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4.

ME 5040 FEM 1
Section 2
Stiffness (Displacement) Method
Truss Elements

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Outline
Finite Element Formulation Direct Method

Nodal equilibriums
Element and global stiffness matrices
Superposition of stiffness matrix
System equation and boundary conditions
Displacements, reaction forces, stresses, and strains

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Introduction

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Derivation of the Stiffness Matrix


for a Spring Element
Consider the following linear spring element:

Points 1 and 2 are reference points called nodes


f1x and f2x are the local nodal forces on the x-axis
1 and 2 are the local nodal displacements
k is the spring constant or stiffness of the spring
L is the distance between the nodes
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Derivation of the Stiffness Matrix


for a Spring Element

We have selected our element type and now need to define


the deformation relationships

For the spring subject to tensile forces at each node:


= 2 - 1 & T = k
Where is the total deformation and T is the tensile force
Combine to obtain: T = k(2 - 1 )

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Derivation of the Stiffness Matrix


for a Spring Element
Performing a basic force balance yields:

Combining these force eqs with the previous eqs:

Express in matrix form:

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Establishing the Global Stiffness


Matrix for a Spring Assemblage
Consider the two-spring assemblage:

Node 1 is fixed and axial forces are applied at

nodes 3 and 2.
The x-axis is the global axis of the assemblage.

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Establishing the Global Stiffness


Matrix for a Spring Assemblage
For element 1:

For element 2:
Elements 1 and 2 must remain connected at common

node 3. The is called the continuity or compatibility


requirement given by:

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Establishing the Global Stiffness


Matrix for a Spring Assemblage
From the Free-body diagram of the assemblage:

We can write the equilibrium nodal equations:

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Establishing the Global Stiffness


Matrix for a Spring Assemblage

Combining the nodal equilibrium equations with the


elemental force/displacement/stiffness relations we obtain
the global relationship:

Which takes the form: {F} = [K]{d}


{F} is the global nodal force matrix
{d} is the global nodal displacement matrix
[K] is the total or global or system stiffness matrix

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Homogenous Boundary
Conditions
Where is the homogenous boundary condition for

the spring assemblage?


It is at the location which is fixed, Node 1
Because Node 1 is fixed 1 = 0
The system relation can be written as:

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Nonhomogeneous Boundary
Conditions
Consider the case where there is a known

displacement, , at Node 1

Let 1 =

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Minimum Potential Energy


Approach
Alternative method often used to derive the

element equations and stiffness matrix.


More adaptable to the determination of element
equations for complicated elements such as:
Plane stress/strain element
Axisymmetric stress element
Plate bending element
Three-dimensional solid stress element
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Total Potential Energy


Defined as the sum of the internal strain energy,

U, and the potential energy of the external forces,

Strain energy is the capacity of internal forces to

do work through deformations in the structure.


The potential energy of external forces is the
capacity of forces such as body forces, surface
traction forces, or applied nodal forces to do work
through deformation of the structure.
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Total Potential Energy of Spring


The strain energy can be expressed as:

The potential energy of the external force can be

expressed as:
Therefore, the total potential energy of a spring is:

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Potential Energy Approach to


Derive Spring Element Eqs.
Consider the linear spring subject to nodal forces:

The total potential energy is:

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Potential Energy Approach to


Derive Spring Element Eqs.
To minimize the total potential energy the partial

derivatives of p with respect to each nodal


displacement must be taken:

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Potential Energy Approach to


Derive Spring Element Eqs.
Simplify to:

In matrix form:

The results are identical to the direct method


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Development of Truss Equations

Lift bridge truss over the Illinois River (By Daryl L. Logan)
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Derivation of the Stiffness Matrix


for a Bar Element

Consider the following bar subjected to tensile forces:

For this derivation, assume that:


The bar element has a constant cross-sectional area A,
modulus of elasticity E, and initial length L.
The bar cannot sustain shear force or bending moment.
Any effect of transverse displacement is ignored.
Hookes law applies, axial stress is related to axial strain.
No intermediate applied loads
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Derivation of the Stiffness Matrix


for a Bar Element

By combining the strain/displacement and stress/strain


relationships with the equation for force in terms of stress
and area we get:

From the force equilibrium equations:

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Derivation of the Stiffness Matrix


for a Bar Element
Express the two force equations in matrix form:

We now have the local matrix form we have seen in

past chapters:
Thus the local stiffness matrix for a linear-elastic bar

element is:

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Nodal Equilibriums
Element Stiffness Matrices
1 1
L1 1 1

[K1 ] = E1 A1

1 1

1 1

[K 2 ] = E2 A2
L2

Nodal Equilibriums at
E1 A1 1 1 u1 f1
=
L1 1 1 u2 f 2
E2 A2
L2

1 1 u2 f 3
1 1 u = f

3 4

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Introduction

Global Stiffness Matrix


System Equation
? ? ? u1 F1 R1 Nodal Displacements
? ? ? u = F = 0

u1 k1=E1A1/L1 u2
2 2

? ? ? u3 F3 P
1

Superposition
? ? ? u1 F1
?K1? ? u = F
2 2

? ? ? u3 F3
? ? ? u1 F1
? ? ? u = F
2 2

K
? ? 2? u3 F3

u2 k2=E2A2/L2 u3
2

Nodal Forces
f1
1

k1=E1A1/L1 f
2
1

f3
2

k2=E2A2/L2 f
4
2

F1 f1

F2 = f 2 + f 3
F f
3 4
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Introduction

Global Stiffness Matrix (contd)


Global Stiffness Matrix
E1 A1
?
? L1
?

EA
K1
[K ] = ?
?
? = 1 1
L1

K2

?
?
?
0

E1 A1
L1

E1 A1 E2 A2
+
L1
L2

E2 A2
L2

E2 A2

L2

E2 A2
L2
0

Recall
k1
[K ] = k1
0

k1
k1 + k 2
k2

0
k 2
k 2
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Introduction

Example: Forming Stiffness Matrix


E1 = E2 = E
P

A1

A2

L1

EA2/L2

EA1/L1

x
1

L2

Element Stiffness Matrices


E1 A1 1 1 u1
[K1 ] =
L1 1 1 u3
1 1 u3 E2 A2
u = L

1
1

2
2

[K 2 ] = E2 A2
L2

1 1 u2
1 1 u

3
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Introduction

Example: Forming Stiffness Matrix


Global Stiffness Matrix
0

[K ] = 0

0
0
0

0 u1

0 u 2

0 u3

Add [K2]

Add [K1]

EA1 L1

[K ] = 0

EA1 L1

EA1 L1

[K ] = 0

EA1 L1

0
EA2 L2
EA2 L2

0
0
0

EA1 L1 u1

u2
0

EA1 L1 u3

EA1 L1

u1

u2
EA2 L2

EA1 L1 + EA2 L2 u3
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Introduction

Alternative Approach
Expanding element stiffness matrices
1
L1 1 1

[K1 ] = E1 A1

1 1
[K 2 ] = E2 A2
L2 1 1

1
u1 E1 A1
0
=
u3
L1
1
0
u3 E2 A2
0
=

u2
L2
0

0 1 u1
0 0 u2
0 1 u3
0 0 u1
1 1 u2
1 1 u3

Obtaining global stiffness matrix by superposition


EA1 L1

[K ] = [K1 ] + [K 2 ] = 0

EA1 L1

0
EA2 L2
EA2 L2

EA1 L1

u1

u2
EA2 L2

EA1 L1 + EA2 L2 u3
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Introduction

Node 1

Node 2

Node 3

Node 4

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Node 1

Node 2

Node 3

Node 4

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Logan

Guidelines for Selecting a


Displacement Function
It is difficult, if not impossible at time, to obtain a closed form

or exact solution, so we assume a solution shape or


distribution of displacement.
The approximation function should be:
Continuous within the bar element
Should provide interelement continuity for all degrees of
freedom
Should allow for rigid-body displacement and for a state
of constant strain within the element
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Interpolations over Elements


1-D Element
u1

u( x ) = a0 + a1 x

u(0) = a0 = u1
u( L) = a0 + a1L = u2

u2
2

u( x ) = u1 +

u2 u1
x
L

u( x ) = (1 x L)u1 + ( x L)u2
x
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Interpolations over Elements


1-D Element
x x
N1 = 2

x2 x1
x x
N2 = 1

x1 x2
2

u( x ) = N i ui
i =1

2
x
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Introduction

Interpolations over Elements


1-D Element
( x x )( x3 x )
N1 = 2

( x2 x1 )( x3 x1 )
( x x )( x3 x )
N2 = 1

( x1 x2 )( x3 x2 )
( x x )( x2 x )
N3 = 1

( x1 x3 )( x2 x3 )
3

u( x ) = N i ui
i =1

x
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Introduction

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FE Formulation by MTPE
Principle of Minimum Total Potential Energy (MTPE)
Of all the geometrically possible shapes that a body can
assume, the true one, corresponding to the satisfaction of
stable equilibrium of the body, is identified by a minimum
value of the total potential energy

MTPE is applicable only to elastic behavior


MTPE is the sum of internal strain energy and
potential energy of external work (done by external
forces)

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Introduction

Internal Strain Energy

Strain
energy

L
L

d 0

Element Strain Energy


V0

Ue =

0 d dV = L A 0 Ed dy = L A 1 EA 2 dy
0 0
0 2 0
0

1 L
1 EA 2
= EA
L
L=
2 L
2 L
2

Total Internal Strain Energy: U = U i


i =1

Introduction

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Potential Energy of External Work


External Work
n

W = Fju j

j =1

Potential Energy of External Work

= W = F j u j
j =1

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Introduction

Minimum Total Potential Energy


Total Potential Energy
m

i =1

j =1

= U + = U W = U i Fju j

Total potential energy is minimum when


n

U
F
u
=

i
j j u1 = 0

j =1
u1

i =1
n

= U i F j u j u2 = 0
u2
j =1

i =1

...

m
n
= U F u u = 0
n
i j j
un
i
j
=
1
=
1

Minimum
at
/x=0
x

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Introduction

Stiffness Matrix by MTPE


Example: a two-bar system

Internal strain energy


1E A
1E A
2
2
U = U1 + U 2 = 1 1 ( L1 ) + 2 2 ( L2 )
2 L1
2 L2
1
1
2
2
= k1 (u 2 u1 ) + k 2 (u3 u2 )
2
2

Potential energy of external work

u1

k1

u2

k2

u3

= W = F j u j = ( R1u1 + 0 u2 + Pu3 ) = R1u1 Pu3


j =1

Total potential energy


=U + =

1
1
2
2
k1 (u2 u1 ) + k 2 (u3 u2 ) + (R1u1 Pu3 )
2
2
67 (NKM)

Introduction

Stiffness Matrix by MTPE (contd)


Minimum total potential energy

= k1 (u2 u1 ) + R1 = 0
u1

k1u1 k1u2 + 0 u3 = R1

= k1 (u2 u1 ) k 2 (u3 u2 ) = 0
u2

k1u1 + (k1 + k 2 )u2 k 2u3 = 0

= k 2 (u3 u2 ) P = 0
u3

0 u1 k 2u2 + k 2u3 = P

Stiffness matrix and system equation


k1
k
1
0

k1
k1 + k 2
k2

0 u1 R1

k 2 u2 = 0
k 2 u3 P
68 (NKM)

Introduction

Element Stiffness Matrix by MTPE


Internal strain energy
1 EA
1
2
2
U=
( L1 ) = k (u2 u1 )
2 L
2

Potential energy of external work


= W = ( f1u1 + f 2u2 )

u1

u1

k=EA/L

u2

f2

Nodal Forces
k=EA/L
f1

Minimum total potential energy


(U + )
=
= k (u u ) f = 0
u1

Nodal Displacements

(U + )
=
= k (u2 u1 ) f 2 = 0
u2
u2

1 1 u1 f1
k
u = f

1
1

2 2

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Introduction

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Global Stiffness Matrix for


Arbitrarily Oriented Bar
Consider the bar element arbitrarily oriented in the global

x y plane

We require a stiffness matrix which solves this

configuration for any angle


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Global Stiffness Matrix for


Arbitrarily Oriented Bar

Performing the derivation yields the explicit stiffness matrix for a bar
arbitrarily oriented in the x y plane

C and S represent cos() and sin(), respectively.


The matrix can be summed using the direct stiffness method since it is
piece-wise continuous from element to element.

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Section 3.4 & Example 3.3


(Pages 84 - 89)

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5.11

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Potential Energy Approach to


Derive Bar Element Equations

Recall that the total potential energy is defined as:

To evaluate the strain energy for a bar, we consider only the work
done by the internal forces during deformation.

The differential internal work (or strain energy) is:

86 (NKM)

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Potential Energy Approach to


Derive Bar Element Equations

Letting the volume of the element approach zero and then integrating
for the whole bar we get:

For a linear-elastic material (Hookes law) and further simplifying for


a uniform-cross sectional area A with stress/strain dependent on the
x coordinate we get:

We can observe from this integral that the strain energy is the area
under the stress/strain curve.
87 (NKM)

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Potential Energy Approach to


Derive Bar Element Equations

The potential energy of the external forces is given by:

Where the first term is body forces, the second term is surface
loading or traction, and the third term is nodal concentrated forces
moving through nodal displacements
Combining both potential energy factors we get:

Expressed in matrix form where {P} is the concentrated nodal loads:

88 (NKM)

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Potential Energy Approach to


Derive Bar Element Equations

Combining the axial displacement function in terms of the shape


function and nodal displacements gives us:

The minimization of the potential energy requires that:

Further rearranging and substitution gives:

89 (NKM)

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Potential Energy Approach to


Derive Bar Element Equations

Writing these two equations in matrix form gives:

It can be seen that we have derived the identical bar stiffness matrix
as earlier:

Finally, we can use the matrix differentiation performed in Chapter 2


and apply it directly:

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Comparison of Finite Element


Solution to Exact Solution For
Bar

Comparison of exact and finite element solutions for axial


displacement (along length of bar)
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Comparison of Finite Element

Solution to Exact Solution For Bar

Comparison of exact and finite element solutions for axial stress


(along length of bar)
92 (NKM)

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Weighted Residual Methods

The methods of weighted residuals applied directly to a differential


equation can be used to develop the finite element equations.
In weighted residual methods, a trial or approximate function is
chosen to approximate the independent variable, such as
displacement or temperature, in a problem defined by a differential
equation.
It is required that the weighted value of the residual be a minimum
over the whole region. The general form of the weighted residual
integral is:

Where W is the weighting function


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Types of Residual Methods

Collocation Method
Requires that the error or residual function, R, be forced to zero
at as many points as there are unknown coefficients
Subdomain Method
Requires that the integral of the error or residual function over
some selected subintervals to be set to zero
Least Squares Method
Requires the integral of the error function squared to be
minimized with respect to each of the unknown coefficients
Galerkins Method
Requires the error to be orthogonal to some weighting functions

94 (NKM)

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Flowchart for
Solution of
ThreeDimensional
Truss Problems

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