.12
500
6 point anchors
H
H
Coastal
Crane Barge
262*98*19ft
30
CCS
6
10.66
500
6 point anchors
GOM

3600 (2 x 1880 st)


3600 (2 x 1880 st)

4000
2500

148
100

ZMPC
AmClyde

H
H

H
H

253 st @ 30'
85 st @ 40'
102 st @ 40'

330 st @ 30'
81 st @ 28'
112 st @ 30'

176 st
-

128
-

168
110
110

Huisman Pedestal / Offshore


Manitowoc 4100 W
Lima Model 7707

H
H
H

H
H
H

EBI LC-400

2 - 2.5 st @200'

2 - 40 st @100'

2 - 250 st @20'

150

50 st
1,320 st @ 100'
300 st @ 203'
-

400 st
3,300 st @ 82'
2200 st @ 72'
330 st @ 52'

-----1,000 st @ 276'
1,100 st @ 403.5'

-----3,300 st @ 110'
2,200 st @ 90'

4,000 st @ 123'
3,000 st @ 110'
5,000 st @ 131'
4,000 st @ 128'
-

45,000 st
-

1,150 st
1,500 st
1,320 st
825 st

10,000
3,900
6,600
11,500

373
368
334
368
408
408
410

Sumitomo Model 4000


Sumitomo Model 3000
Sumitomo Model 4000
Sumitomo Model 3000
Thialf Mitsui
Thialf Mitsui
Daewoo Shipbuilding
Daewoo Shipbuilding

220st (2-part)/88st (1-part)

300 st @ 374'
80 st @ 365'

1,000 st @ 276'
660 st @ 230'

5,000 st @ 94'
3,000 st @ 100'

220 st @ 430'
220 st @ 430'

998 st @ 260'
998 st @ 260'

121 st @ 404'

827 st @ 302'

7,810 st @ 107'
7,810 st @ 107'
----4,400 st @ 121'

3,300 st @ 110'
2,200 st @ 90'
5,000 st @ 94'
3,000 st @ 100'
7,810 st @ 107'
7,810 st @ 107'
4,400 st @ 121'

22 st
20 st

132 st

396 st @59'
400 st

661 st
-

661 st
-

10,000
-

120
-

11 st
11 st

2x41,3 st
2x41,3 st
2x41,3 st
2x41,3 st

2x991 st
2x991 st
2x991 st
2x991 st

1,100 st
1,100 st

10,000
10,000

115
115

25 st @ 50'
20 st

300 st @ 170'
150 st @ 130'

1,000 st @ 90'
500 st @ 60'

H
H
H

H
H
H

H
H
H

H
H
H

H
H
H

H
H
H
H

H
H

(36'->5,500')

(70'->10,000')

4100 Manitowic
Link Belt

H
H

H
H
H

Manitowoc 4000 W Ringer Crane


Kenz Figee

H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H

344
300
300
170
300

Clyde Model 80
Clyde Model 76
Clyde Model 76
Clyde Model 35000
NOV Model 50

H
H
H
H
H
H
H

H
H
H
H
H
H
H

H
H
H
H
H
H
H

H
H
H
H
H
H
H

H
H
H

H
H
H

H
H
H

H
H
H

H
H
H

75 st
30 st
50 st
45 st
-

400 st
80 st
150 st
272 st
-

1500 st @ 105'
272 st@55'
700 st@ 65'
825 st@76'
884 st @ 260'

1,775 st @ 105'
750 st @ 75'
1,270 st @ 80'
-

2,640 st @ 135'
3900 st @ 100'

700
120
700
700
-

285
238
245
278
-

CLYDE 76DE-220-35-30
CLYDE 37S
American hoist model m40-b revolver
CLYDE 52DE-230-30-15
-

H
H
H
H
H

H
H
H
H
H

H
H
H
H
H

H
H
H
H
H

H
H
H

AM Clyde M-66
Kone

H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H

15,430st @ 136'
7,715st @ 136'
7,715st @ 136'
-

992

1,475

600 / 44
485

950/6,850
9,850

> 10.000

470
470
295
295

AMHOIST M7000
AMHOIST M7000
Clyde Model 76 W
Clyde Model 76 DE

190
121
260
230
246
-

Clyde KPT 600


LIEBHERR CB03100
American Hoist model 509
Clyde model 52
American Hoist M 40 B
Clyde
Liebherr
Huisman
Huisman

230
144

H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H
H

H
H
H

H
H
H

H
H
H

H
H

H
H
H
H
H
H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H
H
H
H

H
H
H
H
H

H
H
H
H
H

H
H
H
H
H

H
H
H
H
H

H
H
H
H
H

H
H
H
H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H
H
H

>10,000')
(30'->10,000')

H
H

(50'->10,000')

(45,000 st)
(4,400 st @ 121')

H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H
H

H
H
H

H
H

H
H
H
H
H

(2 x 991 st)

(25'->10,000')

(2 x 991 st)

(10'-N/A)
(8'-N/A)

H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H

(661 st)

(1,100 st @ 10,000')

(2 x 991 st)
(1,100 st @ 10,000')

(2 x 991 st)
(1,000 st @ 90')
(500 st @ 60')

(10'-350')

(123.2 tons @ 40')

(30'-430')

(336 st @ 36')

(50'->5,000')
(18'-600')

(3,527 st @ 82') & (4,189 st @ 100')

(871 st @ 820' & 473 st @ 11,483')

(1,600 st @ 115') & (2,400 st @ 100')


(12'-3,000')

(600 st @ 236' & 294 st @ 327')

(2,800 st @ 110') & (3,080 st @ 110')

(25'->5,000')

(14,000 st)

(35'->5,000')

H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H
H
H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H
H
H
H

H
H
H
H
H

H
H
H
H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H

(1,818 st @ 95' ) & (2,200 st @ 95')

(45'-700')

(1,500 st @ 105') & (1,775 st @ 105')

(10'-120')

(272 st @ 55')

(15'-700')

H
H

(700')
(700')

(825 st @ 76') & (1,270 st @ 80')

(16'-700')

(550 st @ 9,800' & 275 st @ 9,800')

(120')

(700 st @ 65') & (750 st @ 75')

(16'-700')

(700')

(884 st @ 260')
(50'->5,000')

H
H

(22,046 st)
(1,650 st @ 131')

(55'->5,000')

(4,850 st) & (4,400 st @ 121')

(12'-1,500')

(1,760 st @ 131') & (1,763 st @ 100')

(12'-1,500')

(1,323 st @ 98') & (1,322 st @ 105')

H
H
H
H

(661 st @ 10,000')

(25'->10,000')

(25'->10,000')

H
H

(825 st @ 11,500')

(396 st @ 59')
(400 st)

(25'->10,000')

H
H

(3,600 st)
(1,100 st)

H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H
H

H
H
H

H
H
H

H
H
H

H
H
H

H
H
H

H
H
H

H
H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H
H

H
H

H
H
H

H
H

H
H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H

(100'->10,000')

(300 st @ 39')

(100'->10,000')

(300 st @ 39')

(50'->10,000')

(992 st @ 1,475')
(7,715 st @ 131')
(7,715 st @ 131')
(2,400 st @ 130')

(22'-1,200')

(22'->10,000')
(22'-10,000')

(2,400 st @ 130')

(600 st @ 950' & 44 st @ 6,850')

(661 st @ 98')

(485 st @ 9,850')

(330 st @ 180')
(33 st @125')

H
H
H
H

H
H
H
H

H
H
H
H

H
H
H
H

H
H
H
H

H
H
H
H

H
H
H
H

H
H
H
H

H
H
H
H

H
H
H
H

H
H
H
H

H
H
H
H

H
H
H
H

H
H
H
H

(15'-1,000')

(910 st @ 70') & (1,100 st @ 70')

(28'-1,000')

(600 st @ 76') & (660 st @ 76')


(550 st @ 60')

(15'-400')
(26'->10,000')

(1,100 st)

(1,100 st @ 1,300')

(2 x 66 st)
(23'->10,000')

(661 st @ 98')
(386 st @ 144')

(825 st @ >10,000')

(61 st @ 114')

2 x 1000 st @ 52'
2 x 1000 st @ 52'
2 x 700 st
2 x 700 st
2 x 700 st
2 x 700 st
2 x 450 st
2 x 450 st

H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H

2 x 50 st
300 st @230'

1,200 st
2,000 st @ 98'
1,000 st
2,200 st @ 90'
1,200 st @ 105'

3,000 st @ 100'
1,600 st @ 105'

3,500 st @ 115'
2,000 st @ 105'

ZPMC
ZPMC

H
H
H
H
H

4 x 15 st

3,300st@60m (2 cranes)

22 st
27 st
132 st
132 st
33 st
44 st
27 st
16 st

176 st
300 st
880 st
880 st
330 st
440 st
300 st
132 st

176 st
300 st
880 st
880 st
330 st
440 st
300 st
132 st

55
25
55
55
35
220
25
90

900
2,800
2,400
2,400
1,500
9,900
2,800
6,000

147
180
236
236
189
157
180
100

Huisman-Itrec
Seatrax
Huisman-Itrec
Huisman-Itrec
Huisman-Itrec
Huisman-Itrec
Seatrax
Kenz Figee

H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H

H
H
H
H
H
H
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H

H
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H
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H
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H
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H
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H

H
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H
H

H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H

220 st
220 st

550 st
890 st

2750 st
5500 st

2,750 st
5,500 st

NA
NA

880 st/340 st
5500

1,310
-

280
-

Gusto
Gusto

H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H

2500 st
100 st

200
-

800
15 st @ 82'
1200 st @ 230'

2,200 st @ 102'
300 st
5,000

3,000 st @ 89'
-

620 (combo)
-

1312 (combo)

Huisman BV
Huisman BV
Huisman BV

66 st @ 305'
66 st @ 305'
-

385 st @ 196'
385 st @ 196'
33 st

992 st @ 104'
992 st @ 104'
992 st @ 56'

1322 st @ 104'
1322 st @ 104'
-

440
440
992

10,000
10,000
14,100

304
304
148

AM Clyde / PC-37
AM Clyde / PC-37
Huisman PMC

H
H
H

H
H
H

H
H
H

H
H
H

H
H

50 st @ 265'
50 st @ 220'
55 st @ 256'

135 st @ 175'
200 st @ 180'
385 st @ 246'

615 st @ 65'
650 st @ 70'
1,323 st @ 105'

800 st @95'
1,763 st @ 105'

245
245
292

AM Clyde/509
Manitowoc Model 600
Wison Model 1600

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H

H
H
H

H
H
H

H
H
H

H
H
H

s
s
50st @ 250'
www.scaldis-smc.com
w.seatrucksgroup.com
55 st
55 st
-

H
H
H

H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H

2 x 60 st
2 x 60 st
2 x 60 st
2 x 60 st
2 x 35 st
2 x 35 st

1 x 40 st
1 x 40 st
1 x 40 st
1 x 40 st

2,400st @ 130'
2,400st @ 130'

825

H
H

H
H

180.5
168

H
H

661st @ 200'
600st @ 140'

(1,320 st @ 6,600')

(7,810 st @ 107')
(7,810 st @ 107')

H
H
H
H

2,750st @ 242'

(1,500 st @ 3,900')

(5,000 st @ 94')
(3,000 st @ 100')

132st @ 490'

(1,150 st @ 10,000')
(3,300 st @ 110')
(2,200 st @ 90')

100st @ 275'
75st @ 272'
77st @ 203'

(3,000 st @ 82')
(2,200 st @ 72')

(400 st)

(>12,000')
(32'-990')

H
H
H
H

(102 st @ 40) & (112 st @ 30')


(2-250 st @20')

Liebherr
Liebherr

(25'->5,000')
(5.5'-180')

(176 st @ 128')

(85 st @ 40') & (81 st @ 28')

(253 st @ 30') & (330 st @ 30')

(18'-1,000')

(4,000 st)

(20'-600')

H
H
H

H
H
H

HUISMAN HLMC-31000
HUISMAN HLMC-31000

H
H
H

(2,500 st)

H
H

300 st @ 39'
300 st @ 39'

H
H

(36'->10,000')

H
H

H
H

H
H

15 st
15 st

H
H
H

H
H

H
H

Huisman
Huisman

H
H

H
H

(2,200 st) @ 400')

(1,600 mt @ 35m)

H
H

(1,320 st)

H
H

(2,200 st) @ 400')

(14'-500')

H
H

(1,320 st)

H
H

(2,640 st) @ 400')

(14'-500')

H
H

(880 st) @ 350')


(2,425')

H
H

3,600
1,100

(3,527 st) @ 350')

(880 st)

(14'-500')

(330 st @ 52')

H
H

200

(1,760 st) @ 350')


(3,527 st)

(12'-400')

H
H

H
H

25 st @ 33'

(1,102 st @ 350')

(1,760 st)

(12'-400')

820/ 11,483
236 / 327
9,800

H
H

(800 st @ 300')

(1,102 st)

(12'-400')

H
H

272
200

(13'-400')

Huisman-Itrec
Huisman

(600 st @ 76') & (800 st @ 75')

(10,000')

H
H

(150 st @ 300')

(129 st @ 45') & (300 st @ 25')


(303 st @ 164') & (385 st @ 15')

871 st/473 st
600 st/294 st
550 st/275st

(250 st @ 80')
(250 st @ 80')

(8'-1,000')
(8'-500')
(8'-500')

60st @ 345'

H
H
H
H

(8'-500')
(20'-300')

14,000 st
22,406 st
-

1,300

H
H
H

(700 st @ 50')

1,100

H
H
H

H
H

(8'-500')

4,400 st @ 121'
-

H
H
H

(2 x 993 st)
(2 x 993 st)

(20')

4,189 st @ 100'
2,400 st @ 100'
3,080 st @ 110'
2,200 st @ 95'

650st @ 60'
-

H
H
H

1763 st @ 131.4'
N/A

(2 x 441 st) & (1 x 13 st)

(20')

123.2 Tons @ 40'


336 ST @ 36'

1,100st @ 70'
660st @ 76'
-

H
H

4,400 st @ 121'

(2 x 441 st) & (1 x 13 st)

(20')

3,527 st @ 82'
1,600 st @ 115'
2,800 st @ 110'
1650 st @ 131'
1,818 st @ 95'

135st @ 240'
200st @ 44'
124st @ 130'
-

123.2 Tons @ 40'


336 st @ 36'

30st @260'
50st @ 250'
30st @ 260'
-

H
H

1,763 st @ 100'
1,322 st @ 105'

(2 x 441 st) & (1 x 13 st)

(20')

550 st @ 313'
750 st @ 160'
750 st @ 160'
660 st @ 213'
660 st @ 213'

7,715st @ 131'
7,715st @ 131'
2,400st @ 130'
2,400st @ 130'
661st @ 98'
330st @ 180'
33st @ 125'
910st @ 70'
600st @ 76'
550st @ 60'
1,100st
2 x 66st
661st @ 98'
386st @ 144'
61st @ 114'

H
H

4,850 st

(2 x 441 st) & (1 x 13 st)

(20')

(3,600 st)

H
H

1760 st @ 131'
1323st @ 98'

H
H
H

(20')

(3,600 st)

H
H

H
H

800 st

H
H

H
H

400 st @ 100'
275 st @ 262'

hes
ches
us

H
H

H
H

ch

H
H

H
H

20 st @ 310'
50 st @ 311'

H
H
H

(2 x 441 st) & (1 x 13 st)

(1,600 mt @ 35m)

220 st @ 246'
250 st @ 240'
250 st @ 240'
300 st @ 246'
275 st @ 246'

33.6 ST @ 175.5'

H
H
H

(2,755 st [roro])

(20')

H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H
H

(5,000 st)
(2 x 772 st)

(20')

H
H

AMC
Huisman Offshore
Huisman
Kenz

H
H

H
H
H
H

H
H

H
H
H
H
H
H
H

H
H

H
H

10,000 st
20,000 st
30,000 st
40,000 st
50,000 st
60,000 st
70,000 st

H
H
H
H
H
H

H
H

H
H

100 st
200 st
300 st
400 st
500 st
600 st
700 st

Liebherr MTC 64000


Liebherr MTC 78000

5,000 st

88m
88m

H
H
H
H
H
H

H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H

4,500 st

4,000 st

3,500 st

3,000 st

(2) 25t / (2) 40t


(2) 25t / (2) 40t

2,500 st

2,000 st

1,600mt @ 35m
1,600mt @ 35m

1,500 st

200mt @ 84m
200mt @ 84m

H
H
H
H
H
H
H

1,000 st

50mt @ 88m
50mt @ 88m

H
H
H
H
H
H
H

500 st

H
H
H
H
H
H
H

H
H
H
H
H

5,000 feet

Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Rotterdam
RDM Rotterdam
Verolme/ Huisman-Itrec
HDW Kiel
HDW Kiel

4,500 feet

120
120
140
147
278
165
165

H
H
H

4,000 feet

350
350
350
350
400
400
400

H
H
H

3,500 feet

1,102 st
1,760 st
3,527 st
880 st
2,640 st
2,200 st
2,200 st

H
H
H

3,000 feet

H
H
H

2,500 feet

H
H

2,000 feet

1,102 st
1,760 st
3,527 st
880 st
2,425 st
1,320 st
1,320 st

H
H

1,500 feet

H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H

H
H
H
H
H
H

1,000 feet

83 st
-

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H
H
H

MARINE SALVAGE WORK

12.5 st
15 st
12.5 st
12.5 st

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H
H

Note: Subsea Lowering Capacities


shown below are based on max.
water depth. Lowering capacity will
increase significantly for shallower
water. Contact contractor for more
specific information.

500 feet

H
H
H
H
H

FLOATOVER
CAPACITY
(SHORT TONS)

Subsea Lowering
Capacity (st)
Alternate Subsea
Lowering Capacity (st)

PURCHASE STRUCTURES

Custom Built
Manitowoc 3900 or 4000
American R-40 Revolver
Seatrax S 12632
Manitowoc 3900 or 4000
American Model 11750

3RD PARTY EXPLOSIVE CUTTING

155
120
175
180
120
160

IN-HOUSE EXPLOSIVE CUTTING

300
300

3RD PARTY ABRASIVE CUTTING

150 st
800 st

3RD-PARTY P & A CREW

IN-HOUSE P & A CREW

ABANDON PLATFORMS

700 st @ 50'
300 st @ 25'
385 st @ 15'
800 st @ 75'

WELLS

DEEPWATER LOWERING

250 st @ 80'
250 st @ 80'
129 st @ 45'
303 st @ 164'
600 st @ 76'

SUBSEA

SUBSEA MANIFOLDS

80 st @ 110'
80 st @ 110'
165 st @ 180'
-

MOORING INSTALLATIONS

20 st @ 220'
20 st @ 200'
39 st @ 190'
-

INSTALLATION ENGINEERING

Hitachi Zosen & Huisman Cranes


NMF
NMF
NMF
NMF
NMF
Huisman Heavy Lift Mast Cranes
Huisman Heavy Lift Mast Cranes

FT

TLP TENDONS

113
102
102
102
102
102
113
113

SUBSEA LOWERING
CAPACITY
(SHORT TONS)

Revolving Lift Capacity (st)

ABANDONMENTS

Overstern (st)

STEEL CATENARY RISERS (SCR)

UNDERWATER PILE DRIVING

SURFACE PILE DRIVING

PLATFORMS

FT

DAILY OR HOURLY RATES

S TONS

2,755 st (roro)
-

S TONS

EPCI

S TONS

2 x 772 st
2 x 441 st + 1 x 13 st
2 x 441 st + 1 x 13 st
2 x 441 st + 1 x 13 st
2 x 441 st + 1 x 13 st
2 x 441 st + 1 x 13 st
2 x 993 st
2 x 993 st

TURNKEY

MAX DEPTH RATING

S TONS

5000 st

27 st
55 st
55 st
55 st
55 st
55 st
41 st
41 st

100 st @ 262'
com; www.heerema.com
-----250 st @ 1926'
250 st @ 1926'

ng
ng

LUMP SUM INSTALL.+ WEATHER

CAPACITY

MANUFACTURER & MODEL

FLOATOVER CAPACITY

S TONS

50 st

BOOM LENGTH

TIE BACK

STATIC MAIN REVOLVING

S TONS

DERRICK BARGE/LIFT VESSEL STATIC LIFTING


CAPABILITIES (SHORT TONS)

WATER DEPTH LIMITATIONS (FEET)

INSTALLATIONS
PILE
DRIVING

S TONS

1600
7500
800
3800
y@thecrossgroup.com; www.thecrossgroup.com
33 st @ 172'
14 st
15 st

es
W 250

CONTRACTOR SERVICES & VESSEL CAPABILITIES


CONTRACTUAL

IN-HOUSE ABRASIVE CUTTING

CRANE INFORMATION

PLATFORM RISERS

SUBSEA LOWERING

OVER STERN

nchors

MAXIMUM LIFTING CAPACITIES

AUX. HOOK

nchors
nchors

OHSAS 18001 cert no: SNG 6028975


ISO 9001 cert no: SNG 0160413

WHIP HOOK

Pos DP-22

ONE OF THE LEADERS IN AUTOMATION CONTROL AND SAFETY SYSTEMS FOR FPSO

H
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H

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H
H
H
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H
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H

H
H

H
H
H
H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H

(2 x 1,000 st @ 52')
(2 x 700 st)
(2 x 700 st)
(2 x 700 st)
(2 x 700 st)
(2 x 450 st)
(2 x 450 st)

(5,000')

H
H

(2,000 st @ 98')
(1,000 st)
(2,200 st @ 90') & (3,000 st @ 100')

(30'-500')

H
H
H

(1,200 st)

(25'-5,000')

H
H

(2 x 1,000 st @ 52')

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H
H
H
H
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H

H
H
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H
H
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H

H
H
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H
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H

H
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H

H
H
H
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H

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H

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H

H
H

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H

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H

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H

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H
H
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H

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H

H
H

(1,200 st @ 105') & (1,600 st @ 105')

H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H

(300 st @ 197')
(15'-600')

(176 st)
(15'->10,000')

(55 st @ 900')

(300 st)

(25 st @ 2,800')

(20'->10,000')

(880 st)

(20'->10,000')

(880 st)

(15'-600')

(55 st @ 2,400')
(55 st @ 2,400')

(330 st)
(20'->10,000')
(20'->10,000')
(20'->10,000')

(35 st @ 1,500')

(440 st)

(220 st @ 9,900')

(300 st)

(25 st @ 2,800')

(132 st)

(90 st @ 6,000')

(21'-N/A)

(2,750 st)

(39'-N/A)

(5,500 st)

(880 st & 340 st @ 1,310')


(5,500 st)

(2,500 st)
(100 st)

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H
H

H
H
H

H
H
H

H
H
H

H
H
H

H
H
H

H
H

H
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H

H
H
H

H
H

H
H
H

H
H
H

H
H
H

H
H
H

H
H

(10,000')

(2,200 st @ 102')

(3,000 st @ 89')

(300 st)
(10,000')

650 st

330 st

719 st

262

n/a

4-500 ton blocks

7500 st

n/a

7500 constant

560 st

7000

175

VB 10,000

110st @ 393'
121st @ 282'
66st
33st
33st
22st
55st

1763st @ 393'
440st @ 279'
661st
165st
110st
331st
138st

7716st @144'
1212st @ 228'

13227st @ 177'
2204st @ 111'
5511st @164'
1433st @109'
1763st @159'
1763st @168'
1102st @89'

13227st @ 177'
2204st @ 111'
5511st @164'
1433st @109'
1763st @159'
1763st @168'
1102st @89'

413
314
397
218
341
398
279

ZPMC
ZPMC
ZPMC
Japan Sujin Shipbuilding
Jingjiang Sumeida
Jingjiang Nanyang Shipbuilding
Yangzijiang Shipbuilding

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(26'-10,000')
(26'-10,000')
(33'-13,130')
(20'-500')

(5,000 st)
(992 st @ 104') & (1,322 st @ 104')

(440 st @ 10,000')

(992 st @ 104') & (1,322 st @ 104')

(440 st @ 10,000')

(992 st @ 56')

(992 st @ 14,100')

(615 st @ 65')

(20'-500')

(650 st @ 70') & (800 st @ 95')

(20'-500')

(1,323 st @ 105') & (1,763 st @ 105')

(18'-N/A)

(719 st)
(15'->10,000')
(32'->10,000')

(21.3'-656')

(7,500 st)

(1,212st @ 228') & (2,204 st @ 111')

(19.03'-500')
(8.37'-500')
(13.45'-500')
(13.12'-500')
(10.66'-500')

(560 st @ 7,000')

(7,716 st @ 144') & (13,227 st @ 177')


(5,511 st @ 164')
(1,433 st @ 109')
(1,763 st @ 159')
(1,763 st @ 168')
(1,102 st @ 89')

11/7/16 10:50 AM

P R O D U C T I O N O P E R AT I O N S

Autonomous inflow control devices


improve sand control
Benefits include better flow assurance and greater oil recovery
Michael Konopczynski

Tendeka Inc.

n the pursuit of additional hydrocarbon reserves and increased


oil production, operators continue to look to challenging reservoirs such as high permeability, high productivity clastic reservoirs. Use of high deviation and horizontal trajectories in these
wells have increased the amount of reservoir contacted by the
wellbore, improving well productivity, and to some extent, reducing
the potential for sand production by reducing the overall drawdown
on the formation.
To ensure the integrity of the wells and prevent sand production,
operators turn to a variety of sand control methods, including gravel
packs, frac packs, slotted liners and screens. A properly conceived
and executed sand control strategy can be very effective in reducing
or eliminating solid production without unduly restricting productivity. The effectiveness of these methods can be improved with the
addition of flow control devices, such as inflow control devices and
autonomous inflow control devices, which moderate and control the
flow of fluids from the reservoir along the length of the wellbore.
The use of these devices can improve the reliability of the sand control methods, as well as improve sweep efficiency and hydrocarbon
recovery.

Causes and control


Formation sand production is a result of wellbore stress and dynamic fluid flow forces which exceed the strength of the formation
and the forces which consolidate the sand grains. The potential for
sand production is greatest in unconsolidated formations, where
inter-granular cementation is poor or non-existent, and may be aggravated by the dissolution of sand grains and natural cementing
materials by reservoir fluids, injected pressure-maintenance fluids,
or stimulation fluids.
Dynamic fluid flow forces may significantly influence the onset
of sand production. Pressure differentials, fluid drag forces, and
overburden load combine to produce stresses that can exceed the
formation shear strength and cause sand production. These forces
impose stress on the sand grains, breaking their bonds with adjacent structures and transporting them into the wellbore along with
the produced fluids. High fluid velocity, fluid viscosity, multi-phase
flow, and dramatic flow transients can accelerate the failure of the
matrix and lead to sudden increases in sand production.
Sand control strategies focus on reducing wellbore stress, improving consolidation, or transferring stress to some form of mechanical retention.

Strategies for sand control


The simplest strategy for sand control is to reduce the drawdown
on the reservoir with the ultimate aim to reduce the differential pressure, production flux rate, and hence, fluid velocity. Unfortunately,

The FloSure AICD has been deployed successfully in more than 75 wells
globally. (All images courtesy Tendeka)

this strategy is contrary to the objective of maximizing well productivity. One way of reducing drawdown and production flux rate while
still maintaining high total production rate is to increase the amount
of wellbore to reservoir communication. This is done by using horizontal or high deviation wells, multilateral wells, open-hole completions, under-reaming, and hydraulic fracturing. Understanding of
borehole stability and formation strength is key to managing the
mechanics of sand production and establishing an operation envelope of production parameters to avoid destabilizing the formation.

Mechanical sand control methods


Mechanical retention techniques rely on devices that exclude
sand grains from entry into the flowing wellbore while letting fluids
pass through.
Slotted liners and screens are designed to allow the majority of
formation particles to bridge across the openings, yet offer maximum fluid flow area. Smaller formation particles are then retained
behind the larger bridged particles. Premium screens incorporate
layers of mesh, weave, or sintered metal powder matrix to handle a
larger range of particle size distribution while increasing fluid flow
area and providing greater mechanical strength and erosion resistance.
The proper design of slotted liner and screen sand control techniques are highly dependent on size and distribution of the formation solids produced. Slotted liners and screens can suffer from fines
plugging, and destabilization of the particle bridges. In the worst
case, uneven distribution of flow into the screens can create flow
hot-spots, causing erosive burn-through of the slots from high
velocities of fluids flowing into the wellbore. This leads to overall
sand control failure and production of unacceptable quantities of
sand.

44 Offshore November 2016 www.offshore-mag.com

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P R O D U C T I O N O P E R AT I O N S

Inflow control devices

Horizontal wells provide significantly greater


reservoir contact in comparison to vertical wells
and, as a result, can produce more oil and gas with
a lower drawdown pressure along the wellbore.
While long horizontal wells can increase the productivity and recovery of oil by increasing reservoir contact, uneven production due to reservoir
heterogeneity, varying permeability, saturation
or frictional pressure losses along the length of
the horizontal bore can lead to early water or gas
breakthrough in parts of the wellbore. The production of unwanted effluents negatively impacts
oil flow from the rest of the well. Water influx can
produce high fluid velocity and viscous drag in
the formation matrix, dissolve the minerals cementing the grains, and cause an increase in sand
production.
Inflow control devices (ICDs), which restrict
flow by creating additional flow rate dependent
pressure drops, have been used for years to balance production flux and mitigate such problems. Unlike passive ICDs which produce greater flow restriction for fluids with higher viscosity, the
AICD can restrict water and gas more readily than oil.
However, they are passive in nature and, once installed, cannot be adjusted. In the event that water
or gas breaks through in one part of an oil well,
the passive ICD is unable to counter the effects
of the higher mobility of these fluids in the reservoir, increasing flow rates and overwhelming the
oil production from the well.
A relatively recent technological breakthrough in this area ensures that whatever solids and fines are able to pass through the
has been the development of autonomous inflow control devices screens will not obstruct the ICD and AICD completion, verified by
(AICDs). These are self-regulating flow control devices that have flow loop testing with solids laden fluid and slurries.
the ability to change the amount of flow restriction based on the
The even distribution of flow encouraged by flow control devices
properties of the fluid flowing through them. Unlike passive ICDs reduces the chance of developing flow hot spots which may erode
which produce greater flow restriction for fluids with higher vis- screens and other completion equipment. Restriction of flow along
cosity, the AICD can restrict water and gas more readily than oil. the length of the wellbore prevents excessive velocity of fluids movThis ability allows for more even oil flow from all segments of the ing through the reservoir matrix in the near wellbore region and
wellbore and prevents the excessive production of unwanted fluids balances the drawdown pressure on the reservoir. These effects refrom segments that have experienced breakthrough of water or gas. duce two of the three main forces contributing to the stresses that
Ultimately, this capability results in greater oil recovery with a lower can exceed the formation shear strength and cause sand production.
water cut and lower gas oil ratio.
Specific to AICDs, the ability to restrict the production of unwanted
One type of AICD, a levitating disc-based valve from Tendeka, has effluents reduces the potential for dissolution by produced water of
been deployed successfully in more than 75 wells globally with more cementing minerals in the reservoir matrix, and prevention of high
than 15,000 valves in light and heavy oil reservoirs to overcome wa- drag forces from excessive fluid velocities brought on by gas break
ter or gas breakthrough and ensure uniform production. The valve, through.
which operates through adapting to changes in fluid viscosity, prefTendekas AICDs have been successfully deployed on the Troll
erentially restricts the flow of low viscosity unwanted water and field offshore Norway. The AICD is incorporated with premium
gas while promoting the production of oil from the entire length of screen to provide sand control and inflow control for a thin layer oil
the well. The greater restriction of low viscosity fluid is created by rim of between 11 to 26 m (36 to 85 ft). In the early years, passive
the movement of the disk to create a smaller flow area through the ICDs were employed in the field, however once gas breakthrough
AICD and hence, a greater flow restriction.
occurred the high mobility of the gas rapidly dominated the flow in
Both ICDs and AICDs are easily integrated with conventional the well. A 20% increase in cumulative oil production was recorded
screen and premium screen technology. Flow from the reservoir in the AICD completion trial well within the first 18 months of proenters the annular area between the wellbore and screen, passes duction in comparison to a passive ICD equivalent.
through the screen and moves in the space between the screen and
the unperforated base pipe to a housing containing one or more of Conclusions
the flow control devices. The fluid then passes through the flow conAICDS are enabling production engineers to manage reservoir
trol device, entering the production conduit to surface.
flow in horizontal wells with better flow assurance and greater oil recovery. The ability to restrict low viscosity unwanted water and gas
Technological synergies
results in lower water cut and reduced gas oil ratio. In addition, the
The use of screens with ICDs and AICDs is complementary. synergy between AICDs and screens is a significant and beneficial
Screens have been used not only to prevent sand production, but method to reduce sand production caused by excessive drawdown,
also to prevent larger debris from plugging the ports and channels high fluid flow drag forces, and dissolution of cementation in poorly
in the flow control devices. Careful attention to sizing of the screens consolidated reservoirs.
www.offshore-mag.com November 2016 Offshore 45

1611OFF_45 45

11/2/16 8:09 AM

SUBSEA

Innovative NDT technologies provide


inspection solution for large-diameter risers
James McNab

Oceaneering International, Inc.

new approach to non-destructive testing (NDT) of large-diameter risers recently enabled an operator to maintain reliable and safe production from an aging offshore platform.
Extending the useful life of decades-old facilities while
assuring system integrity and safety is an important objective for operators in the North Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and other mature producing areas. In this example, an operator needed an NDT
method to inspect two risers on a North Sea platform. The risers developed significant external corrosion scale
also known as scabbing over a number of
years until, in January 2016, it was decided to
verify the risers integrity in preparation for
fabric maintenance. The operator wanted to
keep the risers a 24-in. outer diameter (OD)
main oil line riser and a 20-in. OD gas producer in service for another year and needed to
confirm fitness for service to allow for repairs
that would enable use until the cease of production date.

Integrity verification

Without verification that the risers were fit for service (FFS), the
corroded pipe posed potential risks to personnel and the environment. To demonstrate FFS, the operator needed to acquire accurate
cross-section profiles of the pipe and measure the remaining wall
thickness around the full 360 circumference of the two risers. The
large amount of external scale on the risers prevented direct access
to the pipe surface, but its removal was not feasible because of the
potential of punctures and consequent product release and health,
safety, and environmental issues. The area needing inspection, just
39 ft (12 m) above the waters surface at the lowest astronomical

Above: Shown here are export risers through dead-weight supports (All images courtesy Oceaneering International, Inc.)
Left: Heavy external corrosion scale, or scabbing, resulted from
being located in a harsh environment for a number of years.

tide, was below the platform deck and was difficult to reach. There
was no obvious conventional, industry-accepted NDT method or
hardware capable of completing this inspection, and the operator
contacted Oceaneering International, Inc. to provide a solution.
After reviewing a number of possible methods to conduct the inspection, project engineers concluded that radiography had the best chance
of providing the needed measurements. However, traditional x-ray or
gamma ray sources did not have sufficient energy to inspect such largediameter, heavy wall thickness pipe in an offshore environment.

Combined NDT solution

Measuring the risers 360 wall thickness required taking tangential x-ray images around the circumference of each pipe. While tangential x-ray imaging is a standard technique, penetrating the very
thick chord lengths of the risers required very powerful equipment
and taking multiple-angle exposures to ensure full area coverage.
Oceaneering recommended a 7.5 MeV PXB betatron with a GE
DXR 250U digital detector array (DDA) to perform the riser inspections and provide near real-time measurements of pipe thickness.
The betatron a very high-energy, deep penetrating source of Xradiation had never been used offshore in conjunction with a DDA.
To implement this novel solution, a team comprised of personnel
from both the operator and the contractor prepared a detailed project plan, including onshore technical trials, extensive safety planning, electrical, scaffolding, and rigging design and implementation,
as well as development of customized hardware.

Onshore testing
Here, a digital x-ray (polarized) through scale, measures remaining wall
thickness (60 secs).

Using high-energy x-rays offshore was unprecedented, so onshore testing was required to demonstrate that the inspection could
be performed safely and provide the required measurements. In

46 Offshore November 2016 www.offshore-mag.com

1611OFF_46 46

11/2/16 8:09 AM

SUBSEA

February 2016, x-ray trials were conducted


in a special facility in Rosyth, UK, using the
planned tangential technique on a 24-in.
OD pipe with manufactured representative
flaws. After completing the offshore testing,
Oceaneering engineers visited the platform
to familiarize themselves with the environmental conditions and physical layout and
communicate with the operators senior
management team, the offshore installation
manager, HSE representatives, and scaffolding experts. This visit introduced platform
personnel to the inspection concept, and enabled the inspection team to plan the work
while defining the safe controlled area, principle exposure directions, electrical, telemetry, cable routes, and risk assess the work.

were adequate to distinguish the external


surface profile and obtain quantitative metal
loss results, clear and unambiguous enough
to be used as inputs to fitness-for-service assessment and finite element modeling. The
inspection results and calculations confirmed
that the risers were fit to continue production
at specified pressures until the operators
scheduled platform maintenance. This NDT
solution provided integrity assurance and sig-

METAL

nificant cost savings in a busy operational environment without interrupting production.


Many long-serving platforms in the North
Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and other areas face similar corrosion issues in which pipe and structural integrity must be verified. The success of
this project demonstrates that the combination
of high-energy x-rays with a digital detector array can be an effective option for conducting
difficult inspections on these assets.

VS.

POLYMERS

Radiation safety

Radiation safety was the primary challenge. The team prepared a comprehensive
health and safety plan with exclusion areas
to ensure that personnel were not exposed
to radiation. The plan also included detailed
radiation dose profiling (with the beam directed toward the high-risk areas of the platform) along with special monitoring instruments and customized radiation collimators
to reduce radiation dose.

Custom hardware

To enable precise radiography in this


unique application, Oceaneering designed
and manufactured a project-specific trolley
and a radiation beam angle guide that interfaced with the rim surface of the pipe flange.
This hardware assured that each exposure
was on target, providing a comprehensive
data set of pipe thickness measurements.
The project team designed and erected a
custom-engineered scaffold system placed
around the risers below the platform deck.
The work area, just 39 ft (12 m) from the
sea, had to be weatherproofed to protect
equipment from moisture, sea salt, and
spray. X-ray head and detector cables had
to be carefully routed in terms of distance
to ensure no power or telemetry drop-out.
The teams rigging crew arranged a twinwire system to lower the equipment from
the deck level through a floor grating hole
to the scaffold. Local positioning of the 220lb (100-kg) accelerator head and collimation
was performed using the custom trolley and
an overhead lifting beam.

Project execution

In May 2016, offshore preparation was


complete and the radiography crew was mobilized. The inspection was conducted during
two visits over four weeks, and was completed in June. The project was conducted safely
without any radiation, health, safety, and environmental incidents. The acquired images

CORROSION

COST SAVING

Nylacast Polymers do not oxidise


like metals or alloys
Up to 25x greater life span

Nylacast Polymers reduce and eliminate


maintenance and machine downtime
This saves both time and money

WEAR

WEIGHT

Unlike metals, Nylacast polymers have


self-lubrication qualities and therefore
need no additional lubrication

Nylacast Polymers are


generally 1/7th the weight of
most metals

offshore@nylacast.com

www.nylacast.com/offshore

ENGINEERING PLASTIC SOLUTIONS

1611OFF_47 47

11/2/16 8:09 AM

FLOWLINES AND PIPELINES

Retrofit tee offers


hot tap option
Neil Woodward

Isotek Oil & Gas Ltd.


Jrund Fonneland

PRS Technip-DeepOcean JV
Bjrn Bakkevig

Statoil ASA

he capability for remote hot tapping


using a retrofit tee represents a tremendous opportunity to enhance and
make the most out of the existing offshore pipeline network. This applies
particularly to new development projects
that are looking to tie in to existing pipeline
systems.
In 2012, remote hot tapping was successfully employed on the sgard B production
flowline as part of the sgard Subsea Compression Project (SCP) at 265 msw (meters/
sea water), beyond diver-depths in the North
Sea. It is estimated that the improved recovery from the Midgard and Mikkel reservoirs
will result in an equivalent of 306 MMbbl after the complete sgard subsea compression
solution went live in 2015.
Developed by Statoil, this new hot tap
technology has now been selected for two
major future subsea operations: remotely
hot tapping the Zeepipe 2A pipeline in 2017,
and the Statpipe transport pipeline as part
of the Johan Sverdrup project in 2018. The
Gina Krog reservoir requires gas-injection,
and will import gas from the Zeepipe 2A 40in. pipeline. The Johan Sverdrup gas field
development will export gas via a new 18-in.
pipeline, tied into the Statpipe rich-gas leg
by means of hot tapping and connection to
a 30-in. retrofit tee.

Hot tapping
A hot tap is the process of breaking into
a live pipeline while the product is flowing,
without interrupting the production, to provide a pipeline branch for the possible flow
diversion in either direction. The remote hot

Typical completed permanent works. (All images courtesy Isotek Oil & Gas Ltd.)

tap involves the deployment of a retrofit tee


and cutting the membrane of the mother pipe
through a valve placed on the branch of the
tee, extracting the membrane and cutter, and
then closing the valve until an external connection is made to facilitate the diversion.
While some tees are pre-installed when
the pipeline is laid, the retrofit tee may be
implemented at any chosen location. This is
especially beneficial for mature fields where
the existing pipeline infrastructure has excess transportation capacity due to the gradual decay in production. When a field is in
its tail end of production, pipeline operators
will consider cost-saving ways to produce at
lower pressures, or to develop new marginal
reserves in the same region.
By using the remote hot tap technology,
the operator may tie-in a compression facility or a new single well to the existing infrastructure without the costly investment of a
new pipeline system. The method may also
be used for converting oil-producing fields
to gas production; introducing gas lift into
oilfields; and bypassing in the event of pipeline damage. This technology is a highly important tool for operators: it gives them the
ability to connect anywhere on a pipeline,
without halting production, thereby yielding considerable flexibility and significant
savings.
The technology won an OTC Spotlight on
New Technology Award for the Remotely
Welded Retrofit Subsea Hot Tap Tee at the
OTC Conference in 2013. The equipment
has been subjected to an extensive technology qualification program with third-party
approval by DNV GL.

Development and operation


For the retrofit tee and all associated
equipment, there was a three-year development program that involved prototyping,
equipment acceptance trials, robustness
testing, and shallow-water trials. This effort
culminated in deepwater trials that were a
rehearsal for the first offshore use in 2012.
The process incorporated consultation with
Statoil and DNV GL, who reviewed the acceptance criteria and conclusions. The qualification process was verified and certified by
DNV GL, who issued a final certificate of fitness for service and a product certificate for
the fabricated retrofit tee.
The offshore remote hot tapping operation involves: as-found site survey and site
preparation, including concrete removal and
removal of the seam weld; installation of the
retrofit tee, tensioning the tee on the live
mother pipe using the tee installation tool;
remote welding of the tee to the mother pipe
after landing the welding tool on the tee using guide posts and establishing the acceptable welding environment; installation of the
hot tap ball valve; installation of the hot tap
cutting machine; and performing a pressure
test of the entire assembly prior to performing the remote hot tap cut itself.
After the hot tap, the cutting head, together with the cut-out pipe segment, is withdrawn through the ball valve and the ball
valve closed to isolate the retrofit tee and
pipeline product. The hot tap cutting machine is then recovered. Finally, the installation of the gooseneck spool with valve and
protection structure is deployed to complete
the subsea operation.

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FLOWLINES AND PIPELINES

The retrofit tee, deployed in 2012 as part


of the sgard subsea compression project,
was for a 20-in. mother pipe, whereas next
years Zeepipe 2A Retrofit Tee is twice the
size for a 40-in. mother pipe. The new Zeepipe 2A 40-in. Retrofit Tee design, by IKM
Ocean Design AS, can be seen in the associated piece of art.
The retrofit tee combines the use of a
remotely installed mechanical clamp, providing the structural integrity and interface
with the isolation valve module and the hottap cutting tool, and a seal weld made by
remotely operated hyperbaric metal inert
gas (MIG) welding inside the branch pipe.
The intention of the seal weld is not to provide structural capacity as such, but to make
a highly reliable seal (metal-to-metal) to at
least the same quality standard as traditional
manually welded hot-taps.
Qualification of the technology has taken
place over a number of years, with the hot
tap cutter developed first and deployed on a
diver-installed tee in 2008 at 145 msw as part
of the Tampen Link project, and then on two
pre-installed tees in 2009 at some 860 msw,
as part of the Ormen Lange southern field
development program.

Diverless welding

A key enabling technology for the remote


hot tapping solution is the ability to perform a
dry hyperbaric weld in-situ without the use of
divers. The dry hyperbaric offshore operation
is simulated in the laboratory by welding at elevated pressure in an inert environment using
the offshore weld control systems and weldRemote tee welding tool deployed.

Zeepipe 2A 40-in. retrofit tee design.

ing equipment. Dry hyperbaric MIG welding


in the laboratory has been operated at up to
4,000 msw (400 bar). Fundamental welding
research, development and hyperbaric weld
procedure qualification have been performed
over many years in the laboratory to the thirdparty acceptance of DNV GL. The remote hot
tap welding tool was developed and subjected
to two separate deepwater tests in 2011 and
2012, validating offshore test welds against the
laboratory welds, prior to the key milestone of
the worlds first remote production weld for
the SCP. After initial testing in 2011, the design of the pre-heating induction coils of the
welding head was modified in order to provide
a more homogeneous heating distribution in
the welding zone. A second observation camera was also added to aid welding torch path
programming and close visual inspection.

Background work with the hyperbaric MIG


welding process has also focused upon the
repair of subsea pipelines using steel consumables.
In contrast, the remote hot tap application
adopted the selection of corrosion resistant
alloy consumables (Inconel 625 and Alloy 59)
for the application requirements. Constriction of the hyperbaric welding arc at pressure forces the MIG welding process into a
more frequent short-circuiting mode, which
greatly enhances the penetration and fusion
into the parent materials. Specially developed
welding power sources and a welding power
source control strategy operating at 10kHz is
required for stable process operation. Weld
procedure development work comprised two
distinct phases: a pre-qualification phase, addressing particular areas of concern; followed
by a qualification phase, establishing the behavior of the derived welding parameter set
with worst case environmental parameters.
Weld Procedure Qualification work was performed in accordance with the requirements
of the offshore standard DNV-OS-F101 (Submarine Pipeline Systems) with additional
work addressing the recommendations from
DNV-RP-F113 (Subsea Pipeline Repair), testing the robustness of the procedure and establishing the acceptable tolerance limits.
Through initial trials in the laboratory and
deepwater testing offshore, it has been proven that the remote welding equipment may
be recovered and re-deployed within 30 days
with acceptable results, in case the welding
operation is interrupted due to bad weather,
for example. Topsides visual inspections
looking down on the completed welding
passes 1, 3, 5, and 6 from the offshore sgard operation are shown in the offshore
visual inspection image.
For the SCP application extensive research, development and qualification work
was performed over several years in a hyperbaric welding facility in the United Kingdom.
Alloy 59 (Ni, Cr, Mo) was selected as the best
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FLOWLINES AND PIPELINES

Above: Offshore visual inspection. Below: Dry hyperbaric internal six-pass MIG weld macros.

welding consumable, established with consistently good weld quality, acceptable mechanical properties, excellent corrosion resistance
and resistance to solidification and hydrogen
assisted cracking. The successful deepwater
tests prior to the production weld validated
the work performed in the laboratory.
The comparatively slow welding travel
speed used for the remote hot tap application
seal weld procedure generated highly acceptable weld quality (from multiple macro-examinations) and favorable mechanical properties

in terms of HV10 Hardness, All-Weld Tensile,


Charpy V Notch and Fracture Toughness.
The slow welding travel speed was also highly
beneficial with regard to minimizing the risk
of solidification cracking in the presence of a
large root gap. Alloy 59 has also been found
to be highly resistant to Hydrogen Assisted
Cracking (HAC) also known as Hydrogen Induced Cold Cracking (HICC), a potential risk
for pipeline steels when welding in cold and/
or potentially humid environments.
Extensive pre-qualification and qualifica-

tion work of the robust weld procedure was


performed in the laboratory at the worst
case high humidity (>24C dew-point) and
low temperature (4C) enabling offshore
use either with or without the use of preheat. Offshore, the welding environment
is comparatively dry after inert Argon gas
flushing and a low level of pre-heating is applied although it is not formally required.
A new 400-bar hyperbaric welding facility
has now been commissioned in Killingy,
just outside Haugesund, Norway, the base of
the pipeline repair system. The large pressure vessel facility allows the completion
of the full six-pass saddle weld inside the
pressure chamber and enables the training
and qualification of the welding operators
in-situ, in conjunction with the hyperbaric
weld procedure qualification work. In early
2016, the SCP weld procedure (265 msw)
was validated in Killingy for use on the less
conservative Zeepipe 2A (80 msw) and Johan Sverdrup (110 msw) applications: both
these applications are in shallower water
and on larger pipeline diameters of the same
API 5L X65 material grade.
While the welds produced in the laboratory are subject to visual, non-destructive examination (NDE) and mechanical property
testing, the offshore fillet welds are validated
by visual examination and a well-established
and tested quality assurance monitoring strategy. The monitoring strategy has been qualified in the laboratory and thoroughly tested
offshore, and adheres to the requirements
stipulated in DNV RP-F113. The critical welding variables are monitored every second
subsea: arc voltage, welding current, wirefeed speed and travel speed. The arc voltage
and welding current signals are sampled at
a higher frequency of 1kHz subsea and averaged for close monitoring on the surface by
the welding operator and engineer. For every
second of the weld, compliance of each critical welding variable with the established target levels in the hyperbaric weld procedure
specification is crucial for acceptance in conjunction with the visual inspection after each
pass. For the six-pass remote hot tap weld,
this represents approximately 1,300 seconds
of welding for the retrofit tee weld inside the
12-in. branch insert.

References
Apeland, K.E., Verley, R., Berge, J.O., Woodward. N,
Armstrong, M. and Linde, O.E., 2013, Remote
Welded Retrofit Hot-tap Tee: a New Era for Hot-tap
Connections to Offshore Pipelines?, OPT 2013, 6-9th
May Houston, Texas, USA
Woodward, N., Apeland, K.E., Berge, J.O., Verley, R.,
and Armstrong, M., 2013, Subsea Pipelines: The Remotely Welded Retrofit Tee for Hot Tap Applications,
OMAE2013, June 9-14, 2013, Nantes, France

50 Offshore November 2016 www.offshore-mag.com

1611OFF_50 50

11/2/16 8:09 AM

Houston

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www.offshore-mag.com
November 2016

World Trends and Technology for Offshore Oil and Gas Operations

European Offshore
Technology

Courtesy Aker Solutions

1611OFF_51 51

11/2/16 8:18 AM

European Offshore Technology

Pioneering Spirit proves


strength, stability
with record
topsides lift

Pioneering Spirit in place at the


test platform in the Dutch North
Sea. (Photos courtesy Allseas)

llseas multi-purpose vessel Pioneering Spirit has come through its first
major test, removing the 13,500-metric ton (14,881-ton) topsides from the
Yme platform offshore Norway in a
single lift during a swift, trouble-free operation. Following further trials with additional
lifting beams, the vessels next major task
will likely be removal next summer of the
Brent D platform topsides for Shell in the
UK northern North Sea.
After many years of engineering, planning
and finally construction, the completed vessel was delivered to Allseas early last year.
This July, the company conducted tests at
Rotterdam harbor on the 12 lifting beams installed to date on the vessels fore-deck. The
Pioneering Spirit then performed its first offshore lift on a set of mock topsides that had
been placed on a substructure at the K-13
field in the Dutch North Sea. Testing was
cut short when a window arose to remove
the Yme topsides and with operator Repsols
permission, this operation was completed
on August 22.
The 382-m (1,253-ft) long, 124-m (407-ft)
wide DP vessel, converted from the hulls of
two tankers, has a 122-m (400-ft) long, 59-m
(193-ft) wide U-shaped slot at its bow which
is positioned to fit around three sides of the
platform and then lift the entire topsides
using up to eight sets of horizontal lifting
beams. Allseas cites numerous benefits of a
single-lift execution, including a substantial
reduction in time spent on preparatory work
such as offshore cleaning; partitioning; installing lifting points and modules. There is
also less risk to the environment, as a single
lift avoids the need for prior purging of process facilities.
In a typical topsides removal sequence,
the topsides support legs are cut and final
lift preparations undertaken prior to the ar-

Jeremy Beckman

Editor, Europe

rival of the vessel. Once on location, the topsides are lifted via hydraulic clamps or alternatively support yokes, placed on the lifting
beams. Each configuration is adjusted to accommodate the dimensions of the structure
to be removed: The clamps are carefully
closed around the topsides support legs,
while support yokes are positioned at predetermined strong points at the underside
of the topsides.
During lifting, although the vessel itself
moves due to wave action, all motions of the
clamps or yokes relative to the platform are
suppressed by engaging the active motion
compensation system. Pre-tension in the lift
system is increased gradually to transfer the
topsides weight from the jacket to the vessel. The final stage of the operation involves
a rapid lift-off, using hydraulic cylinders with
a maximum stroke of 4 m (13 ft), to ensure
sufficient clearance and avoid any risk of
impact between the topsides and the jacket.
Post-removal, the topsides are transferred
onto Allseas large shallow-water barge Iron
Lady, which is purposely designed to fit compactly within the slot at the bow, with the
operation taking place either at the onshore
decommissioning site or at a suitable nearshore location.

Trial runs

The Pioneering Spirit is also designed for


removal of heavy jackets, installation of topsides up to 48,000 metric tons (52,911 tons)
and the laying of large-diameter pipes. According to Allseas President Edward Heerema, the company developed the concept
for the vessel from scratch, with little knowl-

edge of heavy-lift technology in-house aside


from his own expertise acquired in his previous role at the Heerema Group. As the project progressed, however, Allseas did bring
in experienced specialists to help advance
the engineering.
The contracts for Yme and Brent were
awarded on a fluid basis, with the timing of
the removal jobs to be determined at a mutually convenient date to operator and contractor. For Allseas, the first priority was to
demonstrate the vessels lifting capabilities
in trial runs. Ymes topsides could have been
taken away last year, but operator Repsol
had no problem with deferring removal until
this summer. The platform was unmanned,
so the costs of maintaining it were minimal
to Repsol, Heerema explained, and the deferral allowed them to delay the expenditure
on the removal program.
Following installation and commissioning
of the initial 12 lifting beams, each was tested individually and in linked pairs at the harbor in Rotterdam this July, with four beams
lifting a combined load of 14,700 metric tons
(16,204 tons) during the final test. Early in
August, the vessel sailed to the K-13 field in
the Dutch North Sea for its first practice installation. One month earlier, Seaway Heavy
Lifting had installed the test jacket, fixed to
the offshore location by suction piles. Pioneering Spirit could also have installed the
jacket, Hereema said, but we wanted to get
tests on the vessel completed, so we had this
done by another company. We fabricated the
5,500-ton [6,063-ton] test topsides ourselves,
mostly comprising water-filled tanks in order to achieve the desired weight at the lowest feasible cost.
Sea conditions for this trial run were relatively benign, he added up to just over 2
m (6.6 ft) significant wave height but we
did experience sufficient movement of the

52 Offshore November 2016 www.offshore-mag.com

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11/2/16 8:18 AM

experience talks ingenuity whispers

1611OFF_53 53

11/2/16 8:18 AM

European Offshore Technology

Approaching the Yme platform.

ship to demonstrate the active motion heave


compensation system. Although we would
have liked to do the exercise in rougher
seas, it went extremely well, and we were
pleased at how accurately we were able to
set the topsides down.
A window of opportunity then arose to
perform the first commercial removal job,
with the vessel sailing north to the Yme field.
The three-legged Yme jackup production
platform, commissioned by previous operator Talisman, never entered service due to
defects in the base caisson structure which

rendered the 3.5-m (11.5-ft) diameter steel


tubular legs unstable. In this case, there
was not much pre-survey work to do, Heerema said, with the cuts to be made above
the water line. We did evaluate how structurally sound the topsides were, and designed
lifting yokes to spread the 13,500-metric ton
(14,881-ton) load so that the bottom of the
topsides stayed in shape.
The lifting beams were raised to five yoke
positions underneath the topsides, one being close to the vessels bridge. After the
legs had been cut, lifting started in a sea

state varying from 2-2.5 m (6.6-8.2 ft) significant wave height. Raising the topsides
to a 2-m clearance took around one minute,
somewhat longer than the few seconds anticipated, because the vessels quick-lift air
pressure system had not been fully commissioned at that point. This is a high-pressure
air buffer designed to release a huge amount
of stored energy at the moment of lift-off.
The reason the system was not ready was
because the air valves had not been operating properly and therefore had to be sent
back to the factory, Heerema said. These
have since been repaired and sent back to
us.
The speed of the lift is relevant because
of the degree to which the ship moves in the
waves. If the crane moves too much, you
cant make a lift. Conventional crane vessels
have wires running over many sheaths in
their case, lift-off is therefore never fast and
normally takes quite a few minutes.
During the lifting operation, the combination of the motion compensation system
and the DP system kept the Pioneering Spirit
stable, with no noticeable reaction. Thereafter the vessel sailed with its cargo to a fjord
near the port of Lutelandet, where the deck
was transferred to the Iron Lady and from
there to the quayside in a standard skidding
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new world record for a single-lift from an


offshore platform, eclipsing the previous record of 12,200 metric tons (13,448 tons) set
by Saipems S7000.
The vessel has since returned to the
quayside at Rotterdam for installation and
commissioning of the final set of four lifting
beams: all 16 will be needed for the Brent D
deck removal, currently scheduled for summer 2017. For this project, the lifting yokes
will be different, and this will apply to the
vessels future lifting assignments. Each
project features different strong points on
the bottom of the topsides, Heerema said,
although we hope in future to re-use some
yokes. We fabricate these at our assembly
shop in the Netherlands: yokes are basic
structural steel elements, essentially large
load spreaders.
In 2018, Pioneering Spirit is due to install
the first of three sets of topsides for the fourplatform complex at the Johan Sverdrup
field in the Norwegian North Sea. This season the vessel will also return to the Dutch
test platform for more trials, as operator
Statoil has stressed the need for verification
of the lifting capability in rough weather.

Witness responses
Representatives from three oil companies
observed the test platform lift in the Dutch

sector in early August, including one from


Repsol, in order to gain confidence in the
vessels capabilities, Hereema said. During the Yme job, we had one other client
in attendance. We got extremely positive
and enthusiastic responses to Yme, to the
evidence that the ship can do what it is designed to do; that it can undertake a big lift,
and do it fast; and that the motion compensation system worked beautifully, even though
the lift was performed in relatively good
weather.
There are some companies that did not
have the same confidence in the vessel
that others have shown and they would not
give us a contract before they knew more.
We lost out on a contract from a client who
might not have drawn the same conclusion
if the Yme lift had been done.
Allseas next goal is to complete development of the vessels jacket lifting system.
This has been on the drawing board a long
time, Heerema admitted, but it will not be
ready before the end of 2018. In the meantime, we have ordered a large crane with
5,000-metric ton [5,511-ton] capacity that
will allow the vessel to lift large jackets in
the traditional way. Eventually, it will be able
to install and remove jackets weighing up to
20,000 metric tons [22,046 tons]. Most large
platform jackets in the North Sea are in rela-

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tively good shape, only corroding significantly in the splash zone. Lower down in the
sea, steel members typically have adequate
strength to withstand lifting operations.
With decommissioning, as with all other
sectors of the industry, offshore operators
are pushing for lower costs. However, when
the day for removing a platform can no longer be put off, no chances can be taken or
corners cut that might impact safety. The
most important limitation of decommissioning cost, as far as were concerned, is the
amount of strengthening stipulated in the
topsides, Heerema suggested. If you build
too much conservatism into strengthening,
it becomes very expensive, a waste that benefits no one. After our first experience with
the Yme deck we have been rationalizing
our own strengthening requirements ensuring that the operation is still completely
safe, but not unnecessarily conservative.
Allseas next-generation heavy-lift vessel
Amazing Grace remains a work in progress.
This will be able to perform single-lifts of
up to 72,000 metric tons (79,366 tons), 50%
more than the Pioneering Spirit. We are continuing to optimize the design of the new
vessel, Heerema said, but we have to be
100% sure of its stability. Nevertheless, we
expect it to be operational six years from
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11/2/16 8:18 AM

European Offshore Technology

Collective response vital


to sustaining North Seas future

cross the North Sea, costs for exploration, development, and production
have risen inexorably over the past
decade, while the regions aging
offshore assets have experienced
a steady decline in operational efficiency.
Analysts at Ernst & Young (EY) found that
average opex per barrel costs rose steadily
between 2007 and 2014, while returns on
capital deployed headed in the opposite direction. Each $1 million invested by independent oil companies produced 45 boe in
2008. By 2014, the same outlay delivered 27
boe a year-on-year decrease of 11%.
According to another report by McKinsey, between 2000 and 2014, the annual inflation rate for North Sea platform lifting costs
was 12%, while from 2004-2013, the inflation
rate for UK development costs/boe was 21%.
Higher unit costs accounted for 40-50% of
this increase, but another 30-40% is due to
greater inefficiency. One major operator has
pointed out that, in a typical scenario, 40-60%
of the contents it sends offshore on a supply vessel in the North Sea will be returned
unused.
And then of course theres the oil price.
What may have been manageable at $140/
bbl is simply not possible at $30, $50, or even
$90. As a result, the industry is obliged to
do more with considerably less. For almost
any other sector, the solution would be to
reduce or control costs while increasing
productivity. But for offshore oil and gas,
cutting costs compounds rather than solves
the problem because there are other issues
to consider: managing risk and the accompanying threats to the safety of personnel, to
the reputation of companies, and the health
of the industry as a whole, in an inherently
hazardous environment. Managing these
three elements is far from straightforward.
As operational efficiency drops, so does
safety, and the risks increase daily. And cutting highly trained, experienced people will
only make matters worse.
Oil & Gas UKs 2015 Health & Safety Report identified a growing number of uncompleted maintenance jobs for safety critical
equipment in the North Sea. The number of
deferred maintenance man-hours that were
in backlog per installation increased from
nearly 1,000 in 2009 to more than 4,000 in
2014. Planned maintenance man-hours in
backlog soared from less than 1,000 to more
than 2,000 over the same period, while cor-

Phil Murray

Petrotechnics

The market downturn presents a critical moment for North Sea operators, one in which
the advantages of operational excellence can
finally be achieved. (Courtesy Petrotechnics)

rective maintenance man-hours in backlog


increased from less than 500 to more than
2,500.
More than 50% of global production currently comes from assets beyond the midpoint of their lifecycle, and North Sea facilities are at the older end of the scale. If these
trends continue, maintenance strategies
could be reduced simply to reacting to malfunctions as they occur. Planned, preventative maintenance will fall off, routine maintenance will undergo more frequent delays,
the backlog of tasks will get longer, and the
overall risk to the operating environment
will increase.
If this situation is to change, companies
need to consider seriously how best to manage that risk in relation to productivity and
efficiency. This means re-directing their focus toward operational excellence, defined
as the systematic management of process
safety, personal safety and health, environment, reliability and efficiency to achieve
world-class performance.
According to EY, more widespread implementation of operational excellence could inspire a 29% per cent hike in oil or gas production, a reduction in costs of up to 43%, and
savings over five years of up to $30 billion.
It could also help cut the number of safety
incidents across the industry by 43%. Bain &
Company echoes this view, suggesting companies use this model to achieve enhanced
asset integrity and improved efficiency of
maintenance execution.
Those responsible for achieving operational excellence will also need better
technology. The emergence of better, more
powerful tools has coincided with the availability of more data. Smart, wireless sensors

are about to simplify visualization of what


is happening at any given point of the asset
infrastructure without human intervention or production shutdown. These tools
and data support operational excellence by
giving senior management a global view of
their operations including risk from the
start. They can bridge the gap between planning, maintenance and operations functions,
allowing all in the organization to visualize
and manage operational risk, productivity
and cost in exactly the same way.
Previously, the concept of operational
excellence lacked the tools to turn management theory into practical reality. But that
has changed. By scrapping silos and connecting data, every single person in the entire organization from the operational front
line to the broadest strategic level has the
information to make better, safer, smarter,
and more informed operational decisions.
For North Sea operators in particular, this
is a critical moment. The long-promised,
tangible business advantages of operational
excellence can finally be achieved: lower
maintenance costs and increased production; less risk; greater control over growing
costs; and, ultimately, a means for survival
long after the current crisis has passed.

The author
Phil Murray is CEO of Petrotechnics and founded the
company in 1989 after recognizing a significant operational need in the oil and gas industry to use technology as an enabler to intelligently embed,automate, and
managefrontline work processes to drive operational
efficiencies and improve safety management. Prior to
founding Petrotechnics, Murray worked internationally
for BP for 10 years in a variety of technical, operational, and managerial roles.

56 Offshore November 2016 www.offshore-mag.com

1611OFF_56 56

11/2/16 8:18 AM

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European Offshore Technology

MEG maintains hydrates-free


production at Laggan-Tormore

Jeremy Beckman

Editor, Europe

roduction of gas-condensate from the


Laggan and Tormore fields has performed largely as expected since
start-up in late January. As with any
deepwater subsea tieback involving
transportation of liquids-rich gas, the facilities
must be protected against hydrate formation
and wax build-up. This project presented
special challenges as the UKs longest and
deepest-water tieback to date over 600 m
(1,968 ft) and in the harsh environment
west of Shetland.
Total operates the two fields in partnership with DONG Energy and SSE. The fields,
containing an estimated 1 tcf of gas, plus 33
MMbbl of condensate, are currently producing over 90,000 boe/d from five wells, four on
Laggan and one on Tormore, each equipped
with a subsea multiphase flowmeter. A sixslot, 900-metric ton (992-ton) manifold/template on each field is connected to two 143km (89-mi), 18-in., multiphase pipelines that
transport the wellstream to the new Shetland
Gas Plant (SGP) at Sullom Voe. From the
SGP, monoethylene glycol (MEG) is supplied
to the wells through a 143-km, 8-in. carbon
steel line, with control and power for the
subsea production system provided by an
umbilical. Following processing at SGP, the
gas heads through the SIRGE export pipeline
through the North Sea to eastern Scotland.
According to David Hainsworth, Operations Manager for Total E&P UK, the gascondensate ratios for the two fields are different, with Tormores condensates being a
little more waxy. There are also differences
in water chemistry between the fields, so
Total tailored the MEG injection system to
accommodate a range of fluid compositions
for these and other satellite fields in the area.
Among this group, also operated by Total,
are the 140-bcf Edradour, due to come onstream late next year via a single subsea well,
a 16-km (9.9-mi) export pipeline and a 6-km
(3.7-mi), 2-in. MEG service line connected to
the Laggan-Tormore infrastructure; and the
38-bcf Glenlivet, a two-well tieback to be connected via a 35-km (21.7-mi) export pipeline,
an 18-km (11.2-mi), 6-in. line importing MEG
from the Edradour manifold, and a 19.2-km
(12-mi) umbilical from Edradour. Glenlivet
could start production next summer.
Seawater temperatures along the route
of the pipelines can dip to -1C (30F), cold
enough for the wellstream to crystallize into
hydrates, leading to subsequent blockages.

The expanded Laggan-Tormore network, following tie-ins of Glenlivet and Edradour. (Courtesy Total)

MEG is therefore injected continuously into


the subsea wellheads at a rate of 17 cu m/
hr (600 cf/hr), with the returning MEG separated from the incoming hydrocarbons at the
SGP. Waste heat recovered from the gas turbine power generation systems and compressors at the site is used to drive the process.
The rate of MEG injection is fairly constant, Hainsworth said. What were doing
is optimizing what were injecting. At the
Shetland Gas Plant, there is also some water
in the wellstream that needs to be stripped
out, although not so far formation water
due to reservoir breakthrough. However,
the system is also designed to deal with this
eventuality and any associated salinity.
Cameron designed the MEG treatment/
regeneration equipment, which is an adaptation of the companys proprietary technology. Total engineers monitor the system: at
present, a Cameron technician is on hand
at the site under a maintenance agreement,
but as Totals team becomes more familiar
with how the system works, this will switch
to a service agreement.
By having MEG in the pipeline system we
are protected permanently against hydrates,
Hainsworth said. We also perform pigging
runs every three months through the export
lines to check for any wax build-up. So far
weve encountered very little wax, but we do
have a mechanism for injecting wax inhibitor
if needed. When we pig the lines, following
a temporary production shutdown, all the
liquids are emptied back to the SGP and any

incoming liquid MEG slugs are sent to storage tanks. Regenerating MEG after a pigging
run typically involves a 10-day turnaround.
In addition to MEG, Total investigated alternative injection methods using methanol,
or kinetic hydrate inhibitors with another
chemical. Trace heating for the pipelines was
discounted as not being a fully proven technology, with only limited deployments. We
performed a screening study and decided that
MEG gave us the optimal flexibility going forward, Hainsworth said. We have a hub and
the infrastructure, and this technique gave us
the flexibility we need for future tie-ins.
For the virtual flow assurance modeling, Total used Schlumbergers established dynamic
multiphase flow simulation tool OLGA. For
the pipeline management system, however,
the company developed a multiphase model
to optimize its pigging requirements using
LedaFlow, the first time the software has been
integrated into a PMS anywhere, Hainsworth
claimed. LedaFlow, developed by SINTEF,
Kongsberg, Total, and ConocoPhillips over
the past 15 years, is a transient multiphase
flow simulator designed for various types of
flow assurance studies, including slug-capture
prediction. It is said to provide more refined
mathematical representations, leading to improved understanding of the multiphase flows.
Laggan-Tormore is important to Total as
the companys first deepwater long gas tieback, but the company has other opportunities around the world where hydrate inhibition will be needed, Hainsworth noted.

58 Offshore November 2016 www.offshore-mag.com

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European Offshore Technology

Extended subsea compressor qualification


program proves worth at sgard
George Kleyhans
Alexandre de Rougemont

MAN Diesel & Turbo

ince September 2015, Statoil has been


operating the worlds first subsea gas
compression station on the seafloor
of the Norwegian Sea. MAN Diesel &
Turbo in Zurich developed the compression technology.
The sgard B platform produces gas and
condensate from the Mikkel and Midgard reservoirs from subsea wellheads with 50-80 km
(31-50 mi) long pipeline tiebacks. When production started to decline, Statoil investigated
several innovative techniques to extend field
life and increase recovery. The favored solution was artificial lift, supplied by compressors
on the seabed close to the wellheads. MANs
HOFIM motor-compressor was selected to
fulfil this duty and a 10-year, extensive technology qualification program followed.

Statoils K-lab test facilities in Krst. (Photos courtesy Statoil ASA)

Component screening
exposure testing
The all-electric, hermetically sealed integrated motor compressor was originally designed for onshore gas transport and storage. HOFIM technology is based on many
years of experience with more than 100 machines in operation in gas transport and storage with internal component exposure to
sales gas. However, a comprehensive qualification program was necessary to evolve
the machine concept to perform reliable upstream gas quality subsea compression. The
ensuing development was anchored in the
technical readiness level (TRL) methodology in API RP 17N (2009) by quantifying and
controlling the technical risk level throughout the different project execution phases.
To address concerns over the machines
internal material compatibility to an upstream fluid environment, a comprehensive
material screening list was drawn up covering relevant individual components inside
the integrated motor compressor. Ageing
mechanisms reviewed for different material
groups included droplet erosion and corrosion for metallic materials, and chemical
ageing and RGD for non-metallic materials.
The team recognized the need for full-scale
testing to raise the TRL via endurance testing
for upstream fluid application. This led to the
order of a six-stage inline compressor with an

Left: Subsea HOFIM unit at MANs test bed in Zurich. Right: The completed Subsea HOFIM motorcompressor unit. (Photos courtesy MAN Diesel & Turbo)

integrated motor of 8 MW, the largest machine


size available at the time, selected to match the
capabilities of the K-lab multi-phase fluid test
facility operated by Statoil at the Krst gas
treatment plant in western Norway.
In 2007, MAN successfully completed the
performance, mechanical and leakage testing series (TRL 2 status). The motor compressor unit was installed in the K-lab test
loop in early 2008 and prepared for a test
campaign that included two phases, with the
main objective of achieving 3,150 operating
hours with high reliability and availability.
In late 2009, after completing 3,250 hours of
wet upstream compression operation with
an availability of more than 98%, the integrated motor-compressor concept was awarded
a test certificate stating that the machine
internal materials and components were
qualified for wet upstream compression conditions. The integrated motor concept then
attained a TRL 3 for upstream applications.
After the successful qualification program,
the project team planned further tests to qualify additional machine and system operational aspects for future subsea operation. Most
important were (a) control of the high speed

motor operation with a simulated distance of


almost 50 km (31 mi) between the frequency
converter and the motor; (b) introducing enhanced motor and active magnetic bearing
components for improved performance and
robustness; and (c) operation of the compressor with full wellstream multi-phase flow.
MAN was awarded the test certificate that
qualified the integrated motor compressor
internal components for upstream gas compression application. Technical qualification
work then started to close technology gaps
caused by the submersed subsea environment and the increased performance requirement of 11.5 MW shaft power. This included
the large motor frame size verification, subsea penetrators, metallic casing seals, and the
active magnetic bearing control system.

Subsea compressor
deployment
In 2010, after completing successful full-scale
testing of the prototype, Statoils contractor
Aker Solutions awarded the contract for the
sgard turbocompressors to MAN Diesel &
Turbo. The scope of work comprised the supply of four hermetically-sealed single HOFIM

60 Offshore November 2016 www.offshore-mag.com

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11/2/16 8:18 AM

units, each compressor (size RB 45) featuring


an integrated MAN motor (size M43). A first
compressor with additional instrumentation
served as a pilot for testing purposes at Statoils
site in Krst. Two units were installed in
Akers subsea modules with one serving as a
spare. All four compressor units were built and
tested at MANs facilities in Zurich.
The first unit was installed in June 2015
at a water depth of 260 m (853 ft). Following a three-month commissioning period the
worlds first subsea gas compression station
came online and began producing gas to the
sgard B platform on Sept. 17, 2015. Train 2
modules were also successfully installed and
started official production on Jan. 28, 2016.
Since then, the two HOFIM motor-compressor units have been in operation with practically no stops or interruptions over their first
year of operation.

Future developments
After the successful implementation on sgard, the next goal is to reduce the current
system/component complexity to lower the
investment cost and make it attractive for various other applications, including marginal gas
fields.
Aker Solutions and MAN Diesel & Turbo
formed the subsea compression alliance in
October 2015 to develop the next generation

removing the need for separator and pump as


well as their associated auxiliaries.

Subsea technology
for topsides

The subsea compression template on its way to


the seabed. (Courtesy Statoil ASA)

of subsea compression systems to deliver increased recovery and lower costs compared
with conventional platform solutions. Their
aim is to provide cost-effective technology
for subsea compression systems with a focus
on robustness, standardized interfaces and
packages, weight and size minimizations,
and the elimination of unnecessary system
complexity.
Standardized solutions will help to suppress project-related risks and costs. The
partners have identified significant potential
for simplification and optimization which can
be applied without major changes to the qualified core functionality. The next system simplification will be realized by moving toward
a well-stream compression concept, thereby

The technology developed for subsea can


also be applied for topsides installations on
platforms or FPSOs. The advantages are
manifold:
Low footprint and weight
Low maintenance
Lower manning required or even unmanned production facilities
Enables remote operation.
MANs first topsides hermetically-sealed
motor compressor unit is currently being installed on the Aker BP-operated Ivar Aasen
production platform in the Norwegian North
Sea. The compressor will export the produced
gas from the platform to the shore. From a
conceptual point of view, this HOFIM compressor unit is very similar to MANs subsea
compressors. The technology offers a strong
business potential for platform operators as
the offshore industry is asking for simple, robust, and safe compression systems which can
be integrated into cramped environments.
Reference
Kleynhans et al., Development and Qualification of a
Subsea Compressor, Paper OTC-27160-MS, Proc.
Offshore Technology Conference 2016, Vol. 4: 3147.

OFFSHORE
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www.offshore-mag.com November 2016 Offshore 61

1611OFF_61 61

11/2/16 8:18 AM

European Offshore Technology

Non-destructive method for assessing


safety of offshore structures
C.L. Walters
W. Duvalois

TNO

M. Bruchhausen
J-M. Lapetite

European Commission
Joint Research Centre

esearchers at TNO, the Dutch organization for applied scientific research,


are working on a method for testing how safe offshore structures are
against failure without having to destroy the structure to prove it. This is because
assessments needed to check the safety of a
structure, such as BS 7910: Guide to methods
for assessing the acceptability of flaws in metallic structures, require destructive testing
of specimens. While not a problem for new
structures, it can result in expensive repairs
for existing offshore structures.
The nuclear industry has developed a test
method, available at the EU Joint Research
Centre (JRC) in Petten, the Netherlands, which
requires only very small samples of the structure to be extracted by a device that could be
described as a special type of ice-cream scoop.
Over the next few years, TNO plans to devise
an analysis method to convert the results
from this minimally destructive method into
numbers that can be used to assess the safety
of offshore structures by standard methods.
This should increase the accuracy of assessing the remaining service life of structures,
whether old structures whose service life is
being extended, new structures that need to be
re-assessed due to new information, or existing
structures being used in a new situation.
In the nuclear industry, structural integrity is
heavily researched because the material properties of steel are known to change as a result
of neutron irradiation. Therefore, engineers
need to monitor the toughness of their structures in order to check whether the structure is
safe or not. This involves placing extra material
in the reactor that can be removed for Charpy
testing, which assesses the toughness of a material by striking a notched specimen with a
hammer and measuring how much energy is
absorbed. However, as the sacrificial material
is used up, smaller specimens are needed. For
this reason, the nuclear industry has created
the small punch test (SPT).
A very small specimen is punched perpen-

Fracture surface of a small punch test performed at room temperature, showing a typical ductile
mode (left), and a test performed at a low temperature, showing a typical brittle mode (right).

dicular to its surface until the specimen a


disk 8 mm in diameter by 0.5 mm thick fails.
The force versus displacement is measured,
and brittle failure is characterized by a sudden drop in force. As with Charpy testing,
the SPT features a change from safe, ductile
behavior at higher temperatures to a brittle,
unsafe behavior at lower temperatures. The
temperature at which this transition occurs
is known as the Ductile to Brittle Transition
Temperature (DBTT).
While both the Charpy test and SPT feature
a DBTT, it is different for both tests. Empirical relationships already exist between SPT
results and the Charpy DBTT. However, the
derived empirical correlations are unlikely to
accurately predict the behavior of offshore
steels (different from those used in the nuclear industry) without further development or
validation. Furthermore, the state of stress in
a SPT is different from that of typical Charpy
specimens, so there was concern that the SPT
would not reproduce the brittle fracture mechanism in offshore steels.
Experiments were therefore staged to see
whether the SPT works for offshore steels,
using a sample of commercially available
S355J2+N steel. SPT tests were performed at
the JRC in Petten, while Charpy and Crack
Tip Opening Displacement (CTOD) tests
were conducted in a commercial laboratory
under contract from TNO. Initial test results
showed that the S355 steel behaved differently from the nuclear steels that JRC typically tested.
However, the S355 nevertheless displayed
a ductile to brittle transition, marked by three
distinguishing features:

The force in the cold specimens suddenly dropped upon fracture


The relationship between the indentation
energy and the temperature features two
distinct regions one at high temperature, and the other at low temperature
Fracture surfaces showed a characteristic dimpling for ductile failure and a
facetted surface for brittle failure.
All three of these features show that the SPT
can identify ductile to brittle behavior in this
steel and that brittle failure can be measured.
Since the 1980s, researchers have shown
that the probability of brittle failure depends
on the first principal stress and the volume
over which it is applied. Furthermore, steel
has a higher strength at lower temperatures,
and the latter tend to increase the first principal stress in a material test. Therefore, analytical methods must allow for trading between
temperature, the first principal stress in a material, and the volume of stressed material. It
follows there is a trade-off between high local
stresses and lower temperatures, so testing
methods with high local stresses will have a
higher DBTT and vice versa.
There is a promising future for fracture
testing of existing steel offshore structures
without damaging them. This will help to
justify longer service lives of offshore assets
or the use of structures beyond their original
design environment (i.e. those transferred to
new applications in the arctic). The JRCs new
tests have confirmed that these techniques
can produce brittle failure in steels relevant
to the offshore industry, which is critical for
characterizing the most relevant fracture
mechanism in the offshore industry.

62 Offshore November 2016 www.offshore-mag.com

1611OFF_62 62

11/2/16 8:18 AM

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1611OFF_63 63

11/2/16 8:18 AM

European Offshore Technology

Transfer system offers option for standing personnel


Crew logistics is inherent to all offshore operations, with the
safety and well-being of personnel directly impacting the success
of a project. Marine transfer is becoming increasingly due to the
attendant safety and cost-efficiency benefits. A study by DNV GL
reveals a lower risk of fatality using marine-based methods of transfer compared with aviation. Crane-based transfer can be used as a
primary means or a back-up option to other transfer methods, such
as walk-to-work or aviation.
For over 20 years, Reflex Marine has been providing transfer solutions to the offshore industry. For clients operating in challenging
offshore environments, the companys FROG-XT range provides
extensive protection against four key risks associated with personnel transfer by crane: falling, vertical impact, lateral impact and immersion. The security provided by the suspension system enables
increased operating limits, resulting in higher workability and less
downtime while waiting for more favorable transfer conditions.
Some clients also prefer the option of standing rather than sitting during transfer, areas where conditions are sufficiently benign
for this operation not to compromise safety. Standing transfers are
prevalent in certain regions and some users are accustomed to it.
Reflexs latest innovation, WAVE-4, was designed to offer a safer
alternative to current methods and is the first transfer carrier for
standing passengers that addresses the four risks listed above.
High costs are a common complaint among owners of existing
standby devices. WAVE-4s simplified inspection and maintenance
schedule is designed to limit cost, and all maintenance can be performed offshore, reducing product downtime.

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Co.L.Mar adapts pipeline leak detector for AUVs


Pipeline inspection specialist Co.L.Mar has
might be. The main advantage of an AUV for
sold its first acoustic leak detector (ALD) for
pipeline inspection, and for this particular opinstallation on an autonomous underwater veerator, is cost, he added: unlike a larger ROV,
hicle (AUV) to a major oil company. This folan AUV does not need to be deployed from a
lows a three-year test campaign, initially with
specialist vessel kept on standby in DP mode.
a prototype in a test pool and culminating in
For this first commercial AUV version, the
a maintenance program on various pipelines
ALDs payload includes some free channels
up to 21 km (13 mi) long connected to an oil
where optional sensors can be added. The
and gas field in the Mediterranean Sea. In this
hardware is based on the latest-generation
case, the AUV performed integrity pipeline inembedded processor developed by National
spection including detection of free-span and
Instruments.
cathodic protection.
This year, Co.L.Mar teams have detected
The ALD-AUV comprises an underwater
leaks from five different offshore pipelines.
acoustic sensor which acquires data along the
One in the Middle East a very small leak of
pipeline, records, and pre-processes it. Follow0.08 l/min came to light during a hydro-test
ing completion of the mission, the data is prowhich recorded a pressure drop. We were
cessed by dedicated software in order to detect
called out urgently, Barbagelata said, and usany eventual leak.
ing an ALD in a diver configuration, we were
For this project, Co.L.Mar developed a secondable to pinpoint the leak.
generation version of the equipment which can Clump weight with ALD suspended vertically.
In the same area we were called out to deal
part-process data during inspection in real time, (Photo courtesy Co.L.Mar)
with a smaller leak on another line, just 0.04
as opposed to merely delivering recorded data,
l/min, which again we detected using divers.
and also generate a real-time leak probability parameter.
This was the smallest offshore leak that we had ever been detailed
In real-time mode, the draft processing can be useful in case to detect. After inspecting the flanges -- normally the most suspect
the parameter reaches a threshold level, explained the companys areas this was where the leak was coming from in both cases.
managing director Luigi Barbagelata. The AUV might then decide, Once our team was on site, it took less than 24 hours to get the jobs
also in real time, to come back and check where the suspicious area completed.

REFLEX MARINE
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+44 (0) 1872 321155 | info@reflexmarine.com | www.reflexmarine.com


www.offshore-mag.com November 2016 Offshore 65

1611OFF_65 65

11/2/16 8:18 AM

European Offshore Technology

New Lean Semi for marginal fields


draws from designers history
Sarah Parker Musarra

Editor

n October, Aker Solutions debuted the Lean Semi, its latest platform design. In it, the company has worked to lower the weight
and the cost of a conventional semisubmersible platform to make
the production of certain marginal fields economically feasible.
Capable of working in water depths of 100-400 m (328-1,312 ft),
the Lean Semi is designed to commercialize fields with up to 300 MMboe, ideally when located next to larger fields with excess processing
capacity. The initial design is intended for Norwegian waters; however,
John Nustad, business development director, Aker Solutions Floating
& Marine Facilities group, said that the company is in the process now
of tweaking the concept for a model that can be dispatched to the Gulf
of Mexico. Then, it is foreseen that minimal changes, if any, will be
needed for the platform to work anywhere in the world.
In times of triple-digit oil prices, such resource contingents might
not have been seen as economical in the sense that they were not
deemed worth the time, or the return on investment, of the oil company willing to sink the money into bringing a marginal field into
production. Now, however, sinking a bit can be cost-prohibitive, and
companies are scouting for ways to exploit any available resource.
Thus, the right type of marginal development can become much
more attractive - but only if the economics work.
Many of the big oil companies have so many smaller fields that
are not economical to build in the traditional way, the more tailored
way, he told Offshore.
Nustad said that various elements of the platforms design and
the design process verged from convention in an attempt to ensure
that it was as lean, nimble, and efficient as possible.
Continuing, he explained that platform designs must not only satisfy governmental regulations and standards, but also reach company specifications all of which vary, without many commonalities
between them. Of course, standardization is itself a larger principle
that is debated at length throughout the industry. To this end, Nustad and Aker Solutions do not see that the bespoke approach provides a viable solution when it comes to marginal fields.
That tailoring costs a tremendous amount of money, Nustad commented. If you have marginal fields and you try to tailor [a specific solution], they will not be economical. With bigger fields, it is possible,
but not with marginal fields, which is what we are trying to unlock.
To keep the Lean Semi light, the topsides was designed using lowweight skids with standardized equipment placed directly on the deck,
which is a single, large, flat top that functions as a building block. In
some cases, Aker Solutions partnered with specialist companies in
working on the standardized equipment, including Fjords Processing
for the process skid.
In another measure, Nustad explained that the necessity of every
single component of the platform was questioned throughout the
design process.
The standard of the group moved to, Do I really need this?
rather than This would be nice to have, Nustad said.
A lean philosophy was applied to the hull design. The deck is integrated, a feature which the company says aids in structural integrity. Through these and other elements, Aker Solutions found it could
achieve a 30% reduction in weight over a conventional topsides design.

Debuted in October, the Lean Semi concept is specifically designed for


to produce marginal fields with a resource base of 300 MMboe. (Image
courtesy Aker Solutions)

The Lean Semi clocks in at around 6,000 metric tons (6,613 tons) with a
60,000 b/d capacity. Nustad said the topsides is capable of being scaled
to anywhere from 4,000 to 10,000 metric tons (4,409 to 11,023 tons).
Depending on necessary specifications, the platform could be delivered in 29 months.
By virtue of its application, the Lean Semi was designed with a
short field life in mind. This decision, the company says, ensures
minimal redundancy effort and could boost the units chances of
refurbishment and redeployment. In todays oil price regime, it is
believed that a standardized design approach with a possibility of
refurbishment for other fields or late life needs is a more viable economical solution than a tailored design.
These methods were not the extent of the tools the company
employed in keeping the Lean Semis cost down: In fleshing out its
new creation, the company sourced proven elements from two of
its platforms that had been working successfully in two very different basins. The first was in Aker Solutions own backyard: Njord A in
the Norwegian Sea, operating in the Njord field since 1997. A critical
building block feature of the Lean Semi was one that was integral to
the older harsh environment platform: the wet truss structure, which
allows for waves to reach the truss. This concept lowers the platforms
center of gravity and reduces the structures height and hull volume,
resulting in a cost savings over a conventional platform.
Another major building block component milled from a previous
design is the unmanned hull concept from the Chevron-operated
Blind Faith, located 160 mi (257 km) southeast of New Orleans in
the deepwater Gulf of Mexico. The hull is designed without manned
spaces and without connection between pump rooms in the four
quadrants, Nustad said. Two caisson pumps are located in each of
the hulls columns, for ballasting and de-ballasting.
NORSOK standards are used for the Lean Semis safety design,
which Aker Solution says includes firewater, lifeboats, etc. The unmanned hull is sized according to Norwegian and International standards.
The internally-financed Lean Semi is ready for its first client.

66 Offshore November 2016 www.offshore-mag.com

1611OFF_66 66

11/2/16 8:18 AM

OMC 2017 to highlight industrys


survival strategies, new opportunities
In 2015, the Offshore Mediterranean Conference and Exhibition (OMC) in Ravenna,
Italy attracted over 18,900 participants. This
represented an increase of 31% compared to
the previous show, with 688 exhibiting companies from 69 countries.
The main theme of OMC 2017, to be staged
in Ravenna from March 29-31, will be Transition to a sustainable energy mix: the contribution of the oil and gas industry.

Scene from the conference at OMC 2015.

The conference will highlight how todays


energy business must satisfy global production
needs, grant larger access to energy for developing nations, and comply with the commitments
on emissions.
This will call for intensive R&D into technologies such as carbon capture and storage; pursuing energy efficiency along the entire production chain; and above all, increasing the use of
gas as a sustainable fuel.
Among the other subjects to be covered are:
The resilient oil industry: staying competitive with low oil prices. Speakers will examine
how the oil and gas industry, with its technological capabilities and drive for innovation,
is coping with restructuring its activities in
order to sustain production during the prolonged period of lower oil prices.
Mediterranean basin: a new hub for gas.
Significant offshore discoveries in the Eastern Mediterranean have opened new basins.
The combined resources of Egypt, Cyprus,
Israel, and Libya could lead to the creation of
a new gas hub in the Mediterranean region,
which over the next few years could become
a major supplier to Europe.
Low carbon economy and the oil and gas industry. E&P companies and contractors will
outline technology solutions and measures that
could ensure a greener use of energy.
The exhibition area will cover the entire
E&P chain, offshore and onshore, including
geosciences, drilling, well systems/equipment,
safety, and transportation.

1611OFF_67 67

Exhibiting companies will include IOCs and


NOCs, contractors and service companies from
Europe, Northern Africa, the Middle East and
the USA; national pavilions drawing together

See uS At

companies from France, Iran, the UK, the Netherlands, USA); and various industry associations.
Updates on the program and exhibitors are
available at www.omc2017.it.

Petrotech 2016
hall 18, Stand e24
IndIa 05 - 07 dec

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11/2/16 8:18 AM

European Offshore Technology

Online monitoring system helps assess


integrity of North Sea platform
Structural safety plan enhanced by more than three decades of data
Craig Moir

Fugro GEOS Ltd.

perating company CNR International


(CNRI) has been working with Fugro
for more than three decades toward
the development and maintenance
of an asset integrity program on one
of its Ninian oil platforms in the North Sea.
These facilities are located about 386 km
(240 mi) north-northeast of Aberdeen. For
the past 35 years, CNRI has been working
with Fugro to monitor the structural integrity of the Ninian South platform (NSP) for its
structural integrity safety plan, using a permanent online monitoring (OLM) system.
This system was installed in 1985 following completion of initial structural integrity measurements in 1979, and is contracted
through to 2020. It is an aging platform in an
area of severe weather conditions, and the
OLM system provides CNRI with the confidence that it is operating safely.
The concept for monitoring the natural
frequencies of the platform remains virtually unchanged since installation. The system
comprises four pairs of biaxial accelerometers, with one pair positioned on each of the
four legs of the platform, combined with a
wave radar to help correlate structural motions with wave conditions. The sensors allow
Fugro to monitor the sway and torsion natural frequencies of the platform in response
to changing weather patterns any significant change in these values could indicate
a loss in stiffness and would require further
investigation.
What has changed dramatically is the communication system the PCs, and the software
(moving from UNIX through to Windows 7),
and the speed and flexibility of reporting.
The data is collected on two robust platform-based PCs, as the OLM is designed
with redundancy in mind. The stored information displays on the platform so the latest
wave data such as significant wave height,
and the natural frequencies can be clearly seen. Fugro provides the information in
both tabular and graphical formats, so CNRIs onboard team has a clear indication of
a range of limits. If a value drops by a large

Fugros structural monitoring services include the installation of biaxial accelerometers on this
platform leg. (Image courtesy Fugro GEOS Ltd.)

amount, this is clearly indicated in red on


the screen, providing an alert.
The data is processed onshore daily by
Fugro on an automated basis, and a report
is generated and received via email by the
companys onshore team, who checks key
parameters and assess data trends.
Previously, the data was received from
the platform through a satellite link to a base
in Aberdeen. The Fugro team would then
dial-in using an ISDN modem to download
the data. Now, the fully automated system is
internet-based: Daily reports reach specialists on their mobile phones, and they can
log in to the platform from anywhere in the
world and see the graphs as they appear in
real-time on the platform itself.
This instant access enables Fugro to pick
up anomalies. A high wave or significant change, such as a loss of stiffness of the platform,
sees CNRI alerted; indeed, the CNRI team
and their analysts determine the notification
parameters. Equally, the onboard team can request a detailed check at any time, as the team
is available 24/7 with a phone call support link.

The system proved its worth in 2006 when


it picked up a brace failure. The problem
was narrowed down to a subset of braces
when a drop in natural frequency occurred;
an inspection confirmed the suspicion. Once
the repairs had been completed and the stiffness had been restored, the frequency rose,
proving the value of constant monitoring.
Fugro Project Manager Waheed Siddiq,
who leads the OLM activities on NSP, said:
After more than 35 years of monitoring
NSP, our analysts know exactly how it behaves in all weathers; this intimate knowledge
means we are able to identify any structural
issues very quickly and accurately, and can
alert CNRI immediately.
Mark Wilson, Structural Technical Authority at CNRI said: The support we get from
Fugro is a vital part of our overall integrity
management of this key asset. The information provided by the continuous monitoring
of the structure helps us optimize our underwater inspection and provides an additional level of confidence in the condition of the
platform.

68 Offshore November 2016 www.offshore-mag.com

1611OFF_68 68

11/2/16 8:19 AM

1611OFF_69 69

11/2/16 8:19 AM

1611OFF_70 70

11/2/16 8:20 AM

High-performance alloy tubing can be used


for a number of critical oil and gas applications
Leading precision tube manufacturers Fine Tubes (UK) and Superior Tube (US) develop high quality, advanced alloy tubing solutions for the most demanding oil and gas applications.
Both businesses specialize in manufacturing high performance
tubing in a range of corrosion-resistant alloys including NORSOKapproved 6 Moly and Super Duplex, nickel alloys including grades
825 and 625, and titanium.
The high corrosion-resistant tubes rated up to 60,000 psi operating pressure offer excellent product life, reduced downtime, and
maintenance costs making them ideal for applications demanding
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Seamless, welded or welded and redrawn (Weldrawn) tubing is
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High pressure tubes. (Courtesy Fine Tubes/Superior Tube)

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11/2/16 8:20 AM

EQUIPMENT & ENGINEERING

New tools and technology for the offshore industry


Well assessment software improves
benchmarking, highlights inefficiencies
Petter Mathisen

AGR Software

Operational time is one of the greatest


variables on any well project. AGRs iQx TIME
module, introduced earlier this year, has
helped some oil companies increase their drilling operational efficiency by 50%.
Lost time can be challenging to map and
therefore difficult to mitigate. Hitherto,
drilling managers have also lacked a regular
high level overview to monitor the operational
development.
The new software, developed with various
operating partners and already licensed to
oil and gas companies in Norway, combines
up-to-the minute data from the users daily
drilling report system with historic activity
iQx TIME screenshot. (Photos courtesy AGR)
reports, allowing the operator to accurately
benchmark activity against its own hisensure data analysis is easy to interpret and
toric projects and against third-party activity.
compare. iQx users include: Aker BP, OMV,
Automatic synchronization with all industryVNG, Lundin, Norwegian University of Scirecognized drilling reporting systems
ence and Technology, and LUKOIL
also highlights inefficiencies and
Overseas North Shelf. The software
opportunities for improvement.
provides access to data from more
Among other features, the software
than 6,000 wells drilled on the
provides users with greater insight
Norwegian continental shelf. All the
into specific operational timings and
softwares modules visualize data in
data across multiple wellbores. This
standard format, allowing drilling and
allows them to compare the efficiency
subsurface teams to interpret data
of their wellbores in terms of footfrom real time and historic operaPetter Mathisen, tions.
age/day; to derive an overview of
AGR Software
non-productive time and its contributThe information is drawn from a
ing factors; flat spot analysis; and to
publicly available databank but can
undertake a comparison of wells to identify
also be tailored to include the end-users spelong-term trends grouped by rigs, field or hole cific data. The software currently provides offsections.
set, experience, GEO and TIME modules for
An intuitive time versus depth visualization
knowledge capturing and data analytics. More
compared to budget helps the user quickly
in-depth analytical tools are planned for 2017
identify where opportunities for improvement
based on the existing AGR software portfolio
lie. This is supported with key performance in- such as probabilistic well planning tool P1. But
dicator functionality, automated reporting, and the company is also for the first time inviting
the automatic transfer of drilling data from the
external companies to deliver modules based
users daily drilling reporting system.
on their own developed API standards.
In terms of improving the efficiency of well
Aker BPs drilling supervisor, Trond Eggen
projects, very often the critical factor is achievSivertsen, who is implementing another iQx
ing marginal gains across the board. One of the module, Experience, on the companys Ivar
greatest opportunities for improvement comes
Aasen development in the North Sea, has said
from cutting inefficient use of time for exthat the software is now a daily part of the
ample, teams having to spend hours researchcompanys standard working processes, with
ing past projects. With the new software, the
the derived individual learnings on the project
information is at their fingertips, allowing them
saved and now made accessible on a companyto remain focused on active operational activity.
wide level. By standardizing the knowledge
AGR has gathered data from a range of
management process, Aker BP has been able
different sources and standardized these to
to locate features for improving effectiveness

through minimizing human error. This has led


to a higher and more consistent level of quality in the companys project, concept selection,
and well planning.
Ivar Aasens development team used the
iQx tool for collecting and analyzing historic
well data to minimize the time spent on offset
engineering as well as helping to streamline
their processes for cross-divisional training
and skills development.

Visualizing big data


During the 1990s when the term big data
first surfaced the collection, storage, and
analysis of data were hugely time consuming,
significantly limiting the scope and scale of
information gathered and how it was used.
Well projects then depended on the skill and
judgement of the team leaders; projects were
high risk and often ran over time and budget.
Now more sophisticated tools are being
developed to capture information, via sensors
placed on drilling rigs, downhole or in production facilities. For a long time, the main focus
has been to stream these data real time from
offshore to onshore, enabling more decisions
to be taken by specialists at onshore bases,
with the aim of reduce offshore staff counts.
But the data remains scattered. Due to
the industrys current way of managing data,
the full effect of using big data has yet not
been discovered. Due to a large variation in
industry formats and reporting, managing a
standard platform for all the data has been an
important first step to make all data available
for the end users.

72 Offshore November 2016 www.offshore-mag.com

1611OFF_72 72

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EQUIPMENT & ENGINEERING

Rigless ESP conveyance system reduces costs, opens opportunities


Increasing the overall value of a well has never
been so critical, and the artificial lift market will
witness substantial growth over the next few
years. Electrical submersible pumps (ESP) are
often the optimal artificial lift option to costeffectively maximize reservoir recovery and
production. However, the full potential of ESPs in
offshore and remote locations has been limited by
rig deployment, with its high intervention costs,
loss of production, and the inability to access the
reservoir without pulling the production tubing.
AccessESPs Access375 System is a noninvasive ESP conveyance system. This technology simplifies the ability of an operator to quickly
and easily install and retrieve ESP systems on
slickline, without a rig. It is designed specifically
for high-value wells, where access to the location
is difficult, rig interventions are cost-prohibitive
and where delays in production cannot be accepted. This rigless conveyance system combines
a production-tubing landing string with a sidepocket-mounted downhole wet connector and a
high-power permanent magnet motor (PMM).

Case study: offshore Nigeria


In 2014-2015, the first rigless ESP conveyance system was installed offshore Nigeria.
The operation was performed using the Access375 System, consisting of a 190 hp PMM

Access375 can simplify the ability to install and


retrieve systems without a rig. (Image courtesy
AccessESP)

deployed through 4.5-in. tubing. The operator


had a two-well platform with an FPSO, and required an ESP to achieve sufficient drawdown
to produce the reservoir.
The operator replaced a failed conventional
ESP with the Access375 System. After installation of the Access375 Permanent Completion,
the retrievable assembly was run, via slickline
to a depth of 5,900 ft (1,798 m) in less than 15
hours. AccessESP initially installed a 190 hp
ESP system. However, it did not deliver the
required drawdown. Months after the initial
installation the operator was able to replace the
190 hp system with a 250 hp system in a rigless
operation in seven days. The client benefitted
by avoiding the significant loss of production
and the intervention costs that would have occurred with a conventional ESP change-out.
Slickline retrievable ESP systems are now
commercially viable, proven in a variety of environments and successfully operating in fields all
over the globe. The application of this technology significantly reduces operating costs, capex,
and cost per barrel for operators in the global
ESP market, while actively increasing rates of
production. By employing the AccessESP System, operators can typically lower their overall
cost per barrel by $2 to $5, versus a conventional
ESP deployment.

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1611OFF_73 73

International Pipe Line & Offshore


Contractors Association
Geneva - Switzerland

11/2/16 8:26 AM

EQUIPMENT & ENGINEERING

New hybrid drill bit aims to improve


penetration rates, run life
Baker Hugheshas made the commercial
release of its line of Kymera XTreme hybrid
drill bits, which are designed to lower well
construction costs through faster and
more durable drilling performance.
The bits which combine the
strengths of PDC and tricone bit
technology offer the smooth,
consistent performance of
previous generations of hybrid
bits, while improvingpenetration
rates and run life.
Kymera XT drill bits are available
in a variety of designs, each capable of
addressing specific challenges in numerous
applications, formation types, and hole sizes.
The company says the Kymera XT bits
drill faster thanprevious generation hybrid
bitsand offer a dynamic-balanced design that
reduces torque fluctuations to minimize damage to the bit and, deliver efficient, effective
performance in both vertical and curve sections. They also offer steerability and control
in difficult environments, including carbonates and interbedded formations.
The new bits sharper, more durable cutting structures incorporate enhanced shapes
and carbide grades for improved aggressiveness and accelerated penetration rates.
These designs, the company claims,
provide added tool face control, enabling the
drilling of longer distances at higher buildup
rates than was previously possible, while

maintaining a high-quality borehole throughout extended runs.


Blade and roller cone designs can be
optimized based on the operators
application to deliver a variety of
benefits that include long, sectionto-section runs and enhanced
durability during transitions
between formations.
In the Middle East, the new
hybrid drill bit demonstrated
durability by drilling 2,721 ft (829
m) of extremely hard and abrasive
series of limestone, sandstone, and shale
formations in one fast run improving rate of
penetration by 138% over the field average and
reducing the operators cost-per-foot by 50%. As
a result, the operator finished the section 2.3
days ahead of schedule, saving nearly $100,000.
Scott Schmidt, vice president, Drill Bits at
Baker Hughes, said: Kymera XTreme hybrid
bits combine the control and rock-crushing
strength of a tricone bit with the speed and
shearing action of a PDC bit and, in almost
every case, are more durable than either of the
alternatives.
This combination delivers a bit capable of
drilling longer vertical and curve sections at
higher speeds and in a variety of challenging
formations an extremely valuable tool to help
our customers effectively manage their well
construction costs in this challenging business
environment.

Weatherford says that


the slim profile of its
Compact formation
sampler allows the
tool to be run past
restrictions smaller
than 3 in. (Images
courtesy Weatherford
International plc)

New
and
tools logy
o
techn

Weatherford
introduces new
wireline tool
Weatherford International plc has
launched its Compact formation sampler.
The slim-profile wireline tool can capture
up to three 700-cc samples in a range of
borehole sizes.
The size of the Compact formation sampler
distinguishes it from other pressure, volume,
and temperature (PVT) samplers on the
market, the service provider said. The profile
enables the tool to be run past restrictions
smaller than 3 in. and to operate in boreholes
as large as 14 in. Additionally, the self-centering design is said to reduce formation-sticking

The Compact formation samplers design is


said to be able to improve the efficiency of
formation testing and sampling operations.

Baker Hughes says that its Kymera XTreme hybrid drill bits combine the strengths of PDC and
tricone bit technology. (Courtesy Baker Hughes)

risks, enable a more efficient and faster


connection with the target zones, and makes
it possible to deploy the tool on traditional
wireline or through drill pipe.
Olivier Muller, global vice president of
Wireline and Testing Services at Weatherford, said: The design of this new sampler
can significantly improve the efficiency of
formation testing and sampling operations.
By enabling a simpler and safer downhole
deployment, the Compact formation sampler
helps operators more assertively regain access to representative reservoir fluids.

74 Offshore November 2016 www.offshore-mag.com

1611OFF_74 74

11/2/16 8:26 AM

EQUIPMENT & ENGINEERING

Schlumberger introduces geo-based


well test design software
Schlumberger has released GeoTesting,
geology-based well test design and interpretation services.
GeoTesting services, built in the
Petrel E&P software platform,
integrate geological and geophysical models with dynamic
well test data in a shared
earth model for more accurate interpretation compared
with conventional analysis
limited to geometrical models.
Wallace Pescarini, president,
Testing Services, Schlumberger,
said: GeoTesting services bring a new
level of certainty to reservoir characterization with optimized well test designs that
validate and calibrate reservoir models
using dynamic measurements.
With high-quality data and analysis
representative of the reservoir, customers
can vastly improve production forecasting, determine reservoir connectivity and
identify sweet spots.
The Petrel GeoTesting plug-in features
global sensitivity analysis designed for
targeting geological features of interest and
incorporating uncertainty in the geological
model during well test design and execu-

tion. This, the company claims, maximizes


confidence in the data while minimizing
well test duration and cost.
The new grid-based inversion technology automatically
calibrates reservoir models
with dynamic well test data
for direct integration into the
reservoir model, enabling
more accurate reservoir
characterization. In addition, the naturally fractured
reservoir pressure transient
simulator provides new insight into
the complex behavior of transients and the
matrix-fracture interaction.
Operating in the Norwegian Barents
Sea, OMV used the new services to characterize a geologically complex reservoir,
which presented many challenges including proximity to nearby faults, oil/water
contact, uncertainty in fault conductivities,
permeability and anisotropy.
Success was achieved using GeoTesting
services to optimize the well test design
and calibrate the reservoir model with
dynamic well test dataestablishing confidence in the final model and confirming
reservoir connectivity.

New
tools and
technolog
y

Emerson Automation Solutions Roxar MPFM


2600 M multiphase flow meter features a technology based on a field-proven platform. The
scalable meter is designed to provide flexibility
as fields mature and conditions change. (Image
courtesy Emerson Automation Solutions)

Roxar multiphase
meter suited to
varying field needs
Emerson Automation Solutions has introduced the Roxar MPFM 2600 M multiphase
flow meter, designed to provide flexibility as
fields mature and conditions change.
It is said to be easily retrofitted in the field,
straightforward to commission, and designed
to meet operators capex and varying field
requirements.
According to Patrick Babka, VP and general
manager, Roxar, Emerson Automation Solutions: It is also ideal for applications requiring
one multiphase meter per well, allowing
operators to track multiphase flow from all of
their individual wells accurately and costeffectively.
The MPFM 2600 M can identify and
measure non-symmetrical flow in varying flow
regimes. Different modules can be placed
into a variety of configurations and software
modules are available to support flow back
measurements, well testing and allocation
metering.

GeoTesting services maximize the value of well tests by integrating geological and geophysical
models with dynamic well test data in a shared earth model. (Image courtesy Schlumberger)

www.offshore-mag.com November 2016 Offshore 75

1611OFF_75 75

11/2/16 8:26 AM

BUSINESS BRIEFS

People
Oil & Gas UK has appointed four new
members to its board. Cor y L. Loegering,
region vice president and managing director
for Apache North Sea; Robin Allan, Premier
Oils director, North Sea and Exploration; and
Bill Dunnett, managing director of Repsol
Sinopec Resources UK, have joined the board
as representatives of the operator community.
Peter Wilson, vice president, operations,
Rowan Companies, has been appointed to
contribute to the representation of contractors
and supply chain companies on the board.
Bureau Veritas has
appointed Paul Shrieve
as CEO of North Sea offshore operations, marine
and offshore.
John Bruce RaeSmith has succeeded Tor
Helgeland as CEO of
Swire Oilfield Services.
Shrieve
io oil & gas consulting
has appointed Richard
Dyson as CEO.
Jack Balagia has retired as vice president
and general counsel of Exxon Mobil Corp. It
is anticipated that the board of directors will
elect Randall Ebner as his successor.
Christopher McDonald has taken up his
role as CEO of Lamprell and as an executive
director on the board.
Jakob Stausholm has resigned as a member of the Statoil ASA board of directors.
Chevron Corp. has named Rhonda J.
Morris as corporate vice president of Human
Resources.
The Sevan Marine ASA board of directors
and CEO Carl Lieungh have entered into an
agreement whereby Lieungh will step down
on Jan. 1, 2017. He will continue as an adviser
to the board of directors with responsibilities
related to various tasks within the group until
the end of 2017. The board
of directors has appointed
the current CFO, Reese
McNeel, as CEO.
Bristow Group has appointed William Collins
as senior vice president
global operations.
Paradigm Flow Services
Collins
has appointed Kevin Keogh as business development manager. He will relocate from the
companys headquarters in Aberdeenshire,
Scotland, to Houston.
Deloitte has appointed John England to
lead its energy and resources industry practice in the United States.
Merlin ERD has appointed Martyn
Greensmith as senior vice president Western
Hemisphere Operations.
HINT has appointed Steve Hunter as vice

In memoriam
Bisso Marine reports that Capt. William A. Cappy Bisso, III passed away on
Sept. 24, 2016, at the age of 75.
Cappy attended Ridgewood Preparatory School and the University of Southern
Mississippi before joining the family business in 1962. He served in nearly every
capacity for Bisso Marine before ascending to the position of chairman of the board.
Cappy grew the companys fleet of vessels to include offshore revolving derrick
barges, pipelay barges, dive support vessels, and saturation diving vessels. Through
his leadership and vision, Bisso Marine evolved from a local inland salvage and
heavy-lift company to a full service subsea and offshore midstream infrastructure
contractor with operations around the world.
Through his service on the boards of the US Coast Guard Foundation, the National
Ocean Industries Association, and the International Salvage Union, the company said
that he always worked to improve the safety and viability of the industry to which he
dedicated his professional life.

The Houston Section of the Marine Technology Society reports that Dean Paxton
Hemphill passed away on Sept. 16, 2016, at the age of 91. He was born in Seattle but
grew up in Pasadena, California.
Following high school, he served three years in the US Army: first as an engineer
in training, then as a heavy machine gunner (354 infantry, 89th division), and as an
MP in Germany and Austria.
After discharge in 1946 at Fort Bliss, Texas, Hemphill continued his studies at
UCLA and University of California, Berkeley. He received his MS degree in mechanical engineering from Cal Berkeley in February1950 and began a career with the Shell
Oil Co. He was listed as inventor/co-inventor on a number of US government-issued
patents related to offshore drilling equipment and platforms.
Hemphill was a Fellow of the Marine Technology Society and served as president
of the Houston organization for a time.
president, Europe, Middle East and Africa.
Peter Soroka has joined Tendeka as
advanced completions commercialization
manager.
Global Maritime Consultancy & Engineering has
appointed Helge Flesland
to lead its Mission Critical
Systems Group in Norway.
Cargostore International
has hired Scott Glatley as
Cargostore Offshore - general manager, Abu Dhabi.
Flesland
Jochem Scherpenisse
has joined Ardyne as COO.
ValvTechnologies Inc. has named Herman
Benard, Jr. as director of manufacturing.
Paul King has joined 3sun Group as head
of commercial and risk.
The Energists has named Jonathan Verlander as principal of its Advisory and Professional Development practice areas.
Northwest Technical Solutions has hired
Rogelio Verdugo as vice president, business
development.
Gilles Lambar, Research Director,
EAME, Subsurface Imaging, CGG, has won
the Society of Exploration Geophysicists
Reginald Fessenden Award in recognition of
his initiation of the concept of common-angle
migration and demonstration of the potential
of that approach to seismic imaging.
This award is given to a person who has
made a specific technical contribution to exploration geophysics, such as an invention or a

theoretical or conceptual advancement, which,


in the opinion of the Honors and Awards
Committee and the board of directors, merits
special recognition.
Lambar was selected to receive the award
jointly with Sheng Xu of Statoil, one of his
former PhD students when he was associate
professor at the Geophysical Research Center
of the Paris School of Mines from 1995 to
2005. During that period, they realized that
conventional offset migration suffered from
artifacts in complex media and proposed to
consider angle gathers as a solution. Their
concept of sorting data according to a physical
parameter (angle) rather than an acquisition
parameter (offset) represented at that time a
significant improvement in seismic imaging.

Company News
Britains government has established the
Oil and Gas Authority (OGA) as an independent government company. This formalizes the transfer of the Secretary of States
regulatory powers on oil and gas matters to
the OGA, and grants it new powers, including
dispute resolution, meetings access, and
sanctions. In addition, the OGA now has a
remit to work with industry to ensure costeffective decommissioning.
Petrobras and Galp Energia have signed
a memorandum of understanding to broaden
their cooperation. They will consider joint
ventures in oil and gas exploration, production and infrastructure development, both in
Brazil and elsewhere. The MoU extends to

76 Offshore November 2016 www.offshore-mag.com

1611OFF_76 76

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BUSINESS BRIEFS

a joint training and research programs for


technical education and research with a focus
on deepwater carbonate reservoirs.
Totaltec Oilfield Ser vices has completed
its initial equity finance raising from various
private investors. The company intends to
use the proceeds to establish a presence in
Guyana and develop a locally-based oilfield
services company to promote indigenous
content and competence in Guyanas emerging oil and gas industry. Totaltec is a newly
established company focused initially on
supporting development of ExxonMobils
deepwater Liza oil field discovery. It plans
to provide training, engineering, technical
advisory, support and consultancy services
to the local Guyanese population, government and international operators and service
companies in-country.
Maersk Oil has contracted Lloyds
Register to provide asset integrity services
to support development of its offshore operations. The company will assist in change
management, contractor management,
inspection plans and reporting, asset optimization, risk-based assessments and written
schemes of examination. It will provide
additional support for structural and pipeline
integrity management systems and corrosion
monitoring.
Emerson has agreed to acquire UK-based
Permasense, a provider of non-intrusive corrosion monitoring technologies for the offshore and onshore industries. Its monitoring
systems use a combination of what is claimed
to be unique sensor technology, wireless data
delivery, and advanced analytics to continuously monitor potential metal loss from
corrosion or erosion in pipes, pipelines, or
vessels. Permasenses products will become
part of Emersons Rosemounts portfolio of
measurement and analytical technologies.
GE has opened its oil and gas technology
center in Oklahoma City. The new center
is expected to become a central hub for
the companys scientists and engineers to
collaborate with the oil and gas industry on
digital and hardware solutions and advancements. The center is five stories, with 125,000
sq ft (11,613 sq m) of lab and office space
that includes: 400-ft (122-m) and 60-ft (18-m)
deep test wells; two 30-ton overhead cranes;
and a floor dedicated to customer collaboration with embassy offices. The center can
accommodate 230 people. The company says
the research focus at the center will span
across all areas of oil and gas from production solutions and well construction systems
to oilfield facilities and systems and reservoir
performance.
Subsea 7 has awarded Exova a new
two-year framework agreement to provide
testing services in support of the contractors
pipeline welding activities. The agreement

includes weld qualification, routine mechanical testing of materials, corrosion testing,


and fatigue testing, run by a team including
a dedicated account manager and a project
manager. Exova will perform most of the work
at its Corrosion Centre in Dudley, its fracture
mechanics laboratory in Daventry (both in
central England), and its laboratory in Newbridge, Edinburgh. The company has invested
in additional autoclaves for corrosion testing
in Dudley and fatigue rigs for steel catenary
riser fatigue testing in Daventry.
Dril-Quip has agreed to acquire TIW
Corp., a manufacturer of liner hanger
systems and related products for the global
oil and gas market for around $143 million,
subject to regulatory approvals.
SKF and GE Oil & Gas have signed a
non-exclusive, license-based collaboration
agreement, aimed at further development
of active magnetic bearing technologies in
the oil and gas industry. GE Oil & Gas will
employ SKFs magnetic bearing technologies
comprehensively, from front-end engineering and design through installation, testing
and service to its clients. The agreement can
be extended to widen to GEs steam and gas
turbines.
Oceaneering International Inc. has
acquired the assets of Blue Ocean Technologies, LLC, a privately held provider of
riserless light well intervention services, for
approximately $30 million in cash.
Amarinth has secured a further order
worth more than 0.5-million ($0.55-million)
for the Al Dabbiya Facilities Development
Phase III project in Abu Dhabi. Fjords Processing in France has commissioned eight
API 610 OH2 alloy 625 crude oil desalting
system recycling pumps with tailored Plan
53B seal support systems.
Optime Subsea Ser vices and Telemark
Technologies have agreed to merge. Norwegian industrial investment company Holta
Invest will become a significant shareholder
in the merged company, which will retain the
name Optime Subsea Ser vices.
Vallourec Tubos do Brasil and Vallourec & Sumitomo Tubos do Brasil
have merged into a new entity, Vallourec
Solues Tubulares do Brasil. Vallourec
holds a majority stake of 84.6% in the company, along with Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corp. (15%) and Sumitomo
Corp. (0.4%).
RentAir Of fshore and ATR Power Solutions have merged to form a new business
trading as RentAir Of fshore. This will
provide rental of specialist air compression,
steam and power generation equipment to
support oil and gas production, well testing,
and fabric maintenance.
Albwardy Marine Engineering/Damen
Shipyards Sharjah has received two quality

management certifications. The first involves


the new ISO 9001:2015 Management System
Certificate awarded by Lloyds Register Quality Assurance. The second is the American
Petroleum Institutes API Specification Q1.
Dredging, environmental and marine
engineering group DEME has inaugurated
its new office in Bremen, Germany.
Frames and Evoqua Water Technologies are teaming up to supply seawater electrochlorination systems. The arrangement
involves integration of Evoquas Chloropac
system into Frames seawater electrochlorination system.
Wood Group has established a new data
analytics center of excellence at its office in
Galway, Ireland.
Sandvik has inaugurated a fully automated
ultrasonic oil country tubular goods testing
facility in Sandviken, Sweden, for pipes to the
oil and gas industry.
WFS Technologies has appointed Kuala
Lumpur-based Independent Marine &
Engineering Consultants Sdn Bhd as
exclusive agents for the Malaysian market.
InterMoor UK Operations, part of
Acteon risers and moorings business, has
completed its ninth straight year of operation
without any lost time incident. During this
nine-year period, the company has performed
more than 2,700 projects from three bases,
five storage yards, and numerous quayside
locations in the UK and around the world.
Intellian Technologies has secured an
order from PTSC Marine, a PetroVietnam
Technical Ser vices Corp. subsidiary. The
contract, which involves service provider
Vinasat, calls for the installation of 10 v100
antenna systems on a series of anchor handling tug supply vessels.
Merlin ERD has opened an an office in
Houston.
DNV GL has issued its first Functional
Safety Certificate against DNVGL-SE-0141 to
Rockwell Automation Ltd. The certificate
demonstrates compliance to IEC 61508 and
IEC 61511. IEC 61508 is the international
standard for electrical, electronic, and programmable electronic safety-related systems.
It sets out the requirements for ensuring
that systems are designed, implemented,
operated, and maintained to provide the required safety integrity level against a defined
unwanted hazardous event. IEC 61511 specifically covers the requirement for process
industries. The international standards for
Functional Safety, such as IEC 61508, IEC
62061, and IEC 61511, do not define certification as a mandatory requirement. However,
a demonstration of compliance is necessary,
and certification is increasingly being seen as
a more beneficial way of showing compliance
through an independent assessment by a
third party.
www.offshore-mag.com November 2016 Offshore 77

1611OFF_77 77

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Offshore
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ADVERTISERS INDEX

SALES OFFICES
PENNWELL PETROLEUM GROUP
1455 West Loop South, Suite 400, Houston, TX 77027
PHONE +1 713 621 9720 FAX +1 713 963 6228
David Davis (Worldwide Sales Manager)
davidd@pennwell.com
Shelley Cohen (Regional Sales Manager)
shelleyc@pennwell.com
Grace Jordan (Classified Sales) gracej@pennwell.com
GREATER HOUSTON AREA, TX
David Davis davidd@pennwell.com
USA
Shelley Cohen shelleyc@pennwell.com
UNITED KINGDOM SCANDINAVIA
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Axbridge, Somerset, United Kingdom BS26 2FE
PHONE +44 1934 733871
Graham Hoyle grahamh@pennwell.com
FRANCE BELGIUM PORTUGAL
SPAIN SOUTH SWITZERLAND
MONACO NORTH AFRICA
961 Camp Redon, 83830 Callas, France
PHONE +33 (0) 4 9470 8263 FAX +33 (0) 4 8981 9982
Stefania Piciotti Thompson stefaniat@pennwell.com
GERMANY NORTH SWITZERLAND
AUSTRIA EASTERN EUROPE
RUSSIA FORMER SOVIET UNION
BALTIC
Sicking Industrial Marketing
Kurt-Schumacher-Str. 16, 59872 Freienohl, Germany
PHONE +49 (0) 2903 3385 70 FAX +49 (0) 2903 3385 82
Andreas Sicking wilhelms@pennwell.com
ITALY TURKEY GREECE
CYPRUS MALTA
SILVERA MEDIAREP
Viale Monza, 24 - 20127 Milano, Italy
PHONE +39 (02) 28 46716 FAX +39 (02) 28 93849
Ferruccio Silvera info@silvera.it
JAPAN
e.x.press Co., Ltd.
AIOS Gotanda 606, 1-10-7 Higashi-gotanda
Shinagawa-Ku, Tokyo 141-0022, Japan
PHONE +81 3 6721 9890 FAX +81 3 6721 9891
Masaki Mori masaki.mori2@ex-press.jp
AUSTRALIA NEW ZEALAND
13 Langrune Grove,
Port Kennedy, WA, Australia 6172
PHONE +61 8 9593 4405 or +61(0) 437 700 093
FAX +61 8 9593 3732
Mike Twiss miket@pennwell.com
NIGERIA
Flat 8, 3rd floor (Oluwatobi House)
71 Allen Ave, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria
PHONE +234 802 223 2864
Dele Olaoye deleo@pennwell.com
BRAZIL
Centro Empresarial Mourisco
P. Botafogo 501 / Sala 101
Torre Po de Acar, Rio de Janeiro 22250-040
PHONE +55 21 2586 6302
Deny Tenenblat denyt@pennwell.com
CHINA SOUTHEAST ASIA
19 Tanglin Road #05-20
Tanglin Shopping Center
Republic of Singapore 247909
PHONE +65 9616 8080
FAX +65 6734 0655
Michael Yee yfyee@singnet.com.sg
FOR ASSISTANCE WITH MARKETING
STRATEGY OR AD CREATION, PLEASE
CONTACT:
PennWell Marketing Solutions
David Davis
PHONE +1 713 963 6206
EMAIL davidd@pennwell.com

1611OFF_79 79

A
Aker Solutions ........................................9
www.akersolutions.com
Allseas Group .......................................53
www.allseas.com
ATV S.p.A. ....................................... 54-55
www.atvspa.com

ITC Global.............................................. 11
www.itcglobal.com
J
JD Neuhaus Hebezeuge .........................3
www.jdngroup.com

B
Bechtel Oil Gas & Chemicals ..............21
www.bechtel.com
Brunswick Commercial &
Government Products ..........................15
www.brunswickcgp.com

K
Kobelco / Kobe Steel Ltd. ......................5
www.kobelcocompressors.com
N

C
Carbo Ceramics ....................................23
carboceramics.com/fusion
CO.L.MAR. S.r.l. ....................................71
www.colmaritalia.it
Cortec Fluid Control .............................35
www.uscortec.com
Crowley Maritime Corporation...............1
www.crowley.com
D

Nylacast .................................................47
www.nylacast.com
O
Offshore Mediterranean Conference
and Exhibition .......................................69
www.omc2017.it
OneSubsea, A Schlumberger
Company ............................................... 19
www.onesubsea.com

Damen Shipyards Group. .....................61


www.damen.com
Draeger ................................................. C3
www.draeger.com
Dril-Quip ............................................... C2
www.dril-quip.com

PennWell
Topsides, Platforms & Hulls
Conference & Exhibition .................36
www.topsidesevent.com

ERA Helicopters....................................29
www.erahelicopters.com

R.M. Young Company ...........................37


www.youngusa.com
Reflex Marine ........................................65
www.reflexmarine.com
Rosetti Marino S.p.A.............................70
www.rosetti.it

F
Fagioli, S.p.A. ........................................37
www.fagioli.om
Falck Safety Services .......................4, 33
falck.com/us
Fincantieri Offshore ..............................59
fincantierioffshore.com
Fine Tubes, Ltd. .....................................67
www.finetubes.com
FMC Technologies ............................... C4
www.fmctechnologies.com
Framo AS ...............................................57
framo.com

S
S. Himmelstein and Company .............78
www.himmelstein.com
Shawcor Ltd. ...........................................7
www.shawcor.com
T
TIW Corporation ...................................31
www.tiwoiltools.com

H
Hammelmann GmbH ............................37
www.hammelmann-process.com
I
IES International Exhibition
Services .................................................69
www.ies.co.it
IPLOCA ..................................................73
www.iploca.com

V
Vallourec................................................63
www.vallourec.com
Versabar, Inc.......................................... 17
www.vbar.com
The index of page numbers is provided as
a service. The publisher does not assume
any liability for error or omission.

11/2/16 8:26 AM

BEYOND THE HORIZON

Offshore bolt failures provide


chance to display safety culture
As audiences around the world watched the movie Deepwater Horizon, many of us found ourselves reflecting on the lessons of the actual
tragedy that occurred April 20, 2010. Like most of you, I expected the
movie to alter some of what the thorough investigations discovered,
and I suppose the movies effort to create a bad guy was predictable.
That said, those of us who work to reduce risks related to offshore drilling and upstream production know that it is simplistic and naive to tie
offshore safety to bad guys. Only an industrys cultural commitment
to continuously improve safety will produce the type of decision-making
that reduces offshore risks.
One contemporary example that illustrates the need to advance
offshore safety culture can be found in the form of subsea connector
failures. Connectors typically studs, fasteners, and bolts hold together critical subsea safety equipment, including blowout preventers.
As long ago as 2003 there were indications that the offshore oil and gas
industry was experiencing what we have come to call the bolt problem. In simplest terms, large bolts and other connectors have been
prematurely failing in ways that could lead to catastrophic incidents.
The Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE) was
created the year after the Deepwater Horizon tragedy so that a single
entity could vigorously enforce regulations pertaining to safety, the
environment, and resource conservation of the US outer continental
Shelf. We became aware of the bolt problem in late 2012, when bolt failures caused the drillship Discover Indias lower marine riser package to
become separated from the blowout preventer (BOP) stack. As a result,
more than 400 bbl of synthetic-based drilling fluids spilled into the Gulf
of Mexico, tripping a reporting requirement for the operator. BSEEs
investigation into that incident concluded that hydrogen-induced stress
corrosion cracking due to hydrogen embrittlement led to the failure of
numerous bolts.
In light of the Discover India investigation and other bolt failures
that have since been discovered, we issued a nationwide safety alert.
Fortunately, the failed bolts that we know about have not resulted in
human or environmental catastrophes. In some instances, however, the
potential for a serious result was evident. As of today, luck has been on
our side.
I believe the bolt problem gives us a real chance to put the postDeepwater Horizon reform mentality into practice. As such, BSEE has
taken a number of steps that address the bolt issue, including:
Changing reporting requirements for safety-critical equipment, including bolt failures. The Well Control Rule, which went into effect
July 28, now mandates reporting of safety equipment failures in
order to address potential systemic problems in their early stages.
This change will allow us to build better databases and help us
quantitatively understand how often failures occur

Establishing the federal Interagency Bolt Action Team. This group


of specialists, drawn from 20 agencies and bureaus, will collaborate
to help BSEE identify the causes of bolt failures and to determine
if the bolt failures impact safety for other industries
Working with the American Petroleum Institutes bolting work
group, which is focused on BOP bolting issues
Creating, through our confidential SafeOCS near-miss reporting system, a method for equipment failures to be anonymously
reported by companies, contractors, and offshore workers
Funding research by the National Academy of Sciences, Lawrence
Berkeley National Laboratory, and NASA that will investigate how
and why bolts fail.
There are already some encouraging signs that we can get ahead
of the bolt problem. One example that supports my optimism can
be found in a recall that General Electric issued. When the company
learned that some bolts were failing on equipment they produced, it
did the right thing and issued a global recall. That type of proactive
behavior is evidence of a safety culture.
Although we cannot anticipate every problem, we can get ahead
of problems quickly when the companies that make up an industry
maintain strong safety cultures. A robust safety culture ensures that all
other considerations are viewed through the lens of safety. Safety, in
essence, is woven into the companys business culture. Companies with
such a culture greet the bolt problem with alarm, not skepticism. They
move quickly to identify mechanisms that can help everyone find out
the truth. They demand action and see their long-term financial health
as directly tied to safe operations. I believe that is wise. Both individual
operators, and the offshore energy industry as a whole, are morally and
financially rewarded when they embrace a culture of safety.
The bolt problem is in front of us right now. Original equipment manufacturers, bolt manufacturers, and the dozens of companies using their
equipment can demonstrate their safety cultures by working with the different groups who are trying to solve this issue. They can lean forward
by acknowledging that a problem exists and more actively participating
in the problem-solving process. Alternatively, displays of complacency
and resistance demonstrate the absence of a safety culture. Companies
that adopt such a high-risk approach are rolling the dice, and sending the
wrong signal to the public, regulators, and their own investors. Our hope
is that leaders across the offshore energy industry will step forward, as
some already have, and espouse the virtues of an offshore safety culture
while specifically using the bolt problem to demonstrate their commitment. That action would be an applauded around the world.

Brian Salerno

Director
Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement

This page reflects viewpoints on the political, economic, cultural, technological, and environmental issues that shape the future of the petroleum industry. Offshore
Magazine invites you to share your thoughts. Email your Beyond the Horizon manuscript to David Paganie at davidp@pennwell.com.

80 Offshore November 2016 www.offshore-mag.com

1611OFF_80 80

11/2/16 8:26 AM

Your safety

is our passion.

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1611OFF_C3 3

11/2/16 8:26 AM

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#RethinkReinventReimagine

1611OFF_C4 4

11/2/16 8:26 AM

THE STONES
DEVELOPMENT
A New Vision in the ultra-deepwater
Gulf of Mexico

Supplement to

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10/18/16 2:32 PM

2 Discovery of the Stones Field


4 The Ultra-deepwater Frontier
6 Developing the Field
12 Building the FPSO
20 The Turret Buoy and Subsea Kit

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10/18/16 4:41 PM

The Stones
Development
A new vision for the
ultra-deepwater Gulf of Mexico

Seven percent of todays conventional


oil and gas production comes from deep
water, and this proportion is expected to
grow to 11 percent by 2040. With major
projects having an expected production
life as much as 50 years, our estimate
of average prices over several decades
is more important than near-term market
fluctuations. Stones is just such a project.
Ultra-deepwater, especially targeting the
Lower Tertiary, offers tremendous potential
for our industry. While the challenges are
IAN SILK, VP for Deepwater Projects
Shell Exploration and Production Company

great, Shell has a long-standing record


of developing and deploying the right
technologies to do the job safely.
1

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Discovery of the
Stones Field
Deepest offshore development in the world

Today, the Stones unit consists of nine ultra-deepwater

PROJECT OVERVIEW

blocks in the Gulf of Mexico, some 200 miles (325

Shell announced its final investment decision for Stones in

kilometers) southwest of the Louisiana coast. Oil was

May 2013. That set in motion the construction of the host

discovered in the Walker Ridge block 508 in 2005 by a

floating production, storage, and offloading (FPSO) vessel,

consortium of investors that at the time included Shell (35

and the subsea infrastructure to support it.

percent), Marathon (25 percent), Petrobras (25 percent)


and Eni (15 percent).

Stones is being developed in stages. The startup phase


includes two wells on one drill center. That part was

In 2005, operating in a water depth of 9,576 feet (2,919

completed in 2016, with first oil in September 2016.

meters), Transoceans Discoverer Spirit drillship pushed

The second phase includes a second drill center and six

the Stones-2 well to a true vertical depth of 28,560 feet

wells that are either scheduled or being drilled now. To

(8,705 meters). This second well confirmed the pres-

boost production and extend the life of the field, a mud-

ence of several hydrocarbon-bearing sands in the Lower

line-based artificial lift system will be installed in 2018.

Tertiary. In 2008, the Stones-3 exploration well reached a


depth of 29,400 feet (8,961 meters), to further delineate

By the end of 2017, daily production should peak at about

the reservoir. Stones-3, drilled by Eni, was located about a

50,000 barrels of oil equivalent (boe) per day. Shell owns

mile north of Transoceans initial Stones-1 well.

100 percent of the project and operates the field.

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10/18/16 2:32 PM

A LEGACY OF DEEPWATER FIRSTS

Only a handful of companies have the financial strength and technical ability to recover oil and gas from the worlds most challenging basins. Shell led
the industry in 1978 with its legendary Cognac platform in the U.S. Gulf
of Mexico. At a water depth of 1,030 feet (312 meters), Cognac was the
worlds first modern deepwater project. After more than 35 years of safe,
reliable production, Cognac is still producing.

1609CP_shellstones_4 4

10/18/16 2:32 PM

The Ultra-deepwater
Frontier
Helping to unlock the Lower Tertiary

In 2010, Shells Perdido development became the first

unpredictable and damaging loop currents that can

in the industry to recover commercial amounts of hydro-

delay even the most thoughtful development plans.

carbons from a portion of the Paleogene known as the

Exploration wells can encounter unexpected faults and

Lower Tertiary. Perdidos success and its spinoff tech-

pockets of high pressure gas near the surface. Farther

nologies opened the door for more exploration in this

down, drillers must contend with nearly-fluid layers of

prolific geologic zone that many producers refer to as

salt. Below the salt, the Upper Tertiary sediments may

the final frontier.

include low pressure zones that can suddenly swallow up


drilling fluid. Finally reaching the reservoirswhich can

A DIFFICULT TARGET

extend as much as 30,000 feet (9,144 meters) below

Much of the oil in the ultra-deepwater Gulf of Mexico is

the seabedis still not the end of the journey. Too often,

shrouded with thick layers of salt. For geoscientists who

the reservoirs themselves dont contain enough natural

rely on high quality seismic data to make their decisions,

gas to make the oil flow for long.

shooting sound waves through salt structures that are thousands of feet thick is like trying to conduct a conversation

Stones journey has pushed our technological

across a large noisy room.

boundaries and tested our resolve to meet the


challenges of working in ultra-deep water with a

Hard as it is to see deepwater targets, theyre even

complex subsurface, says Maria Pena, Stones Business

tougher to reach. The Gulf of Mexico is notorious for

Opportunity Manager.

1609CP_shellstones_5 5

10/18/16 2:32 PM

Developing the Field


Innovation opens new doors

Stones is a phased development that began production

is transported by a new 8-inch line that ties the production

in September 2016 from two flowing subsea wells tied

facilitythrough its turret buoyinto a larger pipeline

back to an FPSO. Full-field development includes six more

some 22 miles (35 kilometers) away.

wells from two connected drill centers, and multiphase


booster pumps on the seabed. All eight wells will link to

ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES

the production vessel.

The Stones development employs many unique features,


including the industrys first use of lazy-wave steel risers,

The reservoir depth in the Stones field is around 26,500

paired with a disconnectable buoy. Shell led the devel-

feet (8,077 meters) below sea level and 17,000 feet

opment of lazy-wave technology more than a decade

(5,181 meters) below the mud line. The nine-block

ago to solve the problem of supporting heavy steel risers

development unit covers 72 square miles (186 square


kilometers).
A FPSO was selected early on, in part to avoid the
expense of laying lengthy oil pipelines at extreme water
depths. FPSOs also have the advantage of being relatively
quick to build, and it is possible to reuse them for future
developments.
Tankers deliver most of the medium-light crude oil from the
Stones field to refineries in Texas and Louisiana. The gas

1609CP_shellstones_6 6

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S H E L L S TO N ES D E V E LO P M E N T

1609CP_shellstones_8 8

10/18/16 2:32 PM

in ultra-deep water. Rather than running the pipe


straight up from the seabed to the production facility as you might do in shallow water, lazy-wave risers allow the pipe to bend naturally to form a very
large S shape some 3,200 feet (1,000 meters) or
more below the surface of the sea. That S-shaped
portion of the riser pipe is fitted with a series of
floatation collars that support the tremendous
weight of the steel. The natural flexibility of the pipe
in this configuration also allows the riser to conform
easily to wave- or current-induced movements of the
FPSO. Since lazy-wave risers are in almost constant
motion, they are designed for an extremely long
service life.
HURRICANE SAFE

During normal operations, the FPSO pivots freely


around a moored buoy that fits into a large socket in
the bow of the vessel. If a heavy storm or hurricane
approaches, the vessel can quickly disconnect from
the buoy and sail to safety, while the buoy lowers
to a safe resting depth that is below the effects
of heavy seas and currents. The wells are shut in
at the seabed.
KEY CONTRACTORS

Six companies held central roles on the development team. SBM Offshore was responsible for the
design, procurement, construction and operation of
the FPSO. Heerema Marine Contractors transported
and installed the disconnectable buoy. FMC Technologies built and supplied the subsea equipment.
Oceaneering fabricated the umbilicals and Subsea
Seven was responsible for installing them. Technip
installed the pipelines, flowlines and risers.
We worked together as a single, cohesive unit
within Shell, rather than a bunch of individual technical silos, says Curtis Lohr, Stones project manager.
That made all the difference in terms of cost reduction and safety.

1609CP_shellstones_9 9

10/18/16 2:32 PM

S H E L L S TO N ES D E V E LO P M E N T

Most of the leadership team was on the same floor in

Either way, you get the same results, Lohr adds. We

Shells Houston office. The rest of the leadership team was

had over 13 million man hours in two yards without a

in the Houston area, as were most of the key contractors.

single recordable safety incident. That is really something special.

Team building was important, Lohr says. We spent time


with Bovo-Tighe, a professional development group that

AN EARLY CHALLENGE

helps companies understand why employees behave as

Complex projects seldom run exactly as planned. At

they do and what motivates them to excel.

Stones, one hurdle was to add a second drill center.

Some people, for example, work best in groups. Others

This addition was driven by early drilling learnings that

need time to reflect.

identified an opportunity to optimize well trajectories.

10

1609CP_shellstones_10 10

10/18/16 2:32 PM

5R and Stones-9. Both were drilled and completed by


Noble in 2015. The ultra-deep wells were technically
challenging, but two innovations in particular made it
CURTIS LOHR

possible to build and deliver them safely.

Stones
project manager

Using a fully-rotating, 350-rpm steerable system that


Schlumberger markets as PowerDrive, both wells were
drilled from shoe to toe in a single trip. That shaved days
off the drilling schedule. It also improved safety for the
drilling crew by reducing the number of trips in and out

Im very proud of the way our team pulled together to

of the hole. Another key technology was the ability to

find the best solution, Lohr says

perforate multiple zones of these ultra-deep wells in a


single trip.

THE GAS EXPORT LINE

While most of Stones production is oil, there are also

The same equipment and processes were used on the 5R

commercial volumes of natural gas. To handle it, a 22-

well with similar results.

mile, 8-inch steel pipeline was needed to tie in to the nearest gathering system. Like everything else with the worlds

LESSONS LEARNED

deepest development, laying the pipeline wasnt easy. The

More than 60 percent of Shells deepwater production

first issue was the weight of the pipe, which hangs from

comes from the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. That experience

the turret buoy nearly two miles down to the sea floor.

gives Shell an edge on project efficiency. Lessons learned


over the years have led to increasing standardization

There are also furrows on the sea floor, Lohr says.

in the field. In 2015, for example, Shells Logistics and

That meant we had to design the wall thickness of the pipe

Materials Management initiative saved an estimated

to span them without sagging, and add vortex-induced

$60 million. Additionally, Stones features a more cost-

vibration suppression vanes to avoid problems with metal

effective well design, which requires fewer materials and

fatigue. The line also had to scale a 2,000-foot (609-meter)

lowers installation costs. This is expected to deliver up to

escarpment that is just north of the Stones development.

$1 billion reduction in well costs once all the producers


are completed.

DRILLING AND COMPLETIONS

In September 2016 the Stones field began producing


oil and natural gas from two record-setting wells: Stones-

11

1609CP_shellstones_11 11

10/18/16 2:32 PM

In November 2015, the Turritella


FPSO left the Keppel shipyard
in Singapore on a 15,000-mile
journey to its final destination in
the Gulf of Mexico.

1609CP_shellstones_12 12

10/18/16 2:32 PM

Building the FPSO


First for Shell in the Gulf of Mexico

The Turritella is the first FPSO that Shell has deployed in

associated natural gas is transported by pipeline into the

the Gulf of Mexico, but not globally. Shell uses them else-

closest gathering system.

where, including the Parque das Conchas (BC-10) project


off Brazil with co-owners ONGC and Qatar Petroleum

SBM Offshore provided the FPSO and is currently operating

International.

the vessel on Shells behalf. Shell is now leasing the Turritella

Self-contained, versatile and efficient, FPSOs are commonly used by Shell and others throughout the world to
produce oil in regions where there is a relative lack of
infrastructure. The development concept was a good
fit for Stones.
A PROVEN PRODUCTION SYSTEM

The Turritella FPSO, with a deadweight of nearly 160,000


tons, is 900 feet (274 meters) long and 157 feet (48
meters) wide. The vessel has a daily capacity of 60,000
barrels of oil and 1.4 billion cubic feet of natural gas. Up
to 800,000 barrels of oil can be stored onboard. During
the first phase of the Stones development, tankers will
arrive every few days to transport crude oil from the FPSO
to US refineries along the Texas and Louisiana coast. The

13

1609CP_shellstones_13 13

10/18/16 2:32 PM

S H E L L S TO N ES D E V E LO P M E N T

under a 10-year contract from a consortium that includes


SBM Offshore (55 percent), Mitsubishi Corporation (30
percent) and Nippon Yusen Kabushiki Kaisha (15 percent).
The Stones FPSO is one of the most challenging designs,
customized for conditions in the Gulf of Mexico where hurricanes pose a real threat, explained Bernard van Leggelo, SBM Offshores FPSO Product Line Director. Working
as one with the Shell Stones team, SBM integrated teams
around the world rose to the challenges of the project
finding innovative solutions using cutting-edge technology.
Viewed from above, the FPSO has a huge circular hole in
its bow. On a drill ship or research vessel, such an open-

14

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10/18/16 2:32 PM

15

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S H E L L S TO N ES D E V E LO P M E N T

16

1609CP_shellstones_16 16

10/18/16 2:32 PM

ing would be called the moon pool. On the Turritella


the opening is about 82 feet (25 meters) in diameter, and
it extends down from the deck through the bottom of the
hull. To moor itself in the field, the Turritella manoeuvers
directly above the submerged turret buoy, then pulls the
buoy up into the hole, like putting a cork in a bottle.
As many FPSOs are designed to do, the Turritella
weathervanes freely around the buoy as winds change.
But unlike most other systems, the buoy itself is part of the
ship. That is a major safety feature, since it eliminates the
possibility of the FPSO or other vessels colliding with the
buoy and risers.
Stones is the first ultra-deepwater production system to use
a turret and disconnectable buoy paired with lazy-wave
risers, says Curtis Lohr, Stones project manager. This is
indeed a groundbreaking project in the Gulf of Mexico.

17

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10/18/16 2:32 PM

18

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10/18/16 2:32 PM

THE NAME SAYS IT ALL

The Turritella began life in 2003 and served its first ten years as a
Suezmax tanker. SBM Offshore converted the tanker to a FPSO in a
two-year project that was completed in 2015 at the Keppel shipyard
in Singapore. A contest to name the vessel produced more than 150
creative ideas. The top five were announced, and from them SBM
and Shell picked the winner.
Turritella is the name of a common sea snail famous for its elegant,
elongated and tightly coiled shell. The name evokes links between
the FPSOs turret buoy, the expertise of SBM and Shell, and the outstanding teamwork it took to deliver this groundbreaking project.

19

1609CP_shellstones_19 19

10/18/16 2:32 PM

The Turret Buoy


and Subsea Kit
A robust and efficient design

Both the FPSO and the turret buoy were provided by SBM

Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement wanted

Offshore. The technology is cutting edge, but the collabo-

to see a working model first.

ration goes way back.


Under normal circumstances, building an accurate, workIn 1958, Shell and SBM Offshore began working on the

ing demonstration model would take months. To avoid

first single-buoy mooring system, said Stein Rasmussen,

delaying the project, Shell employed 3D printing technolo-

president of SBM Offshore. The Stones project is another

gy to produce the complex model in just four weeks.

chapter in the close relationship and successful cooperation that SBM Offshore has shared with Shell for more
than half a century.
THE ROLE OF 3D PRINTING

The Stones project boasts a series of firsts for Shell, including an in-line connector that provides adjustable mooring
tension for the FPSO and its internal turret buoy. Shell
engineers began developing the technology in 2010, but
since the concept is new to the Gulf of Mexico, the U.S.

20

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21

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S H E L L S TO N ES D E V E LO P M E N T

relatively small. To fit inside the turret, nearly 1,000 blocks


in a variety of complex, interlocking shapes were made,
and they had to be installed in a specific sequence.
ROBERT PATTERSON
Executive Vice President
of Engineering, Shell
Global Solutions

You typically have nothing more than drawings to understand how best to do the fabrication work, says Blake
Moore, Stones FPSO manager. For the Stones buoy, we
used a 3D printer to create a model of the structure and
all of the syntactic foam blocks that went inside. With
that, we could then plan the assembly to make sure the

The option of 3D printing allowed us to engage with

sequence was right, and that we were doing it safely.

all involved in the design, fabrication and installation


sequence, and to safely and productively put it together,
says Robert Patterson, Executive Vice President of Engineering, Projects and Technology, Shell Global Solutions.
BLAKE MOORE
Stones FPSO manager

The challenge was to design, fabricate and assemble


large blocks of syntactic foam that would nest inside the
turret buoy. Syntactic foam is high-strength cellular material
made of tiny spheres of glass, ceramic, polymer or metal
bound together with polymer. The material is widely used
for floatation, but never before on this scale. The buoy is
roughly the height of a four-story office building. Manufacturing limitations meant that each piece of foam had to be

A ROBUST, SAFE DESIGN

The turret buoy was built for SBM at the Keppel Shipyard
in Singapore as part of the Turritella FPSO conversion
project. Carl Webb headed Shells turret and mooring line
team, from concept and design through fabrication and
installation.

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The turret buoy for Stones is certainly one of a kind, he


says. Nothing like it has ever been built before, so there
were significant challenges.
Size, for example. The buoy is 82 feet (25 meters) wide
at its base and about the same height. The structure

CARL WEBB
Turret and
Installation Lead

needed to be large to support the weight of the ultra-deep


umbilical and steel riser system, which includes two 8-inch
production risers, one 8-inch gas export riser, and two
power and control umbilical lines. Pull tubes are available
for two additional risers and two additional umbilical lines.

ter rope and chain arrayed in three groups of three. The

As it is configured now, the top tension on the buoy is

mooring operation was completed ahead of the FPSOs

about 1,250 metric tons.

arrival in January, 2016. Inline mooring connectors allow


the line tension to be adjusted as needed during opera-

The buoy is secured to the seabed by suction piles and

tions. The turret buoy and its mooring system were built to

nine mooring lines. Each line is a combination of polyes-

survive the worst conditions of a 1,000-year hurricane.

23

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S H E L L S TO N ES D E V E LO P M E N T

RAISING AND LOWERING THE BUOY

The turret buoy is passive in terms of floatation. There is


no ballast to load or unload, but the structure is designed
to sink to a safe depth once it is released from the FPSO.
The safe resting depth is determined by house trailer-sized
flotation blocks on the buoys mooring lines.
The FPSO and turret buoy will remain connected during
typical winter storms, but disconnect in case of a named
storm or hurricane. Depending on the wind and currents,
uncoupling the buoy takes a little over two hours. Once
free from the FPSO, the buoy will descend on its own to
a safe resting depth. The entire process, from the time the
buoy is released until it achieves its final equilibrium depth
is less than 30 seconds. The ship can reconnect to the
buoy in about eight hours, also dependent on sea and
wind conditions.

24

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MOORING AND INSTALLATION

Some years there are none. In other years there may be

The turret mooring system was installed by Heerema

four or five.

Marine Contractors over a three-month period in the fall of


2015. The work was completed on time, despite Natures

Eddy currents are unpredictable. The best that operators

best effort to prevent it.

can do is monitor them and try to compensate when they


strike. The physics are such that just beyond the eddy,

For the first three weeks. We were hit by eddy currents

there will be no current at all. There is also no current in

of up to four knots, Webb recalls. That was extremely

the middle, but for 30 or 40 miles around the circumfer-

challenging.

ence and 300 meters deep, the circular current can be as


much as five knots.

Warm water typically flows northward between Cuba


and the Yucatan Peninsula into the Gulf of Mexico. A

We made predictions every day and had our on monitor-

few hundred miles south of the Mississippi, Alabama and

ing vessels out 24 hours a day, taking cross sections and

Florida coast, the current turns eastward, then south before

other readings, Webb says. It turned into quite a science

escaping to the east through the Florida Straits. Once it

project for us. The eddy tended to advance over us, then

hits the Atlantic Ocean, the moving water merges with a

retreat and give us anywhere from six to 24 hours of easy

northward flow known as the Gulf Stream. Sometimes,

going, but that was not enough. It put a stop to all our

however, flowing water that normally curves east breaks

activities. Eddy currents of up to four knots continued for

from its normal path and

three weeks. You cant operate a submarine or ROV in a

spins to the west, forming

current that is moving at even two knots.

circular eddies that can


be more than 100 miles

While continuing to monitor the current, Webb and his

in diameter. These swirling

team found ways to work around the problem.

waters, also called eddy


currents, may wander
for up to a year, causing
havoc for anyone trying to
construct permanent structures in the Gulf of Mexico.

25

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S H E L L S TO N ES D E V E LO P M E N T

We were able to do some of the subsea work at water

In 2014, FMC Technologiesentered a joint

depths that were below the strongest part of the current,

partnershipwith Shell and three other major operators

Webb says. We reoriented our vessels to face their

to develop standardized equipment and systems to

bows into the current. In some cases, we were able to

meet the challenges ofhigh pressure, high temperature

do some of the work out of the water. The remarkable

fields. The goal of standardization is to reduce costs

thing is that about 90 percent of that re-engineering was

and lead times for subsea equipment, and to enhance

done while we were offshore. In my opinion, that ability

the overall safety of companies who install it.

to respond quickly to each new challenge is typical of the


entire project.
WELLHEADS

FMC Technologies is supplying eight 15K Enhanced Vertical Deepwater Trees for the Stones development, along
with the subsea manifolds and topside and subsea controls. The 15K wellheads are the same as those installed

JOE HOFFMAN

Lead engineer for the


subsea, umbilical, riser
and flowline

on the Shell-operated Perdido development, the first in the


industry to successfully tap the Lower Tertiary.

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FLOWLINES AND UMBILICALS

of the production fluid, Hoffman says. We had

In 10,000 feet (3,048 meters) of water, were dealing

to evaluate the potential impact of a range of fluid

with extreme hydrostatic pressure in the range of 4,200

compositions on the whole system; not just the subsea

psi, says Joe Hoffman, lead engineer for the subsea,

kit, but equipment aboard the production facility as

umbilical, riser and flowline (SURF) portion of the

well as the gas export pipeline.

project. The flowlines are made of many composite


layers, each engineered to give the pipe its unique

POWERFUL NEW SUBSEA BOOSTING SYSTEM

properties.

Although Stones began production with two wells,


drilling continues. As part of the second phase of

The innermost layers include the interlocking carcass.

development, OneSubsea (now part of Schlumberger)

Next are the thermoplastic layers, which contain the

will supply two 3-megawatt single-phase pumps and

pressure and fluid. There are additional layers designed

two subsea control modules to boost production from

to handle the loop stress, different layers for axial

the reservoir. Manufacturing and testing continues

tension, and another layer to prevent water ingress.

at OneSubseas facility in Horsoy, Norway, with


expected delivery in 2018. When the equipment is

One thing we had to account for, besides the

installed, it will become the first 15,000-psi subsea

tremendous pressure, was the compositional uncertainty

pump system in the world.

27

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1609CP_shellstones_28 28

10/18/16 2:32 PM

Custom
Publishing

VP Custom Publishing
Roy Markum
roym@pennwell.com
Principal Writer
Richard Cunningham
cunninghamstudio@gmail.com
Technical Writers
Pramod Kulkarn
pramodhk2000@gmail.com

Ron Bitto
ron.bitto@gmail.com

Sponsored by

A supplement to

Production Manager
Shirley Gamboa
Art Director
Meg Fuschetti
PennWell Petroleum Group
1455 West Loop South, Suite 400
Houston, TX 77027 U.S.A.
713.621.9720
fax: 713.963.6285

PennWell Corporate Headquarters


1421 S. Sheridan Rd.
Tulsa, OK 74112
Chairman
Robert F. Biolchini
Vice Chairman
Frank T. Lauinger
President and Chief Executive Officer
Mark C. Wilmoth
Executive Vice President, Corporate
Development and Strategy
Jayne A. Gilsinger
Senior Vice President Finance and Chief Financial Officer
Brian Conway

1609CP_shellstones_29 29

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Company Profiles
31 SBM Offshore
34 Bovo-Tighe LLC
34 Transocean
35 GATE, Inc.
38 Deep Down, Inc.
39 Schlumberger
42 Franks International
43 Oceaneering International, Inc.
44 TE Connectivity
45 Technip
46 SWOS
48 Yokogawa

1609CP_shellstones_30 30

10/18/16 2:31 PM

COMPANY PROFILE SBM OFFSHORE

SBM Offshore sets new industry


records with Turritella
Shell and SBM Offshore engineers first
began collaborating in 1958 on fabricating
the industrys first single-buoy mooring.
Today, the Stones project in ultradeepwater Gulf of Mexico cements the
successful collaboration that SBM Offshore
has shared with Shell for over half a century.
Laying the groundwork, SBM Offshore
and Shell were engaged in front-end
development work for the FPSO for more
than two years. By clearly understanding
Shells needs, this important preparatory
phase allowed SBM Offshore to leverage

its experience and outline a well-defined


design and execution plan.
Technology and project execution
are what SBM Offshore does well
starting from scratch with a blank page
and coming up with solutions to client
needs, explained Babu George, Project
Director for the Turritella project .

HSSE successes
In addition to design, construction,
and operational needs, meeting
HSSE goals was paramount. We

had a clear and common HSSE


charter from the start of the
project, explained Babu George.
All the project participants, including
subcontractors and vendors,
understood that we were building
something special. The Stones
project achieved 22 million manhours with only 1 Lost Time Incident.
Thats an incredible record for a
project of this scale.
Right from the start of the project,
we aligned with our stakeholders

SBM Offshore-operated FPSO Turritella has set the world record for deepwater oil and gas production at 2,900 metres

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COMPANY PROFILE SBM OFFSHORE

and agreed that safety was our first


priority. says Stein Rasmussen, President
SBM Offshore, USA.

Deepest production unit


ever installed
Deepest FPSO
First disconnectable system with
Steel Lazy Wave Risers (SLWR)

Deepwater records
Shells mandate for Stones required a
state-of-the-art FPSO for the deepest
offshore field the world has known
and to handle the winter storms and
hurricanes that are common to the
Gulf of Mexico. SBM Offshores FPSO
Turritella has resulted in a roll call of
world records:

Worldwide engineering effort


Working as one and in real time, SBM
Offshores integrated teams around the
world rose to the demanding challenges
inherent in the Stones project and
found innovative solutions. The needs
of this project had been anticipated
by SBM Offshore for some time with

The worlds largest


disconnectable turret enables
the FPSO to weathervane
in normal conditions and to
be disconnected from the
buoy upon the approach of a
hurricane. The turret can be
reconnected rapidly once calm
weather returns, minimizing
the loss of production.

research showing that deepwater fields


would play an increasingly significant role
in the oil and gas market of the future.
SBM Offshores Regional Centre in
Houston was responsible for managing
the EPC for the Turritella FPSO with input
from the companys other Centres in
Monaco, Schiedam and Kuala Lumpur
for expertise on key elements such as
the pioneering Turret Mooring System.
Conversion of the FPSO took place in
Keppels Singapore shipyard.
Our contribution to the Stones
project highlights SBM Offshores
reputation in the FPSO market. We
leveraged over 60 years of mooring
systems experience to supply this
pioneering Buoyant Turret Mooring
(BTM) system, says Bernard Van Leggelo,
Managing Director FPSOs SBM Offshore.

Unique FPSO design


The FPSO Turritella represents a
breakthrough in terms of technology
for riser configuration with the design
of Steel Lazy-Wave Risers (SLWR). It is
the first time this type of riser is being
used in a disconnectable production unit.
As a consequence of the combination
of water depth and steel risers, the
syntactic foam buoy has the biggest

Enterprise agreement
In March 2012, Shell and SBM
Offshore signed an Enterprise
Framework Agreement (EFA) for the
supply of medium and small FPSOs
on a lease-and-operate basis. The
Stones FPSO is the first Shell project
to award contracts utilizing EFA.

32

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10/18/16 2:31 PM

FPSO Partners
SBM Offshore (55%), Mitsubishi
Corporation (30%) and Nippon
Yusen Kabushiki Kaisha (15%)
are partners in the joint venture
companies incorporated for the
purpose of owning and operating
the FPSO Turritella.

displacement for a disconnectable buoy


ever built to date.
An innovative feature developed
by SBM Offshore for this project is the
ability to readjust each mooring line
tension without any device installed on
the FPSO. This technology pioneers the
use of an In-line Mooring Connector
(ILMC), which gives direct access to the
mooring line for re-tension purposes. As
a result, there is more flexibility when
the need arises to adjust the tension
of mooring lines, even during the early
phase of system installation.

Disconnectable buoy
A key necessity for the FPSO was to
factor in the severe meteorological
conditions of the Gulf of Mexico.
Using the worlds largest disconnectable
buoy (BTM) enables the FPSO to
weathervane in normal conditions and
to be disconnected from the BTM upon
the approach of a hurricane. As a result,
the vessel can safely sail away prior to
the impact of perilous weather. This
detachable capability also allows the
FPSO to quickly resume production
once the hurricane has passed
the location.
In July 2016, SBM Offshore conducted
a demonstration of the disconnection

SBM Offshores worldwide teams in Houston, Monaco, Schiedam and Singapore worked
in concert to design, build, install and operate FPSO Turritella, the worlds deepest oil and
gas production unit.

and reconnection of the turret for the


regulatory authorities from BSEE and
ABS. The system performed flawlessly,
explained Babu George.

FPSO specifications
Turritella is an SBM Offshore Generation 2
design with a total fluid processing capacity
of 60,000 bopd and 15 MMscfd of gas
treatment and export. The Suezmax hull
can store 800,000 bopd and total topsides
weight is over 7,500 tons.
The FPSO breaks the existing water
depth for all production units. The
opportunities for the industry, in terms
of growth potential, are significant.
SBM Offshore can meet client needs
in ultra-deep waters and offer proven,
cost-effective solutions.

For the next 10 years SBM Offshores


Operations team will operate Turritella,
leveraging more than 270 years of
combined operations experience
to optimize production, achieve
efficiencies and continue to set the bar
higher for safety.

SBM Offshore USA Regional Centre


1255 Enclave Parkway
Houston, Texas 77077 USA
Tel: +1 281 848 6000

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COMPANY PROFILE BOVO-TIGHE LLC

We will improve the


productivity of your team,
or you pay nothing.
Guaranteed.
Your people are talented, but how much of their full value
can they contribute? Sixty percent? Fifty? Are there too many
e-mails, meetings and distractions? Are your employees
able to fully engage in their critical roles? You already pay
for their potential. We will help you unleash it. On the Shell
Stones project, we worked closely with the project leaders
to help the project team build intentional focus on safety
and collaborative leadership. We trained the project leaders
to fully leverage each persons unique ability and overcome
obstacles to quality decisions and actions. Our process is
systematic, engaging, and sustainable. Let us show you how
we did it for Stones and hundreds of other organizations.

Unleash greater safety and collaborative results with your team.

Bovo-Tighe LLC
Oakley, CA 94561
+1 707.751.0270
www.bovo-tighe.com

COMPANY PROFILE TRANSOCEAN

Transoceans Deepwater Thalassas


First Assignment: Stones
Transocean is a leading international provider of offshore contract drilling services for energy companies, owning and
operating the worlds most versatile fleet

with a particular focus on deepwater and


harsh environment drilling.
As a technical leader and innovator,
Transocean has a long history of accomplishments and contributions that have
gone toward improving offshore drilling.
These range from one of Transoceans
predecessor companies pioneering early
versions of deepwater drilling methods in
the 1950s, to the introduction of the first
ultra-deepwater, dual-activity drillship in
the late 1990s.
The innovation continues in 2016
with the introduction of the Deepwater
Thalassa, featuring the companys patent-

ed dual-activity drilling technology, industry-leading hoisting capacity, Transoceans


designed and patented Active Power
Compensation hybrid system, and dual
blowout preventers.
The drillship is designed to operate
in water depths of up to 12,000 feet and
drill wells to a depth of 40,000 feet. It is
upgradeable to accommodate a 20,000psi BOP system. The Deepwater Thalassa
is under contract to Shell and cur-

rently operating at the Stones field.

TRANSOCEAN
4 Greenway Plaza
Houston, Texas 77046
Tel: +1 713 232-7500
www.deepwater.com

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COMPANY PROFILE GATE, INC.

Delivery Alliance: Making It Work Right Together


The successful support of multiple aspects
throughout the design
and delivery of the
Stones project represents the latest in a
long line of achievements for the GATE
Team. This Team has
provided ongoing support to Shell deepwater projects since its
formation in 2000 and
has been integral to the
development and delivery of many of Shells
industry-leading projects
and deepwater innovations over this period.
GATEs engineering and
project management
Cold weather reeling was just one of the many challenges overcome by the project team.
services are focused on
enabling project teams to make informed
laboratively with Shell to overcome multhe testing of the hydraulic and mechanidecisions and to maximize value throughtiple project hurdles and deliver the safe
cal components. The group also engaged
out the life of the project. This is accomand effective execution of the project.
with the manufacturing teams for the
plished by providing critical resources that
Among these various challenges were
1starticle to ensure that processes were
span across traditional project boundthe notable depth of the field and the
in compliance with governing techniaries as well as technical and contractugeophysical conditions on the seafloor.
cal codes, such as API. The group was
al silos. GATEs approach has resulted in
At approximately 9,500 ft with diverse
also instrumental in providing techa recognized history of smoother faciliterrain that presented an assortment of
nical personnel to the greater projty start-ups, reduced risk exposure, and
crevasses and slopes that challenged the
ect team to support the delivery of the
increased whole-life value for existing
placement of subsea infrastructure and
umbilical system.
developments.
hardware, the Stones project required
the formulation of unique solutions and
Offshore Installation & Marine
Subsea Construction &
risk mitigation strategies.
Risk Management
Marine Engineering
Subsea boosting pumps represent an
A critical segment of the GATE Team
For GATE, contributing to the Stones
integral part of the project design. The
was instrumental in supporting the Pipeproject was a remarkable experience that
GATE Team was also heavily involved
line, Flowline, and Riser (PFR) division of
called for novel solutions to numerous
in the qualification effort for the subsea
the project. This part of the Team was
engineering challenges, which showcased
pumping system; this support extendfocused on delivering Cathodic Protecthe GATE philosophy to Do It Right The
ed to the provision of technical support
tion (CP) design, coatings, and insulaFirst Time. The GATE Team worked coland planning, alongside OneSubsea, in
tion expertise. In addition to onshore site

35

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COMPANY PROFILE GATE, INC.

quality and fabrication oversight support,


this Team provided offshore installation
technical support and project management for the flowline, risers and pipelines.
GATE provided installation support
for both of the Stones drill centers.
The GATE Marine Services Team,
headquartered at GATEs Houston
location, provided performance enhancing solutions targeting technical, operational, and project management challenges associated with vessel industrial

mission and integrity. The objective of


this group was to assist in the delivery
of incident-free execution for marine
activities associated with the Stones
development.
To accomplish this, the Team
deployed a series of Decision Support
Tools (DSTs) targeting critical process
safety impact areas including, but not limited to, station keeping, loss of containment and ballast management. By collaborating with the wider project groups,

The GATE Teams diligence during the qualification phases and offshore installation
campaigns earned positive HSSE recognition and supported the initiative to reduce CAPEX.

the Marine Services Team successfully managed these critical offshore risk
exposure areas and the corresponding consequences of loss of position of
mal-operation during vessel activities.

About GATE
GATE is a mid-sized engineering, project
management and commissioning services
firm serving the energy industry and is
an integral member of the GATE ENERGY family of companies. As a uniquely positioned suite of companies, GATE
ENERGY continues to capitalize on its
well-earned reputation of providing novel, yet realistic, and achievable solutions
to complex tasks and challenges found
in both onshore and offshore project
environments.
GATE ENERGY is staffed and
equipped to safely and efficiently supply
expertise in the following sectors of the
oil and gas industry:
Upstream
Exploration & Drilling
Design & Engineering
Construction, Installation &
Commissioning
Operations Readiness &
Initial Start-up
Operations & Troubleshooting
Environmental Management
& Engineering
Decommissioning & Abandonment
Midstream
Engineering & Construction
Environmental Management
& Engineering
Barge & Oil Tanker Transportation
Pipeline & Process
Downstream
Environmental Management
& Engineering
Installation & Hook-up
Planning & Commissioning

36

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GATE acquires BlueFin, an industry leading services company located in New Iberia, LA.
Together, the firms are poised to deliver versatile engineering and operational solutions.

Synergies & Partnerships


GATE recently acquired BlueFin headquartered in New Iberia, LA. BlueFin is
a leading energy services company with
expertise in pipeline, process, mechanical, and abatement and environmental services providing solutions covering
maintenance, integrity and remediation scopes.
GATEs founder and CEO, Grant
Gibson said, Our industry is currently being challenged to deliver value in a
more efficient and streamlined manner.
By combining the operational strength of
BlueFin with the engineering and commissioning experience of GATE, we are
able to reduce project interfaces and
provide maximum value to our Clients.
A valuable partnership with BlueFin
demonstrates the success of GATEs
strategy of providing high-quality services
to our Clients and a challenging work
environment to our staff. Ultimately,
we want to ensure that our shareholders, which now includes our staff, are
rewarded for teaming with us.
BlueFins President David Ducky
Pugh said, The Partnership with GATE

reinforces our commitment to bring


additional value to our customers and
employees. Our GoM and Midstream clients have been the center of our business, and we are excited to be able to
deliver such a comprehensive offering
of solutions in a time where value and
subject matter expertise consolidation
is critical.
Every day, BlueFin employs and
engages the industrys best people to
fulfill their mission. From deepwater
upstream assets and midstream transportational pipelines, to Shale gathering
facilities and downstream refining processesBlueFin positions their customers at the center of their everyday business to ensure their promise is delivered.
BlueFin provides world-class expertise
and solutions in the following areas:
Equipment
Topsides Construction Equipment
Diving Rental Equipment
Mechanical
Controlled Industrial Bolting
Cold Cutting & Field Machining
Industrial Cutting Technologies
Spark-Free Tooling

Pipeline & Process


Hydrostatic Pressure Testing
Nitrogen Services
Flow Assurance & Pipeline Cleaning
Decommissioning Services
Pipeline Pigging including Gel Pigging
Pipeline Deposit Mapping
SafeHeat for Heating & Fluid
Containment Providing 100%
Vessel Retainage
Extended Reach Lancing
SlipLine for Bi-directional Flow &
Secondary Flowline Containment
Vessel Cleaning
Abatement & Environmental
HVAC Cleaning
NORM Survey
Microbial Treatment Services
System Hygienic Evaluations
Emergency Decontamination
Galley Hood & Dryer Vent Cleaning
Indoor Air Quality
Mold & Asbestos Abatement
Chemical Fume Hood
Velocity Testing
With the BlueFin acquisition, GATE is positioned to provide its global client base with
expanded engineering, IRM, decommissioning solutions, and additional mechanical
commissioning services. This strengthening
of GATE ENERGYs resources promotes
even greater flow assurance, material and
integrity, and production optimization
capabilities to serve clients.

GATE, Inc.
16360 Park Ten Place, Suite 206
Houston, Texas 77084 USA
(281)398-5781
www.gateinc.com

37

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COMPANY PROFILE DEEP DOWN, INC.

Deep Down, Inc.s Specialized Expertise


Contributes to Success on Stones Project
Deep Down, Inc. (DDI) serves the
worldwide offshore exploration and
production industry by providing deepwater oil production distribution system components, innovative design, and
installation support services. An industry
leader in installation and monitoring of
umbilicals and flying leads, DDI provided important, specialized services on the
Shell Stones project.

Importance of Umbilicals
The Stones field
will produce from a
world-record water
depth of 9,500 ft.
Ultimately, a total
of eight wells will
produce to an
FPSO. The Stones
fields subsea wellheads are powered,
monitored and
controlled using
umbilicals, which
include hydraulic and fiber-optic lines, as well as
low voltage electrical lines. Umbilicals
are attached to the
FPSO and are connected on the seafloor to umbilical
termination assemblies, which in turn
are connected to
subsea wellheads
and other equipment with flying

leads that also contain hydraulic, fiber-optic and electrical lines.

DDIs Contribution to
Shells Stones Project
Critical aspects of the project include
preparing the umbilicals and flying leads
for installation, and monitoring their condition during deployment and installation.
To assure reliable operation, hydraulic fluid used in umbilicals and flying leads
must be free of contamination. On the

Shell Stones project, DDI using microscopes and computers, which provided
laboratory-quality results on site.
During installation, DDI monitored
the umbilicals both hydraulically and
electrically using its proprietary wireless monitoring system, Bytel and Keller
software and digital pressure gauges
providing redundant surveillance of
umbilical integrity.
During the flying lead installation,
DDI provided installation equipment
for its deployment, like its flying lead lay
chute while the team worked to maintain the fluid integrity of the flying lead
inside by maintaining a NAS 6 fluid cleanliness level.

Historic Operation is Successful


All aspects of DDIs work were completed successfully. We are delighted to be part of this historic operation,
said Deep Down Incs founder and CEO,
Ronald E. Smith. Deep Down looks forward to future opportunities to work
with Shell in the Gulf of Mexico.

Deep Down Inc.s experienced personnel were key to successful


testing and flushing of umbilicals and flying leads on the Shell
Stones project.

18511 Beaumont Hiway


Houston, Texas 77049 USA
+(1) 281-862-2201
www.deepdowninc.com

38

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COMPANY PROFILE SCHLUMBERGER

Enabling ultra-deepwater success when


the economics are tight
The Stones development in the
deepwater Gulf of Mexico poses
numerous technical and economic
challenges, but Schlumberger
technologies combined with an
unwavering commitment to safety
and protection of the environment
are helping to make it work. The wells
constructed for Stones are some of the
deepest and longest ever attempted.
Perhaps the greatest challenge in the
Lower Tertiary geologic frontier and
other complex plays around the world is
to get the job done safely and efficiently
to achieve a competitive return on
investment, even at low commodity
prices. Heres how.

Drill faster, more reliably,


with minimal trips
The Schlumberger engineered
approach to drill Stones #9 was

based on learnings from Stones #5R.


Upon analysis of the drilling data,
the engineering team was able to
implement changes to the bottomhole
assemblies (BHAs), optimize bit/reamer
cutting structure, and define optimal
drilling parameters through extensive
modeling and simulation.
Schlumberger proposed using the
fully rotating PowerDrive Orbit* rotary
steerable system (RSS), one of the newest
members of the PowerDrive* RSS
family. Since its introduction in 1998, the
PowerDrive system remains the only fully
rotating steerable drilling system on the
market. Over the years, refinements have
continued to enhance tool reliability to
increase system life and improve efficiency
through precise directional control guided
by real-time near-bit measurements.
Capable of operating at speeds up
to 350 rpm, the PowerDrive Orbit RSS

is faster, safer and more reliable than


conventional systems. The high rpm
limit improves steering control in the
extensive stick/slip conditions endemic
to these challenging wells. The systems
six-axis continuous inclination and
azimuthal gamma ray inform its unique
inclination-hold feature to enable
drilling the wells tangent and vertical
sections with only minimal input from
the directional driller. Drilling proceeds
efficiently, with less interruption and
more accurate well placement, while
self-steering also delivers a smoother
bore. Near-bit extended-range gamma
ray measurements provide further well
positioning data for improved realtime decisions.
The new pad actuation system of the
PowerDrive Orbit RSS features metalto-metal seals that can handle corrosive
drilling fluids and demanding hydraulics.

The PowerDrive Orbit RSS expands the operating envelope of rotary steerable technology by extending system life, delivering precise
directional control, and increasing drilling efficiency. (Courtesy of Schlumberger)

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COMPANY PROFILE SCHLUMBERGER

The PowerDrive Orbit RSS readily


met the challenges of the Stones #9
production well, drilling shoe to total
depth in a single efficient trip. Its high
rpm capability powered a fast ROP to
shave days from the rig schedule.

Optimize the well connection to


the reservoir while perforating
Perforating all zones simultaneously
saves valuable rig time compared
with stacked completions that require
separate trips to perforate each zone.
Conducting the entire perforating job

at once is also safer for the rig and


gun crews, as they spend less time
running pipe.
To address these challenges,
Schlumberger engineers worked
with their counterparts at Shell
for more than a year to formulate
completion plans for the Stones wells.
In each case, Shell elected to use the
30,000-psi-rated Schlumberger IRDV*
intelligent remote dual valve, INsidr*
perforating shock and debris reduction
technology and 30,000-psi Signature*
quartz gauges.

In both Stones #9 and #5R, all zones


were perforated simultaneously resulting
in reduced rig time.

Increase productivity and


recovery with subsea boosting
After perforating and installation of the
completion hardware, the remaining
connection for fluid flowbetween
the wellhead and the host production
facilityis established with subsea
equipment. The placement of modern
subsea developments in ever deeper
water depths and at increased distances

Examination of the spent 6 5/8-in. perforating gun incorporating INsidr perforating shock and debris reduction technology shows
that the shaped charge cases do not break but remain in one piece, resulting in only negligible debris out of the gun. (Courtesy of
Schlumberger)
INsidr technology was specified because it both manages

Debris from perforating can pose problems during

perforating gun shock and minimizes the amount of debris

tubing-conveyed perforating and well cleanup operations.

left behind compared with conventional gun systems.

Using INsidr technology significantly reduces debris volume,

Excessive perforating gun shock can cause significant

as confirmed with official API 19B Section 5 debris tests.

damage to the lower assembly or completion tools. The

PowerFlowMax* 6618 slug-free big hole shaped charges

proven PURE Planner* perforation job planning application

were specified for deployment with INsidr perforating

is used to predict the peak incremental dynamic loads that

technology in the Stones wells to lessen the amount of

can produce mechanical damage. Once the peak loads are

debris created in the first place because their steel cases

identified, the software is used to modify the design of

remain practically intact after the gun fires. Minimizing

both the gun string and BHA to lower the peak loads to

debris maximizes the area open to flow after perforating

force values that are manageable.

for the best possible production.

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between the well locations and the


host facility introduces pressure losses
and temperature changes that can lead
to flow assurance problems. Adding
energy to the flow with subsea booster
pumps overcomes the pressure losses
and reduces the temperature losses by
speeding up the flow. Although there
are many examples of successful subsea
boosting in fields around the world,
none is in waters as deep or pressures
as high as those of the Stones project.
The high shut-in pressure associated
with Lower Tertiary reservoirs was
one of the key issues for consideration
in designing the boosting system for
Stones. In addition, high differential
pressure is required to increase both
the production rates and the overall
recovery factor, which would enhance
project economics. Due to the potential
for high cost and lost revenue if there
is downtime, Shell required equipment
with a proven track record and the
highest reliability and performance.
To meet these specifications, the final
selection landed on using seabed pumps.
Shell is collaborating with
OneSubsea, a Schlumberger company,
to incorporate the companys
requirements and specifications in
the pump design. The project is being
executed at OneSubseas facilities for
engineering, manufacturing and testing
in Bergen, Norway.
To build the pumps, OneSubsea
engineers are working with suppliers
on every detail. A significant portion
of this effort focuses on metallurgy,
welding and manufacturing. To deliver
the highest-reliability system, every
component must be of the highest
quality and rigorously evaluated before
incorporation into the final assembly.

The OneSubsea single-phase pump systems for the Stones wells consist of a fully
encapsulated pump and motor, designed for 10,000-ft (3,000-m) water depth and internal
pressure up to 15,000 psi. (Courtesy of Schlumberger)

A critical step in the initial technology


qualification program (TQP) involved
the project teams going to individual
suppliers to qualify the many elements
of the pump system. As part of the
final phase of the TQP, prototypes and
first-article testing were successfully
completed. The TQP was concluded with
building, testing and qualifying a full-size
pump prior to initiating manufacturing
of the commercial pumps.
In the long term, seabed boosting
allows producing the reservoir to a
lower abandonment pressure, which
increases the recovery factor and
could extend the life of the Stones
field considerably.

5599 San Felipe, 17th Floor


Houston, Texas 77056
www.slb.com

*Mark of Schlumberger
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COMPANY PROFILE FRANKS INTERNATIONAL

Reaching record-breaking deepwater drilling


depth with industry-leading equipment
and completions services
Franks International is an industry
innovator and leading provider of highly engineered tubular services to exploration companies in both offshore and
onshore environments. For more than
78 years, Franks has been making history in tubular running services by anticipating change and meeting the needs of
our customers. Today with over 200 U.S.
and foreign patents, Franks specializes in
engineering and manufacturing progressive solutions that unlock the most com-

plex drilling environments while continuing to set the standard in the industry.
Franks International recently added
to their successful track record of industry milestones with Shells Stones project, which set a new world-record for
deepwater depth. Franks supplied a variety of casing, landing string and completions equipment and services to the various rigs utilized in the drilling of wells
within Shells Stones field.

Casing services
On the Thalassa rig, Franks provided
an array of extended range spiders, elevators and wide-track systems, and ran
casing strings on two wells.

Landing string services

Franks Internationals Fluid Grip tong is


a patented and proprietary non-metallic
and truly non-marking gripping system for
running CRA tubulars. Complementary
Franks equipment includes the Collar
Load Support system for a completely
non-marking tubular running and
handling system.

On the Danny Adkins and Jim Day rigs,


Franks supplied 1,250-ton landing string
spiders and drill pipe elevators to handle
heavy landing strings. Franks also conducted a landing string analysis on all strings to
ensure safe running of heavy landing strings
and to facilitate optimal utilization of the
rigs drillpipe inventory. This combination
of innovation and expertise resulted in the
safe running of hook loads weighing nearly
or in excess of two million pounds.

Franks Internationals 1250-ton Drill


Pipe Elevator is equipped with Franks
patented elevator/spider interlock
system and is designed without latches
or doors, eliminating pinch points and
improving safety. Franks developed the
industrys first 1250- and 1500- ton
handling equipment.
Internationals patented Fluid Grip tong
technology enabled the make-up of delicate assemblies within the strings.
Franks International applies engineering expertise and customized solutions
to bring the most complex wells into
production more efficiently. Franks longevity as a leader in tubular running services and as an expert in corrosion resistant alloy positions Franks as the top
provider of well completion, intervention
and recovery services.

Completions services
On the Jim Day and Thalassa rigs, Franks
technicians executed both upper and lower completions runs using Franks RS family of completions spiders and control-line
manipulator arms. Additionally, Franks

10260 Westheimer Road, Suite 700


Houston, Texas 77042
Tel: +1 281 966 7300
Toll Free: +1 800 827 6020
Fax: +1 281 558 7883
Email: info@franksintl.com

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COMPANY PROFILE OCEANEERING INTERNATIONAL, INC.

Oceaneering subsea installation and umbilical


expertise contribute to success on Stones
Oceaneering International, Inc. demonstrated its expertise in ultra-deep water
by providing custom-designed umbilicals and overcoming significant challenges to install subsea lines and equipment
for Shells record-depth Stones project.

nically feasible umbilical that met the


requirements of this challenging application. Oceaneering invested more than
11,000 hours of engineering and analysis
to ensure that the umbilicals would perform as intended.

did not have the capacity to safely lower them to 9,600 sfw using a full line
of steel cable. To meet this challenge,
Oceaneering replaced 3,000 ft of cable
with neutrally buoyant synthetic rope
and modified a spool to handle it, reducing total weight and enabling efficient
wellhead and tubing head spool installation. Oceaneering also manufactured six
jumpers and installed them, along with
several flying leads, using ROVs.

Successful ROV Operation


in Strong Currents

Shell Stones dynamic umbilical awaits loadout at Oceaneerings quayside facility in


Panama City, Florida
During offshore operation on Stones,
Oceaneering crews recorded no LTI or
other HSE incidents.

Custom-Engineered
Power Umbilicals
As the deepest dynamic power umbilicals ever installed, the umbilicals for
Stones required extensive engineering.
Oceaneering developed dozens of candidate designs before arriving at a tech-

Manufactured at Oceaneerings
Panama City, Florida, facility, each
umbilical includes three 20-kV mediumvoltage triads to power the subsea
pumps; 16 steel tubes rated to 15,000
psi for hydraulics and chemical injection;
low-voltage power cables; and fiber
optic signal lines.
Installing the two wellheads at Stones
was a particular challenge because the
crane on the available service vessel

The ultra-deep water and persistent eddy


currents complicated ROV operations,
especially during wellhead installation.
Three-knot currents at the surface and
one-knot currents on the seabed required
carefully planned vessel movement and
special procedures to compensate for
drift while lowering and installing equipment. The high specification Oceaneering Millennium Plus heavy work class
ROVs worked at full capacity at these great
depths, successfully completing all operations with only minor modifications.

Oceaneering International, Inc.


11911 FM 529
Houston, Texas 77041
(713) 329-4500
oceaneering.com

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COMPANY PROFILE TE CONNECTIVITY

Custom-Engineered Electrical
and Fiber Optic Connectors
from TE Connectivity
Enable detachable turret mooring buoy
concept for Stones FPSO
Royal Dutch Shells innovative concept
for the Stones FPSO includes a detachable buoy turret mooring (BTM) that
can release production risers and umbilicals in advance of extreme weather conditions and reconnect afterwards. This
capability required custom-designed
electrical and fiber optic connectors on
the umbilicals and turret stab plates that
could disengage and reconnect reliably,
safely and repeatedly. TE Connectivitys (TE) SEACON and DEUTSCH combined portfolios were able to meet this
unique challenge.
TE offers one of the widest range of
dry- and wet- mate connectivity solutions available in the market and has
developed innovative technologies to
support FPSO applications such as this
since the early 2000s. For the Stones
project, Royal Dutch Shell relied on TE
to provide the low voltage and high voltage electrical connectors and fiber optic
connectors for the stab plate intersection between the FPSO and BTP
and used similar low voltage and fiber
optic connectors for the BTB monitoring system.

Demanding Application
The dry-mate EX-Mate LV electrical connectors and wet-mate HydraLight fiber
optic connectors had to be certified as
explosion proof because they would be
installed in a Class I, Zone I hazardous

location on the vessel. Connectors had


to be designed to mate correctly under
all possible stab plate misalignment conditions. The robust design ensures that
the connectors function and maintain
their integrity under high load conditions while connected to the 180-ton,
3,000m-long umbilical cables. When disconnected from the FPSO, the BTM will
be submerged.
Both the EX-Mate and EX-HydraLight
connectors were supplied in super
duplex material. Within the HydraLight
connector, engineers used a new compensation fluid with no flash-point and
changed the pressure compensator to
withstand higher thermal expansion. A
portable oil fill station was developed for
connector maintenance, and test connectors were designed to verify fiber optic
channel performance.

Extensive Testing and Certification


TE worked closely with Royal Dutch
Shell and ExVeritas Limited to create a
comprehensive connector qualification
test program to certify the fiber optic
and electrical connectors for use in a
Class I hazardous area. TE also qualified
two separate Royal Dutch Shell-provided cables and their integration with
connector assemblies through extensive
physical testing.
TE also supplied SEACON connector/cable assemblies for the top stab

DEUTSCH

Rochester Cable

plate for installation at the turret suppliers location. TEs DEUTSCH technicians
worked at the umbilical suppliers facility to install the connectors to the cables
using a proprietary moulding process.

Collaboration and Support


At the outset of the project, TE worked
with Royal Dutch Shell to create a comprehensive functional design specification to capture all engineering requirements. TEs SEACON Engineering, R&D,
production and supply chain groups supported the project from initiation to final
installation. Amidst the technical complexities and pioneering requirements,
the project was expertly administered.
TEs broad experience across all connectivity mediums and technologies serving
Marine Oil & Gas applications including seven previous FPSO projects
served as a critical asset toward the projects success.
TE Connectivity, TE, SEACON, DEUTSCH
are trademarks of the TE Connectivity
family of companies.
Royal Dutch Shell and ExVeritas
are trademarks.

SEACON Advanced Products LLC


1321 Nelius Road, P.O. Box 767,
Bellville, TX 77418,
USA
Tel: (+1) 979 865 8846
www.seaconworldwide.com

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COMPANY PROFILE TECHNIP

Technip leverages its products and services to


deliver an integrated subsea system
Technip is a world leader in project management, engineering and construction
for the energy industry. From the deepest subsea oil and gas developments to the
largest and most complex offshore and
onshore infrastructures, our 32,500 people
are constantly offering the best solutions
and most innovative technologies to meet
the worlds energy challenges. Present in
45 countries, Technip has state-of-the-art
industrial assets on all continents and operates a fleet of specialized vessels for pipeline installation and subsea construction.
Technip was responsible for the fabrication of the flowlines and steel lazy
wave risers and installation of the worlds

The Deep Blue is one of the most advanced pipelay and construction vessels of the subsea
industry and the flagship of the Technip fleet.

Technip installed the Stones subsea


production system at a world-record depth
of 9,500 ft.

deepest subsea production system and


lateral gas pipeline at a water depth of
2,900 m (9,500 ft).
Through a second contract, Technip
has secured the fabrication and installation of two subsea production lines to
tie in the new Drill Center Two (DC2)
to the existing Drill Center One (DC1).
The contract covered engineering of
the required second-end Pipeline End
Terminations (PLETs), fabrication of the
PLETs and piles, and installation of the
subsea production system, inclusive of
associated project management, engineering and stalk fabrication.
Technip leveraged its integrated
approach in the subsea business by conducting the overall project management
from its operating center in Houston.
The flowlines and risers were welded at
Technips spoolbase in Mobile, Alabama.
The first phase of offshore installation
for DCI was performed and the second

phase of DCI completed by Deep Blue,


Technips deep-water pipelay vessel.
With greater depths come greater
challenges for our clients, said Raymond
Semple, Technip North America Chief
Operating Officer, Subsea & Offshore
Business Unit. With this high-profile project, Technip confirms its subsea leadership and keeps differentiating
itself through innovation to remain at the
forefront of frontier projects.

TECHNIP
11740 Katy Freeway, Suite 100
Houston, Texas 77079
1-281-870-1111
www.technip.com

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COMPANY PROFILE SWOS

Reliable rigging for the worlds deepest


field through custom design, superior rope
construction, and rigorous testing
As the worlds deepest production facility, Shells Stones project presented innumerable challenges for rigging requirements. Focusing 100% on synthetic rope,
SWOS provided high-performance rigging solutions through custom design,
superior rope construction, and rigorous
testing. The result is excellent operational performance.

subsea installations, node connections


for custom seismic streamer lines, customized riser protection nets and engineered lifts for offshore construction. A
full-service rigging shop, SWOS has the
largest selection of cordage in the U.S.,
and has gained a reputation for the fastest turnaround times.

Master fabricator and distributor


Full-service rigging
Based in Houston, SWOS is a leading
supplier of high-performance rigging systems to oil and gas companies operating in the Gulf of Mexico and offshore
sectors throughout the world. SWOS
mastery includes industry-specific rigging applications, including winch lines for

Since its inception in 1985, SWOS has


been a distributor of Samson, the leader in fiber-rope technology. Starting
as a Regional Service Center for Samson, SWOS has progressed to become
a Master Distributor, and then one of
three Master Fabricators worldwide.
Working with Samsons industry leading
R&D, engineering and technical services
department, SWOS has gained the confidence to provide the best rope products and reliable service.

SWOS, and its rope testing partner


Versabar, designed a full-scale test rig to
test the durability of the custom designed
riser pull-in line as it would bend over the
sheave and routing.

Rigorous testing
Custom-designed lightweight solutions

For the Stones project, SWOS and Samson


designed, rigorously tested, and built
tapered buoy pickup, winch, buoyancy and
messenger lines, and two Vectran riser
pull-in lines of 435 m length. The riser pull
in line and winch line are shown here.

Over the years, fiber-rope rigging solutions have evolved from hemp to nylon,
from polyester to Aramids and HMPE.
SWOS designs and fabricates rigging solutions utilizing a wide variety of neutrally-buoyant fibers and rope constructions.
Custom buoyant rope solutions can be
used at most depths without propensity for breakage, because they weigh virtually nothing. SWOS synthetic rigging
systems are lightweight, easy to handle, and require fewer operators, and
less deck space.

For customers needing certification to


prove the overall strength of their lines,
SWOS provides break-strength testing. SWOS in-house testing facilities also
perform internal destructive testing on
prototypes for synthetic rope suppliers.

Stones project
SBM Offshore first brought in SWOS
to supply a tapered buoy pickup line.
This was SBMs first use of a synthetic rope system, explained Andrew
Clancy, SWOS Project Manager. Even
before we received the contract, we

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provided SBM with technical information on rope performance and submitted designs for sheave design, layout and
routing, working hand-in-hand with SBM
engineers, and answered many questions about heave compensation. A
buoy pickup line needs to float and have
unique density requirements. Together, with Samson, we designed a pickup line that was tapered from 140 mm
to 80 mm, resulting in significant size
reduction and weight savings, and smaller
winch package than possible with a wirerope system.
The riser pull-in rope required an
extremely heavy rope with a specific density target in seawater, explained Clancy.
There were no off-the-shelf rope
products available, added Justin
Gilmore, Samson Technical Sales
Manager. SWOS and Samson worked
together to develop three custom-built
options. In order to get the highest density possible, Shell ultimately selected a
12-strand VectranTM rope with a twelve
-strand lead core. We have used lead in
ropes before to add weight, but had never put this much lead in a rope.
After successful MBS (minimum
breaking strength) test regimen on the
prototype rope, SWOS, and its testing partner Versabar, built a full-scale
test frame to test the ropes reaction
to bending over the sheaves and routing in the course of a number of different cycles. The tests stressed the rope to
the maximum estimated dynamic load of
a flooded riser. The customer support
continued offshore with a SWOS technician onboard during the first riser pullin. said Clancy.

Project success
The takeaway from the project was that
we took the clients problem, applied

Samson: Leader in high-performance ropes


For over 130 years, Samson has been
recognized as a worldwide leader in the
development and manufacture of highperformance ropes. Among its many
innovations, Samson invented the double
braid and pioneered the first high-modulus
polyethylene fiber ropes. Today, Samson
engineers continue to pioneer the use of
new fiber technology and the development
of innovative coatings and constructions
to produce ropes with unprecedented
performance characteristics. Samsons
research and development team is meeting
an ever-expanding market need for
products with exceptional performance
in critical applications. Samson is part
of Wind River Holdings portfolio

Samsons state-of-the-art
facilities in Ferndale, Washington
and Lafayette, Louisiana are
Quality Assurance ISO 9001
certified, utilizing LEAN
manufacturing. Both facilities are
located near major sea ports.

of operating companies. For more


information about Wind River Holdings visit www.windriverholdings.com.

2090 Thornton Street


Ferndale, WA 98248
Toll Free: 1-800-227-7673 (ROPE)
www.samsonrope.com

our knowledge and expertise to develop a successful solution when no off-theshelf option was available, said Clancy.
We appreciate the confidence our clients entrusted in us to develop an optimal solution.
We expect the synthetic rope systems to yield significant advantages over
wire-rope systems throughout the life
of the project, including long operational
life, absence of corrosion, and protection
of riser tube coatings, added Gilmore.

5721 Harvey Wilson Dr.


Houston, TX 77020
Toll Free: (800) 231-6687
Office: (713) 671-9101
Fax: (713) 671-2515
www.swos.net

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COMPANY PROFILE YOKOGAWA

Yokogawa delivers subsea control solutions


for Shell deepwater projects
With years of pioneering offshore
experience, Yokogawa has kept
pace with the industrys increasing
requirements for technology and safety.
Yokogawas subsea control system,
proven to be robust and extremely
reliable, was ideally suited for the
worlds deepest subsea facility.

About Stones Subsea


Stones is an ultra-deep oil and gas
development in the Gulf of Mexico,
about 200 miles southwest of New
Orleans at a water depth of 9500
feet, making it the worlds deepest
production facility. Stones subsea wells
deliver oil and gas to Shells first FPSO
in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM).

Why Yokogawa for Stones Subsea?


Yokogawa CENTUM VP subsea and
topsides integrated controls and safety
systems are operating on Shell Perdido,
Gumusut-Kakap, and OLYMPUS TLP/
West Boreas projects.
The high quality CENTUM VP system,
with proven availability of 99.99999%,
is a natural fit for the most challenging
offshore environments. In addition,
Yokogawa has worked with Shell on
numerous projects to improve efficiency
and standardize control systems. Based
on the quality of its systems and these
efforts, the Stones Subsea Master Control
System (MCS) was awarded to Yokogawa
in October 2012.

Contractor toolkit
Stones Modular MCS subsea controls
platform includes Yokogawas flagship

control system, the CENTUM VP, with


modular programming that complies
with Shells engineering standards and
programming toolkit.
By standardizing the programming
toolkit for subsea controls, the MCS
could be streamlined, resulting in a higher quality control solution and a simpler
change management solution, at a lower
overall cost.
Yokogawa has standardized the HMIs,
alarm management and subsea modules
(objects and functions) for simple
replication of the wells. This reduces
the engineering and testing time of the
Master Control System compared to a

traditionally programmed PLC or other


MCS Solution.

Technological Developments
In the quickly evolving offshore industry,
changes and additions to the control
system have become mandatory.
Yokogawas latest CENTUM VP control
system provides a user friendly and
easy-to-maintain application to easily
accommodate changes.

Remote Monitoring and Control


Yokogawas subsea control system
can be monitored remotely via a
secure system, allowing Yokogawa

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to provide technical support from an


independent location.

Subsea Historian
The Subsea Historian (SSH) system
provides seamless integration with the
subsea control system. The highly reliable
SSH collects and stores well data. This
system enables continuous monitoring
of the well operation and the subsea
infrastructure. The SSH provides a special
user interface to collect valve signatures,
downhole and acoustic sand detection
data. This feature is used to perform
valve diagnostics to aid in planning for
interventions and to prevent well damage.

Safety
Yokogawa has been successful in
inculcating safety as the go by rule.
Through the various steps of the Stones
project FEED, Design, Engineering, FAT,
EFAT, equipment pre-commissioning
at Singapore and the subsea well
commissioning at Gulf of Mexico, every
activity was carried out with safety being
the first priority.

Value Drivers
Ease of Integration with key 3rd party
topsides and subsea systems.
Standard subsea toolkit solution
package to reduce engineering and
testing cost.
Provide effective change management
system to streamline change and
release process.

Conclusion
Standardizing the subsea controls
application as a solution suite is one
of Yokogawas main initiatives for the
upstream industry. This standardization
provides for continuous cost reduction
and increases vigilance for safety.
Providing the MCS for the Stones
project is a great milestone for Yokogawa.
Yokogawa met the challenge by delivering
a safe solution while providing advanced
technology for the next generation of
deep water developments.

About Yokogawa
Yokogawa provides integrated control
and monitoring solutions that maximize

the productivity of subsea, marine, and


topside operations while maintaining a
safe and secure environment.
Yokogawas global network of 92
companies spans 59 countries. Founded
in 1915, the US$3.7 billion company
engages in cutting-edge research and
innovation. Yokogawa is active in the
industrial automation (IA), test and
measurement, aviation and other
business segments. The IA segment plays
a vital role in a wide range of industries
including oil, chemicals, natural gas,
power, iron and steel, pulp and paper,
pharmaceuticals, and food.

www.yokogawa.com

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