7 views

Uploaded by Khuất Trần Thanh

- Hilti. Thiết kế Bu lông neo cấy
- 11
- 7. VO PHAN - NGUYEN DUC HUY (68-79) (HC 22.11.16)
- 10 01 Tai trong
- 18-04-29 Bhf TP1 Strain Tables
- Interpolation|Interpolation.pdf
- Mai
- Mac Bt & Bang Tra Thep
- Cung Trượt Trên Đỉnh Cừ
- Hilti. Thiết kế Khoan cấy thép chịu lực
- Chng4bncmi 150413080148 Conversion Gate01
- tham khảo lệch tâm
- Cung Trượt Phía Dưới Cừ
- 3NguyenLan_QTNenDuongVN
- ASTM D4633.pdf
- Structural Analysis
- 1512635710Chu-Thi-Binh
- Nguyen Trong Huy - BC Ung Dung Geo5
- Strut-And-tie Modelling of Rc Piles
- Thuyet Minh TKKT MGHn2

You are on page 1of 36

Revision I

By Tom Irvine

Email: tom@vibrationdata.com

December 11, 2015

_______________________________________________________________________

Introduction

The effective modal mass provides a method for judging the significance of a vibration

mode.

Modes with relatively high effective masses can be readily excited by base excitation.

On the other hand, modes with low effective masses cannot be readily excited in this

manner.

Consider a modal transient or frequency response function analysis via the finite element

method. Also consider that the system is a multi-degree-of-freedom system. For brevity,

only a limited number of modes should be included in the analysis.

How many modes should be included in the analysis? Perhaps the number should be

enough so that the total effective modal mass of the model is at least 90% of the actual

mass.

Definitions

The equation definitions in this section are taken from Reference 1.

Consider a discrete dynamic system governed by the following equation

M x K x F

(1)

where

M is the mass matrix

K

A solution to the homogeneous form of equation (1) can be found in terms of eigenvalues

and eigenvectors. The eigenvectors represent vibration modes.

Let be the eigenvector matrix.

The systems generalized mass matrix m

is given by

T M

m

(2)

Let r be the influence vector which represents the displacements of the masses resulting

from static application of a unit ground displacement. The influence vector induces a

rigid body motion in all modes.

Define a coefficient vector L as

L T M r

(3)

Li

ii

m

(4)

m eff , i

Li 2

(5)

ii

m

i i = 1 for each index if the eigenvectors have been normalized with respect

Note that m

to the mass matrix.

i j , i j ) terms are zero regardless of the

Furthermore, the off-diagonal modal mass ( m

normalization and even if the physical mass matrix M has distributed mass. This is due to

the orthogonality of the eigenvectors. The off-diagonal modal mass terms do not appear

in equation (5), however. An example for a system with distributed mass is shown in

Appendix F.

Example

Consider the two-degree-of-freedom system shown in Figure 1, with the parameters

shown in Table 1.

x2

m2

k3

k2

x1

m1

k1

Figure 1.

Table 1. Parameters

Variable

Value

m1

2.0 kg

m2

k1

k2

1.0 kg

k3

1000 N/m

2000 N/m

3000 N/m

k3 x1 0

m1 0 x1 k1 k3

0 m x k

3 k 2 k3 x 2 0

2 2

(6)

2 0

M

kg

0

1

(7)

4000 3000

K

N/m

3000 5000

(8)

The eigenvalues and eigenvectors can be found using the method in Reference 2.

The eigenvalues are the roots of the following equation.

det K 2M 0

(9)

12 901.9 rad / sec2

(10)

(11)

f 1 4.78 Hz

(12)

(13)

(14)

f 2 12.4 Hz

(15)

0.6280 0.3251

0.4597 0.8881

(16)

The eigenvectors were previously normalized so that the generalized mass is the identity

matrix.

T M

m

(17)

m

(18)

m

(19)

1 0

m

0 1

(20)

Again, r is the influence vector which represents the displacements of the masses

resulting from static application of a unit ground displacement. For this example, each

mass simply has the same static displacement as the ground displacement.

1

r

1

(21)

L T M r

(22)

0.6280 0.4597 2 0 1

L

0.3251 0.8881 0 1 1

(23)

0.6280 0.4597 2

L

0.3251 0.8881 1

1.7157

L

kg

0.2379

(24)

(25)

Li

ii

m

(26)

1.7157

0.2379

(27)

The coefficient vector L and the modal participation vector are identical in this

example because the generalized mass matrix is the identity matrix.

The effective modal mass m eff , i for mode i is

m eff , i

Li 2

(28)

ii

m

For mode 1,

m eff , 1

1.7157 kg2

(29)

1 kg

m eff , 1 2.944 kg

(30)

For mode 2,

m eff , 2

0.2379 kg2

1 kg

m eff , 2 0.056 kg

(31)

(32)

Note that

(33)

m eff , 1 m eff , 2 3 kg

(34)

Thus, the sum of the effective masses equals the total system mass.

Also, note that the first mode has a much higher effective mass than the second mode.

Thus, the first mode can be readily excited by base excitation. On the other hand, the

second mode is negligible in this sense.

From another viewpoint, the center of gravity of the first mode experiences a significant

translation when the first mode is excited.

On the other hand, the center of gravity of the second mode remains nearly stationary

when the second mode is excited.

Each degree-of-freedom in the previous example was a translation in the X-axis. This

characteristic simplified the effective modal mass calculation.

In general, a system will have at least one translation degree-of-freedom in each of three

orthogonal axes. Likewise, it will have at least one rotational degree-of-freedom about

each of three orthogonal axes. The effective modal mass calculation for a general system

is shown by the example in Appendix A. The example is from a real-world problem.

Aside

An alternate definition of the participation factor is given in Appendix B.

References

1. M. Papadrakakis, N. Lagaros, V. Plevris; Optimum Design of Structures under

Seismic Loading, European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied

Sciences and Engineering, Barcelona, 2000.

2. T. Irvine, The Generalized Coordinate Method For Discrete Systems,

Vibrationdata, 2000.

3. W. Thomson, Theory of Vibration with Applications 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall,

New Jersey, 1981.

4. T. Irvine, Bending Frequencies of Beams, Rods, and Pipes, Rev M, Vibrationdata,

2010.

5. T. Irvine, Rod Response to Longitudinal Base Excitation, Steady-State and

Transient, Rev B, Vibrationdata, 2009.

6. T. Irvine, Longitudinal Vibration of a Rod via the Finite Element Method, Revision B,

Vibrationdata, 2008.

APPENDIX A

Equation of Motion, Isolated Avionics Component

y

x

z

m, J

kz1

kz2

kx1

kx2

ky2

ky1

kz3

kz4

kx3

ky3

kx4

ky4

The mass and inertia are represented at a point with the circle symbol. Each isolator is

modeled by three orthogonal DOF springs. The spr ings are mounted at each corner. The

springs are shown with an offset from the corners for clarity. The triangles indicate fixed

constraints. 0 indicates the origin.

9

y

x

z

a1

a2

C. G.

0

c1

c2

All dimensions are positive as long as the C.G. is inside the box.

dimension will be negative otherwise.

10

At least one

The mass and stiffness matrices are shown in upper triangular form due to symmetry.

m 0 0 0

m 0 0

m 0

M

Jx

0

0

0

0

Jy

0

0

0

0

0

J z

(A-1)

4k x

K =

4k y

0

4k z

2k x c1 c 2

2k y c1 c 2

4k z b

2

4k z b 2k y c12 c 2 2

2k z a 1 a 2

2k z a1 a 2 b

2k x c12 c 2 2 2k z a12 a 2 2

2k y a1 a 2

k y a1 a 2 c1 c 2

2k x c1 c 2 b

2

2

2

4k x b 2k y a1 a 2

4k x b

(A-2)

11

x

y

z

M K

x 0

y 0

z 0

0

0

0

(A-3)

The variables , and represent rotations about the X, Y, and Z axes, respectively.

Example

A mass is mounted to a surface with four isolators. The system has the following properties.

= 4.28 lbm

Jx

Jy

Jz

kx

= 80 lbf/in

ky

= 80 lbf/in

kz

= 80 lbf/in

a1

= 6.18 in

a2

= -2.68 in

= 3.85 in

c1

= 3. in

c2

= 3. in

12

Let r be the influence matrix which represents the displacements of the masses resulting from

static application of unit ground displacements and rotations. The influence matrix for this

example is the identity matrix provided that the C.G is the reference point.

1

0

0

r

0

0

0 0 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 0

0 1 0 0 0

0 0 1 0 0

0 0 0 1 0

0 0 0 0 1

(A-4)

L T M r

(A-5)

ij

Lij

(A-6)

ii

m

i i coefficient is 1 if the eigenvectors have been normalized with respect to the mass

Each m

matrix.

The effective modal mass m eff , i vector for mode i and dof j is

m eff , i j

L i j 2

(A-7)

ii

m

The natural frequency results for the sample problem are calculated using the program:

six_dof_iso.m.

The results are given in the next pages.

13

six_dof_iso.m

by Tom Irvine

ver 1.2

Email: tomirvine@aol.com

six-degree-of-freedom system.

Refer to six_dof_isolated.pdf for a diagram.

The equation of motion is:

Enter

4.28

Enter

44.9

Enter

39.9

Enter

18.8

M (d^2x/dt^2) + K x = 0

m (lbm)

Jx (lbm in^2)

Jy (lbm in^2)

Jz (lbm in^2)

Enter kx (lbf/in)

80

Enter ky (lbf/in)

80

Enter kz (lbf/in)

80

Enter a1 (in)

6.18

Enter a2 (in)

-2.68

Enter b (in)

3.85

Enter c1 (in)

3

14

Enter c2 (in)

3

The mass matrix is

m =

0.0111

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.0111

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.0111

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.1163

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.1034

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.0487

0

0.0320

0

0

0

-0.1418

0

0

0.0320

-0.1232

0.1418

0

0

0

-0.1232

0.7623

-0.5458

0

0

0

0.1418

-0.5458

1.0140

0

0.1232

-0.1418

0

0

0

1.2003

0.0570

0.2886

0.2980

1.5699

2.7318

k =

1.0e+004 *

0.0320

0

0

0

0

0.1232

Eigenvalues

lambda =

1.0e+005 *

0.0213

15

Natural Frequencies =

1.

7.338 Hz

2.

12.02 Hz

3.

27.04 Hz

4.

27.47 Hz

5.

63.06 Hz

6.

83.19 Hz

Modes Shapes (rows represent modes)

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

x

5.91

0

7.17

0

0

1.96

y

-6.81

0

6.23

0

0

-2.25

alpha

0

8.69

0

1.04

-3.69

0

beta

0

0.954

0

-2.26

1.61

0

theta

0

-0.744

0

-1.95

-2.3

0

-1.42

0

0

0

0

4.3

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

x

0.0656

0

0.0795

0

0

0.0217

y

-0.0755

0

0.0691

0

0

-0.025

z

0

0.0963

0

0.0115

-0.0409

0

alpha

beta

theta

0

-0.0693

-0.0769

0

0

0

-0.202

0

-0.238

0

0

0.21

0

0.111

0

-0.263

0.187

0

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

x

0.0043

0

0.00632

0

0

0.000471

y

0.00569

0

0.00477

0

0

0.000623

z

0

0.00928

0

0.000133

0.00168

0

alpha

0

0.0123

0

0.069

0.035

0

0.0111

0.0111

0.116

beta

theta

0

0.00592

0

0.0408

0.0566

0

0.0048

0

0

0

0

0.0439

0.0111

0.103

16

0.0487

APPENDIX B

The following definition is taken from Reference 3. Note that the mode shape functions are

unscaled. Hence, the participation factor is unscaled.

Consider a beam of length L loaded by a distributed force p(x,t).

Consider that the loading per unit length is separable in the form

P

p( x , t ) o p( x ) f ( t )

L

(B-1)

1 L

p( x ) i ( x ) dx

L 0

(B-2)

where

i ( x )

17

APPENDIX C

Let

Yn (x)

mass-normalized eigenvectors

m(x)

L

n m( x ) Yn ( x )dx

0

(C-1)

2

L

0 m( x ) Yn ( x )dx

m eff , n

L

2

0 m(x) Yn (x) dx

(C-2)

m( x ) Yn ( x )2 dx 1

(C-3)

Thus,

m eff , n n 2 m( x ) Yn ( x )dx

0

18

2

(C-4)

APPENDIX D

Effective Modal Mass Values for Bernoulli-Euler Beams

The results are calculated using formulas from Reference 4. The variables are

E

= is the length

= is (mass/length)

Mode

Natural

Participation

Factor

EI

2

2 L

8

L

2

EI

EI

2

2 L

3

8

L

9 2

EI

EI

2

2 L

5

EI

EI

2

2 L

7

Frequency n

2

L2

4

2

L2

2

16

25

36

49

L2

2

L2

2

L2

2

L2

2

L2

8

25 2

8

49 2

95% of the total mass is accounted for using the first seven modes.

19

Mode

Natural

Frequency n

1.87510

L

4.69409

L

5

2L

7

2L

Participation

Factor

Effective Modal

Mass

EI

0.7830

0.6131 L

EI

0.4339

0.1883 L

EI

0.2544

0.06474 L

EI

0.1818

0.03306 L

90% of the total mass is accounted for using the first four modes.

20

APPENDIX E

The results are taken from Reference 5.

Mode

Natural Frequency n

Participation

Factor

0.5 c / L

1.5 c / L

2.5 c / L

2

2L

2

2L

3

2

2L

5

Effective Modal

Mass

8

L

2

8

L

9 2

8

L

25 2

(E-1)

93% of the total mass is accounted for by using the first three modes.

21

APPENDIX F

Consider an aluminum rod with 1 inch diameter and 48 inch length. The rod has fixed-free

boundary conditions.

A finite element model of the rod is shown in Figure F-1. It consists of four elements and five

nodes. Each element has an equal length.

E1

N1

E2

N2

E3

E4

N4

N3

N5

Figure F-1.

U(0) = 0

(Fixed end)

(F-1)

dU

0

dx x L

(Free end)

(F-2)

The natural frequencies and modes are determined using the finite element method in

Reference 6.

22

The resulting eigenvalue problem for the constrained system has the following mass and

stiffness matrices as calculated via Matlab script: rod_FEA.m.

Mass =

0.0016

0.0004

0

0

0.0004

0.0016

0.0004

0

0

0.0004

0.0016

0.0004

0

0

0.0004

0.0008

-0.6545

1.3090

-0.6545

0

0

-0.6545

1.3090

-0.6545

0

0

-0.6545

0.6545

Stiffness =

1.0e+006 *

1.3090

-0.6545

0

0

n

1

2

3

4

fn(Hz)

1029.9

3248.8

5901.6

8534.3

5.5471

10.2496

13.3918

14.4952

14.8349

11.3542

-6.1448

-16.0572

18.0062

-13.7813

-7.4584

19.4897

-9.1435

16.8950

-22.0744

23.8931

23

Let r be the influence vector which represents the displacements of the masses resulting from

static application of a unit ground displacement.

The influence vector for the sample problem is

r =

1

1

1

1

L T M r

(F-3)

where

mass matrix

L =

0.0867

0.0233

0.0086

-0.0021

Li

ii

m

(F-4)

i i = 1 for each index since the eigenvectors have been previously normalized

Note that m

with respect to the mass matrix.

24

iLi

(F-5)

m eff , i

Li 2

(F-6)

ii

m

Thus

m eff , i L i 2

(F-7)

m eff =

0.0075

0.0005

0.0001

0.0000

The models total modal mass is 0.0081 lbf sec^2/in. This is equivalent to 3.14 lbm.

The true mass or the rod is 3.77 lbm.

Thus, the four-element model accounts for 83% of the true mass. This percentage can be

increased by using a larger number of elements with corresponding shorter lengths.

25

APPENDIX G

L1

L2

k1

k2

Figure G-1.

k 1 ( y - x - L1 )

)

k 2 ( y - x + L2 )

)

Figure G-2.

The free-body diagram is given in Figure G-2.

26

L1 L 2 .

The rotation is positive in the clockwise direction.

The variables are

y

is the mass

ki

zi

27

Sign Convention:

Translation: upward in vertical axis is positive.

Rotation: clockwise is positive.

Sum the forces in the vertical direction

F m x

(G-1)

m x k1 ( y x L1) k 2 ( y x L 2)

(G-2)

m x k1 (y x L1) k 2 (y x L 2) 0

(G-3)

(G-4)

m x k1 k 2 x (k1L1 k 2 L 2 ) (k1 k 2 ) y

(G-5)

M J

(G-6)

J k1L1 ( y x L1) k 2 L 2 ( y x L 2)

(G-7)

J k1L1 ( y x L1) k 2 L 2 ( y x L 2) 0

(G-8)

(G-9)

(G-10)

m 0 x k 1 k 2

0 J k L k L

1 1

2 2

k 1L1 k 2 L 2 x k 1 k 2

k 1L12 k 2 L 2 2 k 1L1 k 2 L 2

(G-11)

28

k 1 k 2

k 1L1 k 2 L 2

k 1L1 k 2 L 2 x k 1 k 2

k 1L12 k 2 L 2 2 k 1L1 k 2 L 2

(G-12)

k 1 k 2

k 1L1 k 2 L 2

k 1L1 k 2 L 2 r1 k 1 k 2

k 1L12 k 2 L 2 2 r2 k 1L1 k 2 L 2

r1 1

r 0

2

(G-13)

(G-14)

z=x y

(G-15)

x=z+ y

(G-16)

m 0 z m y

0 J 0

k 1 k 2

k 1L1 k 2 L 2

k 1L1 k 2 L 2 z k 1 k 2

k 1L12 k 2 L 2 2 k 1L1 k 2 L 2

k 1L1 k 2 L 2 y

k 1L12 k 2 L 2 2 0

k 1 k 2

y

k 1L1 k 2 L 2

(G-17)

m 0 z k 1 k 2

0 J k L k L

1 1

2 2

k 1L1 k 2 L 2 z

m y

2

2

k 1L1 k 2 L 2

0

29

(G-18)

The equation is more formally

m 0 z k 1 k 2

0 J k L k L

1 1

2 2

k 1L1 k 2 L 2 z

m 0 r1

r y

2

2

0

J

k 1L1 k 2 L 2

2

(G-19)

homogeneous problem form of equation (G-9).

using the

1

z

2

1 k 1 k 2

m 0

0 J

2 k 1L1 k 2 L 2

(G-20)

k 1L1 k 2 L 2

1

m 0 r1

0 J r y

k 1L12 k 2 L 2 2

2

2

(G-21)

T m0

1

0

T k 1 k 2

J

2

k 1L1 k 2 L 2

k 1L1 k 2 L 2

1

2

2

k 1L1 k 2 L 2

2

m 0 r1

T

y

0 J r2

(G-22)

30

1 12

1 0

0 1

2 0

m0

0 1

T

2

2 2

0 r 1

y

J r 2

(G-23)

m 0 r 1

T

0 J r 2

(G-24)

m 0 1

m

T

T

0 J 0

0

(G-25)

Example

Consider the system in Figure G-1. Assign the following values. The values are based on a

slender rod, aluminum, diameter =1 inch, total length=24 inch.

Table G-1. Parameters

Variable

Value

18.9 lbm

k1

20,000 lbf/in

k2

20,000 lbf/in

L1

8 in

L2

16 in

The following parameters were calculated for the sample system via a Matlab script.

The mass matrix is

31

m =

0.0490

0

0

2.3497

k =

40000

160000

160000

6400000

Natural Frequencies =

133.8 Hz

267.9 Hz

Modes Shapes (column format) =

-4.4

0.1486

1.029

0.6352

Participation Factors =

0.2156

0.0504

Effective Modal Mass

0.0465

0.0025

The total modal mass is 0.0490 lbf sec^2/in, equivalent to18.9 lbm.

32

APPENDIX H

Repeat the example in Appendix G, but use the left end as the coordinate reference point.

L

L1

L2

k1

k2

Figure H-1.

x1

k 1 ( y - x1 )

k 2 ( y x1 + L)

Figure H-2.

The free-body diagram is given in Figure H-2. Again, the displacement and rotation are

referenced to the left end.

33

Sign Convention:

Translation: upward in vertical axis is positive.

Rotation: clockwise is positive.

Sum the forces in the vertical direction

F m x

(H-1)

m x k1 ( y x1 ) k 2 ( y x1 L)

(H-2)

m x k1 (y x1 ) k 2 ( y x1 L) 0

(H-3)

m x k1y k1x1 k 2 y k 2 x1 k 2 L 0

(H-4)

m x k1 k 2 x1 k 2 L (k1 k 2 ) y

x x1 L1

(H5)

(H-6)

m x1 L1 k1 k 2 x1 k 2 L (k1 k 2 ) y

m x1 m L1 k1 k 2 x1 k 2 L (k1 k 2 ) y

(H-7)

(H-8)

M1 J1

(H-9)

J 1 k 2 L ( y - x1 + L ) mL1 x - x1

(H-10)

J 1 mL1 x - x1 k 2 L ( y - x1 + L ) 0

(H-11)

J 1 mL1 x - x1 k 2 Ly - k 2 Lx1 k 2 L2 0

(H-12)

J 1 mL1 x - x1 - k 2 Lx1 k 2 L2 k 2 Ly

(H-13)

34

x x1 L1

(H-14)

J 1 mL1 x1 L1 - x1 - k 2 Lx1 k 2 L2 k 2 Ly

J 1 mL1 x1 - k 2 Lx1 k 2 L2 k 2 Ly

(H-15)

(H-16)

mL1 x1 k 1 k 2

m

mL

J1 k 2 L

1

k 2 L x1 k 1 k 2

k 2 L2 k 2 L

(H-17)

Note that

2

J1 J mL1

mL1 x1 k 1 k 2

m

mL

J

mL

1

1 k 2 L

(H-18)

k 2 L x1 k 1 k 2

k 2 L2 k 2 L

(H-19)

k 1 k 2

k 2L

k 2 L x1 k 1 k 2

k 2 L2 k 2 L

(H-20)

k 1 k 2

k 2L

k 2 L r1 k 1 k 2

k 2 L2 r2 k 2 L

35

(H-21)

r 1 1

r 0

2

(H-22)

The natural frequencies are obtained via a Matlab script. The results are:

Natural Frequencies

No.

f(Hz)

1.

133.79

2.

267.93

Modes Shapes (column format)

ModeShapes =

5.5889

0.1486

4.0527

0.6352

Participation Factors =

0.2155

-0.05039

Effective Modal Mass =

0.04642

0.002539

The total modal mass is 0.0490 lbf sec^2/in, equivalent to18.9 lbm.

36

- Hilti. Thiết kế Bu lông neo cấyUploaded byKhuất Trần Thanh
- 11Uploaded byKhuất Trần Thanh
- 7. VO PHAN - NGUYEN DUC HUY (68-79) (HC 22.11.16)Uploaded byKhuất Trần Thanh
- 10 01 Tai trongUploaded byKhuất Trần Thanh
- 18-04-29 Bhf TP1 Strain TablesUploaded byKhuất Trần Thanh
- Interpolation|Interpolation.pdfUploaded byAbu Zafor
- MaiUploaded byKhuất Trần Thanh
- Mac Bt & Bang Tra ThepUploaded byKhuất Trần Thanh
- Cung Trượt Trên Đỉnh CừUploaded byKhuất Trần Thanh
- Hilti. Thiết kế Khoan cấy thép chịu lựcUploaded byKhuất Trần Thanh
- Chng4bncmi 150413080148 Conversion Gate01Uploaded byKhuất Trần Thanh
- tham khảo lệch tâmUploaded byLâm Hữu Phước
- Cung Trượt Phía Dưới CừUploaded byKhuất Trần Thanh
- 3NguyenLan_QTNenDuongVNUploaded byKhuất Trần Thanh
- ASTM D4633.pdfUploaded bywafikmh4
- Structural AnalysisUploaded byRajed Maglinte
- 1512635710Chu-Thi-BinhUploaded byKhuất Trần Thanh
- Nguyen Trong Huy - BC Ung Dung Geo5Uploaded byKhuất Trần Thanh
- Strut-And-tie Modelling of Rc PilesUploaded byAlberto Ruiz-Cabello López
- Thuyet Minh TKKT MGHn2Uploaded byKhuất Trần Thanh
- 32_6Uploaded byKhuất Trần Thanh
- Strut and Tie CalculationUploaded bygmazzucco
- UTF-8'en'[Transactions of the VB Technical University of Ostrava Civil Engineering Series.] Evaluation of Experience in Modelling of Deep Foundation PitsUploaded byKhuất Trần Thanh
- Duong Cong TzUploaded byKhuất Trần Thanh
- 8593AhmadAbdelrazaqFoundationDesignofthe151IncheonTowerinaReclamationArea[1]_4e79b21a806ae.pdfUploaded byKhuất Trần Thanh
- 1512635908Dang-Vu-HiepUploaded byKhuất Trần Thanh
- Bat CungUploaded byKhuất Trần Thanh
- 1512635940Pham-Phu-TinhUploaded byKhuất Trần Thanh
- Thiet Ke Kc Btct Theo Yeu Cau Ve Hinh Thanh Va Mo Rong Vet Nut Theo Tcvn Va SpUploaded byKhuất Trần Thanh
- Column Supported Two-way Post-tensioned Floor Interenational Version TN460-SIUploaded byKhuất Trần Thanh